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BIOLOGY (1342 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

e-Neuroforum     Hybrid Journal  
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ecology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319)
Economics & Human Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access  
Ecoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 188)
Egyptian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Histology     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Journal of Natural History     Open Access  
EJNMMI Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
eLife     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
el–Hayah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Embo Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EMBO reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Endocrine Connections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Engineering Economist, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering in Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ensaios e Ciência: Ciências Biológicas, Agrárias e da Saúde     Open Access  
Environmental Biology of Fishes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Biosafety Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 295)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Epidemiology & Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Epigenetics in Cancer     Open Access  
EPMA Journal     Open Access  
ESHRE Monographs     Hybrid Journal  
Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnobiology and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ethnobotany Research & Applications : a journal of plants, people and applied research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethology Ecology & Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Eukaryotic Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
EuPA Open Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
European Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Protistology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Soil Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
EvoDevo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Evolução e Conservação da Biodiversidade     Open Access  
Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 56)
Evolution and Human Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Evolutionary Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evolutionary Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
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Experimental & Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental and Applied Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Partially Free  
Expert Review of Proteomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Extreme Life, Biospeology & Astrobiology - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Extremophiles     Hybrid Journal  
F1000Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Medicine and Biology     Open Access  
Familial Cancer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fauna Norvegica     Open Access  
Febs Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Feddes Repertorium     Hybrid Journal  
Fems Yeast Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Field Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Fish & Shellfish Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Fly     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Biologica     Full-text available via subscription  
Folia Biologica et Oecologica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Malacologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Folia Primatologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Food and Bioproducts Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forest Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal  
Foundations of Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Free Radical Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Free Radical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Freshwater Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Freshwater Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Life Science     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Neurogenesis     Open Access  
Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics     Open Access  
Frontiers of Biogeography     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anaerobe
   [5 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2575 journals]   [SJR: 0.828]   [H-I: 39]
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria
           in a University Hospital Center Split, Croatia in 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014
      Author(s): Anita Novak , Zana Rubic , Varja Dogas , Ivana Goic-Barisic , Marina Radic , Marija Tonkic
      Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Center (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19.7%) received empiric antimicrobial therapy. One hundred and one patients (82.8%) had polymicrobial aerobic/anaerobic isolates cultivated from the same specimens. Almost all aerobic bacteria were of endogenous origin and showed fully susceptible antimicrobial profile; only 8.7% (9/104) were multiresistant and considered as hospital acquired. Based on our findings, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and metronidazole remain useful antimicrobials for empiric treatment of anaerobic infections, while carbapenems should be reserved for situations were multidrug resistant, aerobic or facultative Gram-negative bacteria are expected. However, a certain percentage of resistant isolates were observed for each of these agents. Therefore, periodic resistance surveillance in anaerobes is highly recommended in order to guide empirical therapy.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T06:23:45Z
  • Methanogenic archaea diversity in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 32
      Author(s): Lenka Brablcová , Iva Buriánková , Pavlína Badurová , Prem Prashant Chaudhary , Martin Rulík
      Abundance and diversity of methanogenic archaea were studied at five localities along a longitudinal profile of a Sitka stream (Czech Republic). Samples of hyporheic sediments were collected from two sediment depths (0–25 cm and 25–50 cm) by freeze-core method. Methanogen community was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing method. The proportion of methanogens to the DAPI-stained cells varied among all localities and depths with an average value 2.08 × 105 per g of dry sediment with the range from 0.37 to 4.96 × 105 cells per g of dry sediment. A total of 73 bands were detected at 19 different positions on the DGGE gel and the highest methanogen diversity was found at the downstream located sites. There was no relationship between methanogen diversity and sediment depth. Cluster analysis of DGGE image showed three main clusters consisting of localities that differed in the number and similarity of the DGGE bands. Sequencing analysis of representative DGGE bands revealed phylotypes affiliated with members belonging to the orders Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocellales. The knowledge about occurrence and diversity of methanogenic archaea in freshwater ecosystems are essential for methane dynamics in river sediments and can contribute to the understanding of global warming process.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T06:23:45Z
  • Low prevalence of Clostridium septicum fecal carriage in an adult
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014
      Author(s): Fatos Kopliku , Alyxandria M. Schubert , Jill Mogle , Patrick D. Schloss , Vincent B. Young , David M. Aronoff
      Clostridium septicum is an uncommon cause of severe infection. Real-time PCR against the C. septicum-specific alpha-toxin gene (csa) was used to estimate the prevalence of this microbe in human stool from 161 asymptomatic community-dwelling adults and 192 hospitalized patients with diarrhea. All samples were negative, suggesting a low prevalence.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T06:23:45Z
  • Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov.: A novel bacterium isolated
           from the female genital tract
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014
      Author(s): Michele N. Austin , Lorna K. Rabe , Sujatha Srinivasan , David N. Fredricks , Harold C. Wiesenfeld , Sharon L. Hillier
      Three isolates of a bacterium recovered from human endometrium using conventional culture methods were characterized biochemically and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Isolates were non-motile, obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, asaccharolytic, non-cellulolytic, indole positive, Gram positive rods. Cell wall fatty acid profiling revealed C14:0, C16:0, C18:2 ω6, 9c, C18:1 ω9c and C18:0 to be the major fatty acid composition. The DNA mol % G+C was determined to be 44.2%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed only 91% sequence similarity with the closest cultivated bacterial isolate, Saccharofermentans acetigenes. Based on genotypic and phenotypic data, all three isolates are considered to be members of the same species and data suggest it represents a novel genus and species in the order Clostridiales with an association with Clostridium rRNA cluster III within the family Ruminococcaceae. We propose the name, Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is BAA-2120T and CCUG 59143T.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T06:23:45Z
  • Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from human fecal sample
           from a coastal traditional community in Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014
      Author(s): Nisha B. Patel , Lindsey O'Neal , Raul Y. Tito , Alexandra J. Obregón-Tito , Omar Trujillo-Villaroel , Luis Marin-Reyes , Luzmila Troncoso-Corzo , Emilio Guija-Poma , Moriyuki Hamada , Yoshihito Uchino , Cecil M. Lewis Jr. , Paul A. Lawson
      A novel Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporeforming coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a traditional Peruvian community. The organism was characterized using biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that the organism was biochemically and phenotypically related, but distinct, from a group of organisms referred to as the Gram-stain positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC). The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were determined to be C16:0 (18.3%), C18:1ω9c (39.8%), C18:2ω6,9c/C18:0 ANTE (13.2%). Fermentation end products from PYG are acetate and formate. Cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to be A4α (L-Lys-L-Ala-L-Glu) and the G + C content was determined to be 38.4 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic results, Ezakiella peruensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is now proposed. The type strain is M6.X2T (DSM 27367T = NBRC 109957 T = CCUG 64571T).

