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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Histology & Histopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Melittology     Open Access  
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access  
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access  
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription  
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access  
Limnological Papers     Open Access  
Lipid Insights     Open Access  
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription  
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mammalian Species     Hybrid Journal  
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Materials Technology : Advanced Performance Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mechanisms of Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
médecine/sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mediterranean Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Membrane Protein Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Metabolites     Open Access  
Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Metallomics     Full-text available via subscription  
Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Methods in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Methods in Cell Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Methods in Ecology and Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 32)
Micologia Aplicada Internacional     Open Access  
Microarrays     Open Access  
Micron     Hybrid Journal  
Mitochondrial DNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mitochondrion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Chemotherapy     Open Access  
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Molecular & Cellular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular and Cellular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Molecular Based Mathematical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Molecular Biology and Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Molecular Biology International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Biology of the Cell     Partially Free   (Followers: 21)
Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Brain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Breeding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Molecular Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Molecular Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Gardnerella vaginalis bacteremia associated with severe acute
           encephalopathy in a young female patient
    • Authors: Jacques Tankovic; Albertas Timinskas; Migle Janulaitiene; Milda Zilnyte; Jean-Luc Baudel; Eric Maury; Aurelija Zvirbliene; Milda Pleckaityte
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): Jacques Tankovic, Albertas Timinskas, Migle Janulaitiene, Milda Zilnyte, Jean-Luc Baudel, Eric Maury, Aurelija Zvirbliene, Milda Pleckaityte
      Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that inhabits the genitourinary tract of both healthy women and those with bacterial vaginosis. We report a case of G. vaginalis bacteremia associated with severe toxic encephalopathy in a young woman. Anaerobic blood cultures yielded pure growth of small gram-variable rods later identified as G. vaginalis by both rapid biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient recovered after treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate according to the in vitro susceptibility testing. The complete genome of G. vaginalis isolate from blood cultures was determined. In vitro G. vaginalis isolate produced elevated amounts of a pore-forming toxin vaginolysin compared to control G. vaginalis isolates. We hypothesize that this toxin, if produced in high amounts in blood, is able to disrupt the blood-brain barrier and exert a toxic activity on brain cells.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T13:18:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
  • A comparative study of Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes clones from
           acne patients and healthy controls
    • Authors: H.B. Lomholt; C.F.P. Scholz; H. Brüggemann; H. Tettelin; M. Kilian
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): H.B. Lomholt, C.F.P. Scholz, H. Brüggemann, H. Tettelin, M. Kilian
      Background Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes is assumed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Objectives To examine if clones with distinct virulence properties are associated with acne. Methods Multiple C. acnes isolates from follicles and surface skin of patients with moderate to severe acne and healthy controls were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. To determine if CC18 isolates from acne patients differ from those of controls in the possession of virulence genes or lack of genes conducive to a harmonious coexistence the full genomes of dominating CC18 follicular clones from six patients and five controls were sequenced. Results Individuals carried one to ten clones simultaneously. The dominating C. acnes clones in follicles from acne patients were exclusively from the phylogenetic clade I-1a and all belonged to clonal complex CC18 with the exception of one patient dominated by the worldwide-disseminated and often antibiotic resistant clone ST3. The clonal composition of healthy follicles showed a more heterogeneous pattern with follicles dominated by clones representing the phylogenetic clades I-1a, I-1b, I-2 and II. Comparison of follicular CC18 gene contents, allelic versions of putative virulence genes and their promoter regions, and 54 variable-length intragenic and inter-genic homopolymeric tracts showed extensive conservation and no difference associated with the clinical origin of isolates. Conclusions The study supports that C. acnes strains from clonal complex CC18 and the often antibiotic resistant clone ST3 are associated with acne and suggests that susceptibility of the host rather than differences within these clones may determine the clinical outcome of colonization.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the genus of Caldicellulosiruptor for production of
           1,2-propanediol from methylpentoses
    • Authors: Eva Maria Ingvadottir; Sean Michael Scully; Johann Orlygsson
      Pages: 86 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): Eva Maria Ingvadottir, Sean Michael Scully, Johann Orlygsson
      Caldicellulosiruptor species degrade l-rhamnose and l-fucose to 1,2-propanediol. Six of the nine species within the genus produced 1,2-propanediol from l-rhamnose and three utilized l-fucose to produce the compound. Yields of 1,2-propanediol up to 40.5% of the theoretical yield were observed from methylpentoses catabolism.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
  • Breast abscess due to Finegoldia magna in a non-puerperal women
    • Authors: Fernando Cobo; Javier Rodríguez-Granger; Antonio Sampedro; José María Navarro-Marí
      Pages: 183 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Author(s): Fernando Cobo, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Antonio Sampedro, José María Navarro-Marí
