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Journal Cover   Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.09]   [H-I: 44]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • The Prevalence of Enterotoxin and Antibiotic Resistance Genes In Clinical
           and Intestinal Bacteroides fragilis group isolates in Turkey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2015
      Author(s): Achille Aime Kangaba, Filiz Yarimcam Saglam, Hrisi Bahar Tokman, Mert Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal Torun
      This study was conducted to measure the antibiotic susceptibilities, corresponding gene contents, and the enterotoxin gene bft, in 50 Bacteroides fragilis group isolates, 25 of which were clinical and 25 intestinal. The resistance rates to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem and metronidazole were low; ampicillin and tetracyclin resistance was high; clindamycin resistance and ermF gene presence was also high. Regarding phenotypical bacterial resistance and the presence of resistance genes, there was not statistically significant difference between clinical and intestinal isolates and bft positive and negative isolates.

      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:48:37Z
  • Functional analysis of the type II toxin-antitoxin systems of the MazEF
           and RelBE families in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2015
      Author(s): Olga Averina, Maria Alekseeva, Andrei Shkoporov, Valery Danilenko
      Analysis of the Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 genome sequence for the presence of toxin-antitoxin genes revealed two relBE-like operons, three relB-mazF-like operons, one relB-vapC-like operon, one solitary gene coding for the MazF toxin and one gene coding for the RelB antitoxin. An attempt to clone the selected relE and mazF toxin genes from B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 revealed their toxic effects on Escherichia coli, which could be neutralized by coexpression of these toxins with their cognate antitoxins. The only two toxin proteins, RelE and VapC, that were found to be non-toxic to E. coli, were overproduced and purified. Electrophoretic assays showed that both RelE and VapC possessed direct endoribonuclease activity. The expression levels of toxin genes in B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 increased during the nutrient starvation and entry into the late stationary phase. The two relBE bicistronic operons relE2-relB1 and relE1-relB4 from B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 were cloned and overexpressed in B. longum subsp. longum NCC2705 strain. The strain B. longum NCC2705 [pCESH80::relE1-relB4] showed a significantly decreased growth rate with later onset of the log phase and decreased cells density in the stationary phase.

      PubDate: 2015-07-25T08:03:03Z
  • cfxA expression in oral clinical Capnocytophaga isolates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Author(s): Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori, Clarisse Monfort, Nolwenn Oliviero, Philippe Gautier, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon
      Capnocytophaga spp. are commensal bacteria involved in oral and systemic diseases, with a variable susceptibility to beta-lactams. The cfxA gene expression level was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR, and reasons of the observed misexpression were discussed, as insertion of foreign genetic material, contributing to dissemination and evolution of antibiotic resistance genes.

      PubDate: 2015-07-21T07:51:22Z
  • Gut Bifidobacterium microbiota in one-month-old Brazilian newborns
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2015
      Author(s): Łukasz Grześkowiak, Tatiana Fiche Sales Teixeira, Solange Mara Bigonha, Guilherme Lobo, Seppo Salminen, Celia Lucia de Luces Fortes Ferreira
      Gut colonisation with bifidobacteria in early infancy is essential for the well-being of the infant. Gestational age and mode of delivery are among the factors influencing the colonisation process. The aim was to characterise the bifidobacterial composition in the gut of one-month-old full-term and pre-term Brazilian infants, both being delivered vaginally or by caesarean section. Fourthy nine Brazilian (Viçosa, Minas Gerais state) one-month-old infants were divided in two groups: full-term (n=24) and pre-term (n=25), and compared to each other. Each group was then characterised according to its mode of delivery. Infant stool samples were available for bifidobacterial characterisation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. All study infants were colonised by bifidobacteria. Bifidobacterium longum colonised all full-term and pre-term newborns. Differences were observed in counts of Bifidobacterium genus and Bifidobacterium longum between full-term and pre-term infants (8.8 log cells/g, IQR 7.9-9.1 vs. 7.1 log cells/g, IQR 6.6-8.6, p=0.02 and 8.3 log cells/g, IQR 6.7-9.1 vs. 6.4 log cells/g, IQR 6.1-6.7, p=0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the prevalence of Bifidobacterium lactis differed between pre-term caesarean and pre-term vaginally born infants (50.0 % vs. 93.8 %, p=0.023). Gut bifidobacterial composition of one-month-old full-term infants differs from that of pre-term newborns in Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Gestational age is a factor influencing bacterial numbers and species, while mode of delivery have an impact on the prevalence and quantity of bifidobacteria in studied infants. Bifidobacteria may have an impact on later health of the infants and the species B. longum and B. lactis might provide clues on the potential probiotic applications in pre-term newborns at the risk of developing postnatal complications.

      PubDate: 2015-07-21T07:51:22Z
  • A Clostridium hathewayi isolate in blood culture of a patient with an
           acute appendicitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Author(s): Adrien Randazzo, Anne Kornreich, Bénédicte Lissoir
      Introduction Clostridium species is a group of anaerobic bacteria constituting the colonic microflora of the intestinal tract. Since molecular methodologies based on 16 rRNA have been established for the classification and the recognition of bacterial species, more than 150 species of Clostridium have been described. Most are considered harmless saprophytes; however, these bacteria may be involved in a wide variety of infections and may be a common cause of enteritis and enterotoxemias in humans. Case presentation We present the case of a 60-year-old Asian patient admitted in the emergency room with an acute appendicitis where a blood culture showed the presence of a Clostridium hathewayi. This microorganism is an anaerobic bacteria described in 2001 as a Gram negative end-pointed bacillus, usually endospore-forming. It was reclassified in 2014 as Hungatella hathewayi. A literature review has been performed to find articles relating to this bacteria in a clinical case. Conclusion Clostridium hathewayi is microorganism recently reclassified as Hungatella hathewayi. Its growth in blood cultures has been reported in a few cases in the literature. Although only a few articles have reported its involvement in clinical infections, we assess that its part in the cause of the illness should be evaluated.