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T06:23:45Z
  • Detection and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens isolates from
           beef, chicken and turkey meats
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 32
      Author(s): Zeki Aras , Hasan Hüseyin Hadimli
      Here we describe a study investigating the presence of C lostridium perfringens strains in meat samples and the toxin genes in the isolates by PCR. This study, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of C. perfringens type E in turkey meats, while C. perfringens type C strains isolated from chicken meats.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T06:23:45Z
  • Clostridial pore-forming toxins: Powerful virulence factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Michel R. Popoff
      Pore formation is a common mechanism of action for many bacterial toxins. More than one third of clostridial toxins are pore-forming toxins (PFTs) belonging to the β-PFT class. They are secreted as soluble monomers rich in β-strands, which recognize a specific receptor on target cells and assemble in oligomers. Then, they undergo a conformational change leading to the formation of a β-barrel, which inserts into the lipid bilayer forming functional pore. According to their structure, clostridial β-PFTs are divided into several families. Clostridial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins form large pores, which disrupt the plasma membrane integrity. They are potent virulence factors mainly involved in myonecrosis. Clostridial heptameric β-PFTs (aerolysin family and staphylococcal α-hemolysin family) induce small pores which trigger signaling cascades leading to different cell responses according to the cell types and toxins. They are mainly responsible for intestinal diseases, like necrotic enteritis, or systemic diseases/toxic shock from intestinal origin. Clostridial intracellularly active toxins exploit pore formation through the endosomal membrane to translocate the enzymatic component or domain into the cytosol. Single chain protein toxins, like botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, use hydrophobic α-helices to form pores, whereas clostridial binary toxins encompass binding components, which are structurally and functionally related to β-PFTs, but which have acquired the specific activity to internalize their corresponding enzymatic components. Structural analysis suggests that β-PFTs and binding components share a common evolutionary origin.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Passive and active immunization strategies against Clostridium difficile
           infections: State of the art
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Assaf Mizrahi , Anne Collignon , Séverine Péchiné
      The pathophysiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) could be considered as a three-step process that takes place after disruption of the digestive microbiota by antibiotics: 1) germination of spores; 2) multiplication and persistence of C. difficile in the colonic niche thanks to colonization factors; 3) production of the two toxins TcdA and TcdB and for some strains an additional toxin, the binary toxin CDT. Different immunization strategies against C. difficile have been developed, first regarding the toxins. Immunization assays with colonization factors have followed, and allowed accumulation of new data concerning theirs functions and immunogenicity. Here, we present the toxins, the colonization factors and their use in passive and active immunizations to treat and/or to prevent C. difficile infections. The various experiments performed in animal models and the first clinical trials in humans are reported.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Host recognition of Clostridium difficile and the innate immune response
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Carrie A. Cowardin , William A. Petri Jr.
      Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore forming bacillus and the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the United States. Clinical outcomes of C. difficile infection (CDI) range from asymptomatic colonization to pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis and death. Disease is primarily mediated by the action of the Rho-glucosylating toxins A and B, which induce potent pro-inflammatory signaling within the host. The role of this inflammatory response during infection is just beginning to be appreciated, with recent data suggesting inflammatory markers correlate closely with disease severity. In addition to the toxins, multiple innate immune signaling pathways have been implicated in establishing an inflammatory response during infection. In intoxication-based models of disease, inflammation typically enhances pathogenesis, while protection from infection seems to require some level of inflammatory response. Thus, the host immune response plays a key role in shaping the course of infection and a balanced inflammatory response which eradicates infection without damaging host tissues is likely required for successful resolution of disease.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Identification of a two-component signal transduction system that
           regulates maltose genes in Clostridium perfringens
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Thomas J. Hiscox , Kaori Ohtani , Tohru Shimizu , Jackie K. Cheung , Julian I. Rood
      Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive rod that is widely distributed in nature and is the etiological agent of several human and animal diseases. The complete genome sequence of C. perfringens strain 13 has been determined and multiple two-component signal transduction systems identified. One of these systems, designated here as the MalNO system, was analyzed in this study. Microarray analysis was used to carry out functional analysis of a malO mutant. The results, which were confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, indicated that genes putatively involved in the uptake and metabolism of maltose were up-regulated in the malO mutant. These effects were reversed by complementation with the wild-type malO gene. Growth of these isogenic strains in medium with and without maltose showed that the malO mutant recovered more quickly from maltose deprivation when compared to the wild-type and complemented strains, leading to the conclusion that the MalNO system regulates maltose utilization in C. perfringens. It is postulated that this regulatory network may allow this soil bacterium and opportunistic pathogen to respond to environmental conditions where there are higher concentrations of maltose or maltodextrins, such as in the presence of decaying plant material in rich soil.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Biofilms of Clostridium species
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Véronique Pantaléon , Sylvie Bouttier , Anna Philibertine Soavelomandroso , Claire Janoir , Thomas Candela
      The biofilm is a microbial community embedded in a synthesized matrix and is the main bacterial way of life. A biofilm adheres on surfaces or is found on interfaces. It protects bacteria from the environment, toxic molecules and may have a role in virulence. Clostridium species are spread throughout both environments and hosts, but their biofilms have not been extensively described in comparison with other bacterial species. In this review we describe all biofilms formed by Clostridium species during both industrial processes and in mammals where biofilms may be formed either during infections or associated to microbiota in the gut. We have specifically focussed on Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens biofilms, which have been studied in vitro. Regulatory processes including sporulation and germination highlight how these Clostridium species live in biofilms. Furthermore, biofilms may have a role in the survival and spreading of Clostridium species.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Clostridium difficile ribotype 126 in southern Taiwan: A cluster of three
           symptomatic cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Yuan-Pin Hung , Hsiao-Ju Lin , Bo-Yang Tsai , Hsiao-Chieh Liu , Hsiu-Chuan Liu , Jen-Chieh Lee , Yi-Hui Wu , Mark H. Wilcox , Warren N. Fawley , Po-Ren Hsueh , Pei-Jane Tsai , Wen-Chien Ko
      Introduction Several virulent Clostridium difficile clones, designated as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotypes 017, 027, or 078, are well recognized in western countries. However, the ribotype distribution of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan remains unclear. Method Between 2010 and 2012, we identified three patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) at a hospital in southern Taiwan. The C. difficile strains isolated from these patients were further characterized by PCR detection of tcdA, tcdB, tcdC, cdtA, and cdtB, toxinotyping, multilocus sequence typing, ribotyping and repetitive-based PCR. Results Three C. difficile strains harbored tcdCΔ39 and belonged to multilocus sequence typing 11 (ST11), toxinotype V, and ribotype 126 (a ribotype 078-like clone). Notably, one patient developed pseudomembranous colitis and recurrent CDAD. These three isolates were noted between January 2012 and June 2012 and were identical, as evidenced by repetitive sequence-based PCR, suggestive of case clustering. Conclusion A hypervirulent C. difficile clone, ribotype 126, causing pseudomembranous colitis and recurrent CDAD, is present in southern Taiwan.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Clostridium difficile infection in elderly nursing home residents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): C. Rodriguez , N. Korsak , B. Taminiau , V. Avesani , J. Van Broeck , M. Delmée , G. Daube
      Age-related changes in intestinal flora and host defences, the receipt of antibiotic treatment, and the presence of underlying diseases are some of the most common risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection. Therefore, retirement care facilities for elderly people have been pinpointed as frequent sources of contamination. There is only limited data regarding the presence and epidemiology of C. difficile in nursing homes, and this gap in the current literature emphasises the need to gain a better understanding of the situation in order to prevent the emergence of new outbreaks among this population group.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Preface: ClostPath 2013 meeting on The Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis
           of the Clostridia special issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Dena Lyras , Julian I. Rood