      Finegoldia magna is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus involved in a wide variety of infections. We report a unusual case of breast abscess in a non-puerperal patient. A 46-year-old woman presented with pain and a nodular lesion in the left breast. Culture of abscess drainage resulted in isolation of F. magna. Initital treatment with clindamycin was changed to a definitive treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate for 10 days due to resistance to clindamycin, and improvement of this infection was documented.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T14:11:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
  • Updates on Clostridium difficile spore biology
    • Authors: Fernando Gil; Sebastián Lagos-Moraga; Paulina Calderón-Romero; Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo; Daniel Paredes-Sabja
      Pages: 3 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 45
      Author(s): Fernando Gil, Sebastián Lagos-Moraga, Paulina Calderón-Romero, Marjorie Pizarro-Guajardo, Daniel Paredes-Sabja
      Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic spore former, and an important nosocomial pathogenic bacterium. C. difficile spores are the morphotype of transmission and recurrence of the disease. The formation of C. difficile spores and their subsequent germination are essential processes during the infection. Recent in vitro and in vivo work has shed light on how spores are formed and the timing of in vivo sporulation in a mouse model. Advances have also been made in our understanding of the machineries involved in spore germination, and how antibiotic-induced dysbiosis affects the metabolism of bile salts and thus impacts C. difficile germination in vivo. Studies have also attempted to identify how C. difficile spores interact with the host's intestinal mucosa. Spore resistance has also been revisited by several groups highlighting the extreme resistance of this morphotype to traditional food processing regimes and disinfectants used in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize recent advances on spore formation/germination in vitro and in vivo, spore-host interactions, and spore resistance that contribute to our knowledge of the role of C. difficile spores in the infectious process.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Early exposure to agricultural soil accelerates the maturation of the
           early-life pig gut microbiota
    • Authors: Nguyen Vo; Tsung Cheng Tsai; Charles Maxwell; Franck Carbonero
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 45
      Author(s): Nguyen Vo, Tsung Cheng Tsai, Charles Maxwell, Franck Carbonero
      Reduced microbial exposure in early childhood is postulated to be associated with subsequent immune deficiencies and associated health conditions. This corollary to the “hygiene hypothesis” has grown of popularity in the medical field, but can only be really tested with animal models. Based on previous observation that access to outdoor environment improves piglets' growth performance, we simulated early microbial exposure by providing pigs with topsoil during the lactation phase. Specifically, pigs from 20 litters were assigned to either control treatments (C) or soil treatments (S): pigs exposed to topsoil from day 4 postpartum to the end of lactation. At weaning, five unisex littermates of 10 sows from each treatment were penned together and grew up in the same conditions. Fecal samples were collected at on d 13 (Lactation: L), 21 (Weaning: WT), 35 (Mid-nursery, MNT), 56 (End of Nursery: EONT) and 96 (End of Growth: EGT) for 16s rRNA amplicon high-throughput sequencing. Overall, common trends of gut microbiota maturation, associated with diet switch from maternal milk to plant-based diet, were observed. Bacteroides, Clostridium XIVa and Enterobacteriaceae were most abundant during lactation, while Prevotella, Megasphaera and Blautia became abundant after weaning. Remarkably, exposure to soil resulted in a faster maturation of the piglets gut microbiota at weaning, while a completely distinct phase was observed at day 35 for control piglets. Soil-exposed piglets tened to harbor a more diverse gut microbiota at weaning and day35, however the more significant changes were at those time points in terms of composition. Prevotella, and a wide range of Firmicutes members were significantly enriched in soil-exposed piglets from the lactation to the end of nursery phase. It can be hypothesized that those taxa were either directly transmitted from the soil or stimulated by the presence of plant material in the soil. Those changes were accompanied by depletion in several potentially harmful taxa, as well as improved growth performance between weaning and the end of nursery phase. Our findings suggest that early exposure to soil strongly influences the maturation of the early-life piglets, probably allows for a better adaptation to the plant-based diet, and possibly improves overall health.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Bacterial species colonizing the vagina of healthy women are not
           associated with race
    • Authors: May A. Beamer; Michele N. Austin; Hilary A. Avolia; Leslie A. Meyn; Katherine E. Bunge; Sharon L. Hillier
      Pages: 40 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 45
      Author(s): May A. Beamer, Michele N. Austin, Hilary A. Avolia, Leslie A. Meyn, Katherine E. Bunge, Sharon L. Hillier
      The vaginal microbiota of 36 white versus 25 black asymptomatic women were compared using both cultivation-dependent and -independent identification. Significant differences by race were found in colonization and density of bacterial species. However, exclusion of 12 women with bacterial vaginosis by Nugent criteria resulted in no significant differences by race.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Survival of vaginal microorganisms in three commercially available
           transport systems
    • Authors: Allison L. DeMarco; Lorna K. Rabe; Michele N. Austin; Kevin A. Stoner; Hilary A. Avolia; Leslie A. Meyn; Sharon L. Hillier
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 45
      Author(s): Allison L. DeMarco, Lorna K. Rabe, Michele N. Austin, Kevin A. Stoner, Hilary A. Avolia, Leslie A. Meyn, Sharon L. Hillier
      Transport systems are used to collect and maintain the viability of microorganisms. Two Amies media based transport systems, BD CultureSwab™ MaxV(+) Amies Medium without Charcoal (MaxV(+)) and Fisherfinest® with Amies gel Transport Medium without charcoal (Fisherfinest®) were compared to a Cary-Blair media based transport system, Starswab® Anaerobic Transport System (Starswab®), for their capacity to maintain the viability of 17 clinical microorganisms commonly isolated from the vagina (Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, L. iners, group B streptococci, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Atopobium vaginae, Peptoniphilus harei, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Dialister microaerophilus, Mobiluncus curtisii, Prevotella amnii, P. timonensis, P. bivia, and Porphyromonas uenonis). Single swabs containing mixtures of up to five different species were inoculated in triplicate and held at 4 °C and room temperature for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h (h). At each time point, swabs were eluted into a sterile salt solution, serially diluted, inoculated onto selected media, and incubated. Each colony type was quantified and identified. A change in sample stability was reported as a ≥1 log increase or decrease in microorganism density from baseline. Overall, the viability of fastidious anaerobes was maintained better at 4 °C than room temperature. At 4 °C all three transport systems maintained the viability and prevented replication of C. albicans, E. faecalis, GBS, and E. coli. Microorganisms having a ≥1 log decrease in less than 24 h at 4 °C included A. vaginae, G. vaginalis, and P. uenonis in Starswab®, L. iners, A. vaginae, and P. amnii in MaxV(+), and A. vaginae, G. vaginalis, P. bivia, and P. amnii in Fisherfinest®. At 48 h at 4 °C, a ≥1 log decrease in concentration density was observed for P. harei and P. amnii in Starswab®, G. vaginalis, P. bivia and P. uenonis in MaxV(+), and L. iners, P. harei, P. timonensis, and P. uenonis in Fisherfinest®. Overall, at 4 °C the viability and stability of vaginal microorganisms was maintained better in the Cary-Blair based transport system (Starswab®) than in the two Amies based transport systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • The fecal microbiome of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