      PubDate: 2015-07-17T07:34:18Z
  • First Clinical Description of Eggerthia catenaformis Bacteremia in a
           Patient with Dental Abscess
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2015
      Author(s): Hayarpi H. Kordjian , Joyce D.J.H. Schultz , Flemming Schønning Rosenvinge , Jakob Møller , Rune M. Pedersen
      We present a case of Eggerthia catenaformis bacteremia originating from a dental abscess and imitating necrotizing fasciitis in a previously healthy adult. The isolates were easily identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The clinical course, surgical and antibiotic treatment as well as the successful outcome are reported.

      PubDate: 2015-07-13T07:07:23Z
  • Occurrence and new mutations involved in rifampicin-resistant
           Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from biofilm or device-related
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Ulrika Furustrand Tafin , Guillaume Ghislain Aubin , Gerhard Eich , Andrej Trampuz , Stéphane Corvec
      We described for the first time the amino acid substitutions conferring rifampicin resistance in eight Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from patients with biofilm or device-related infections. We identified different mutations in cluster I and one mutation, never reported, in cluster II of the rpoB gene (I480V) associated with the most frequent one in cluster I (S442L). Half of the patients previously received treatment with rifampicin.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum and other Fusobacterium spp. isolated from head
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Erlangga Yusuf , Stijn Halewyck , Ingrid Wybo , Denis Piérard , Frans Gordts
      Background Fusobacterium spp. from clinical specimens are increasingly reported. We sought to describe the epidemiology, the microbiological, and the clinical characteristics of head and neck infections caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum and other Fusobacterium spp. Materials and methods Retrospective cohort study between October 1st, 2004 and September 30th, 2014 performed in an academic hospital. Electronic patient charts and the laboratory information system were reviewed for demographic and microbiological data. The number and percentages of specific diagnosis and treatment among patients with positive Fusobacterium spp. culture were calculated. The incidence was calculated based on the number of specimens investigated each year. Results Included were 230 cultures of 230 patients (median age of 28 years, 61.7% men). F. necrophorum was often found in young patients with high C-reactive protein (CRP) and high number of leukocytes in blood. Other Fusobacterium spp. were often found in middle aged patients with relatively high CRP and slightly increased leukocytes. Three major causes of the isolation of F. necrophorum and other Fusobacterium spp. were acute tonsillitis (n = 18, incidence of 0.2%), peritonsillar abscess (n = 39, 0.5%) and acute otitis (n = 45, 0.1%). While F. necrophorum was found in majority (37/57) of patients with acute tonsillitis or peritonsillar abscess, Fusobacterium spp. other than F. necrophorum were found in the majority (35/45) of patients with acute otitis. Isolated fusobacteria were susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, clindamycin and metronidazole. The outcomes of patients with Fusobacterium spp. were good. Conclusion F. necrophorum and other Fusobacterium spp. are rare cause of head and neck infections. The infections are well treated by combination of antibiotics and surgery.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: From colonization to cure
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Kelsey Shields , Roger V. Araujo-Castillo , Thimmaiah G. Theethira , Carolyn D. Alonso , Ciaran P. Kelly
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly prevalent, dangerous and challenging to prevent and manage. Despite intense national and international attention the incidence of primary and of recurrent CDI (PCDI and RCDI, respectively) have risen rapidly throughout the past decade. Of major concern is the increase in cases of RCDI resulting in substantial morbidity, morality and economic burden. RCDI management remains challenging as there is no uniformly effective therapy, no firm consensus on optimal treatment, and reliable data regarding RCDI-specific treatment options is scant. Novel therapeutic strategies are critically needed to rapidly, accurately, and effectively identify and treat patients with, or at-risk for, RCDI. In this review we consider the factors implicated in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of RCDI, evaluate current management options for RCDI and explore novel and emerging therapies.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibilities of
           Clostridium difficile clinical isolates from Victoria, Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Kate E. Mackin , Briony Elliott , Despina Kotsanas , Benjamin P. Howden , Glen P. Carter , Tony M. Korman , Thomas V. Riley , Julian I. Rood , Grant A. Jenkin , Dena Lyras
      Some Australian strain types of Clostridium difficile appear unique, highlighting the global diversity of this bacterium. We examined recent and historic local isolates, finding predominantly toxinotype 0 strains, but also toxinotypes V and VIII. All isolates tested were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, while moxifloxacin resistance was only detected in recent strains.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Actinobaculum schaalii bacteremia: A report of two cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Lemuel R. Non , Allison Nazinitsky , Mark D. Gonzalez , Carey-Ann D. Burnham , Rupa Patel
      We report two cases of bacteremia with Actinobaculum schaalii, a rarely reported, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium. The first case was a patient with renal cancer who developed pyelonephritis after cryoablation, and the second was a patient who developed sepsis after a urogenital procedure. Bacteremia resolved after administration of empiric antibiotic therapy.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of
           healthy infants against enteropathogenic bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Abolfazl Davoodabadi , Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal , Abbas Rahimi Foroushani , Masoumeh Douraghi , Mohammad kazem Sharifi Yazdi , Farzaneh Amin Harati
      Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • The role of anaerobes in diabetic foot infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Patrick G.P. Charles , Ilker Uçkay , Benjamin Kressmann , Stéphane Emonet , Benjamin A. Lipsky
      Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are a common cause of morbidity and, on occasion, even mortality. Infection can be either mono- or polymicrobial, with a wide variety of potential pathogens. Anaerobes may be involved, particularly in wounds that are deeper or more chronic, and are more frequently identified when using modern molecular techniques, such as 16s PCR and pyrosequencing. It remains unclear whether the presence of anaerobes in DFI leads to more severe manifestations, or if these organisms are largely colonizers associated with the presence of greater degrees of tissue ischemia and necrosis. Commonly used empiric antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections is generally broad-spectrum and usually has activity against the most frequently identified anaerobes, such as Peptostreptococcus and Bacteroides species. Adequate surgical debridement and, when needed, foot revascularization may be at least as important as the choice of antibiotic to achieve a successful treatment outcome.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • A new medium containing mupirocin, acetic acid, and norfloxacin for the
           selective cultivation of bifidobacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Eva Vlková , Hana Salmonová , Věra Bunešová , Martina Geigerová , Vojtěch Rada , Šárka Musilová
