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BIOLOGY (1471 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Chromatography B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Crustacean Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Environment and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Environmental Analysis and Progress     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Life Science     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Fish Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of Functional Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fungi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Genomes and Exomes     Open Access  
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Green Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Histology & Histopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Melittology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access  
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Progressive Research in Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Biologi Edukasi     Open Access  
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access  
Limnological Papers     Open Access  
Lipid Insights     Open Access  
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi Biosfera : A Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription  
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mammalian Species     Hybrid Journal  
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Materials Technology : Advanced Performance Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mechanisms of Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
médecine/sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mediterranean Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Membrane Protein Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabarcoding and Metagenomics     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Evaluation of the Cepheid® Xpert® C. difficile binary toxin
           (BT) diagnostic assay
    • Authors: Alan M. McGovern; Grace O. Androga; Peter Moono; Deirdre A. Collins; Niki F. Foster; Barbara J. Chang; Thomas V. Riley
      Pages: 12 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Alan M. McGovern, Grace O. Androga, Peter Moono, Deirdre A. Collins, Niki F. Foster, Barbara J. Chang, Thomas V. Riley
      Strains of Clostridium difficile producing only binary toxin (CDT) are found commonly in animals but not humans. However, human diagnostic tests rarely look for CDT. The Cepheid Xpert C. difficile BT assay detects CDT with equal sensitivity (≥92%) in human and animal faecal samples.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • Acute septic arthritis of the knee: A rare case report of infection with
           Parvimonas micra after an intra-articular corticosteroid injection for
    • Authors: Assem A. Sultan; William A. Cantrell; Anton Khlopas; Connor Cole; Nicolas S. Piuzzi; Nipun Sodhi; Peter Brooks; Michael A. Mont
      Pages: 17 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Assem A. Sultan, William A. Cantrell, Anton Khlopas, Connor Cole, Nicolas S. Piuzzi, Nipun Sodhi, Peter Brooks, Michael A. Mont
      Acute bacterial mono-articular septic arthritis affects most commonly the lower extremity joints in adult population and most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Various risk factors determine susceptibility to infection including host immunity, medical co-morbidity and joint structural abnormality and other organisms may be involved. Parvimonas micra (P. micra) is among the rare organisms that may be associated with atypical septic arthritis and primarily affects the native knee joint. Only 3 case reports in the literature have reported on pyogenic pyogenic joint infection caused by this organism. We hereby present our experience with a case of knee septic arthritis caused by P. micra in a patient with knee osteoarthritis following a recent intra-articular injection with corticosteroids. In susceptible patients, Intra-articular corticosteroid injection and crystal induced arthritis may propose a potential risk of contracting infection with P. micra.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt
    • Authors: Mostafa Y. Abdel-Glil; Prasad Thomas; Gernot Schmoock; Kamel Abou-El-Azm; Lothar H. Wieler; Heinrich Neubauer; Christian Seyboldt
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Mostafa Y. Abdel-Glil, Prasad Thomas, Gernot Schmoock, Kamel Abou-El-Azm, Lothar H. Wieler, Heinrich Neubauer, Christian Seyboldt
      C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains belonged to 3 different PCR-ribotypes (039/2, 205 and 001/FLI01). The detection of strains related to RT 001 known for its ability to cause disease in humans makes poultry a potential reservoir for pathogenic C. difficile.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • The detection and prevalence of leukotoxin gene variant strains of
           Fusobacterium necrophorum in footrot lesions of sheep in Kashmir, India
    • Authors: S. Farooq; S.A. Wani; M.N. Hassan; S. Aalamgeer; Z.A. Kashoo; S.N. Magray; M.A. Bhat
      Pages: 36 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): S. Farooq, S.A. Wani, M.N. Hassan, S. Aalamgeer, Z.A. Kashoo, S.N. Magray, M.A. Bhat
      The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and identification of leukotoxin gene, lktA, variant strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum in the footrot lesions of sheep. The detection of F. necrophorum was carried out by PCR targeting the lktA gene fragment and identification of lktA variant strains was done by PCR–single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and gene sequencing. Of the 450 swabs collected from footrot lesions of sheep, 117 were lktA-positive for F. necrophorum. Of the 50 swabs collected from apparently asymptomatic sheep, only one was lktA-positive for F. necrophorum. The overall prevalence of F. necrophorum in footrot affected sheep in Kashmir valley was 26%, and ranged from 20 to 34.8%, respectively. PCR-SSCP of lktA gene fragment analysis revealed three lktA variants, designated as JKS-F1/F2/F3, while two samples (1.7%) showed multiple lktA variant strains of F. necrophorum in a single footrot-affected sheep hoof. This appears to be the first report on the presence of more than one lktA variant of F. necrophorum in a footrot lesion of sheep. The JKS-F3 lktA variant was the most frequent (75.4%), followed by JKS-F2 (14.4%) and JKS-F1 (8.4%), respectively. Among the three lktA variants identified, JKS-F3 was detected in 74 (86.0%) samples from severe footrot affected sheep with a lesion score of 4. The data suggest that JKS-F3 is the predominant lktA variant of F. necrophorum and is associated with severe footrot in sheep. Hence, JKS-F3 may be a significant variant contributing to the severity and duration of the disease in sheep.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • High prevalence of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 in pigs in Korea
    • Authors: Ha-Young Kim; Ara Cho; Jong Wan Kim; Heejung Kim; Bumseok Kim
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Ha-Young Kim, Ara Cho, Jong Wan Kim, Heejung Kim, Bumseok Kim
      Clostridium difficile can cause neonatal enteritis, but has been isolated from both diseased and healthy pigs. C. difficile shedding by pigs is a potential source of zoonotic transmission to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile with respect to age and health status in the pig industry for the first time in Korea. Fecal samples of 910 pigs were analyzed for the presence of C. difficile. In total, 176 (19.3%) C. difficile strains were isolated. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in diarrheic samples (30.4%) than in non-diarrheic samples (13.3%). The prevalence was highest in diarrheic suckling piglets (53.6%), followed by diarrheic sows (40.0%) and non-diarrheic suckling piglets (34.0%). The toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, and cdtB were all detected in 153 isolates (A+B+CDT+, 86.9%). Furthermore, the majority of toxigenic strains (86.5%) were identified as PCR ribotype 078, which is an important pathogen in both pigs and humans. These results indicated that C. difficile is a leading causative pathogen of neonatal diarrhea in piglets in Korea.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • Type C botulism in domestic chickens, dogs and black-pencilled marmoset
           (Callithrix penicillata) in Minas Gerais, Brazil