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • Finegoldia magna, not a well-known infectious agent of bacteriemic
           post-sternotomy mediastinitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2014
      Author(s): Claire de Moreuil , Geneviève Héry-Arnaud , Charles-Henri David , Bastien Provost , Philippe Mondine , Zarrin Alavi , Luc de Saint Martin , Eric Bezon , Rozenn Le Berre
      Post-sternotomy mediastinitis, a nosocomial infection mostly caused by staphylococci, can be life-threatening. A case of mediastinitis due to Finegoldia magna after a coronary artery bypass graft surgery was reviewed. Although this bacterium is difficult to be isolated from routine blood cultures, a Finegoldia magna bacteriemia associated with mediastinitis was diagnosed.

      PubDate: 2014-12-02T05:58:15Z
  • In-vitro activity of taurolidine on single species and a multispecies
           population associated with periodontitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2014
      Author(s): Lilly Zollinger , Simone Schnyder , Sandor Nietzsche , Anton Sculean , Sigrun Eick
      The antimicrobial activity of taurolidine was compared with minocycline against microbial species associated with periodontitis (four single strains and a 12-species mixture). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), killing as well as activities on established and forming single-species biofilms and a 12-species biofilm were determined. The MICs of taurolidine against single species were always 0.31 mg/ml, the MBCs were 0.64 mg/ml. The used mixed microbiota was less sensitive to taurolidine, MIC and the MBC was 2.5 mg/ml. The strains and the mixture were completely killed by 2.5 mg/ml taurolidine, whereas 256 μg/ml minocycline reduced the bacterial counts of the mixture by 5 log10 colony forming units (cfu). Coating the surface with 10 mg/ml taurolidine or 256 μg/ml minocycline prevented completely biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 but not of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4 and the mixture. On 4.5 d old biofilms, taurolidine acted concentration dependent with a reduction by 5 log10 cfu (P. gingivalis ATCC 33277) and 7 log10 cfu (A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4) when applying 10 mg/ml. Minocycline decreased the cfu counts by 1–2 log10 cfu independent of the used concentration. The reduction of the cfu counts in the 4.5 d old multi-species biofilms was about 3 log10 cfu after application of any minocycline concentration and after using 10 mg/ml taurolidine. Taurolidine is active against species associated with periodontitis, even within biofilms. Nevertheless a complete elimination of complex biofilms by taurolidine seems to be impossible and underlines the importance of a mechanical removal of biofilms prior to application of taurolidine.

      PubDate: 2014-11-28T05:46:40Z
  • The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in drug resistant
           Bacteroides fragilis isolates from Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014
      Author(s): Rosemary Meggersee , Valerie Abratt
      Bacteroides fragilis, an anaerobic gut commensal and opportunistic pathogen, is a leading cause of anaerobic abscesses and bacteraemias. Treatment of infections is complicated by the emergence of resistance to several of the antibiotics used in the clinical setting. Genetic analysis of 23 B. fragilis isolates found that none of the metronidazole resistant strains carried the nimA-J genes, and no cfxA or ermF genes were detected. All of the tetracycline resistant isolates contained the tetQ gene and were sensitive to tigecycline. The cfiA gene was found in 3 of the strains, one of which was imipenem resistant and contained an upstream IS4351 insertion sequence. Another resistant strain had a unique G to A substitution in the promoter region of the cfiA gene, while the third was imipenem sensitive. Thirty percent of the isolates contained at least one plasmid, however, tetQ gene was located on the chromosome and not on any of the plasmids.

      PubDate: 2014-11-16T04:27:30Z
  • Inhibition of fish pathogens by the microbiota from rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014
      Author(s): Carlos Araújo , Estefanía Muñoz-Atienza , Yanina Nahuelquín , Patricia Poeta , Gilberto Igrejas , Pablo E. Hernández , Carmen Herranz , Luis M. Cintas
      This work reports the isolation and taxonomic identification of the cultivable total microbiota (TM) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment from selected stages of the life-cycle, and the evaluation of the LAB antimicrobial activity against the main fish pathogens. TM and LAB isolates were randomly selected and identified by 16S rRNA and/or superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Although a great diversity in the TM was observed, Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae were clearly prevalent, while the genus Lactococcus was the predominant LAB. From a total of 1620 randomly selected LAB, 1159 isolates (71.5%) showed antimicrobial activity. From these, 248 isolates (21.4%) selected for their activity against, at least, four fish pathogens, were taxonomically identified, being Lactococcus lactis the most common species (164 isolates, 66.1%). Interestingly, 88 isolates (35.5%), including 55 L. lactis isolates, exerted activity against the four strains of the rainbow trout pathogen Lactococcus garvieae. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout and rearing environment are potential sources for the isolation of LAB, mainly lactococci, active against L. garvieae and other fish pathogens. Moreover, this is the first study describing the cultivable TM and LAB from rainbow trout intestine and rearing environment along the fish life-cycle. The host-derived LAB active against fish pathogens comprises potential candidates as probiotics in rainbow trout farming as an alternative or complementary strategy to antibiotics and vaccines for disease prevention.

      PubDate: 2014-11-16T04:27:30Z
  • The effect of moonlighting proteins on the adhesion and aggregation
           ability of Lactobacillus helveticus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
      Author(s): Adam Waśko , Magdalena Polak-Berecka , Roman Paduch , Krzysztof Jóźwiak
      The goal of this study was to identify moonlighting proteins in Lactobacillus helveticus that play an important role in adhesion and aggregation. The label-free method was used for identification and analysis of expression of cellular proteins. The analysis revealed the presence of eight moonlighting proteins in the cell envelope of Lb. helveticus. The tested strains mainly differed with respect to the presence of S-layer proteins and the level of expression of moonlighting proteins in Lb. helveticus strain T159. These surface proteins give the cell a hydrophobic character and play a role in specific interactions with intestinal epithelium cells and with other bacteria. In Lb. helveticus T159, the S-layer associated with moonlighting proteins (SLAPs) could act as adherence factors, which was evidenced by the high capability of adhesion, auto- and coaggregation. The hydrophobicity, adhesion and aggregation abilities provide biological activities in food products and they are regarded as an important criterion for probiotic selection.