    • Authors: Anitha Isaiah; Joseph Cyrus Parambeth; Jörg M. Steiner; Jonathan A. Lidbury; Jan S. Suchodolski
      Pages: 50 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 45
      Author(s): Anitha Isaiah, Joseph Cyrus Parambeth, Jörg M. Steiner, Jonathan A. Lidbury, Jan S. Suchodolski
      Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in dogs is a syndrome of inadequate synthesis and secretion of pancreatic enzymes. Small intestinal bacterial dysbiosis occurs in dogs with EPI, and is reversed with pancreatic enzyme therapy. However, there are no studies evaluating the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI. Three day pooled fecal samples were collected from healthy dogs (n = 18), untreated (n = 7) dogs with EPI, and dogs with EPI treated with enzyme replacement therapy (n = 19). Extracted DNA from fecal samples was used for Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyzed using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups and functional genes between the healthy dogs and dogs with EPI. There was a significant difference in fecal microbial communities when healthy dogs were compared to treated and untreated dogs with EPI (unweighted UniFrac distance, ANOSIM P = 0.001, and 0.001 respectively). Alpha diversity was significantly decreased in untreated and treated EPI dogs when compared to the healthy dogs with respect to Chao1, Observed OTU, and Shannon diversity (P = 0.008, 0.003, and 0.002 respectively). The families Bifidobacteriaceae (P = 0.005), Enterococcaceae (P = 0.018), and Lactobacillaceae (P = 0.001) were significantly increased in the untreated and treated dogs with EPI when compared to healthy dogs. In contrast, Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.001), and Ruminococcaceae (P < 0.01) were significantly decreased in dogs with EPI. Dogs with EPI (before treatment) had significant increases in functional genes associated with secretion system, fatty acid metabolism, and phosphotransferase system. In contrast, healthy dogs had a significant increase in genes related to phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, transcription machinery and sporulation. In conclusion, this study shows that the fecal microbiome of dogs with EPI (both treated and untreated) is different to that of healthy dogs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Performance of two blood culture systems to detect anaerobic bacteria. Is
           there any difference?
    • Authors: Manica Mueller-Premru; Samo Jeverica; Lea Papst; Elisabeth Nagy
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 45
      Author(s): Manica Mueller-Premru, Samo Jeverica, Lea Papst, Elisabeth Nagy
      We studied the performance characteristics of two blood culture (BC) bottles/systems, (i) BacT/ALERT-FN Plus/3D (bioMérieux, Marcy l’Étoile, France) and (ii) BACTEC-Lytic/9000 (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA) for detection of growth and time-to-positivity (TTP) against a balanced and diverse collection of anaerobic bacterial strains (n = 48) that included reference strains (n = 19) and clinical isolates (n = 29) of 32 species (15 Gram-negative and 17 Gram-positive). Standard suspension of bacteria was inoculated to each bottle in duplicates and incubated in the corresponding system. Overall, 62.5% (n = 30) of strains were detected by both BC bottle types. Comparing the two, 70.8% (n = 34) and 79.2% (n = 38) of strains were detected by BacT/ALERT-FN Plus and BACTEC-Lytic bottles, respectively (p = 0.38). Among Gram-negative anaerobes (n = 25) the detection rate was 76.0% (n = 19) vs. 92.0% (n = 23) (p = 0.22), respectively. Among Gram-positive anaerobes (n = 23) the detection rate was 65.2% (n = 15) in both bottles (p = 1). The average TTP per bottle was calculated only for the strains detected by both systems (n = 30) and was 40.85 h and 28.08 h for BacT/ALERT-FN Plus and BACTEC-Lytic, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean difference was 12.76 h (95% CI: 6.21-19-31 h). Six anaerobic strains were not detected by any system, including Gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis, and five Gram-positive strains: Finegoldia magna, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium clostridioforme. Furthermore, Eggerthella lenta and Prevotella bivia were detected only by BacT/ALERT-FN Plus, while Prevotella disiens and Prevotella intermedia were detected only by BACTEC-Lytic bottles. There were no major differences in detection rate among clinical and reference strains. Anaerobic bacteria represent a minority of BC isolates, however, far from ideal detection rate was observed in this study for both tested bottle/system combinations. Nevertheless, in those cases where both gave positive signal, BACTEC-Lytic was superior to BacT/ALERT FN Plus with 12.76 h shorter mean TTP. Improvements of media in blood culture bottles available for detection of anaerobes are warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 45 (2017)
  • Temporal microbiota changes of high-protein diet intake in a rat model
    • Authors: Chunlong Mu; Yuxiang Yang; Zhen Luo; Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Author(s): Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Zhen Luo, Weiyun Zhu
      Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis. The structural alteration of fecal microbiota was observed after 4 weeks, especially for the decreased appearance of bands related to Akkermansia species. HPD increased numbers of Escherichia coli while decreased Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus bromii, and Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale (P < 0.05), compared to the normal-protein diet. HPD also decreased the copies of genes encoding butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and and Prevotella-associated methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase α-subunit (P < 0.05). The concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were decreased by HPD (P < 0.05). Additionally, HPD tended to decrease (P = 0.057) the concentration of IgG in the colonic lumen, which was positively correlated with fecal butyrate at week 6 (P < 0.05). Collectively, this study found the temporal alteration of fecal microbiota related to the decreased numbers and activity of propionate- and butyrate-producing bacteria in feces after the HPD. These findings may provide important reference for linking changes of specific fecal microbes with gut health under high-protein diet.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T15:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.003