      Various culture media have been proposed for the isolation and selective enumeration of bifidobacteria. Mupirocin is widely used as a selective factor along with glacial acetic acid. TOS (transgalactosylated oligosaccharides) medium supplemented with mupirocin is recommended by the International Dairy Federation for the detection of bifidobacteria in fermented milk products. Mupirocin media with acetic acid are also reliable for intestinal samples in which bifidobacteria predominate. However, for complex samples containing more diverse microbiota, the selectivity of mupirocin media is limited. Resistance to mupirocin has been demonstrated by many anaerobic bacteria, especially clostridia. The objective was to identify an antibiotic that inhibits the growth of clostridia and allows the growth of bifidobacteria, and to use the identified substance to develop a selective cultivation medium for bifidobacteria. The susceptibility of bifidobacteria and clostridia to 12 antibiotics was tested on agar using the disk diffusion method. Only norfloxacin inhibited the growth of clostridia and did not affect the growth of bifidobacteria. Using both pure cultures and faecal samples from infants, adults, calves, lambs, and piglets, the optimal concentration of norfloxacin in solid cultivation media was determined to be 200 mg/L. Our results showed that solid medium containing norfloxacin (200 mg/L) in combination with mupirocin (100 mg/L) and glacial acetic acid (1 mL/L) is suitable for the enumeration and isolation of bifidobacteria from faecal samples of different origins.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Study of the combined effect of electro-activated solutions and heat
           treatment on the destruction of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and
           Geobacillus stearothermophilus in model solution and vegetable puree
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 35, Part B
      Author(s): Viacheslav Liato , Steve Labrie , Catherine Viel , Marzouk Benali , Mohammed Aïder
      The combined effect of heat treatment and electro-activated solution (EAS) on the heat resistance of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was assessed under various heating and exposure time combinations. The acid and neutral EAS showed the highest inhibitory activity, indicating that these solutions may be considered as strong sporicidal disinfectants. These EAS were able to cause a reduction of ≥6 log of spores of C. sporogenes at 60 °C in only 1 min of exposition. For G. stearothermophilus spores, a reduction of 4.5 log was observed at 60 °C in 1 min, while in 5 min, ≥7 log CFU/ml reduction was observed. Inoculated puree of pea and corn were used as a food matrix for the determination of the heat resistance of these spores during the treatments in glass capillaries. The inactivation kinetics of the spores was studied in an oil bath. Combined treatment by EAS and temperature demonstrated a significant decrease in the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. The D100°C in pea puree with NaCl solution was 66.86 min while with acid and neutral EAS it was reduced down to 3.97 and 2.19 min, respectively. The spore of G. stearothermophilus displayed higher heat resistance as confirmed by other similar studies. Its D130°C in pea puree showed a decrease from 1.45 min in NaCl solution down to 1.30 and 0.93 min for acid and neutral EAS, respectively. The differences between the spores of these species are attributable to their different sensitivities with respect to pH, Redox potential and oxygen.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of two potential probiotic
           Lactobacillus strains by in vivo tests
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 35, Part B
      Author(s): Dayong Ren , Chang Li , Yanqing Qin , Ronglan Yin , Shouwen Du , Hongfeng Liu , Yanfang Zhang , Cuiyan Wang , Fengjun Rong , Ningyi Jin
      Here we evaluate the immunomodulatory function of two potential probiotic strains, Lactobacillus salivarius CICC 23174 and Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1.557. Mice were fed with each Lactobacillus strain at different doses for several consecutive days. The effects of the two probiotic strains on immune organs, immune cells and immune molecules were investigated on days 10 and 20. Both Lactobacillus strains increased the spleen index, improved the spleen lymphocyte transformation rate, enhanced sIgA production and improved the number of CD11c+ CD80+ double-positive cells. L. plantarum CGMCC 1.557 was the more active strain in enhancing the phagocytic activity of macrophages, while, L. salivarius CICC 23174 was the more effective strain at maintaining the Th1/Th2 balance. This study suggests that these two Lactobacillus strains have beneficial effects on regulation of immune responses, which has promising implications for the development of ecological agents and functional foods.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • 16S rDNA analysis of archaea indicates dominance of Methanobacterium and
           high abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae in rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 35, Part B
      Author(s): S.S. Paul , S.M. Deb , A. Dey , S.P.S. Somvanshi , D. Singh , R. Rathore , J. Stiverson
      The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was investigated using 16S rDNA gene library prepared from the rumen contents of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Microbial genomic DNA was isolated from four adult male fistulated buffaloes and PCR conditions were set up using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector, and the inserts of positive clones were sequenced. A total of 142 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 46 species level (0.01 distance) operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty six OTUs comprising 89 clones (63% of the total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanobacterium genus and the majority of them had highest percent identity with Methanobacterium flexile among cultured methanogens. Five OTUs comprising 27 clones (19% of total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanomicrobium genus and these clones showed highest sequence identity with Methanomicrobium mobile. Only two OTUs comprising 6 clones (4% of total clones) were assigned to Methanobrevibacter genus. A total of 17 clones belonging to 10 species level OTUs showed highest percent identity (ranging from 85 to 95%) with Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and were taxonomically classified as Methanomassiliicocaceae. Out of the 142 rDNA clones, 112 clones, which constitute 79% of the total clones representing 42 OTUs, had less than 98.5% sequence identity with any of the cultured strains of methanogens and represent novel species of methanogens. This study has revealed the largest assortment of hydrogenotrophic methanogen phylotypes ever identified from the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The study indicates that Methanobacterium is the most dominant methanogen in the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo. This is also the first report on the presence of methanogens phylogenetically close to M. luminyensis, an H2 dependent methylotrophic methanogen, in the rumen of buffaloes at such a high level of abundance.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Actinomycosis of eye: Forgotten but not uncommon
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 35, Part B
      Author(s): Neha Mehrotra , Ankita Baidya , Megha Brijwal , Rita Aggarwal , Rama Chaudhry
      Actinomyces species are known to cause a variety of human infections. Ocular actinomycosis is a rare disease. We report an unusual case of bilateral actinomycotic blepharoconjunctivitis in the absence of canaliculitis that presented with forniceal masses in eye. The case report is discussed here along with Indian literature.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Spondylodiscitis due to anaerobic bacteria about a case of Parvimonas
           micra infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): B. Pilmis , J. Israel , A. Le Monnier , A. Mizrahi