    • Authors: Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Ronaldo Alves Martins; Ronnie Antunes Assis; Carlos Augusto Oliveira Junior; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Pages: 47 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Ronaldo Alves Martins, Ronnie Antunes Assis, Carlos Augusto Oliveira Junior, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Botulism is a well-known intoxication that affects humans and animals. The disease is endemic in cattle in Brazil and recently emerged as an important disease in commercial laying hens and broiler chickens in Europe. Dogs and other animal species can also be affected. Although antitoxins are commonly administered to humans diagnosed with botulism, in animals this is rarely the case and the treatment of botulism is still based only on support therapy. In the present work, we report an outbreak of type C botulism in Brazil that simultaneously affected domestic chickens, dogs and a black-pencilled marmoset (Callithrix penicillata). The successful use of Clostridium botulinum types C and D antitoxin for the treatment of an affected dog is also described.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • Clostridioides difficile infection in dogs with chronic-recurring diarrhea
           responsive to dietary changes
    • Authors: Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior; Dominique S. Blanc; Silvia Trindade Pereira; Mário Cesar Rennó de Araujo; Artur Vasconcelos; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Pages: 50 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior, Dominique S. Blanc, Silvia Trindade Pereira, Mário Cesar Rennó de Araujo, Artur Vasconcelos, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Five dogs with chronic-recurring diarrhea were positive for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), but were unresponsive to treatment with metronidazole. One of these animals was subjected to a colonoscopy, which revealed eosinophilic infiltration of the colon. All five animals completely recovered after dietary changes. The present work suggests that CDI might occur in dogs with other intestinal alterations. In addition, this report suggests that dysbiosis should be considered in animals that have chronic-recurring diarrhea and test positive for C. difficile.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • First case of pleural empyema and pulmonary abscess caused by Eggerthia
    • Authors: Pauline Duport; Guillaume Miltgen; Clément Kebbabi; Olivier Belmonte; Nathalie Coolen-Allou; Jérôme Allyn; Nicolas Allou
      Pages: 9 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Pauline Duport, Guillaume Miltgen, Clément Kebbabi, Olivier Belmonte, Nathalie Coolen-Allou, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou
      Few data are available on the anaerobic bacterium Eggerthia catenaformis. Here we report the first clinical case of a patient with sepsis caused by pulmonary infection with E. catenaformis, and present the minimal inhibitory concentrations of different antimicrobial agents.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Periprosthetic joint infection caused by anaerobes. Retrospective analysis
           reveals no need for prolonged cultivation time if sensitive supplemented
           growth media are used
    • Authors: Heime Rieber; Andre Frontzek; Jörg Jerosch; Michael Alefeld; Thomas Strohecker; Martin Ulatowski; Thomas Morawietz; Stefan Hinsenkamp; Andreas Bell; Dervis Kücükköylü; Lars Frommelt
      Pages: 12 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Heime Rieber, Andre Frontzek, Jörg Jerosch, Michael Alefeld, Thomas Strohecker, Martin Ulatowski, Thomas Morawietz, Stefan Hinsenkamp, Andreas Bell, Dervis Kücükköylü, Lars Frommelt
      Background In microbiological diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) culture media and incubation time are controversially discussed, especially if anaerobic bacteria are the causative agent. This study was conducted to demonstrate the influence of sensitive supplemented growth media on the duration of culturing anaerobes. Methods Twenty-five consecutive cases were included in this retrospective study. For definition of PJI, the criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) were considered. Histopathological analysis was interpreted according to the classification by Krenn et al. The quantity and time to positivity of detected anaerobes were monitored. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity within the tissue and sonicate fluid was phenotypically tested. Results In all cases, even if the patients had received antibiotics before recovery, culture of anaerobes (Propionibacterium species, Finegoldia magna, Parvimonas micra and Robinsoniella peoriensis), both from tissue samples and prosthetic components, first became detectable in supplemented liver thioglycollate broth within six days (median: four days). Conclusion Recommendations for prolonged cultivation for up to 14 days mostly aim at detection of anaerobes. Here we present a laboratory procedure that can shorten cultivation time considerably.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Clostridial DivIVA and MinD interact in the absence of MinJ
    • Authors: Romana Valenčíková; Eva Krascsenitsová; Naďa Labajová; Jana Makroczyová; Imrich Barák
      Pages: 22 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Romana Valenčíková, Eva Krascsenitsová, Naďa Labajová, Jana Makroczyová, Imrich Barák
      One of the key regulators ensuring proper Z-ring placement in rod-shaped bacteria is the Min system. It does so by creating a concentration gradient of the MinC septation inhibitor along the cell axis. In Escherichia coli, this gradient is established by a MinE-mediated pole-to-pole oscillation of the MinCDE complex. In Bacillus subtilis, the creation of an inhibitory gradient relies on the MinJ and DivIVA pair of topological determinants, which target MinCD to the newly formed cell poles. Introducing the E. coli oscillating Min system into B. subtilis leads to a sporulation defect, suggesting that oscillation is incompatible with sporulation. However, Clostridia, close endospore-forming relatives of Bacilli, do encode oscillating Min homologues in various combinations together with homologues from the less dynamic B. subtilis Min system. Here we address the questions of how these two systems could exist side-by-side and how they influence one another by studying the Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium difficile Min systems. The toolbox of genetic manipulations and fluorescent protein fusions in Clostridia is limited, therefore B. subtilis and E. coli were chosen as heterologous systems for studying these proteins. In B. subtilis, MinD and DivIVA interact through MinJ; here, however, we discovered that the MinD and DivIVA proteins of both C. difficile, and C. beijerinckii, interact directly, which is surprising in the latter case, since that organism also encodes a MinJ homologue. We confirm this interaction using both in vitro and in vivo methods. We also show that C. beijerinckii MinJ is probably not in direct contact with DivIVACb and, unlike B. subtilis MinJ, does not mediate the MinDCb and DivIVACb interaction. Our results suggest that the Clostridia Min system uses a new mechanism of function.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients with
           antibiotic-associated diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mohammad Javad Nasiri; Mehdi Goudarzi; Bahareh Hajikhani; Mona Ghazi; Hossein Goudarzi; Ramin Pouriran
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Mehdi Goudarzi, Bahareh Hajikhani, Mona Ghazi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ramin Pouriran
      Clostridium difficile is the main infectious cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C. difficile AAD in hospitalized patients. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library for subject headings and text words related to C. difficile AAD. Studies that investigated the prevalence or frequency of C. difficile AAD in health care settings were considered eligible. Using a random-effects model, data obtained from the identified studies were combined. Of the 2464 citations identified, twenty studies (5496 patients) met the inclusion criteria of the present study. Pooling all studies, the frequency of C. difficile among AAD patients was 20.0% (95% CI 13.0–28.0). The most frequently used antibiotics in health care settings were the following: Clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. The current systematic review demonstrated the significant presence of C. difficile among patients with AAD. The limited and rational use of broad spectrum antibiotics and implementation of standard infection control measures are recommended to reduce the risk of C. difficile associated infections in hospitalized patients.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Lactobacillus crispatus represses vaginolysin expression by BV associated
           Gardnerella vaginalis and reduces cell cytotoxicity
    • Authors: Joana Castro; Ana Paula Martins; Maria Elisa Rodrigues; Nuno Cerca
      Pages: 60 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 50
      Author(s): Joana Castro, Ana Paula Martins, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Nuno Cerca