  • Mikania glomerata Sprengel extract and its major compound ent-kaurenoic
           acid display activity against bacteria present in endodontic infections
    • Authors: Dora Lúcia Carrara Moreti; Luís Fernando Leandro; Thaís da Silva Moraes; Monique Rodrigues Moreira; Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani; Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio; Brenda Paula Figueiredo Almeida Gomes; Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Author(s): Dora Lúcia Carrara Moreti, Luís Fernando Leandro, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio, Brenda Paula Figueiredo Almeida Gomes, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
      The search for new, effective and safe antimicrobial compounds from plant sources has continued to play an important role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Such compounds can be used to help to eradicate microorganisms from the root canal system, preventing/healing periapical diseases. Mikania glomerata (Spreng.), commonly known as “guaco,” is a native climbing plant from Brazil that displays a wide range of pharmacological properties. Many of its activities have been attributed to its phytochemical composition, which is mainly composed of diterpenes, such as ent-kaurenoic acid (KA). The present study evaluated the potential activity of an ent-kaurenoic-rich (KA) extract from Mikania glomerata (i.e. Mikania glomerata extract/MGE) and its major compound KA against bacteria that can cause endodontic infections. Time-kill assays were conducted and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), anti-biofilm activity, and synergistic antimicrobial activity of MGE and KA were determined. The MGE exhibited MIC and MBC values, which ranged from 6.25 to 100 μg/mL and 12.5 to 200 μg/mL respectively. The MIC and MBC results obtained for the KA, ranged from 3.12 to 100 μg/mL and 3.12 to 200 μg/mL respectively. Time-kill and anti-biofilm activity assays conducted for KA at concentrations between 3.12 and 12.5 μg/mL exhibited bactericidal activity between 6 and 72 h of incubation and 50% inhibition of biofilm formation for Porphyromonas gingivalis (clinical isolate), Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919), Prevotella nigrescens (ATCC 33563), P. melaninogenica (ATCC 25845), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43717). For synergistic antimicrobial activity, KA combined with chlorhexidine dichlorohydrate (CHD) had an additive effect with increased efficacy against P. gingivalis (clinical isolate) compared to CHD alone. It was concluded that M. glomerata extract and its major compound ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) showed in vitro antibacterial activity, being the latter a potential biofilm inhibitory agent. They may play important roles in the search for novel sources of agents that can act against bacteria present in endodontic infections.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T14:51:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.008
  • Changes in faecal bacteria during fattening in finishing swine
    • Authors: T. Ban-Tokuda; S. Maekawa; T. Miwa; S. Ohkawara; H. Matsui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Author(s): T. Ban-Tokuda, S. Maekawa, T. Miwa, S. Ohkawara, H. Matsui
      Body fat accumulation in mice and human is linked to the percentage of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, two bacterial phyla dominant in the large intestine. However, little is known about the relationship between the composition of the gut microbiota and fattening in pig. This study aimed to investigate the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Bacteroides, which is the major genus within Bacteroidetes, in porcine faeces during fattening. Ten 4-month-old crossbred pigs were given free access to commercial feed for fattening and water for 14 weeks. Daily feed intake and body weight were measured every 2 weeks. Faecal samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, and 14 weeks, and plasma samples were collected every 2 weeks. Daily feed intake increased until 8 weeks, and then decreased. Body weight increased with fattening during the experimental period. Feed efficiency showed high values at 0–4 and 6–8 weeks. The level of Firmicutes increased (P < 0.05), whereas those of Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes decreased (P < 0.05) with fattening. The total short chain fatty acid content in the faeces increased (P < 0.05) with fattening until 8 weeks and then decreased (P < 0.05) at 14 weeks. There were no significant relationships between the level of Firmicutes and feed intake or plasma leptin concentration. The levels of Bacteroidetes and Bacteroides correlated with feed intake, body weight, and plasma leptin or plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. Our results suggested that the level of Firmicutes increased and those of Bacteroidetes and Bacteroides decreased with increase in feed intake and body weight, similar to previous results obtained for mice and human. However, energy extraction from feed was not influenced by compositional alteration of gut flora, because daily gain and feed efficiency did not show high values towards the end of the fattening period. Manipulating the gut microbiota might help improve fattening performance, although further studies are necessary to understand the relationships between the composition of gut microbiota and energy absorption.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.006
  • Support material dictates the attached biomass characteristics during the
    • Authors: Jasmina Kerčmar; Albin Pintar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Author(s): Jasmina Kerčmar, Albin Pintar
      Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy alternative to replace environmentally burdensome fossil fuels. For its long-term production the immobilized biofilm system is the most promising and to choose the right support material the most challenging. In this respect, the anaerobic up-flow bioreactors packed with four most used support materials (polyethylene, polyurethane, activated carbon and expanded clay) were tested to investigate the crucial bacteria sensitive period-the immobilization process. Seven-day-operation was necessary and sufficient to reach metabolic and microbial stability regardless of support material used. The support material had an influence on the microbial metabolic activity as well as on quantity and quality characteristics of the immobilized microbial community, being polyethylene and expanded clay more appropriate as supports among the materials evaluated; this could be attributed to pH alteration. The obtained results suggest that the support material dictates the outcome of the immobilization process in the anaerobic continuous-flow bioreactor.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.007
  • erm gene distribution among Norwegian Bacteroides isolates and evaluation
           of phenotypic tests to detect inducible clindamycin resistance in
           Bacteroides species