      Parvimonas micra is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We report a case of spondylodiscitis caused by P. micra, a rarely reported Gram positive cocci. The case was an elderly patient with joint surgery and ischaemic heart disease history. Infection resolved after adequate antibiotic therapy.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Bacteremic meningitis caused by Parvimonas micra in an immunocompetent
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Jae-Hoon Ko , Jin Yang Baek , Cheol-In Kang , Woo Joo Lee , Ji Yong Lee , Sun Young Cho , Young Eun Ha , So Hyun Kim , Doo Ryeon Chung , Kyong Ran Peck , Nam Yong Lee , Jae-Hoon Song
      A 61-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and dyslipidemia visited the emergency department with a fever and severe headache. He was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis after a lumbar puncture, and blood culture revealed Parvimonas micra bacteremia. Although he had a history of extraction of a molar two weeks before symptom onset, there was no evidence of abscess formation on physical examination or imaging studies. He was successfully treated with oral metronidazole for 12 days after 9 days of treatment with IV ceftriaxone and vancomcycin. This is the first report of primary bacterial meningitis caused by this organism, which indicates that this organism is capable of being a bacterial meningitis pathogen.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Pomegranate ellagitannins stimulate growth of gut bacteria in vitro:
           Implications for prebiotic and metabolic effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Zhaoping Li , Paula H. Summanen , Tomoe Komoriya , Susanne M. Henning , Ru-Po Lee , Eliisa Carlson , David Heber , Sydney M. Finegold
      The present study investigated the effect of pomegranate extract (POMx) and pomegranate juice (POM juice) on the growth of major groups of intestinal bacteria: Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides fragilis group, clostridia, bifidobacteria, and lactobacilli, and the utilization of pomegranate polyphenols by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The total phenolic content of the pomegranate extract and juice was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and reported as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The polyphenol composition was determined by HPLC. Stool specimens were incubated with 400, 100, and 25 μg/ml GAE POMx and POM juice and subjected to selective culture. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains were incubated with 400 μg/ml GAE POMx and POM juice and metabolites were analyzed. POMx and POM juice increased the mean counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and significantly inhibited the growth of B. fragilis group, clostridia, and Enterobacteriaceae in a dose–response manner. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus utilized ellagic acid and glycosyl ellagic acid but little or no punicalin was utilized. Neither POMx nor POM juice was converted to urolithins by the test bacteria or the in vitro stool cultures. The effect of pomegranate on the gut bacteria considered to be beneficial (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) suggests that pomegranate may potentially work as a prebiotic. The concept that polyphenols such as those in pomegranate impact gut microbiota populations may establish a new role for polyphenols in human health.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Screening of Propionibacterium spp. for potential probiotic properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Daniela Campaniello , Antonio Bevilacqua , Milena Sinigaglia , Clelia Altieri
      The main topic of this paper is the evaluation of adhesion of propionibacteria to IPEC-J2 cells and the survival at pH 2.5 and with 0.3% bile salts added, bioactivity towards pathogens and antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, Propionibacterium jensenii, Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium thoenii. Adhesion to IPEC-J2 cell lines was ca. 25–35% and significantly increased with CaCl2. Moreover, propionibacteria showed a reduction of cell count of ca. 0.5% at pH 2.5 after 3 h, whereas cell count increased after 24 h with bile salts; finally, they significantly inhibited Escherichia coli O157:H7.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Insight into alteration of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile
           infection and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Lihua Zhang , Danfeng Dong , Cen Jiang , Zhen Li , Xuefeng Wang , Yibing Peng
      Clostridium difficile is well recognized as the common pathogen of nosocomial diarrhea, meanwhile, asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile in part of the population has also drawn public attention. Although gut microbiota is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI), whether there is any alteration of gut microbial composition in asymptomatic C. difficile carriers hasn't been clearly described. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in gut microbiome among CDI patients, asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and healthy individuals. We performed fecal microbiota analysis on the samples of eight CDI patients, eight asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and nine healthy subjects using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers showed reduced microbial richness and diversity compared with healthy subjects, accompanied with a paucity of phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as an overabundance of Proteobacteria. Some normally commensal bacteria, especially butyrate producers, were significantly depleted in CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers. Furthermore, the differences observed in microbial community structure between CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers suggested that the gut microbiota may be a potential factor of disease state for CDI. Our study demonstrates the characterization and diversity of gut microbiota in CDI and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, which will provide new ideas for surveillance of the disease state and development of microbiota-targeted agents for CDI prevention and treatment.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Microbiota and probiotics in canine and feline welfare
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Łukasz Grześkowiak , Akihito Endo , Shea Beasley , Seppo Salminen
      Dogs and cats have been cohabiting with us for thousands of years. They are the major human companions. Today, dogs and cats live in urban areas. Cats and most dogs are on high carbohydrate diets and face similar life-style challenges as the human beings. The health and well-being of companion animals, just as their owners, depends on the gut microbes. Providing a proper care and nutritionally balanced diet to companion animals is recognised as a part of our responsibility to maintain the health and well being of our pet. However, as microbiota differences may facilitate exposure to pathogens and harmful environmental influences, it is prudent to search for novel tools to protect dogs and cats and at the same time the human owners from pathogens. Specific probiotic strains and/or their defined combinations may be useful in the canine and feline nutrition, therapy, and care. Probiotic supplementations have been successful in the prevention and treatment of acute gastroenteritis, treatment of IBD, and prevention of allergy in companion animals. New challenges for probiotic applications include maintenance of obesity and overweight, urogenital tract infections, Helicobacter gastritis and parasitic infections. The probiotics of human origin appear to be among the new promising tools for the maintenance of pets' health. However, the host-derived microorganisms might be the most appropriate probiotic source. Therefore, more controlled trials are needed to characterise new and safe probiotic preparations with an impact on general health and well being as well as health maintenance in dogs and cats.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Non-classical azoreductase secretion in Clostridium perfringens in
           response to sulfonated azo dye exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Jessica M. Morrison , Gilbert H. John