      Using a chemically-defined medium simulating genital tract secretions, we have shown that pre-adhering Lactobacillus crispatus to Hela epithelial cells reduced cytotoxicity caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. This effect was associated to the expression of vaginolysin and was specific to L. crispatus interference, as other vaginal facultative anaerobes had no protective effect.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Cultivation of multiple genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens from
           different environmental niches
    • Authors: Akshay Joshi; Vikram Lanjekar; Prashant K. Dhakephalkar; Sumit Singh Dagar
      Pages: 64 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Author(s): Akshay Joshi, Vikram B. Lanjekar, Prashant K. Dhakephalkar, Sumit S. Dagar
      Six genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, namely Methanobrevibacter, Methanobacterium, Methanocorpusculum, Methanothermobacter, Methanoculleus, and Methanospirillum were cultivated from diverse environmental niches like rumen, feces, gut, and sediments using BY medium. We also report a putative novel genus and two novel species of methanogens isolated from termite, Indian star tortoise, and green iguana.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • In vitro activity of DS-2969b and comparator antimicrobial agents against
           Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile, methicillin-resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus, and other anaerobic bacteria
    • Authors: K.L. Tyrrell; D.M. Citron; C.V. Merriam; E. Leoncio; E.J.C. Goldstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Author(s): K.L. Tyrrell, D.M. Citron, C.V. Merriam, E. Leoncio, E.J.C. Goldstein
      The in vitro activity of DS-2969b, a novel GyrB inhibitor, and six comparator agents was studied against 101 recent North American Clostridioides difficile isolates, 46 other intestinal anaerobes and 51 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC ranges (MIC90s) of DS-2969b against C. difficile and S. aureus were 0.03–0.125 (0.125) µg/ml and 0.125–1 (0.5) µg/ml, respectively. DS-2969b showed the greatest activity of the agents tested. There was no difference in MICs of DS-2969b among different ribotypes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.04.010
  • Restoration of short chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism following
           fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with recurrent Clostridium
           difficile infection
    • Authors: Anna M. Seekatz; Casey M. Theriot; Krishna Rao; Yu-Ming Chang; Alison E. Freeman; John Y. Kao; Vincent B. Young
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Author(s): Anna M. Seekatz, Casey M. Theriot, Krishna Rao, Yu-Ming Chang, Alison E. Freeman, John Y. Kao, Vincent B. Young
      A significant proportion of individuals develop recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) following initial disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a highly effective treatment method for recurrent CDI, has been demonstrated to induce microbiota recovery. One of the proposed functions associated with restoration of colonization resistance against C. difficile has been recovery of bile acid metabolism. In this study, we aimed to assess recovery of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in addition to bile acids alongside microbial community structure in six patients with recurrent CDI following treatment with FMT over time. Using 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing, we observed marked similarity of the microbiota between recipients following FMT (n = 6, sampling up to 6 months post-FMT) and their respective donors. Sustained increases in the levels of the SCFAs butyrate, acetate, and propionate were observed post-FMT, and variable recovery over time was observed in the secondary bile acids deoxycholate and lithocholate. To correlate these changes with specific microbial taxa at an individual level, we applied a generalized estimating equation approach to model metabolite concentrations with the presence of specific members of the microbiota. Metabolites that increased following FMT were associated with bacteria classified within the Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and unclassified Clostridiales families. In contrast, members of these taxa were inversely associated with primary bile acids. The longitudinal aspect of this study allowed us to characterize individualized patterns of recovery, revealing variability between and within patients following FMT.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.04.001
  • Rodents are carriers of Clostridioides difficile strains similar to those
           isolated from piglets
    • Authors: Carlos Augusto de Oliveira; Michelle de Paula Gabardo; Roberto Maurício Carvalho Guedes; Fabrice Poncet; Dominique S. Blanc; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato; Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018
      Author(s): Carlos Augusto de Oliveira, Michelle de Paula Gabardo, Roberto Maurício Carvalho Guedes, Fabrice Poncet, Dominique S. Blanc, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
      Features of Clostridioides difficile transmission in swine and the role of rodents as C. difficile reservoir are not clear. To investigate if rodents can carry strains of C. difficile that are genetically similar to those isolated from swine, 97 fecal samples from neonatal piglets and 41 intestinal contents from rodents were collected in two farms. All samples were subjected to C. difficile culture and the presence of A/B toxins in piglet feces were accessed by commercial enzyme imunoassay (EIA). C. difficile isolates were typed by double- (DLST) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). C. difficile was isolated from 15.5% of piglets and 31.7% of rodents. Most isolates were identified as DLST type 4-4 and 17-5 (both are ST11), which were found in both rodents and piglets. Results of this study suggested that rodents may have a role on the transmission and spread of C. difficile strains to swine.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.04.006
  • Bacteroides fragilis: A whole MALDI-based workflow from identification to
           confirmation of carbapenemase production for routine laboratories
    • Authors: M. Cordovana; M. Kostrzewa; J. Sóki; E. Witt; S. Ambretti; A.B. Pranada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Author(s): M. Cordovana, M. Kostrzewa, J. Sóki, E. Witt, S. Ambretti, A.B. Pranada
      Bacteroides fragilis is a frequent anaerobic pathogen and can cause severe infections. Resistance to carbapenems, associated with the cfiA gene encoded carbapenemase, represents an emerging problem. To date, no rapid methods are available to detect and confirm this resistance mechanism in routine laboratories, and the missed recognition of carbapenemase-producing strains can lead to therapeutic failures. In this study we have investigated a whole MALDI-TOF MS-based workflow to detect carbapenemase-producing B. fragilis, using the largest set of B. fragilis clinical isolates ever tested. The presence of the cfiA gene was predicted by MALDI subtyping into Division I (cfiA-negative) or Division II (cfiA-positive). The carbapenemase activity in cfiA-positive strains was confirmed by a MALDI-TOF MS imipenem hydrolysis assay (MBT STAR-Carba, Bruker Daltonik, Germany), that was further used for a characterization of the strains in terms of cfiA expression level. The validity of MALDI subtyping was verified by PCR for the cfiA gene, while results of MALDI hydrolysis assay were compared to conventional methods for susceptibility testing and carbapenemase detection (Carba-NP and disk diffusion synergy test). A genetic analysis of the IS elements upstream cfiA was performed, for the evaluations regarding the expression level of cfiA. A total of 5300 B. fragilis isolates (406 from Bologna, Italy, and 4894 from Dortmund, Germany) were identified and subtyped by MALDI-TOF MS, yielding 41/406 (10.1%) strains from Bologna and 374/4894 (7.6%) from Dortmund to belong to Division II. Molecular verification by PCR for the cfiA gene on a subset of strains confirmed the MALDI typing results in all cases (sensitivity and specificity of 100%). MBT STAR-Carba assay detected the carbapenemase activity in all of the 70 cfiA-carrying strains tested. Moreover, it allowed distinct separation into slow (59) and fast (11) imipenem hydrolyzers corresponding to cfiA expression levels as well as to low or high MICs for carbapenems, respectively. Among the 11 cfiA-positive strains with high carbapenem MIC, only 7 harboured IS elements upstream the carbapenemase gene showing low expression level as well. The MALDI-TOF MS-based workflow was superior to the currently available phenotypic methods for carbapenemase detection as it proved to be more sensitive and accurate than Carba NP and disk diffusion synergy test. The whole MALDI-TOF MS-based workflow allows an accurate identification of B. fragilis clinical strains with reliable classification into Division I/II, and confirmation of the carbapenemase-production, together with estimation of carbapenemase activity, within less than 2 h. This may be of particular interest for early therapeutical decisions in life-threatening infections.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.04.004