    • Authors: Bjørn Odd Johnsen; Nina Handal; Roger Meisal; Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt; Peter Gaustad; Truls Michael Leegaard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Author(s): Bjørn Odd Johnsen, Nina Handal, Roger Meisal, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Peter Gaustad, Truls Michael Leegaard
      The aims of this study were to describe the distribution of the most common erm genes in a collection of Norwegian Bacteroides isolates and to investigate whether the phenotypic tests for determining inducible clindamycin resistance among Bacteroides species recommended by EUCAST, NordicAST and the manufacturer of E-test®, are effective. We investigated 175 unique Bacteroides isolates for the presence of erm(B), erm(F) and erm(G) genes, determined their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to clindamycin and categorised their susceptibility according to EUCAST breakpoints. 27 isolates were resistant to clindamycin. Furthermore, we investigated whether these recommended methods could detect inducible resistance in the Bacteroides isolates: 1) EUCAST recommendation: Dissociated resistance to erythromycin (clindamycin susceptible with erythromycin MIC > 32 mg/L), 2) NordicAST recommendation: Double disk diffusion test (DDD) or 3) Manufacturer of E-test®’s recommendation: prolonged incubation of clindamycin E-test® for 48 h. erm genes were detected in 30 (17%, 95% CI 12%–23%) of 175 Bacteroides isolates with erm(F) as the dominating gene. There were six (4%, 95% CI 1%–7%) of 148 clindamycin susceptible isolates harbouring erm genes, they were considered inducibly resistant to clindamycin. None of the methods for phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance performed satisfactory with sensitivities of 33%, 17% and 0% and specificities of 90%, 99% and 97% for dissociated resistance, DDD and prolonged incubation of clindamycin E-test®, respectively. In our view, the scientific basis for investigating every Bacteroides isolate for inducible resistance to clindamycin is weak. Molecular detection of erm genes may prove a better option than the phenotypic methods we evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.004
  • In vitro emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Cutibacterium
           (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes and molecular characterization of
           mutations in the gyrA gene
    • Authors: Takoudju Eve-Marie; Aurélie Guillouzouic; Stanimir Kambarev; Frédéric Pecorari; Stéphane Corvec
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Author(s): Takoudju Eve-Marie, Aurélie Guillouzouic, Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
      In vitro occurrence of levofloxacin (LVX) resistance in C. acnes and characterization of its molecular background were investigated. The mutation frequency was determined by inoculation of 108 cfu of C. acnes ATCC 11827 (LVX MIC = 0.25 mg/L) on LVX-containing agar plates. The progressive emergence of resistance was studied by a second exposure to increasing LVX concentrations. For mutants, the QRDR regions including the gyrA and parC genes were sequenced and compared to both C. acnes ATCC 11827 and C. acnes KPA171202 reference sequences (NC006085). The importance of the efflux pump system in resistance was investigated by using inhibitors on selected resistant mutants with no mutation in the QRDR. C. acnes growth was observed on LVX-containing plates with mutation frequencies of 3. 8 cfu × 10−8 (8 × MIC) and 1.6 cfu × 10−7 (4 × MIC). LVX resistance emerged progressively after one-step or two-step assays. In LVX-resistant isolates, the MIC ranged from 0.75 to >32 mg/L. Mutations were detected exclusively in the gyrA gene. Ten genotypes were identified: G99 C, G99 D, D100N, D100 H, D100 G, S101L, S101W, A102 P, D105 H and A105 G. Mutants S101L and S101W were always associated with a high level of resistance. Mutants with no mutation in the QRDR were more susceptible when incubated with an efflux pump inhibitor (phenyl-arginine β-naphthylamide) only, suggesting, for the first time, the expression of such a system in C. acnes LVX-resistant mutants.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.005
  • The gut bacterium and pathobiont Bacteroides vulgatus activates NF-κB in
           a human gut epithelial cell line in a strain and growth phase dependent
    • Authors: Páraic Ó Cuív; Tomas de Wouters; Rabina Giri; Stanislas Mondot; Wendy J. Smith; Hervé M. Blottière; Jakob Begun; Mark Morrison
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Author(s): Páraic Ó Cuív, Tomas de Wouters, Rabina Giri, Stanislas Mondot, Wendy J. Smith, Hervé M. Blottière, Jakob Begun, Mark Morrison
      The gut microbiota is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) although the identity of the bacteria that underpin these diseases has remained elusive. The pathobiont Bacteroides vulgatus has been associated with both diseases although relatively little is known about how its growth and functional activity might drive the host inflammatory response. We identified an ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) export system and lipoprotein in B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 and B. vulgatus PC510 that displayed significant sequence similarity to an NF-κB immunomodulatory regulon previously identified on a CD-derived metagenomic fosmid clone. Interestingly, the ABC export system was specifically enriched in CD subjects suggesting that it may be important for colonization and persistence in the CD gut environment. Both B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 and PC510 activated NF-κB in a strain and growth phase specific manner in a HT-29/kb-seap-25 enterocyte like cell line. B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 also activated NF-κB in Caco-2-NF-κBluc enterocyte like and LS174T-NF-κBluc goblet cell like cell lines and induced NF-κB-p65 subunit nuclear translocation and IL-6, IL-8, CXCL-10 and MCP-1 gene expression. Despite this, NF-κB activation was not coincident with maximal expression of the ABC exporter or lipoprotein in B. vulgatus PC510 suggesting that the regulon may be necessary but not sufficient for the immunomodulatory effects.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T14:11:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.002
  • Effect of electro-activated aqueous solutions, nisin and moderate heat
           treatment on the inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores in
           green beans puree and whole green beans
    • Authors: Omar El Jaam; Ismail Fliss; Mohammed Aïder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Author(s): Omar El Jaam, Ismail Fliss, Mohammed Aïder
      In this work, the synergistic effect of electro-activated solutions (EAS) of potassium acetate and potassium citrate, nisin and moderate heat treatment to inactivate C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores was evaluated in green beans puree and whole green beans. Electro-activated solutions (EAS) of potassium acetate and potassium citrate were generated under 400 mA during 60 min. They were characterized by an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH values ranged from +300 to +1090 mV and 2.8 to 3.67, respectively. Moreover, the EAS were combined with a bacteriocin nisin at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 IU/mL and the targeted sporicidal effect was evaluated under moderate heat treatment. The inoculated mixtures were subjected to temperatures of 95, 105 and 115 °C for exposure times of 5, 15 and 30 min. After plate counting, the synergistic effect of the hurdle principle composed of electro-activated solutions, nisin and moderate temperatures was demonstrated. The obtained results showed that the synergistic effect of the used hurdle was able to achieve an inactivation efficacy of 5.9–6.1 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, experiments carried out with whole green beans showed that spore inactivation level was significantly higher and reach 6.5 log CFU/mL. Moreover, spore morphology was examined by transmission electron microscopy and the obtained micrographs showed important damages in all of the treated spores.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T13:53:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.017