      Clostridium perfringens, a strictly anaerobic microorganism and inhabitant of the human intestine, has been shown to produce an azoreductase enzyme (AzoC), an NADH-dependent flavin oxidoreductase. This enzyme reduces azo dyes into aromatic amines, which can be carcinogenic. A significant amount of work has been completed on the activity of AzoC. Despite this, much is still unknown, including whether azoreduction of these dyes occurs intracellularly or extracellulary. A physiological study of C. perfringens involving the effect of azo dye exposure was completed to answer this question. Through exposure studies, azo dyes were found to cause cytoplasmic protein release, including AzoC, from C. perfringens in dividing and non-dividing cells. Sulfonation (negative charge) of azo dyes proved to be the key to facilitating protein release of AzoC and was found to be azo-dye-concentration-dependent. Additionally, AzoC was found to localize to the Gram-positive periplasmic region. Using a ΔazoC knockout mutant, the presence of additional azoreductases in C. perfringens was suggested. These results support the notion that the azoreduction of these dyes may occur extracellularly for the commensal C. perfringens in the intestine.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Development of a triplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous
           detection of Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium sporogenes and
           Clostridium tyrobutyricum in milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Stefano Morandi , Paola Cremonesi , Tiziana Silvetti , Bianca Castiglioni , Milena Brasca
      Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium tyrobutyricum are considered the leading bacteria implicated in late blowing defects affecting semi-hard and hard cheese production. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex Real-Time PCR (qPCR) analysis for a rapid and simultaneous detection of C. beijerinckii, C. sporogenes and C. tyrobutyricum, using specific primers respectively targeting the nifH, gerAA and enr genes. The limits of detection in raw milk were 300 CFU/50 mL in the case of C. beijerinckii, 2 CFU/50 mL for C. sporogenes and 5 CFU/50 mL for C. tyrobutyricum spores. The qPCR method was applied to artificially contaminated raw milk samples, and molecular quantification showed good correlation (R2 = 0.978) with microbiological counting. Our results demonstrate that this method, combined with a DNA extraction protocol optimized for spore lysis, could be a useful tool for the direct quantification of the considered clostridia species.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Evaluation of composition and individual variability of rumen microbiota
           in yaks by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Wei Guo , Ying Li , Lizhi Wang , Jiwen Wang , Qin Xu , Tianhai Yan , Bai Xue
      The Yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique species of ruminant animals that is important to agriculture of the Tibetan plateau, and has a complex intestinal microbial community. The objective of the present study was to characterize the composition and individual variability of microbiota in the rumen of yaks using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing technique. Rumen samples used in the present study were obtained from grazing adult male yaks (n = 6) in a commercial farm in Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province, China. Universal prokaryote primers were used to target the V4–V5 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene. A total of 7200 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained after sequence filtering and chimera removal. Within these OTUs, 0.56% belonged to Archaea (40 OTUs), 7.19% to unassigned species (518 OTUs), and the remaining OTUs (6642) in all samples were of bacterial origin. When examining the community structure of bacteria, we identified 23 phyla within 159 families after taxonomic summarization. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla accounting for 39.68% (SD = 0.05) and 45.90% (SD = 0.06), respectively. Moreover, 3764 OTUs were identified as shared OTUs (i.e. represented in all yaks) and belonged to 35 genera, exhibiting highly variable abundance across individual samples. Phylogenetic placement of these genera across individual samples was examined. In addition, we evaluated the distance among the 6 rumen samples by adding taxon phylogeny using UniFrac, representing 24.1% of average distance. In summary, the current study reveals a shared rumen microbiome and phylogenetic lineage and presents novel information on composition and individual variability of the bacterial community in the rumen of yaks.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Optimal spore germination in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 requires the
           presence of functional copies of SleB and YpeB, but not CwlJ
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Carolyn A. Meaney , Stephen T. Cartman , Peter J. McClure , Nigel P. Minton
      Germination, the process by which dormant endospores return to vegetative growth, is a critical process in the life cycle of the notorious pathogen Clostridium botulinum. Crucial is the degradation by hydrolytic enzymes of an inner peptidoglycan spore layer termed the cortex. Two mechanistically different systems of cortex lysis exist in spores of Clostridium species. C. botulinum ATCC 3502 harbours the Bacillus-like system of SleB, CwlJ and YpeB cortex lytic enzymes (CLEs). Through the construction of insertional gene knockout mutants in the sleB, cwlJ and ypeB genes of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and the production of spores of each mutant strain, the effect on germination was assessed. This study demonstrates a reduced germination efficiency in spores carrying mutations in either sleB or ypeB with an approximate 2-fold reduction in heat resistant colony forming units (CFU/OD600) when plated on rich media. This reduction could be restored to wild-type levels by removing the spore coat and plating on media supplemented with lysozyme. It was observed that cwlJ spores displayed a similar germination efficiency as wild-type spores (P > 0.05). An optimal germinant commixture was identified to include a combination of l-alanine with sodium bicarbonate as it resulted in a 32% drop in OD600, while the additional incorporation of l-lactate resulted in a 57% decrease. Studies of the germination efficiency of spores prepared from all three CLE mutants was performed by monitoring the associated decrease in optical density but a germination defect was not observed in any of the CLE mutant strains. This was likely due to the lack of specificity of this particular assay. Taken together, these data indicate that functional copies of SleB and YpeB, but not CwlJ are required for the optimal germination of the spores of C. botulinum ATCC 3502.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Mesophilic hydrogen production in acidogenic packed-bed reactors (APBR)
           using raw sugarcane vinasse as substrate: Influence of support materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Antônio Djalma Nunes Ferraz Júnior , Claudia Etchebehere , Marcelo Zaiat
      Bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane vinasse in anaerobic up-flow packed-bed reactors (APBR) was evaluated. Four types of support materials, expanded clay (EC), charcoal (Ch), porous ceramic (PC), and low-density polyethylene (LDP) were tested as support for biomass attachment. APBR (working volume – 2.3 L) were operated in parallel at a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, an organic loading rate of 36.2 kg-COD m−3 d−1, at 25 °C. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production values of 509.5, 404, 81.4 and 10.3 mL-H2 d−1 L−1 reactor and maximum yields of 3.2, 2.6, 0.4 and 0.05 mol-H2 mol−1 carbohydrates total, were observed during the monitoring of the reactors filled with LDP, EC, Ch and PC, respectively. Thus, indicating the strong influence of the support material on H2 production. LDP was the most appropriate material for hydrogen production among the materials evaluated. 16S rRNA gene by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the selection of different microbial populations. 454-pyrosequencing performed on samples from APBR filled with LDP revealed the presence of hydrogen-producing organisms (Clostridium and Pectinatus), lactic acid bacteria and non-fermentative organisms.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by
           Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Elhagag Ahmed Hassan , Mohamed Hemida Abd-Alla , Magdy Mohamed Khalil Bagy , Fatthy Mohamed Morsy
      An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l−1, hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole−1 glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h−1. Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l−1 from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l−1), butanol (2.19 g l−1) and ethanol (0.36 g l−1). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol−1. These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • In vitro modulation of probiotic bacteria on the biofilm of Candida
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Shu Yih Chew , Yoke Kqueen Cheah , Heng Fong Seow , Doblin Sandai , Leslie Thian Lung Than
      A conspicuous new concept of pathogens living as the microbial societies in the human host rather than free planktonic cells has raised considerable concerns among scientists and clinicians. Fungal biofilms are communities of cells that possess distinct characteristic such as increased resistance to the immune defence and antimycotic agents in comparison to their planktonic cells counterpart. Therefore, inhibition of the biofilm may represent a new paradigm for antifungal development. In this study, we aim to evaluate the in vitro modulation of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata biofilms using probiotic lactobacilli strains. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 were shown to have completely inhibited C. glabrata biofilms and the results were corroborated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed scanty structures of the mixed biofilms of C. glabrata and probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, biofilm-related C. glabrata genes EPA6 and YAK1 were downregulated in response to the probiotic lactobacilli challenges. The present study suggested that probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 strains inhibited C. glabrata biofilm by partially impeding the adherence of yeast cells and the effect might be contributed by the secretory compounds produced by these probiotic lactobacilli strains. Further investigations are required to examine and identify the biofilm inhibitory compounds and the mechanism of probiotic actions of these lactobacilli strains.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Butanol production from hexoses and pentoses by fermentation of
           Clostridium acetobutylicum
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Francesca Raganati , Giuseppe Olivieri , Peter Götz , Antonio Marzocchella , Piero Salatino
      The present paper reports the characterization of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 for sugars representative of hydrolysed lignocellulosic biomass (glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose). The attention was focused on: the selection of an optimal medium for the simultaneous conversion of the investigated sugars; the assessment of interference-synergistic effects during the fermentation of mixtures of the investigated sugars. The synthetic medium was optimised in terms of nutritional factors: the KH2PO4–K2HPO4 concentration was increased up to 5 g/L; the MgSO4 concentration was increased up to 2 g/L; the MnSO4 concentration was increased up to 0.1 g/L; the FeSO4 concentration ranged between 0.002 and 0.01 g/L); the CaCO3 concentration was increased up to 10 g/L. The optimal concentration of the investigated factors was assessed and it varied from one sugar to another. The batch fermentations of a mixture of the four sugars highlighted their synergistic effects. Once set the initial concentration of the sugars (60 g/L), the butanol and solvent concentration increased up to 14.6 and 20.6 g/L, respectively, when the four sugars were present.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Chemical communication in the gut: Effects of microbiota-generated
           metabolites on gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Stefanie L. Vogt , Jorge Peña-Díaz , B. Brett Finlay
      Gastrointestinal pathogens must overcome many obstacles in order to successfully colonize a host, not the least of which is the presence of the gut microbiota, the trillions of commensal microorganisms inhabiting mammals' digestive tracts, and their products. It is well established that a healthy gut microbiota provides its host with protection from numerous pathogens, including Salmonella species, Clostridium difficile, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio cholerae. Conversely, pathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to establish an infection and thrive in the face of fierce competition from the microbiota for space and nutrients. Here, we review the evidence that gut microbiota-generated metabolites play a key role in determining the outcome of infection by bacterial pathogens. By consuming and transforming dietary and host-produced metabolites, as well as secreting primary and secondary metabolites of their own, the microbiota define the chemical environment of the gut and often determine specific host responses. Although most gut microbiota-produced metabolites are currently uncharacterized, several well-studied molecules made or modified by the microbiota are known to affect the growth and virulence of pathogens, including short-chain fatty acids, succinate, mucin O-glycans, molecular hydrogen, secondary bile acids, and the AI-2 quorum sensing autoinducer. We also discuss challenges and possible approaches to further study of the chemical interplay between microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogens.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Determination of the Clostridium perfringens-binding site on fibronectin
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Seiichi Katayama , Mika Tagomori , Naomi Morita , Tsutomu Yamasaki , Hirofumi Nariya , Mariko Okada , Mariko Watanabe , Yasuo Hitsumoto
      The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (Fn) is known to bind to the surface of Clostridium perfringens cells. Fn is a disulfide-linked homodimer protein, with each Fn polypeptide consisting of three types of repeating modules: 12 type I, 2 type II, and 15-17 type III modules. To determine the epitope on Fn recognized by C. perfringens cells, anti-Fn monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and various Fn fragments (III2-10, rIII2-4, rIII5-7, rIII8, rIII9, rIII10) were employed. Although two C. perfringens-derived Fn-binding proteins, FbpA and FbpB, have been reported, they appear not to be the bacterium's surface Fn receptor. Moreover, both FbpA and FbpB were found to bind to C. perfringens cells. To avoid confusion, a mutant C. perfringens lacking both the fbpA and fbpB genes (MW5) was prepared using an in-frame deletion system. MW5 cells bound Fn on their surface, suggesting the presence of a putative Fn receptor(s) on C. perfringens cells. Of several anti-Fn mAbs, both HB39 and MO inhibited the binding of Fn to MW5 cells. HB39 reacted strongly with III2-10 and rIII9, and weakly with rIII2-4, rIII10 and rIII5-7 in Western blotting analysis. Binding of HB39 to Fn was inhibited in the presence of either rIII9 or rIII10, but not in the presence of rIII2-4, rIII5-7, or rIII8. Binding of Fn to MW5 cells was strongly inhibited by both III2-10 and rIII9, marginally inhibited by rIII2-4, but not affected by rIII5-7, rIII8, or rIII10. Significant binding of MW5 cells to immobilized rIII9 and rIII10 as well as immobilized III2-10 was observed. The region of Fn recognized by C. perfringens was thus mapped to the region encompassed by III9 and III10.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Role of obesity and adipose tissue-derived cytokine leptin during
           Clostridium difficile infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Rajat Madan , William A. Petri Jr.