  • MALDI-TOF MS in Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteremia: A report
           of 4 cases in different hosts
    • Authors: B. Fox; M.A. Berger; M. Roncallo; L. Pinoche; M.E. Ibáñez; S. Gonzalez-Fraga; L. Fernández-Canigia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Author(s): B. Fox, M.A. Berger, M. Roncallo, L. Pinoche, M.E. Ibáñez, Fraga S. Gonzalez, Canigia L. Fernández
      Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is known as an uncommon cause of diarrhea and bacteremia in humans, usually in immunocompromised hosts. We report four cases of A. succiniciproducens bloodstream infection in different hosts, including a previously healthy man. We describe clinical features, antibiotics susceptibility profile, treatment and outcomes. Strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences which contributed to the extension of our MALDI-TOF MS database.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.04.003
  • Assessing the clinical relevance of Fenollaria massiliensis in human
           infections, using MALDI-TOF MS
    • Authors: K.E. Boiten; H. Jean-Pierre; A.C.M. Veloo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Author(s): K.E. Boiten, H. Jean-Pierre, A.C.M. Veloo
      Within the European Network for the Rapid Identification of Anaerobes (ENRIA) project eight clinical isolates of Fenollaria massiliensis were encountered. In this study a more extensive description of this species is given and the MALDI-TOF MS database is optimized for its identification. F. massiliensis is an anaerobic Gram positive rod with the tendency to decolorize quickly. It is mostly encountered in clinical samples from the groin region. Less common and non-valid species are not represented in the MALDI-TOF MS database. Therefore, F. massiliensis can only be identified by laboratories performing 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The addition of less common and non-valid species to the database will give insight in their clinical relevance.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.008
  • Validation of a for anaerobic bacteria optimized MALDI-TOF MS biotyper
           database: The ENRIA project
    • Authors: A.C.M. Veloo; H. Jean-Pierre; U.S. Justesen; T. Morris; E. Urban; I. Wybo; M. Kostrzewa; A.W. Friedrich; T. Morris; H. Shah; H. Jean-Pierre; U.S. Justesen; I. Wybo; E. Nagy; E. Urban; M. Kostrzewa; A. Veloo; A.W. Friedrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018
      Author(s): A.C.M. Veloo, H. Jean-Pierre, U.S. Justesen, T. Morris, E. Urban, I. Wybo, M. Kostrzewa, A.W. Friedrich
      Within the ENRIA project, several ‘expertise laboratories’ collaborated in order to optimize the identification of clinical anaerobic isolates by using a widely available platform, the Biotyper Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Main Spectral Profiles (MSPs) of well characterized anaerobic strains were added to one of the latest updates of the Biotyper database db6903; (V6 database) for common use. MSPs of anaerobic strains nominated for addition to the Biotyper database are included in this validation. In this study, we validated the optimized database (db5989 [V5 database] + ENRIA MSPs) using 6309 anaerobic isolates. Using the V5 database 71.1% of the isolates could be identified with high confidence, 16.9% with low confidence and 12.0% could not be identified. Including the MSPs added to the V6 database and all MSPs created within the ENRIA project, the amount of strains identified with high confidence increased to 74.8% and 79.2%, respectively. Strains that could not be identified using MALDI-TOF MS decreased to 10.4% and 7.3%, respectively. The observed increase in high confidence identifications differed per genus. For Bilophila wadsworthia, Prevotella spp., gram-positive anaerobic cocci and other less commonly encountered species more strains were identified with higher confidence. A subset of the non-identified strains (42.1%) were identified using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The obtained identities demonstrated that strains could not be identified either due to the generation of spectra of insufficient quality or due to the fact that no MSP of the encountered species was present in the database. Undoubtedly, the ENRIA project has successfully increased the number of anaerobic isolates that can be identified with high confidence. We therefore recommend further expansion of the database to include less frequently isolated species as this would also allow us to gain valuable insight into the clinical relevance of these less common anaerobic bacteria.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.007
  • Species-specific serine-threonine protein kinase Pkb2 of Bifidobacterium
           longum subsp. longum: Genetic environment and substrate specificity
    • Authors: V.Z. Nezametdinova; D.A. Mavletova; M.G. Alekseeva; M.S. Chekalina; N.V. Zakharevich; V.N. Danilenko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Author(s): V.Z. Nezametdinova, D.A. Mavletova, M.G. Alekseeva, M.S. Chekalina, N.V. Zakharevich, V.N. Danilenko
      The objective of this study was to determine for phosphorylated substrates of the species-specific serine-threonine protein kinase (STPK) Pkb2 from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum GT15. Two approaches were employed: analyses of phosphorylated membrane vesicles protein spectra following kinase reactions and analyses of the genes surrounding pkb2. A bioinformatics analysis of the genes surrounding pkb2 found a species-specific gene cluster PFNA in the genomes of 34 different bifidobacterial species. The identified cluster consisted of 5–8 genes depending on the species. The first five genes are characteristic for all considered species. These are the following genes encoding serine-threonine protein kinase (pkb2), fibronectin type III domain-containing protein (fn3), AAA-ATPase (aaa-atp), hypothetical protein with DUF58 domain (duf58) and transglutaminase (tgm). The sixth (protein phosphatase, prpC), seventh (hypothetical protein, BLGT_RS02790), and eighth (FHA domain-containing protein, fha) genes are included in this cluster, but they are not found in all species. The operon organization of the PFNA gene cluster was confirmed with transcriptional analysis. AAA-ATPase, which is encoded by a gene of the PFNA gene cluster, was found to be a substrate of the STPK Pkb2. Fourteen AAA-ATPase sites (seven serine, six threonine, and one tyrosine) phosphorylated by STPK Pkb2 were revealed. Analysis of the spectra of phosphorylated membrane vesicles proteins allowed us to identify eleven proteins that were considered as possible Pkb2 substrates. They belong to several functional classes: proteins involved in transcription and translation; proteins of the F1-domain of the FoF1–ATPase; ABC-transporters; molecular chaperone GroEL; and glutamine synthase, GlnA1. All identified proteins were considered moonlighting proteins. Three out of 11 proteins (glutamine synthetase GlnA1 and FoF1-ATPase alpha and beta subunits) were selected for further in vitro phosphorylation assays and were shown to be phosphorylated by Pkb2. Four phosphorylated substrates of the species-specific STPK Pkb2 from B. longum subsp. longum GT15 were identified for the first time. They included the moonlighting protein glutamine synthase GlnA, FoF1-ATPase alpha and beta subunits, and the chaperone MoxR family of AAA-ATPase. The ability of bifidobacterial STPK to phosphorylate the substrate on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues was shown for the first time.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.003
  • Toxin profile of fecal Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from
           children with autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Góra Bartłomiej; Gofron Zygmunt; Grosiak Magdalena; Aptekorz Małgorzata; Kazek Beata; Kocelak Piotr; Radosz-Komoniewska Halina; Chudek Jerzy; Martirosian Gayane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Author(s): Góra Bartłomiej, Gofron Zygmunt, Grosiak Magdalena, Aptekorz Małgorzata, Kazek Beata, Kocelak Piotr, Radosz-Komoniewska Halina, Chudek Jerzy, Martirosian Gayane