  • Extraintestinal Clostridium difficile infection due to a ribotype
    • Authors: Yoshihiro Onada; Shiro Endo; Takahisa Umemoto; Tomomichi Kajino; Yoshiharu Amasaki; Akira Furusaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Author(s): Yoshihiro Onada, Shiro Endo, Takahisa Umemoto, Tomomichi Kajino, Yoshiharu Amasaki, Akira Furusaki
      Extraintestinal infections due to Clostridium difficile are uncommon. When such infections occur, extraintestinal C. difficile isolates are usually identical to fecal isolates. We present a rare case of a large postoperative abscess caused by C. difficile infection, in which different C. difficile strains were isolated from the abscess and from feces of the patient. An 82-year-old woman with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa developed pain, skin ulcers, and extensive necrosis of the right leg. Above-knee amputation was performed without stopping antiplatelet therapy, leading to postoperative hematoma. Six weeks after surgery, a large femoral abscess was detected and C. difficile was isolated. Repeat amputation of the thigh was required to remove the abscess. C. difficile was also cultured from feces despite the lack of intestinal symptoms. However, genetic analysis confirmed that the C. difficile isolates from the abscess and feces were different strains. Thus, C. difficile can cause postoperative infection of a hematoma and the extraintestinal and fecal C. difficile isolates are not necessarily identical in the same patient.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T13:53:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.018
  • A novel antimicrobial peptide against dental-caries-associated bacteria
    • Authors: Long Chen; Lili Jia; Qiang Zhang; Xirui Zhou; Zhuqing Liu; Bingjie Li; Zhentai Zhu; Fenwei Wang; Changyuan Yu; Qian Zhang; Feng Chen; Shi-Zhong Luo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Author(s): Long Chen, Lili Jia, Qiang Zhang, Xirui Zhou, Zhuqing Liu, Bingjie Li, Zhentai Zhu, Fenwei Wang, Changyuan Yu, Qian Zhang, Feng Chen, Shi-Zhong Luo
      Dental caries, a highly prevalent oral disease, is primarily caused by pathogenic bacteria infection, and most of them are anaerobic. Herein, we investigated the activity of a designed antimicrobial peptide ZXR-2, and found it showed broad-spectrum activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative oral bacteria, particularly the caries-related taxa Streptococcus mutans. Time-course killing assays indicated that ZXR-2 killed most bacterial cells within 5 min at 4 × MIC. The mechanism of ZXR-2 involved disruption of cell membranes, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, ZXR-2 inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilm, but showed limited hemolytic effect. Based on its potent antimicrobial activity, rapid killing, and inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, ZXR-2 represents a potential therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T13:53:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.016
  • Impact of Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of Lactobacillus gasseri strains
           isolated from human vagina on cervical tumor cells (HeLa)
    • Authors: Tolga Sungur; Belma Aslim Cagatay Karaaslan Busra Aktas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Author(s): Tolga Sungur, Belma Aslim, Cagatay Karaaslan, Busra Aktas
      Lactobacilli, commonly used as probiotics, have been shown to maintain vaginal health and contribute to host microbiota interaction. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactobacillus have been found to have an important role in probiotic activity; however, there is limited knowledge concerning their impact on cervical cancer and urogenital health. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare EPSs of L. gasseri strains (G10 and H15), isolated from a healthy human vagina, for their capability to inhibit cervical cancer cell (HeLa) growth and modulate immune response. HeLa cells were treated with live culture at ∼108 CFU/ml or increasing concentration of lyophilized EPS (L-EPS) (100, 200, or 400 μg/ml) of L. gasseri strains and their ability to adhere to host cells, inhibit proliferation, and modulate immune response were evaluated. Additionally, monosaccharide composition of the L-EPSs produced by L. gasseri strains was determined by HPLC. The sugar component was the same; however, relative proportions of the individual monosaccharides except mannose were different. Although they both produce similar amount of EPS, the most adhesive strain was G10. Both live and L-EPS of L. gasseri strains were capable of inhibiting the cell proliferation of HeLa cells with the impact of L-EPS being strain specific. L-EPSs of L. gasseri strains induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a strain dependent manner. The ability to induce apoptosis by G10 associated with an upregulation of Bax and Caspase 3. L. gasseri strains showed an anti-inflammatory impact on HeLa cells by decreasing the production of TNF-α and increasing the IL-10 production. In conclusion, diversity in sugar composition of EPS might contribute to adhesion and proliferation properties. Although our results suggest a relationship between the ability of a strain to induce apoptosis and its sugar composition of EPS, further research is required to determine the probiotic mechanisms of action by which L. gasseri strains result in strain specific anti-proliferative activity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T13:18:29Z
  • Case of pacemaker pocket infection caused by Finegoldia magna
    • Authors: Seyed Hamed Hosseini Dehkordi; Georgina Osorio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Author(s): Seyed Hamed Hosseini Dehkordi, Georgina Osorio
      Finegoldia magna (formerly called Peptostreptococcus magnus) is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus which is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. We present a case of F. magna associated non-valvular cardiovascular device-related infection in an 83 year-old male who received a permanent pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome seven weeks prior to his presentation. Five weeks after the implantation, the pacemaker and leads were explanted because of clinical evidence of pacemaker pocket infection. He was initially treated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim based on the Gram stain results from the removed pacemaker. However, two weeks later, he was readmitted with sepsis and was successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. Culture results from the pacemaker and pocket as well as blood cultures grew F. magna. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of F. magna infection when initial gram stain results show “gram positive cocci”.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T13:18:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.011