      PubDate: 2014-10-16T02:07:52Z
  • Biosynthesis and cellular content of folate in bifidobacteria across host
           species with different diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2014
      Author(s): Maria R. D'Aimmo , Monica Modesto , Paola Mattarelli , Bruno Biavati , Thomas Andlid
      Background Bifidobacteria, one of the most common bacteria of the intestinal tract, help establish balance in the gut microbiota and confer health benefits to the host. One beneficial property is folate biosynthesis, which is dependent on species and strains. It is unclear whether the diversity in folate biosynthesis is due to the adaptation of the bifidobacteria to the host diet or whether it is related to the phylogeny of the animal host. To date, folate production has been studied in the bifidobacteria of omnivorous, and a few herbivorous, non-primate hosts and humans, but not in carnivores, non-human primates and insects. In our study we screened folate content and composition in bifidobacteria isolated from carnivores (dog and cheetah), Hominoidea omnivorous non-human primates (chimpanzee and orangutan) and nectarivorous insects (honey bee). Results Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum, a species typically found in non-primates, was isolated from dog and cheetah, and B. adolescentis and B. dentium, species typically found in humans, were respectively obtained from orangutan and chimpanzee. Evidence of folate biosynthesis was found in bifidobacteria isolated from non-human primates, but not from the bifidobacteria of carnivores and honey-bee. On comparing species from different hosts, such as poultry and herbivorous/omnivorous non-primates, it would appear that folate production is characteristic of primate (human and non-human) bifidobacteria but not of non-primate. Isolates from orangutan and chimpanzee had a high total folate content, the mean values being 7792 μg/100 g dry matter (DM) for chimpanzee and 8368 μg/100 g DM for orangutan. The tetrahydrofolate (H4folate) and 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H4folate) distribution varied in the bifidobacteria of the different animal species, but remained similar in the strains of the same species: B. dentium CHZ9 contained the least 5-CH3-H4folate (3749 μ/100 g DM), while B. adolescentis ORG10 contained the most (8210 μg/100 g DM). Conclusion Our data suggest a correlation between phylogenetic lineage and capacity of folate production by bifidobacteria, rather than with dietary type of the host.

      PubDate: 2014-10-16T02:07:52Z
  • Ruminococcus gnavus: An unusual pathogen in septic arthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
      Author(s): Marie Titécat , Frédéric Wallet , Marie-Hélène Vieillard , René J. Courcol , Caroline Loïez
      Ruminococcus gnavus is an anaerobic Gram positive coccus that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans. We report a case of septic arthritis caused by R. gnavus that was identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing.

      PubDate: 2014-10-16T02:07:52Z
  • A case of imported Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotype 027 infection within
           the Czech Republic which has a high prevalence of Clostridium difficile
           ribotype 176
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Author(s): Marcela Krutova , Otakar Nyc , Ed J. Kuijper , Lenka Geigerova , Jana Matejkova , Tamara Bergerova , Mardjan Arvand
      The first case of C. difficile RT027 infection in the Czech Republic (CZ) was identified. The patient had been hospitalised in Germany prior to moving to CZ. Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis revealed a genetic relatedness between the patient´s isolate and RT027 isolate collected in the German hospital.

      PubDate: 2014-10-08T01:28:47Z
  • View from the front lines: An emergency medicine perspective on
           clostridial infections in injection drug users
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Richard Diego Gonzales y Tucker , Bradley Frazee
      Injection drug use (IDU), specifically non-intravenous “skin-popping” of heroin, seems to provide optimal conditions for Clostridial infection and toxin production. IDU is therefore a major risk factor for wound botulism and Clostridial necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) and continues to be linked to cases of tetanus. Case clusters of all 3 diseases have occurred among IDUs in Western U.S. and Europe. Medical personnel who care for the IDU population must be thoroughly familiar with the clinical presentation and management of these diseases. Wound botulism presents with bulbar symptoms and signs that are easily overlooked; rapid acquisition and administration of antitoxin can prevent neuromuscular respiratory failure. In addition to Clostridium perfringens, IDU-related NSTIs can be caused by Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium novyi, which may share a distinct clinical presentation. Early definitive NSTI management, which decreases mortality, requires a low index of suspicion on the part of emergency physicians and low threshold for surgical exploration and debridement on the part of the surgeon. Tetanus should be preventable in the IDU population through careful attention to vaccination status.

      PubDate: 2014-10-08T01:28:47Z
  • Performance assessment of the BD MAX Cdiff assay in comparison to Xpert C.
           difficile assay in a setting with very low prevalence of toxigenic
           Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Author(s): Donald Chiang , Sally Ng , My-Van La , Roland Jureen , Raymond T.P. Lin , Jeanette W.P. Teo
      In a clinical setting with low prevalence of ‘epidemic’ PCR ribotype 027, the BD MAX Cdiff assay was found to be a suitable alternative to the Xpert C. difficile assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in samples which are reflex PCR tested after obtaining a discrepant immunoassay result. There was no significant difference between the sensitivities and specificities of both commercial molecular assays.

      PubDate: 2014-10-08T01:28:47Z
  • Study on bioactivity of cell-free filtrates from dairy propionibacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014
      Author(s): Alfonso Filippone , Milena Sinigaglia , Clelia Altieri
      In this paper, the bioactivity of cell-free extracts obtained by dairy propionibacteria strains was investigated. Probiotic bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were used as microbial targets. The extracellular filtrates were added as ingredient (1% v/v) into the growth medium; the effect of cell-free filtrates was evaluated through viable count of microbial targets on appropriate media, monitoring the response of target microorganisms both in growth and death phase. The Gompertz equation was used to model the experimental data. Kinetics and time parameters were estimated in order to quantify the effectiveness of cell-free filtrates effect. To emphasize the results about the bioactivity of cell-free extract, supporting a complete picture of response, a new approach was developed: Probiotic Stability Time was calculated. This temporal parameter, defined as the time over that the cell load preserve a living value upper than 107 cfu ml-1, was very useful to evaluate the probiotic capability and effectiveness. A stimulant effect was registered on growth and a positive one was recordered on survival of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli strains, and the results obtained suggest that a prebiotic activity by dairy propionibacteria cell-free filtrates could be supposed. The cell free filtrate obtained from P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was the most effective, in our experimental conditions. Although bifidobacteria were the most sensitive to the effect of cell-free filtrates, lactobacilli have been showed a similar probiotic stability time, showing an high sensitivity to the filtrates. This paper is the first report of a positive bioactivity by propionibacteria cell-free filtrates on lactobacilli.