      Obesity is among the most pressing health concerns in the world since it is increasingly common even in the developing world, and is clearly associated with increased risk for chronic debilitating diseases and death. Furthermore, obesity can influence the pathogenesis of infectious diseases by affecting the balance of pathogen clearance and pathological inflammation. The mechanisms that result in enhanced inflammation in obese individuals are poorly understood. Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recent studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased risk of C. difficile infections. In this review, we will discuss our current knowledge of the role of obesity in determining risk of C. difficile infections, and focus on the role of the adipose tissue-derived cytokine leptin in C. difficile infections.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • In-vitro model for studying methanogens in human gut microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): William Tottey , Nadia Gaci , Guillaume Borrel , Monique Alric , Paul W. O'Toole , Jean-François Brugère
      Reported failures with gnotobiotic animal models led us to establish an in-vitro model of reciprocal conversion of methanogenic and non methanogenic microbiota from human fecal samples. Consequences on gas and microbiota compositions are reported. This should facilitate the study of the controversial role of gut methanogens in human health.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins resistance in Clostridium perfringens
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): L.M. Redondo , J.E. Dominguez , B.C. Rabinovitz , E.A. Redondo , M.E. Fernández Miyakawa
      Tannins added in the diet are being used to improve nutrition and health in farm animals as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters and to control enteric clostridial diseases. However, the capacity of Clostridium perfringens to develop resistance under the selective pressure of tannins is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if C. perfringens possess the ability to develop resistance against tannins in comparison with antimicrobial agents. Susceptibility for 7 AGPs (antimicrobial growth promoters), 9 therapeutic antimicrobials and 2 tannin based extracts was determined for 30 C. perfringens strains isolated from poultry and cattle. Two susceptible strains were selected and cultured in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of tannins and AGPs for resistant sub-populations selection. Tannin resistance of C. perfringens isolates from both animal species revealed no statistically significant differences in MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration). Poultry isolates showed higher MICs to several AGPs compared with cattle isolates. All isolates were susceptible to the therapeutic antimicrobials tested, but avian isolates showed a significantly lower susceptibility to these antimicrobials which was highly correlated with an increased resistance to bacitracin and others AGPs. In-vitro selection of resistant clones suggests that C. perfringens was unable to develop resistance against tannins at least compared to AGPs like bacitracin and avilamycin. Avian origin strains, which were previously exposed to antibiotics showed higher resistance, compared to cattle origin strains. These results suggest that the evolution of resistance against tannins in C. perfringens would be more difficult and slower than to the determined AGPs.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Synergistic inhibition of Clostridium difficile with nisin-lysozyme
           combination treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Changhoon Chai , Kyung-Soo Lee , Se-Wook Oh
      Clostridium difficile vegetative cells were not inhibited completely after a 120-min treatment with 40 nM nisin or 0.8 mM lysozyme. However, these cells were completely inhibited after only a 30-min incubation with both 20 nM nisin and 0.2 mM lysozyme.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Leukemoid reaction to Clostridium difficile infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Ashutossh Naaraayan , Melissa Aleta , Prasanta Basak , Stephen Jesmajian , Robert Goldstein
      Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are increasing in incidence and severity. Leukemoid reaction is rarely seen with CDI, and indicates severe disease with grave prognosis. We present an elderly female who developed leukemoid reaction in response to CDI. The patient died despite early antibiotic therapy with surgical evaluation.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Corrigendum to “Effects of prebiotics on the fecal microbiota of
           elderly volunteers after dietary supplementation of Bacillus coagulans
           GBI-30, 6086” [Anaerobe 30 (2014) 75–81]
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 34
      Author(s): Edna P. Nyangale , Sean Farmer , David Keller , David Chernoff , Glenn R. Gibson

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • The detection of Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum from
           ovine footrot in Kashmir, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2015
      Author(s): Shaheen Farooq , Shakil A. Wani , Mir Nadeem Hassan , Nazima Nazir , Qazi Javed Nyrah
      In a study conducted, a total of 450 swab samples from footrot lesions of naturally infected sheep were collected in all the ten districts of the Kashmir valley and were examined for the presence of Dichelobacter nodosus (D. nodosus) and Fusobacterium necrophorum (F. necrophorum), in order to determine if F. necrophorum was associated with ovine footrot. The detection of F. necrophorum and D. nodosus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction targeting the leukotoxin (lktA) and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. In this study, only less than 50% of positive samples contained both the bacteria, so it is not possible to conclude with certainty that both bacteria are together required for the disease manifestation.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of avian botulism in cecal
           contents of chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2015
      Author(s): Il Jang , Jae-Il Lee , Yong-Kuk Kwon , Min-Su Kang , Hye-Ryoung Kim , Ji-Young Park , Song-Hyun Lee , Hee-Soo Lee , You-Chan Bae
      This paper describes a novel diagnostic method for the detection of avian botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type C and C/D, using single-tube nested PCR assay. This assay was developed to overcome the disadvantages of bioassays used in experiments with mice. Three primer pairs including an antisense primer were designed to target the N-terminal of the toxin gene from C. botulinum types C and C/D. The specificity of the PCR assay was confirmed by using 33 bacterial strains and chicken cecal contents from farms that experienced botulism outbreaks. The detection limit for purified DNA was 1.1 fg/μl, and for bacterial spores was 4.3 spores/200 mg of cecal contents. While checking for specificity of the PCR assay, the reactions with the templates form C. botulinum type C and C/D which were tested became positive, but the rest of the reactions turned negative. However, the results for all clinical samples (n=8) were positive. The PCR assay results for cecal samples obtained from 300 healthy chickens (150 Korean native chickens and 150 broilers) were all negative. This assay is rapid and straightforward and evades ethical issues associated with mouse bioassay. Moreover, it is more economical than real-time PCR.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • A prospective study of community-associated Clostridium difficile
           infection in Kuwait: epidemiology and ribotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Author(s): Wafaa Jamal , Eunice Pauline , Vincent Rotimi