  • Quantification, isolation and characterization of Bifidobacterium from the
           vaginal microbiomes of reproductive aged women
    • Authors: Aline C. Freitas; Janet E. Hill
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Author(s): Aline C. Freitas, Janet E. Hill
      The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in women's reproductive health. Imbalances in this microbiota, such as the poorly defined condition of bacterial vaginosis, are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negative reproductive outcomes. Currently, a “healthy” vaginal microbiota in reproductive aged women is understood to be dominated by Lactobacillus, although “atypical” microbiomes, such as Bifidobacterium-dominated profiles, have been described. Despite these observations, vaginal bifidobacteria remain relatively poorly characterized, and questions remain regarding their actual abundance in the microbiome. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to confirm the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium in the vaginal microbiomes of healthy reproductive aged women (n = 42), previously determined by deep sequencing. We also isolated and phenotypically characterized vaginal bifidobacteria (n = 40) in the context of features thought to promote reproductive health. Most isolates were identified as B. breve or B. longum based on cpn60 barcode sequencing. Fermentation patterns of vaginal bifidobacteria did not differ substantially from corresponding type strains of gut or oral origin. Lactic acid was produced by all vaginal isolates, with B. longum strains producing the highest levels, but only 32% of isolates produced hydrogen peroxide. Most vaginal bifidobacteria were also able to tolerate high levels of lactic acid (100 mM) and low pH (4.5 or 3.9), conditions typical of vaginal fluid of healthy women. Most isolates were resistant to metronidazole but susceptible to clindamycin, the two most common antibiotics used to treat vaginal dysbiosis. These findings demonstrate that Bifidobacterium is the dominant member of some vaginal microbiomes and suggest that bifidobacteria have the potential to be as protective as lactobacilli according to the current understanding of a healthy vaginal microbiome.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T13:18:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.012
  • Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profile of
           Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from humans, animals, fish and
           their environment
    • Authors: Jay Prakash Yadav; Suresh Chandra Das; Pankaj Dhaka; Deepthi Vijay; Manesh Kumar; Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Goutam Chowdhury; Pranav Chauhan; Rahul Singh; Kuldeep Dhama; Satya Veer Singh Malik; Ashok Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Author(s): Jay Prakash Yadav, Suresh Chandra Das, Pankaj Dhaka, Deepthi Vijay, Manesh Kumar, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Goutam Chowdhury, Pranav Chauhan, Rahul Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Satya Veer Singh Malik, Ashok Kumar
      The study was aimed to characterize, and determine antibiogram of C. perfringens type A isolated from the feces of human and animal diarrhoeal cases, as well as healthy animals, meat of pigs and goats, gills and intestine of fish and samples from fish pond. A total of 460 samples, including human diarrhoeal cases (n = 130); diarrhoeal cases of pig (n = 52) and goat (n = 50); fecal samples from healthy pig (n = 50) and goat (n = 50); meat samples viz. pork meat (n = 52); goat meat (n = 50) and fish including their environmental sources (n = 26) were used for isolation and identification of C. perfringens type A. All the biochemically confirmed isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA and cpa genes by PCR assays. Toxinotyping of C. perfringens type A isolates showed that overall prevalence of C. perfringens type A with only cpa + gene was 43.2%; with cpa + and cpb2 + genes was 45.4%; with cpa + and cpe + genes was 4.9%; however, with cpa + , cpb2 + and cpe + genes was 6.6%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 83.7% of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.009
  • Mixed species biofilms of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas
           levii impair the oxidative response of bovine neutrophils in vitro
    • Authors: Joey S. Lockhart; Andre G. Buret; Howard Ceri; Douglas G. Storey; Stefanie J. Anderson; Douglas W. Morck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Author(s): Joey S. Lockhart, Andre G. Buret, Howard Ceri, Douglas G. Storey, Stefanie J. Anderson, Douglas W. Morck
      Biofilms composed of anaerobic bacteria can result in persistent infections and chronic inflammation. Host immune cells have difficulties clearing biofilm-related infections and this can result in tissue damage. Neutrophils are a vital component of the innate immune system and help clear biofilms. The comparative neutrophilic response to biofilms versus planktonic bacteria remains incompletely understood, particularly in the context of mixed infections. The objective of this study was to generate mixed species anaerobic bacterial biofilms composed of two opportunistic pathogens, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii, and evaluate neutrophil responses to extracellular fractions from both biofilms and planktonic cell co-cultures of the same bacteria. Purified bovine neutrophils exposed to culture supernatants from mixed species planktonic bacteria showed elevated oxidative activity compared to neutrophils exposed to biofilms composed of the same bacteria. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide plays a significant role in the stimulation of neutrophils; biofilms produced substantially more lipopolysaccharide than planktonic bacteria under these experimental conditions. Removal of lipopolysaccharide significantly reduced neutrophil oxidative response to culture supernatants of planktonic bacteria. Oxidative responses to LPS-removed biofilm supernatants and LPS-removed planktonic cell supernatants were similar. The limited neutrophil response to biofilm bacteria observed in this study supports the reduced ability of the innate immune system to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Lipopolysaccharide is likely important in neutrophil response; however, the presence of other extracellular, immune modifying molecules in the bacterial media also appears to be important in altering neutrophil function.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.008
  • Clostridium perfringens - A bacterial pathogen gaining recognition in
           necrotizing pancreatitis
    • Authors: Rakhi Biswas; Deepika K; Sujatha Sistla; Sarath Chandra Sistla; Anandhi Amaranathan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Author(s): Rakhi Biswas, Deepika K, Sujatha Sistla, Sarath Chandra Sistla, Anandhi Amaranathan