      PubDate: 2014-10-03T00:51:24Z
  • The influence of Lactobacillus casei DN 114 001 on the activity of faecal
           enzymes and genotoxicity of faecal water in the presence of heterocyclic
           aromatic amines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014
      Author(s): Adriana Nowak , Katarzyna Śliżewska , Janusz Błasiak , Zdzisława Libudzisz
      High activity of bacterial enzymes in human colon and genotoxicity of faecal water (FW) are biomarkers of the harmful action of microbiota. The aim of the present study was to assess the activity of β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase and the genotoxicity of FW in vitro after incubation with 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and probiotic Lb. casei DN 114 001 (Actimel). Our results indicate, that IQ and PhIP greatly increased the activity of faecal enzymes (it was up to four times higher, as measured by spectrophotometric methods) and the genotoxicity of FW (% DNA in the tail was up to 3.2 times higher, as evaluated by the comet assay on Caco-2 cells) in 15 individuals from three age-dependent groups (breast-fed children, adults aged 30-40 years, elderly aged 75-85 years). Lb. casei DN 114 001 decreased the activity of faecal enzymes and the genotoxicity of FW exposed to PhIP and IQ mostly to control values. The activity of faecal enzymes after incubation with IQ was reduced by 71.8% in the FW of children, 37.5% in adults and 64.2% in elderly (β-glucuronidase); as well as by 59.9% in children and 87.9% in elderly (β-glucosidase). For PhIP the reduction was by 59.0% in the FW of children, 50.0% in adults and 81.2% in elderly (β-glucuronidase) and by 20.2% in children, 20.7% in adults and 84.1% in elderly (β-glucosidase). Lb. casei DN 114 001 also decreased the genotoxicity of FW to the greatest extent in adults after incubation with IQ (by 65.4%) and PhIP (by 69.6%) and it was found to correlate positively with the decrease in faecal enzymes activity. In conclusion, Lb. casei DN 114 001 may exert the protective effects against genotoxic and possibly pro-carcinogenic effects of food processing-derived chemicals present in faecal water.

      PubDate: 2014-10-03T00:51:24Z
  • "Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria
           present in primary endodontic infections"
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2014
      Author(s): Sandro Donizete Caetano da Silva , Maria Gorete Mendes de Souza , Miguel Jorge Oliveira Cardoso , Thais da Silva Moraes , Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio , Rodrigo Cássio Sola Veneziani , Carlos Henrique G. Martins
      Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for P. nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm activity revealed significant results - MICB50 lay between 7.8 and 62.5 μg/mL, and dehydroabietic acid prevented all the evaluated bacteria from forming a biofilm. Hence, the chemical constituents of P. elliottii are promising biomolecules to develop novel therapeutic strategies to fight against endodontic infections.

      PubDate: 2014-10-03T00:51:24Z
  • Probiotic characteristics of lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from
           tulum cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2014
      Author(s): Şener Tulumoğlu , Halil İbrahim Kaya , Ömer Şimşek
      The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic characteristics of L. fermentum strains isolated from Tulum cheese. Seven L. fermentum strains were selected among the isolated and identified lactobacillus strains due to their abundance. When the gastric condition was considered, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 were able to tolerate pH 2.5 and 1% bile salt. All L. fermentum strains had similar enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance pattern but the highest antagonistic effect was detected within LP3, LP4 and LP6. Cholesterol assimilation amount of L. fermentum strains ranged between 12.1-45.3% in MRS and 20.7-71.1% in MRS with bile. The highest cholesterol assimilation in MRS and MRS with bile was occurred by LP3 and LP4, respectively. L. fermentum LP2 adhered to caco-2 cells more than L. rhamnosus LGG where LP3, LP4 and LP5 adhered at similar level. In conclusion, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 fulfilled sufficient criteria to be probiotics for use as a starter culture in the production of tulum cheese or other dairy products. Also this study indicated that some food-associated Lactobacillus strains non-predominant for gut biota have significant probiotic potential.

      PubDate: 2014-10-03T00:51:24Z
  • Carriage of Clostridium difficile in free-living South American coati
           (Nasua nasua) in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2014
      Author(s): Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva , Lara Ribeiro de Almeida , Carlos Augusto Oliveira Junior , Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães Soares , Pedro Lúcio Lithg Pereira , Maja Rupnik , Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Clostridium difficile strains in stool samples from a wild urban mammal, a South American coati (Nasua nasua) in Brazil. Forty-six free-living N. nasua were trapped, and stool samples were collected. C. difficile was isolated from three (6.5%) sampled animals, two strains were toxigenic (A+B+CDT−, PCR ribotype 014/020 and 106) and one was non toxigenic (A−B−CDT−, PCR ribotype 053). The present work confirms that ring-tailed coati (N. nasua) could harbor C. difficile strains, including those PCR ribotypes commonly reported in C. difficile infection in humans.

      PubDate: 2014-09-28T00:00:25Z
  • Azorean wild rabbits as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2014
      Author(s): Catarina Marinho , Gilberto Igrejas , Alexandre Gonçalves , Nuno Silva , Tiago Santos , Ricardo Monteiro , David Gonçalves , Tiago Rodrigues , Patrícia Poeta
      Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an increasing problem that is not only constrained to the clinical setting but also to other environments that can lodge antibiotic resistant bacteria and therefore they may serve as reservoirs of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance. One hundred and thirty-six faecal samples from European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) were collected on São Jorge Island in Azores Archipelago, and analysed for Escherichia coli isolates. Seventy-seven isolates (56.6%) were recovered and studied for antimicrobial resistance, one isolate per positive sample. Thirteen (16.9%), 19 (24.7%), 25 (32.4%) and 20 (26%) isolates were ascribed to A, B1, B2 and D phylogenetic groups, respectively, by specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Different E. coli isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (16.9%), tetracycline (1.3%), streptomycin (42.9%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (1.3%), amikacin (1.3%), tobramycin (2.6%) and nalidixic acid (1.3%). Additionally, the bla TEM, tetA, strA/strB, aadA, sul1, intI, intI2 and qacEΔ+sul1 genes were found in most resistant isolates. This study showed that E. coli from the intestinal tract of wild rabbits from Azores Archipelago are resistant to widely prescribed antibiotics in medicine and they constitute a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant genes, which may play a significant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, antibiotic resistant E. coli from Azorean wild rabbits may represent an ecological and public health problem.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-23T23:48:12Z
  • Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for identification of anaerobic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2014
      Author(s): M.J. Barba , A. Fernández , M. Oviaño , B. Fernández , D. Velasco , G. Bou
      In this study MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated in the identification of anaerobic bacteria comparing it with Rapid ID 32A system. Discrepancies were solved by 16S r-RNA gene sequencing. At the species level MALDI-TOF MS identified 94.82% and Rapid ID 32A 86.67%, showing the superiority of MALDI-TOF MS to conventional methods.

      PubDate: 2014-09-23T23:48:12Z
  • Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin: The third most potent bacterial
           toxin known
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Author(s): Guilherme Guerra Alves , Ricardo Andrez Machado de Ávila , Carlos Delfin Chávez-Olórtegui , Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains and causes enterotoxemia, a highly lethal disease with major impacts on the farming of domestic ruminants, particularly sheep. ETX belongs to the aerolysin-like pore-forming toxin family. Although ETX has striking similarities to other toxins in this family, ETX is often more potent, with an LD50 of 100 ng/kg in mice. Due to this high potency, ETX is considered as a potential bioterrorism agent and has been classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States. The protoxin is converted to an active toxin through proteolytic cleavage performed by specific proteases. ETX is absorbed and acts locally in the intestines then subsequently binds to and causes lesions in other organs, including the kidneys, lungs and brain. The importance of this toxin for veterinary medicine and its possible use as a biological weapon have drawn the attention of researchers and have led to a large number of studies investigating ETX. The aim of the present work is to review the existing knowledge on ETX from C. perfringens type B and D.