      Infectious factors are taken into consideration in pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD patients often suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The intestinal microbiota of autistic patients significantly differs from that in healthy individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the profile of toxins produced by C. perfringens strains isolated from feces of children with ASD, with healthy individuals and obese subjects. This study included 111 strains of C. perfringens: 49 isolates from 29 children with ASD, 30 - from 17 healthy individuals and 32 - from 24 young obese subjects. Alpha, beta, beta2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes were detected using appropriate PCRs. The alpha toxin gene (cpa) was present in all 111 examined strains (100%). The beta2 gene (cpb2) was detected in 45/49 strains (91.8%) isolated from children with ASD, 17/30 (56.7%) isolates from healthy subjects, and 12 of 32 (37.5%) isolates from obese subjects. C. perfringens strains with cpb2 gene were detected in 27/29 ASD patients (93.1%), 10/17 healthy subjects (58.8%) and 11/24 (45.8%) obese subjects. Beta2 toxin encoding cpb2 gene was significantly more common in strains isolated from ASD patients, with no significant difference between control subjects regardless of diet. Further research to explain observed phenomena and pathomechanism of beta2 toxin is required.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.005
  • Binary Clostridium difficile toxin (CDT) - A virulence factor disturbing
           the cytoskeleton
    • Authors: Klaus Aktories; Panagiotis Papatheodorou; Carsten Schwan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Author(s): Klaus Aktories, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Carsten Schwan
      Clostridium difficile infection causes antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Major virulence factors of C. difficile are the Rho-glucosylating toxins TcdA and TcdB. In addition, many, so-called hypervirulent C. difficile strains produce the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CDT. CDT causes depolymerization of F-actin and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Thereby, many cellular functions, which depend on actin, are altered. CDT disturbs the dynamic balance between actin and microtubules in target cells. The toxin increases microtubule polymerization and induces the formation of microtubule-based protrusions at the plasma membrane of target cells. Moreover, CDT causes a redistribution of vesicles from the basolateral side to the apical side, where extracellular matrix proteins are released. These processes may increase the adherence of clostridia to target cells. Here, we review the effects of the action of CDT on the actin cytoskeleton and on the microtubule system.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.001
  • Improving culture media for the isolation of Clostridium difficile from
    • Authors: Muthu Dharmasena; Xiuping Jiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Author(s): Muthu Dharmasena, Xiuping Jiang
      This study was to optimize the detection methods for Clostridium difficile from the animal manure-based composts. Both autoclaved and unautoclaved dairy composts were inoculated with a 12-h old suspension of a non-toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43593) and then plated on selected agar for vegetative cells and endospores. Six types of enrichment broths supplemented with taurocholate and L-cysteine were assessed for detecting a low level of artificially inoculated C. difficile (ca. 5 spores/g) from dairy composts. The efficacy of selected enrichment broths was further evaluated by isolating C. difficile from 29 commercial compost samples. Our results revealed that using heat-shock was more effective than using ethanol-shock for inducing endospore germination, and the highest endospore count (p < 0.05) was yielded at 60 °C for 25 min. C. difficile agar base, supplemented with 0.1% L-cysteine, 7% defibrinated horse blood, and cycloserine-cefoxitin (CDA-CYS-H-CC agar) was the best medium (p < 0.05) for recovering vegetative cells from compost. C. difficile endospore populations from both types of composts enumerated on both CDA-CYS-H-CC agar supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate (CDA-CYS-H-CC-T agar) and brain heart infusion agar supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract, 0.1% L-cysteine, cycloserine-cefoxitin, and 0.1% sodium taurocholate (BHIA-YE-CYS-CC-T agar) media were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Overall, enrichment of inoculated compost samples in broths containing moxalactam-norfloxacin (MN) produced significantly higher (p < 0.05) spore counts than in non-selective broths or broths supplemented with CC. Enrichment in BHIB-YE-CYS-MN-T broth followed by culturing on an agar containing 7% horse blood and 0.1% taurocholate provided a more sensitive and selective combination of media for detecting a low population of C. difficile from environmental samples with high background microflora.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.002
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bacteroides fragilis using the
           MALDI Biotyper antibiotic susceptibility test rapid assay (MBT-ASTRA)
    • Authors: Ulrik Stenz Justesen; Ziyap Acar; Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham; Åsa Johansson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Author(s): Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Ziyap Acar, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham, Åsa Johansson
      This study evaluated the MBT-ASTRA for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bacteroides fragilis with different classes of antibiotics. MALDI-TOF MS peak AUCs from suspensions with B. fragilis with and without an antibiotic were used to calculate the relative growth (AUC “with antibiotic” divided by “without antibiotic”). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. fragilis ATCC 25285 (susceptible) and B. fragilis O18 (resistant) was demonstrated with a clear difference of the relative growth between susceptible and resistant. The MBT-ASTRA needs further development and assessment but could be a relatively easy and inexpensive method for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing in specific cases of infection with B. fragilis.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.007
  • Acknowledgement to reviewers of Anaerobe in 2017
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
  • Historical and contemporary features of infections due to Clostridium
    • Authors: David M. Aronoff; Powel H. Kazanjian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2018
      Author(s): David M. Aronoff, Powel H. Kazanjian
      Clostridium novyi is an anaerobic bacterium that resides in the soil in nature and that may cause severe clinical infections in humans. It is named after Frederick Novy, who incidentally discovered the anaerobic organism responsible for septicemia in rabbits. In this paper, we explore the circumstances surrounding the identification of the organism. In particular, we address who Novy was and what he was trying to do when he first described the organism in the 1890s. We then address what is known about the biological features of the organism today, as well as the clinical syndromes that are now recognized to be associated with the microbe. Finally, we review efforts that have been made to use the organism for potential beneficial purposes for humans.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:10:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.012
  • A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile
           germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage
    • Authors: Lamyaa Shaban; Ying Chen; Alyssa C. Fasciano; Yinan Lin; David L. Kaplan; Carol A. Kumamoto; Joan Mecsas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018
      Author(s): Lamyaa Shaban, Ying Chen, Alyssa C. Fasciano, Yinan Lin, David L. Kaplan, Carol A. Kumamoto, Joan Mecsas
      Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer. 3D tissue models or 2D polarized monolayers on transwell filters were challenged with the non-toxin producing C. difficile CCUG 37787 serotype X (ATCC 43603) and the toxin producing UK1 C. difficile spores in the presence of the germinant, taurocholate. Spores germinated in both the 3D tissue model as well as the 2D transwell system, however toxin activity was significantly higher in the 3D tissue models compared to the 2D transwells. Moreover, the epithelium damage in the 3D tissue model was significantly more severe than in 2D transwells and damage correlated significantly with the level of toxin activity detected but not with the amount of germinated spores. Combined, these results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile with mammalian cells under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these systems may be useful for examining the effects of microbiota, novel drugs and other potential therapeutics directed towards C. difficile infections.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:10:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.006