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly recognized as a significant community acquired pathogen that cause disease in the community. The aim of the study was to investigate prospectively the incidence of community-acquired-CDI (CA-CDI) in Kuwait. Of the 2584 patients with diarrhea, 16 (0.62%) were confirmed cases of CA-CDI. The other notable pathogens were Salmonella spp. (0.39%) and Campylobacter spp. (0.23%). The mean age was 39 years and the CDI was mild. Exposure to antibiotics in the previous 12 weeks, contact with infant aged < 2 years and history of foreign travel was significantly associated with CA-CDI (P < 0.001; P < 0.0001; P < 0.002, respectively). Detected PCR ribotypes were 139 (n = 4) and 014, 056, 070, 097 and 179 (each n =2). CA-CDI in Kuwait is more likely to occur in younger age and associated with ribotype 139. CA-CDI is not a common problem in Kuwait however extra vigilance must be maintained to detect it in the community even without traditional predisposing factors.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. an obliqately anaerobic bacterium isolated
           from a remote Amazonian community in Peru
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2015
      Author(s): Lindsey O’Neal , Alexandra J. Obregón-Tito , Raul Y. Tito , Andrew T. Ozga , Susan I. Polo , Cecil M. Lewis Jr. , Paul A. Lawson
      A strictly anaerobic Gram-stain positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium designated NE08VT, was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a remote Amazonian community in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the organism belonged to the genus Clostridium and is most closely related to Clostridium vulturis (97.4% sequence similarity) and was further characterized using biochemical and chemotaxonomic methods. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso C13:0 and C16:0 with a genomic DNA G + C content of 31.6 mol%. Fermentation products during growth on glucose were acetate and butyrate. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic information, strain NE08V was identified as representing a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium amazonense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE08VT (DSM 23598 T = CCUG 59712T).

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Oral anaerobes in health and disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2015
      Author(s): Georg Conrads

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 33

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Detection and genetic characterization of β-lactamases in Prevotella
           intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolated from oral cavity infections
           and peritonsillar abscesses
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 33
      Author(s): Liliana Fernández-Canigia , Daniela Cejas , Gabriel Gutkind , Marcela Radice
      A prospective analysis on β-lactam resistance mechanisms and β-lactamase prevalence was conducted on Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens recovered from patients with chronic periodontitis and peritonsillar abscesses. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were performed to characterize the β-lactamases, their coding genes and their genetic contexts. Overall, β-lactamase production was observed in 64% (16/25) P. intermedia and 23.8% (5/21) P. nigrescens (p < 0.01). Besides higher β-lactamase production rates were observed in P. intermedia (8/16) than in P. nigrescens (2/16) recovered from chronic periodontitis, almost all isolates from peritonsillar abscesses were producers (8/9 and 3/3, respectively). cfxA, but not cepA and cblA, was detected in those isolates, which were previously categorized as β-lactamase producers. CfxA producing isolates displayed higher β-lactam MICs than non-producers in both species. The most frequent allele was cfxA2, followed by cfxA3 and a new allelic variant named cfxA6. The analysis of the downstream flanking region in the three cfxA variants revealed the association with mobA of Tn4555, suggesting their localization in a mobilizable element. β-lactam resistance and cfxA carriage prevalence seems to be not only related to the bacterial species but also to the infection site.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Development of a recombinant flagellin based ELISA for the detection of
           Clostridium chauvoei
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 33
      Author(s): J. Usharani , Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar , Prasad Thomas , Santosh K. Gupta , Sanjeev K. Bhure , Premanshu Dandapat , Rajesh K. Agarwal , Vijendra P. Singh
      Blackleg, an economically important and highly fatal disease of ruminants, is caused by anaerobic bacillus, Clostridium chauvoei. Identification and differentiation of the causative agent is crucial for implementation of therapeutic and control measures in real time. Most of the diagnostic tests available for blackleg are PCR based, and only a couple of serological tests have been reported. In this study, we targeted flagellin, an important immunogenic protein of C. chauvoei, to develop a sandwich ELISA for detection of C. chauvoei. Sequence analysis of flagellin gene of related Clostridium species showed that central region of flagellin gene is unique to C. chauvoei. Hence, we cloned and expressed central region of flagellin in a prokaryotic expression system. Antiserum against recombinant flagellin was generated in rabbits and chickens. A sandwich ELISA was developed, in which rabbit anti-flagellin antibodies were used as capture antibodies and chicken anti-flagellin antibodies as detecting antibodies. The test was specific and sensitive in detection of up to 104 CFU/ml of C. chauvoei. This study shows that assay developed can be used for detection of C. chauvoei in suspected samples.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
  • Variation in germination of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates
           correlates to disease severity
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2015
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 33
      Author(s): Paul E. Carlson Jr. , Alyssa M. Kaiser , Sarah A. McColm , Jessica M. Bauer , Vincent B. Young , David M. Aronoff , Philip C. Hanna
      Over the past two decades, Clostridium difficile infections have been increasing in both number and severity throughout the world. As with other spore forming bacteria, germination is a vital step in the life cycle of this pathogen. Studies have examined differences in sporulation and toxin production among a number of C. difficile clinical isolates; however, few have examined differences in germination and the relationship between this phenotype and disease severity. Here, over 100 C. difficile isolates from the University of Michigan Health System were examined for overall germination in response to various combinations of known germinants (taurocholate) and co-germinants (glycine and histidine). Significant variation was observed among isolates under all conditions tested. Isolates representing ribotype 014-020, which was the most frequently isolated ribotype at our hospital, exhibited increased germination in the presence of taurocholate and glycine when compared to isolates representing other ribotypes. Interestingly, isolates that caused severe disease exhibited significantly lower germination in response to minimal germination conditions (taurocholate only), indicating increased control over germination in these isolates. These data provide a broad picture of C. difficile isolate germination and indicate a role for precise control of germination in disease severity.

      PubDate: 2015-07-08T06:30:23Z
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