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T23:18:38Z
  • Comparing the identification of Clostridium spp. by two Matrix-Assisted
           Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry
           platforms to 16S rRNA PCR sequencing as a reference standard: A detailed
           analysis of age of culture and sample preparation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Author(s): Roy Chean , Despina Kotsanas , Michelle J. Francis , Enzo A. Palombo , Snehal R. Jadhav , Milena M. Awad , Dena Lyras , Tony M. Korman , Grant A. Jenkin
      We compared the identification of Clostridium species using mass spectrometry by two different Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) platforms (Bruker MS and Vitek MS) against 16S rRNA sequencing as the reference standard. We then examined the impact of different sample preparations and (on one of those platforms) age of bacterial colonial growth on the performance of the MALDI-TOF MS systems. We identified 10 different species amongst the 52 isolates by 16S rRNA sequencing, with Clostridium perfringens the most prevalent (n = 30). Spectrometric analysis using Vitek MS correctly speciated 47/52 (90.4%) isolates and was not affected by the sample preparation used. Performance of the Bruker MS was dependent on sample preparation with correct speciation obtained for 36 of 52 (69.2%) isolates tested using the Direct Transfer [DT] protocol, but all 52 (100%) isolates were correctly speciated using either an Extended Direct Transfer [EDT] or a Full Formic Extraction [EX] protocol. We then examined the effect of bacterial colonial growth age on the performance of Bruker MS and found substantial agreement in speciation using DT (Kappa = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.46–0.75), almost perfect agreement for EDT (Kappa = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.86–1.00) and exact agreement for EX (Kappa = 1.00) between different days.

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T23:18:38Z
  • Clostridium difficile-induced colitis in mice is independent of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Author(s): Bruno C. Trindade , Casey M. Theriot , Jhansi L. Leslie , Paul E. Carlson Jr. , Ingrid L. Bergin , Marc Peters-Golden , Vincent B. Young , David M. Aronoff
      Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in healthcare settings. However, the host factors involved in the intestinal inflammatory response and pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) are largely unknown. Here we investigated the role of leukotrienes (LTs), a group of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, in CDI. Notably, the neutrophil chemoattractant LTB4, but not cysteinyl (cys) LTs, was induced in the intestine of C57BL/6 mice infected with either C. difficile strain VPI 10463 or strain 630. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of LT production did not ameliorate C. difficile colitis or clinical signs of disease in infected mice. Histological analysis demonstrated that intestinal neutrophilic inflammation, edema and tissue damage in mice during acute and severe CDI were not modulated in the absence of LTs. In addition, CDI induced a burst of cytokines in the intestine of infected mice in a LT-independent manner. Serum levels of anti-toxin A immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels were also not modulated by endogenous LTs. Collectively, our results do not support a role for LTs in modulating host susceptibility to CDI in mice.

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T23:18:38Z
  • Effect of prebiotics on the fecal microbiota of elderly volunteers after
           dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Author(s): Edna P. Nyangale , Sean Farmer , David Keller , D. Chernof , Glenn R. Gibson
      In advancing age, gut populations of beneficial microbes, notably Bifidobacterium spp., show a marked decline. This contributes to an environment less capable of maintaining homoeostasis. This in vitro investigation studied the possible synergistic effects of probiotic supplementation in modulating the gut microbiota enabling prebiotic therapy to in elderly persons. Single stage batch culture anaerobic fermenters were used and inoculated with fecal microbiota obtained from volunteers after taking a 28 day treatment of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30 (BC30)) or a placebo. The response to prebiotic supplements fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in the fermenters was assessed. Bacterial enumeration was carried out using fluorescent in situ hybridisation and organic acids measured by gas chromatography. Baseline populations of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium lituseburense and Bacillus spp. were significantly higher in those having consumed BC30 compared to the placebo. Both prebiotics increased populations of several purportedly beneficial bacterial groups in both sets of volunteers. Samples from volunteers having ingested the BC30 also increased populations of C. lituseburense, Eubacterium rectale and F. prausnitzii more so than in persons who had consumed the placebo, this also resulted in significantly higher concentrations of butyrate, acetate and propionate. This shows that consumption of BC30 and subsequent use of prebiotics resulted in elevated populations of beneficial genres of bacteria as well as organic acid production.

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T23:18:38Z
  • Branched-chain alcohol formation from branched-chain amino acids by
           Thermoanaerobacter brockii and Thermoanaerobacter yonseiensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
      Author(s): Sean Michael Scully , Johann Orlygsson
      Thermoanaerobacter species degrade branched-chain amino acids to a mixture of their corresponding branched-chain fatty acids and alcohols in the presence of thiosulfate; only acid formation occurred when Thermoanaerobacter strains were cultivated in co-culture with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen. Increased pH2 at high liquid–gas phase ratios increases the relative concentration of branched-chain alcohol.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-19T23:18:38Z
  • Plasmid transformation of Weissella paramesenteroides DX by
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Author(s): Maria Papagianni , Emmanuel M. Papamichael
      The present investigation sought to provide a reliable and highly efficient electrotransformation method for the lactic acid bacterium Weissella paramesenteroides DX. Experiments were carried out with the shuttle vectors pVS44 (2910 bps), pTRKH3 (7766 bps) and its derivative pTRKH3-1 (4855 bps). Several parameters, including the concentration of transforming plasmid DNA, plasmid size, electric field strength, age of the culture, cell density, and the pretreatment of cells with dl-threonine, lysozyme, and combined treatment with lithium acetate and dithiothreitol, were investigated and proved to influence the efficiency of transformation. Electrocompetence was found to peak in the early stationary phase (OD600 1.2). Other optimized conditions included: the concentration of 10 μg/ml transforming DNA, the cell density of 1010 cells/ml, a high-density electric field pulse of 2.5 kV, 25 μF and 200 Ω, pretreatment of cells with 40 mM dl-threonine and 2000 U/ml lysozyme, and yielded 3.5 × 104 transformants/μg DNA for pVS44 while 1.2 × 104 transformants/μg DNA for the large plasmid TRKH3. Compared to previously reported data, the obtained transformation efficiencies provided an 8.75-fold increase for pVS44 and ensured plasmid stability for 120 generations in non-selective medium.

      PubDate: 2014-09-11T22:23:48Z
  • Risk factors of Clostridium difficile infections among patients in a
           university hospital in Shanghai, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2014
      Author(s): Haihui Huang , Shi Wu , Renjie Chen , Shaohua Xu , Hong Fang , Andrej Weintraub , Carl Erik Nord
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an increasing concern in China. However, the risk factors of CDI are rarely reported in the Chinese population. A prospective observational study was therefore conducted among patients with hospital-acquired C. difficile diarrhoea and the risk factors of CDI in a retrospective case-control study. The CDI patients were compared with the non-CDI diarrhoeal patients and those without diarrhoea, respectively. The recurrent CDI patients were compared with the corresponding non-recurrent CDI patients and those without diarrhoea, respectively. Overall, of the 240 patients with hospital-acquired diarrhoea 90 (37.5%) were diagnosed as CDI, and 12 (13.3%) of the 90 CDI patients experienced recurrence. Multivariate analysis indicated that renal disease, malignancy, hypoalbuminemia, prior antibiotic treatment, chemotherapy, nasogastric tube use, length of stay >14 days and intra-abdominal surgery, defined daily dose of antimicrobial agents ≥19, prior use of more than three antimicrobial agents, and use of carbapenems were independent risk factors for the first episode of CDI. Use of laxatives, the first- and second-generation narrow-spectrum cephalosporins or metronidazole was identified as protective factors. It is necessary to make testing of C. difficile available as a routine practice and control these risk factors in Chinese hospitals to avoid CDI outbreaks.