  • Comparative evaluation of lignocellulolytic activities of filamentous
           cultures of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi
    • Authors: Sumit S. Dagar; Sanjay Kumar; Priti Mudgil; Anil K. Puniya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Author(s): Sumit S. Dagar, Sanjay Kumar, Priti Mudgil, Anil K. Puniya
      Sixteen strains of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi were evaluated for cellulase, xylanase and esterase activities. Though strain level variations were observed among all genera, Neocallimastix and Orpinomyces strains exhibited the highest lignocellulolytic activities. The esterase activities of a monocentric group of anaerobic fungi were better than the polycentric group.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.004
  • Detection of B. fragilis group and diversity of bft enterotoxin and
           antibiotic resistance markers cepA, cfiA and nim among intestinal
           Bacteroides fragilis strains in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    • Authors: Marjan Rashidan; Masoumeh Azimirad; Masoud Alebouyeh; Mehdi Ghobakhlou; Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei; Mohammad Reza Zali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Author(s): Marjan Rashidan, Masoumeh Azimirad, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mehdi Ghobakhlou, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
      We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to detect minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin, imipenem, and metronidazole, and carriage of related resistance genes cepA, cfi, and nim. B. fragilis group was detected in 38% of IBD (UC: 36/89; CD:1/11) and 25% (5/20) of non-IBD patients. While B. vulgatus (UC: 20/36, CD: 1/2, control: 1/6); B. fragilis (UC: 18/36, CD: 1/2, control: 5/6); B. ovatus (UC: 2/36); B. caccae (UC: 1/36); and B. eggerthii (UC: 1/36) were characterized, colonization of B. thetaiotamicron, B. merdae, B. distasonis, B. stercoris and B. dorei species was not detected in these specimens. Co-existence of B. fragilis + B. vulgatus (5 patients) and B. vulgatus + B. caccae (1 patient) was detected just in UC patients. bft was detected among 31.5% (6/19) of B. fragilis strains in the IBD and 40% (2/5) in the non-IBD groups. Nearly, 73.6% of the strains from the patient group and 80% in control group harbored cepA; 31.5% and 20% in the patients and control groups harbored cfiA, and none of them harbored nim determinant. Co-occurrence of the cepA and cfiA was orderly detected in 10.5% (2/19) and 20% (1/5) of the strains in these groups. The resistance rates were detected as 95.8% (23/24 (to ampicillin (MIC range of ≤0.5-≥16 μg/ml), 0% to metronidazole and 29.1% to imipenem (7/24, MIC range ≤4–32 μg/ml). Nearly 25% (6/24) of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and imipenem, simultaneously. No statistically significant difference was detected between the IBD and control groups for drug resistance phenotypes. Statistical analysis showed significant associations between resistance to ampicillin or imipenem and carriage of cepA or cfiA, respectively (p value = 0.0007). PCR results on the extracted plasmids confirmed their roles in carriage of cfiA and cepA. These data provide guide for antibiotic therapy and highlights wide distribution of β-lactam resistant B. fragilis strains in patients with IBD and non-IBD intestinal disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.005
  • Characterization of recombinant Bacteroides fragilis sialidase expressed
           in Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Takaaki Yamamoto; Hideyo Ugai; Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji; Ayano Tada; Miad Elahi; Hitoshi Houchi; Tomomi Kuwahara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Author(s): Takaaki Yamamoto, Hideyo Ugai, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Ayano Tada, Miad Elahi, Hitoshi Houchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
      The human gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis produces sialidases that remove a terminal sialic acid from host-derived polysaccharides. Sialidase is considered to be involved in B. fragilis infection pathology. Native B. fragilis sialidase has been purified and characterized, and was shown to be post-translationally modified by glycosylation. However, the biochemical properties of recombinant B. fragilis sialidase expressed in a heterologous host remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the enzymatic properties of the 60-kDa sialidase NanH1 of B. fragilis YCH46, which was prepared as a recombinant protein (rNanH1) in Escherichia coli. In E. coli rNanH1 was expressed as inclusion bodies, which were separated from soluble proteins to allow solubilization of insoluble rNanH1 in a buffer containing 8 M urea and renaturation in refolding buffer containing 100 mM CaCl2 and 50 mM L-arginine. The specific activity of renatured rNanH1 measured using 4-methylumberiferyl-α-D-N-acetyl neuraminic acid as a substrate was 6.16 μmol/min/mg. The optimal pH of rNanH1 ranged from 5.0 to 5.5. The specific activity of rNanH1 was enhanced in the presence of calcium ions. rNanH1 preferentially hydrolyzed the sialyl α2,8 linkage and cleaved sialic acids from mucin and serum proteins (e.g., fetuin and transferrin) but not from α1-acid glycoprotein, which is similar to the previously observed biochemical properties for a native sialidase purified from B. fragilis SBT3182. The results and methods described in this study will be useful for preparing and characterizing recombinant proteins for other B. fragilis sialidase isoenzymes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.003
  • Polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia due to Atopobium rimae and Parvimonas
           micra in a patient with cancer
    • Authors: Fernando Cobo; Jaime Borrego; Mª Dolores Rojo; José María Navarro-Marí
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Author(s): Fernando Cobo, Jaime Borrego, Mª Dolores Rojo, José María Navarro-Marí
      Atopobium rimae and Parvimonas micra are both Gram-positive anaerobes involved infrequently in human infections. We report a polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia caused by these microorganisms. A 43-year-old woman receiving coadjuvant chemotherapy due to a retroperitoneal leiomiosarcoma presented with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever (38 °C). The two blood cultures resulted in isolation of A. rimae and P. micra, being identified at species level by matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology with high log scores. The microorganisms were susceptible to penicilllin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole, imipenem, and moxifloxacin. Treatment with levofloxacin was started and subsequently it was changed to piperacillin/tazobactam plus metronidazole and completed for 10 days, but the patient died days later due to her underlying disease.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.002
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A review of
           epidemiological and mechanistic evidence
    • Authors: Emilie L. Vander Haar; Jeewon So; Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman; Yiping W. Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Author(s): Emilie L. Vander Haar, Jeewon So, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, Yiping W. Han
      Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic oral commensal commonly found in periodontal disease. F. nucleatum has been associated with multiple systemic diseases, including oral, gastro-intestinal, rheumatologic, and vascular pathology. As pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of periodontal disease, there has also been significant research into the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of the association and role of F. nucleatum in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.008
  • Investigating the effect of supplementation on Clostridium difficile spore
           recovery in two solid agars
    • Authors: D.S. Pickering; J.J. Vernon; J. Freeman; M.H. Wilcox; C.H. Chilton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Author(s): D.S. Pickering, J.J. Vernon, J. Freeman, M.H. Wilcox, C.H. Chilton
      Background A variety of supplemented solid media are used within Clostridium difficile research to optimally recover spores. Our study sought to investigate different media and additives, providing a method of optimised C. difficile spore recovery. Additionally, due to the results observed in the initial experiments, the inhibitory effects of three amino acids (glycine, L-histidine & L-phenylalanine) on C. difficile spore outgrowth were investigated. Methods Spores of five C. difficile strains (PCR ribotypes 001,015,020,027,078) were recovered on two commonly used solid media (BHI & CCEY) supplemented with various concentrations of germinants (taurocholate, glycine & lysozyme). Agar-incorporation minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing was carried out for glycine and taurocholate on vegetative cells and spores of all five strains. Additionally a BHI broth microassay method was utilised to test the growth of C. difficile in the presence of increasing concentrations (0,1,2,3,4%) of three amino acids (glycine,L-histidine,L-phenyalanine). Results CCEY agar alone and BHI supplemented with taurocholate (0.1/1%) provided optimal recovery for C. difficile spores. Glycine was inhibitory to spore recovery at higher concentrations, although these varied between the two media used. In agar-incorporated MIC testing, glycine concentrations higher than 2% (20 g/L) were inhibitory to both C. difficile spore and vegetative cell growth versus the control (mean absorbance = 0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.12 ± 0.01) (P < 0.001). This indicates a potential mechanism whereby glycine interferes with vegetative cell growth. Further microbroth testing provided evidence of inhibition by two amino acids other than glycine, L-histidine and L-phenylalanine. Conclusions We provide two media for optimal recovery of C. difficile spores (CCEY alone and BHI supplemented with 0.1/1% taurocholate). CCEY is preferred for isolation from faecal samples. For pure cultures, either CCEY or supplemented BHI agar are appropriate. The inhibitory nature of three amino acids (glycine,L-histidine,L-phenylalanine) to C. difficile vegetative cell proliferation is also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.010
  • Effect of the ionophore monensin and tannin extracts supplemented to grass
           silage on populations of ruminal cellulolytics and methanogens in vitro
    • Authors: M. Witzig; M. Zeder; M. Rodehutscord
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): M. Witzig, M. Zeder, M. Rodehutscord
      This study examined whether the methane-decreasing effect of monensin (∼21%) and different hydrolysable tannins (24%–65%) during in vitro fermentation of grass silage was accompanied by changes in abundances of cellulolytics and methanogens. Samples of liquid (LAM) and solid (SAM) associated microbes were obtained from two rumen simulation technique experiments in which grass silage was either tested in combination with monensin (0, 2 or 4 mg d−1) or with different tannin extracts from chestnut, valonea, sumac and grape seed (0 or 1.5 g d−1). Total prokaryotes were quantified by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol (DAPI) staining of paraformaldehyde-ethanol-fixed cells and relative abundances of ruminal cellulolytic and methanogenic species were assessed by real time quantitative PCR. Results revealed no change in absolute numbers of prokaryotic cells with monensin treatment, neither in LAM nor in SAM. By contrast, supplementation of chestnut and grape seed tannins decreased total prokaryotic counts compared to control. However, relative abundances of total methanogens did not differ between tannin treatments. Thus, the decreased methane production by 65% and 24% observed for chestnut and grape seed tannins, respectively, may have been caused by a lower total number of methanogens, but methane production seemed to be also dependent on changes in the microbial community composition. While the relative abundance of F. succinogenes decreased with monensin addition, chestnut and valonea tannins inhibited R. albus. Moreover, a decline in relative abundances of Methanobrevibacter sp., especially M. ruminantium, and Methanosphaera stadtmanae was shown with supplementation of monensin or chestnut tannins. Proportions of Methanomicrobium mobile were decreased by monensin in LAM while chestnut and valonea had an increasing effect on this methanogenic species. Our results demonstrate a different impact of monensin and tannins on ruminal cellulolytics and gave indication that methane decrease by monensin and chestnut tannins was associated with decreased abundances of M. ruminantium and M. stadtmanae.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.012
  • Temporal changes of the bacterial community colonizing wheat straw in the
           cow rumen
    • Authors: Wei Jin; Ying Wang; Yuanfei Li; Yanfen Cheng; Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Author(s): Wei Jin, Ying Wang, Yuanfei Li, Yanfen Cheng, Weiyun Zhu
      This study used Miseq pyrosequencing and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the temporal changes in the bacterial community tightly attached to wheat straw in the cow rumen. The wheat straw was incubated in the rumens and samples were recovered at various times. The wheat straw degradation exhibited three phases: the first degradation phase occurred within 0.5 h, and the second degradation phase occurred after 6 h, with a stalling phase occurring between 0.5 and 6 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the colonization of the microorganisms on the wheat straw over time. The bacterial communities at 0.5, 6, 24, and 72 h were determined, corresponding to the degradation phases. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most dominant phyla in the bacterial communities at the four time points. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that the bacterial communities at the four time points were distinct from each other. The wheat straw-associated bacteria stabilized at the phylum level after 0.5 h of rumen incubation, and only modest phylum-level and family-level changes were observed for most taxa between 0.5 h and 72 h. The relative abundance of the dominant genera, Butyrivibrio, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Succiniclasticum, Clostridium, Prevotella, YRC22, CF231, and Treponema, changed significantly over time (P < .05). However, at the genus level, unclassified taxa accounted for 70.3% ± 6.1% of the relative abundance, indicating their probable importance in the degradation of wheat straw as well as in the temporal changes of the bacterial community. Thus, understanding the function of these unclassified taxa is of great importance for targeted improvement of forage use efficiency in ruminants. Collectively, our results revealed distinct degradation phases of wheat straw and corresponding changes in the colonized bacterial community.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.004
  • Co-occurrence of early gut colonization in neonatal piglets with
           microbiota in the maternal and surrounding delivery environments
    • Authors: Xue Chen; Jumei Xu; Erdou Ren; Yong Su; Weiyun Zhu
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Xue Chen, Jumei Xu, Erdou Ren, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
      The early development of gut microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health; so far, the main origins of the first colonization in newborn piglets are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the early development of gut microbiota in newborn piglets during lactation and their co-occurrence with microbes in the maternal and surrounding environments by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the microbial richness and diversity in piglets' feces (PF) significantly increased from birth to weaning (21 d). The composition and function of microbiota in the feces of piglets after birth tended to be similar to those from the slatted floor (FL), sow's milk (SM) and nipple surface (SN), and lacter, the fecal microbial communities of piglets later during lactation were more similar to their mother's. SourceTracker analysis showed that the microbiota from the FL, SM and SN were most likely the earliest passengers to the neonatal gastrointestinal tract, but did not have a long stay during lactation. The sow's fecal microbiota were easier to colonize in newborn piglet's guts via the co-occurrence effect with former settlers. This study suggests that microbes from the maternal and surrounding environments may play an important role in the microbial succession of newborn piglets after birth.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Immunization with a nontoxic naturally occurring Clostridium perfringens
           alpha toxin induces neutralizing antibodies in rabbits
    • Authors: Flávia de Faria Siqueira; Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Anderson Oliveira do Carmo; Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira-Mendes; Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato; Evanguedes Kalapothakis
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Flávia de Faria Siqueira, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Anderson Oliveira do Carmo, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira-Mendes, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Evanguedes Kalapothakis
      Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, encoded by plc gene, has been implicated in gas gangrene, a life threatening infection. Vaccination is considered one of the best solutions against Clostridium infections. Although studies have identified many low quality clostridial vaccines, the use of recombinant proteins has been considered a promising alternative. Previously, a naturally occurring alpha toxin isoform (αAV1b) was identified with a mutation at residue 11 (His/Tyr), which can affect its enzymatic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the mutation in the αAV1b isoform could result in an inactive toxin and was able to induce protection against the native alpha toxin. We used recombinant protein techniques to determine whether this mutation in αAV1b could result in an inactive toxin compared to the active isoform, αZ23. Rabbits were immunized with the recombinant toxins (αAV1b and αZ23) and with native alpha toxin. αAV1b showed no enzymatic and hemolytic activities. ELISA titration assays showed a high titer of both anti-recombinant toxin (anti-rec-αAV1b and anti-rec-αZ23) antibodies against the native alpha toxin. The alpha antitoxin titer detected in the rabbits' serum pool was 24.0 IU/mL for both recombinant toxins. These results demonstrate that the inactive naturally mutated αAV1b is able to induce an immune response, and suggest it can be considered as a target for the development of a commercial vaccine against C. perfringens alpha toxin.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Investigation of Clostridium botulinum group III's mobilome content
    • Authors: Cédric Woudstra; Caroline Le Maréchal; Rozenn Souillard; Fabrizio Anniballi; Bruna Auricchio; Luca Bano; Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer; Miriam Koene; Isabelle Mermoud; Roseane B. Brito; Francisco C.F. Lobato; Rodrigo O.S. Silva; Martin B. Dorner; Patrick Fach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Author(s): Cédric Woudstra, Caroline Le Maréchal, Rozenn Souillard, Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Luca Bano, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Miriam Koene, Isabelle Mermoud, Roseane B. Brito, Francisco C.F. Lobato, Rodrigo O.S. Silva, Martin B. Dorner, Patrick Fach
      Clostridium botulinum group III is mainly responsible for botulism in animals. It could lead to high animal mortality rates and, therefore, represents a major environmental and economic concern. Strains of this group harbor the botulinum toxin locus on an unstable bacteriophage. Since the release of the first complete C. botulinum group III genome sequence (strain BKT015925), strains have been found to contain others mobile elements encoding for toxin components. In this study, seven assays targeting toxin genes present on the genetic mobile elements of C. botulinum group III were developed with the objective to better characterize C. botulinum group III strains. The investigation of 110 C. botulinum group III strains and 519 naturally contaminated samples collected during botulism outbreaks in Europe showed alpha-toxin and C2-I/C2-II markers to be systematically associated with type C/D bont-positive samples, which may indicate an important role of these elements in the pathogenicity mechanisms. On the contrary, bont type D/C strains and the related positive samples appeared to contain almost none of the markers tested. Interestingly, 31 bont-negative samples collected on farms after a botulism outbreak revealed to be positive for some of the genetic mobile elements tested. This suggests loss of the bont phage, either in farm environment after the outbreak or during laboratory handling.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T10:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.009
  • Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with
           autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Dae-Wook Kang; Zehra Esra Ilhan; Nancy G. Isern; David W. Hoyt; Daniel P. Howsmon; Michael Shaffer; Catherine A. Lozupone; Juergen Hahn; James B. Adams; Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Author(s): Dae-Wook Kang, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Nancy G. Isern, David W. Hoyt, Daniel P. Howsmon, Michael Shaffer, Catherine A. Lozupone, Juergen Hahn, James B. Adams, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
      Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites-caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate-may potentially function as a modest biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further investigation of metabolites in larger cohorts.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.007
  • The incidence of Clostridioides difficile and Clostridium perfringens
           netF-positive strains in diarrheic dogs
    • Authors: Amanda Nadia Diniz; Fernanda Morcatti Coura; Maja Rupnik; Vicki Adams; Thomas L. Stent; Julian I. Rood; Carlos Augusto de Oliveira; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato; Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Author(s): Amanda Nadia Diniz, Fernanda Morcatti Coura, Maja Rupnik, Vicki Adams, Thomas L. Stent, Julian I. Rood, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
      The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile and Clostridium perfringens in the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs. Also, the presence of other common canine enteropathogens was examined. Toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens positive for the NetF-encoding gene (netF) were detected in 11 (11.9%) and seven (7.6%) diarrheic dogs, respectively. Three dogs were diagnosed simultaneously with toxigenic C. difficile and netF-positive C. perfringens. Among other enteropathogens, Giardia sp. was the most common agent detected in dogs positive for toxigenic C. difficile or netF-positive C. perfringens. The results suggest that C. difficile and C. perfringens occur more frequently as a primary cause of diarrhea.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.003
  • Molecular mechanistic pathway of colo-rectal carcinogenesis associated
           with intestinal microbiota
    • Authors: Paramita Mandal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Author(s): Paramita Mandal
      The colon rectal portion of gastrointestinal tract (GI) is full of microorganisms with different complex community that plays important role in maintaining homeostasis. But now-a-days different literature indicated that microbiota cause development of colorectal cancer (CRC) with a disease and ultimately aggravates to death. The mechanism inside the colo-rectal portion of GI tract is not fully well-known and bacterial contribution inside it is also fully unclear. Therefore, there is certain evidence trying a target about the unclear mechanism between intestinal microbiota and CRC. Different reports revealed that colo-rectal microorganisms is playing a great role in inducing the onset and progression of CRC with different dynamic mechanisms viz. acceleration of chronic inflammatory state, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation, the production of toxic metabolites, or heterocyclic amine activation of pro-diet carcinogenic compounds. There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Despite all these advances, different studies depicted the relationship between microbiota and CRC in humans and animal models and aid in developing alternate therapeutic approach based on gut microbiota manipulations. Alteration of the microbiota may be a useful to preventing and altering the trajectory of colorectal cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.008
  • A molecular technique to explore the relationship between Porphyromonas
           gingivalis and severity of chronic periodontitis: A clinical approach
    • Authors: J. Bagavad Gita; A.B. Aishwarya; N. Pavithra; S.C. Chandrasekaran; Ann V. George; A. Gnanamani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Author(s): J. Bagavad Gita, A.B. Aishwarya, N. Pavithra, S.C. Chandrasekaran, Ann V. George, A. Gnanamani
      Relationship between clinical severities of periodontal disease and the expression of the associated pathogens serve as good indicators of real time disease activity and progression. A double blind study using Image J software carried out to assess the density of the amplified band for Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontally healthy and disease subjects. Results on image densities of P. gingivalis showed a statistical significance (p < 0.005) between healthy and diseased subjects and also within the various groups of periodontal disease severity. Thus, assessment of relative gel image density can be a simple yet valuable tool to monitor real time periodontal disease activity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.011
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