      PubDate: 2014-09-11T22:23:48Z
  • Dentilisin involvement in coaggregation between Treponema denticola and
           Tannerella forsythia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2014
      Author(s): Yumiko Sano , Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama , Kimiko Tanaka , Rieko Ito , Seikou Shintani , Masashi Yakushiji , Kazuyuki Ishihara
      Periodontitis arises from a biofilm consisting of gram-negative anaerobic rods and spirochetes. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, termed the Red complex, have been co-isolated with high frequency from chronic periodontitis lesions, and these microorganisms are thought to be major pathogens of the disease. Coaggregation is an important strategy in the colonization of dental plaque biofilm by these bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the coaggregation of T. denticola strains with T. forsythia ATCC 43037 by use of visual grading or spectrophotometry. T. denticola ATCC 35405 coaggregated with T. forsythia, reaching a plateau at approximately 60 min. This coaggregation was inhibited by heat treatment of T. denticola ATCC 35405, but not of T. forsythia. Disaccharides such as sucrose, maltose, and lactose inhibited coaggregation by approximately 50%. The coaggregation reaction varied among T. denticola strains. There was somewhat less coaggregation between T. denticola ATCC 33520 and T. forsythia than between T. denticola ATCC 35405 and T. forsythia, although this difference was not statistically significant; T. denticola ATCC 33521 showed a trace level of coaggregation with T. forsythia. The magnitude of coaggregation among the three T. denticola strains was proportional to their dentilisin activities. Inactivation of dentilisin abolished coaggregation activity, but inactivation of the major outer sheath protein did not. In addition, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not affect coaggregation. These results indicate that dentilisin is involved indirectly in the coaggregation between T. denticola and T. forsythia, because its proteolytic activity is not required, possibly via ligand maturation.

      PubDate: 2014-09-01T21:10:28Z
  • Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic
           potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2014
      Author(s): Annelies Geirnaert , Alix Steyaert , Venessa Eeckhaut , Bo Debruyne , Jan B.A. Arends , Filip Van Immerseel , Nico Boon , Tom Van de Wiele
      Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential.

      PubDate: 2014-09-01T21:10:28Z
  • Different effects of two newly-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum
           15HN and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis 44Lac strains from traditional
           dairy products on cancer cell lines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2014
      Author(s): Babak Haghshenas , Norhafizah Abdullah , Yousef Nami , Dayang Radiah , Rozita Rosli , Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
      Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains isolated from food products can be introduced as probiotics because of their health-promoting characteristics and non-pathogenic nature. This study aims to perform the isolation, molecular identification, and probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains from traditional Iranian dairy products. Primary probiotic assessments indicated high tolerance to low pH and high bile salt conditions, high anti-pathogenic activities, and susceptibility to high consumption antibiotics, thus proving that both strains possess probiotic potential. Cytotoxicity assessments were used to analyze the effects of the secreted metabolite on different cancer cell lines, including HT29, AGS, MCF-7, and HeLa, as well as a normal human cell line (HUVEC). Results showed acceptable cytotoxic properties for secreted metabolites (40 μg/ml dry weight) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis 44Lac. Such performance was similar to that of Taxol against all of the treated cancer cell lines; however, the strain exhibited no toxicity on the normal cell line. Cytotoxic assessments through flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that apoptosis is the main cytotoxic mechanism for secreted metabolites of L. lactis subsp. Lactis 44Lac. By contrast, the effects of protease-treated metabolites on the AGS cell line verified the protein nature of anti-cancer metabolites. However, precise characterizations and in vitro/in vivo investigations on purified proteins should be conducted before these metabolites are introduced as potential anti-cancer therapeutics.

      PubDate: 2014-09-01T21:10:28Z
  • In vitro antibiotic susceptibility profile of Clostridium difficile
           excluding PCR ribotype 027 outbreak strain in Hungary
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Gabriella Terhes , Akiko Maruyama , Krisztina Latkóczy , Lenke Szikra , Marianne Konkoly-Thege , Gyula Princz , Elisabeth Nagy , Edit Urbán
      Our study showed the antibiotic susceptibility profile of toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolated from nosocomial and community-acquired CDI between 2008 and 2010. MICs of 200 C. difficile strains were determined using E®test method in the case of erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, and metronidazole. All strains were susceptible to metronidazole in the study period. Resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin and moxifloxacin were 31%, 29.5%, and 21.5%, respectively. In the case of rifampicin, the MIC range was quite wide, 11.5% of the tested strains proved to be highly resistant (MIC ≥32 μg/ml) to rifampicin. When we compared these results with our earlier findings from 2006 to 2007, only minor changes in susceptibility over the time-periods could be observed in the case of erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, and rifampicin, but metronidazole susceptibility did not show changes.

      PubDate: 2014-09-01T21:10:28Z
  • First clinical and microbiological characterization of Clostridium
           difficile infection in a Croatian University Hospital
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Anita Novak , Patrizia Spigaglia , Fabrizio Barbanti , Ivana Goic-Barisic , Marija Tonkic
      Clinical background and molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the University Hospital Centre Split were investigated from January 2010 to December 2011. In total, 54 patients with first episode of CDI were consecutively included in the study based on the positive EIA test specific for A and B toxins. Demographic and clinical data were prospectively analyzed from medical records. CDI incidence rate was 0.6 per 10,000 patient-days. Thirty six cases (70.6%) were healthcare-associated, twelve cases (23.5%) were community-associated and three (5.9%) were indeterminate. Six patients (11.7%) had suffered one or more recurrences and 37 patients (72.5%) showed severe CDI. Prior therapy with third generation cephalosporin was significantly associated with severe CDI (P < 0.021). Fifty four toxigenic C. difficile strains were isolated and 50 of them were available for PCR-ribotyping. Sixteen different PCR-ribotypes were identified. The most prevalent were PCR-ribotype 001 (27.8%) and 014/020 (24.1%). Twenty three strains were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. Among resistant strains, three (13.0%) – all PCR-ribotype 001 – were multi-resistant. Resistance to fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in strains that caused infection after previous use of fluoroquinolones (P = 0.04).

      PubDate: 2014-08-12T19:59:23Z
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2014
      Author(s): Mutlu Keskin , Eija Könönen , Eva Söderling , Gülden Isik , Erhan Firatli , Veli Jukka Uitto , Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
      Human neutrophilic peptides (HNPs) constitute a class of host defense molecules, which contribute to the non-oxidative killing of bacteria and other microorganisms. Since the adaptability is crucial to bacterial survival in changing environments, it is of interest to know how Fusobacterium nucleatum, the major bridge organism connecting early and late colonizers in dental biofilms, defends itself against HNPs. This study aimed to examine the planktonic growth, membrane permeability, and biofilm formation characteristics as defense mechanisms of F. nucleatum against HNP-1. In all experiments, the type strain of F. nucleatum (ssp. nucleatum ATCC 25586) and two clinical strains (ssp. nucleatum AHN 9508 and ssp. polymorphum AHN 9910) were used. Planktonic growth (measured in colony forming units), capsular polysaccharide production (visualized by Ziehl-Neelsen stain), membrane permeability (demonstrated as N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake), biofilm formation, and established biofilm development (measured as total mass and polysaccharide levels) were analyzed in the presence of 0 μg/ml (control), 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, and 10 μg/ml of HNP-1. Planktonic growth of the strains AHN 9508 and ATCC 25586 were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the presence of HNP-1, while their membrane permeability decreased (p<0.005) in the planktonic form. HNP-1 decreased the biofilm formation of the strains ATCC 25586 and AHN 9910, whereas it increased the growth of the strain AHN 9508 in established biofilms. Capsule formation and polysaccharide production were not observed in any strain. We conclude that the inhibition of the membrane permeability and the increase in planktonic and established biofilm growth could act as bacterial defense mechanisms against neutrophilic defensins. In addition, this strain-dependent survival ability against HNP-1 may explain the variation in the virulence of different F. nucleatum strains.

      PubDate: 2014-08-12T19:59:23Z
  • Longitudinal shifts in bacterial diversity and fermentation pattern in the
           rumen of steers grazing wheat pasture
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): D.W. Pitta , W.E. Pinchak , S. Dowd , K. Dorton , I. Yoon , B.R. Min , J.D. Fulford , T.A. Wickersham , D.P. Malinowski
      Grazing steers on winter wheat forage is routinely practiced in the Southern Great Plains of the US. Here, we investigated the dynamics in bacterial populations of both solid and liquid ruminal fractions of steers grazing on maturing wheat forage of changing nutritive quality. The relationship between bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters in the liquid fraction was also investigated. During the first 28 days, the wheat was in a vegetative phase with a relatively high crude protein content (CP; 21%), which led to the incidence of mild cases of frothy bloat among steers. Rumen samples were collected on days 14, 28, 56 and 76, separated into solid and liquid fractions and analyzed for bacterial diversity using 16S pyrotag technology. The predominant phyla identified were Bacteroidetes (59–77%) and Firmicutes (20–33%) across both ruminal fractions. Very few differences were observed in the rumen bacterial communities within solid and liquid fractions on day 14. However, by day 28, the relatively high CP content complemented a distinct bacterial and chemical composition of the rumen fluid that was characterized by a higher ratio (4:1) of Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes and a corresponding lower acetate:propionate (3:1) ratio. Further, a greater accumulation of biofilm (mucopolysaccharide complex) on day 28 was strongly associated with the abundance of Firmicutes lineages such as Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Oscillospira and Moryella (P < 0.05) in the fiber fraction. Such changes were diminished as the CP concentration declined over the course of the study. The abundance of Firmicutes was noticeable by 76 d in both fractions which signifies the development of a core microbiome associated with digestion of a more recalcitrant fiber in the mature wheat. This study demonstrates dynamics in the rumen microbiome and their association with fermentation activity in the rumen of steers during the vegetative (bloat-prone) and reproductive stages of wheat forage.

      PubDate: 2014-08-12T19:59:23Z
  • In vitro evaluation of the probiotic and functional potential of
           Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented food and human intestine
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 30
      Author(s): Dayong Ren , Chang Li , Yanqing Qin , Ronglan Yin , Shouwen Du , Fei Ye , Cunxia Liu , Hongfeng Liu , Maopeng Wang , Yi Li , Yang Sun , Xiao Li , Mingyao Tian , Ningyi Jin
      This study aims to evaluate the functional and probiotic characteristics of eight indigenous Lactobacillus strains in vitro. The selected lactobacilli include strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. All strains tolerated both pH 2 for 3 h and 1% bile salt for 24 h. The strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 were the most adhesive strains producing the highest quantity of EPS. Although a wide variation in the ability of the eight strains to deplete cholesterol and nitrite, antagonize pathogens, scavenge free radical, and stimulate innate immune response were observed, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 showed the widest range of these useful traits. Taken together, the strains CICC 23174 and CGMCC 1.557 exhibited the best probiotic properties with the potential for use in the production of probiotic fermented foods.

      PubDate: 2014-08-07T19:47:41Z
  • Corticosteroid use is associated with a reduced incidence of Clostridium
           difficile-associated diarrhea: A retrospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Author(s): Amy L. Wojciechowski , Ganapathi I. Parameswaran , Arun Mattappallil , Kari A. Mergenhagen
      The impact of corticosteroid use on the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) was examined retrospectively in 532 patients receiving antibiotic treatment for respiratory infections. As determined by logistic regression, corticosteroids were associated with a decreased incidence of CDAD (Odds Ratio 0.12, 95% Confidence Interval 0.006-0.95).

      PubDate: 2014-08-07T19:47:41Z
  • Vancomycin-resistant Clostridium innocuum bacteremia following oral
           vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2014
      Author(s): Yuan-Pin Hung , Hsiao-Ju Lin , Chi-Jung Wu , Po-Lin Chen , Jen-Chieh Lee , Hsiao-Chieh Liu , Yi-Hui Wu , Fang Hao Yeh , Pei-Jane Tsai , Wen-Chien Ko
      An 85 year-old male initially admitted for septic shock due to urinary tract infection experienced Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea during hospitalization and was treated by oral vancomycin. His clinical course was complicated by cytomegalovirus colitis and then vancomycin-resistant C. innocuum bacteremia, which was cured by uneventfully parenteral piperacillin-tazobactam therapy.

      PubDate: 2014-08-07T19:47:41Z
  • Peptoniphilus rhinitidis sp. nov., isolated from specimens of chronic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2014
      Author(s): Min Young Jung , Jae Hoon Cho , Yeseul Sin , Jayoung Paek , In-Soon Park , Joong-Su Kim , Wongyong Kim , Jin Yeul Ma , Soo-Je Park , Young-Hyo Chang
      Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus related to bacterial infection. A previous study suggested that a specific bacterial group may have an important role in the course of CRS. In this study, bacteria isolated from CRS patients were characterized. A total of 15 strains were identified as Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), which were able to utilize peptone as a sole carbon source. Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to members of the genus Peptoniphilus (>97% similarity) within the Clostridiales Family XI. Incertae Sedis. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization suggests that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Peptoniphilus associated with CRS. The type strain of Peptoniphilus rhinitidis is 1-13T (= KCTC 5985T = JCM 17448T).

      PubDate: 2014-08-03T19:33:18Z
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