      We report an interesting case of necrotizing pancreatitis due to Clostridium perfringens in an elderly man who came to the hospital with complaints of severe abdominal pain. The infection further worsened with the dissemination to other internal organs. The patient did not show any improvement despite intensive care and treatment. This emphasizies the fact that early diagnosis and appropriate treatment would reduce the morbidity associated with necrotizing pancreatitis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.006
  • A bloodstream infection by Ruminococcus gnavus in a patient with a gall
           bladder perforation
    • Authors: Young Jin Kim; Hee Yoon Kang; Yujin Han; Mi Suk Lee; Hee Joo Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Author(s): Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Yujin Han, Mi Suk Lee, Hee Joo Lee
      Ruminococcus gnavus is frequently found among human gut microbiome. However, human bloodstream infections by R. gnavus have been reported only three times. Clinical details were lacking for one case; the other two cases with concurrent bacteremia in patients with diverticulitis. We report a case of R. gnavus bloodstream infection in a patient with a gall bladder perforation suggesting its association with damage to the gastrointestinal tract. R. gnavus was misidentified using biochemical test but 16S rRNA sequencing and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were useful for correct identification. With the advancement of identification method in clinical laboratory, more frequent identification of R. gnavus from clinical specimens is expected.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.007
  • Molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from patient
           stool samples and gastroenterological medical devices in a single Iranian
    • Authors: Masoumeh Azimirad; Marcela Krutova; Otakar Nyc; Zahra Hasani; Leili Afrisham; Masoud Alebouyeh; Mohammad Reza Zali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Author(s): Masoumeh Azimirad, Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Zahra Hasani, Leili Afrisham, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
      This study aimed to characterize Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from stool samples of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) and swabs from a medical environment in a gastroenterology centre in Tehran, Iran. A total of 158 samples (105 stool samples from hospitalized patients and 53 swabs from medical devices and the environment) were collected from January 2011 to August 2011 and investigated for the presence of C. difficile by direct anaerobic culture on a selective media for C. difficile. C. difficile isolates were further characterized by capillary electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping and toxin gene multiplex PCR. Of 158 samples, C. difficile was cultured in 19 of 105 stool samples (18%) and in 4 of 53 swabs (7.5%). C. difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 126 was the most common RT in the study (21.7%). Further RTs were: 001, 003, 014, 017, 029, 039, 081, 103 and 150. RTs 126, 001, 150 were cultured from both the stool samples and swabs of medical devices and the hospital environment which suggest a possible route of transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T12:54:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.004
  • Introduction to the special issue highlighting Anaerobe 2016
    • Authors: Laura M. Cox; Casey M. Theriot; Raina N. Fichorova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Author(s): Laura Cox, Raina N. Fichorova, Casey M. Theriot

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T12:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.002
  • Tolerance mechanisms of human-residential bifidobacteria against lysozyme
    • Authors: Takuma Sakurai; Nanami Hashikura; Junichi Minami; Akio Yamada; Toshitaka Odamaki; Jin-zhong Xiao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Author(s): Takuma Sakurai, Nanami Hashikura, Junichi Minami, Akio Yamada, Toshitaka Odamaki, Jin-zhong Xiao
      We previously reported that lysozyme present in breast milk is a selection factor for bifidobacterial colonization in infant human intestines. This study is aimed at examining their underlying mechanisms. Human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB) generally exhibited higher tolerance than non-HRB to lysozymes, except B. bifidum subspecies. To assess the involvement of enzymatic activity of lysozyme, peptidoglycan (PG) was isolated and the degree of O-acetylation (O-Ac) in 19 strains, including both HRB and non-HRB, was determined. Variety in the degree of O-Ac was observed among each of the Bifidobacterium species; however, all purified PGs were found to be tolerant to lysozyme, independent of their O-Ac degree. In addition, De-O-Ac of PGs affected the sensitivity to lysozyme of only B. longum-derived PG. To examine the non-enzymatic antibacterial activity of lysozyme on bifidobacteria, lysozyme was heat-denatured. The HRB and non-HRB strains exhibited similar patterns of susceptibility to intact lysozyme as they did to heat-denatured lysozyme. In addition, strains of B. bifidum (30 strains), which showed various tolerance of lysozyme, also exhibited similar patterns of susceptibility to intact lysozyme as they did to heat-denatured lysozyme. These results suggest that bifidobacteria are resistant to the peptidoglycan-degrading property of lysozyme, and the tolerance to lysozyme among some HRB strains is due to resistance to the non-enzymatic antibacterial activity of lysozyme.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T12:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.001
  • A combination of the probiotic and prebiotic product can prevent the
           germination of Clostridium difficile spores and infection
    • Authors: M. Rätsep; S. Kõljalg; E. Sepp; I. Smidt; K. Truusalu; E. Songisepp; J. Stsepetova; P. Naaber; R.H. Mikelsaar; M. Mikelsaar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Author(s): M. Rätsep, S. Kõljalg, E. Sepp, I. Smidt, K. Truusalu, E. Songisepp, J. Stsepetova, P. Naaber, R.H. Mikelsaar, M. Mikelsaar
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent healthcare associated infections in hospitals and nursing homes. Different approaches are used for prevention of CDI. Absence of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been associated with C. difficile colonization in hospitalized patients. Our aim was to test a) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains of different origin and the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Inducia (DSM 21379) to various antimicrobial preparations incl. metronidazole, vancomycin; b) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains to antagonistic effects of the probiotic L. plantarum Inducia, prebiotic xylitol (Xyl) and their combination as a synbiotic (Syn) product; c) the suppression of germination of C. difficile spores in vitro and in vivo in animal model of C. difficile infection with Inducia, Xyl and Syn treatment. The VPI strain 10463 (ATCC 43255), epidemic strain (M 13042) and clinical isolates (n = 12) of C. difficile from Norway and Estonia were susceptible and contrarily L. plantarum Inducia resistant to vancomycin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. The intact cells of Inducia, natural and neutralized cell free supernatant inhibited in vitro the growth of tested C. difficile reference strain VPI and Estonian and Norwegian clinical isolates of C. difficile after co-cultivation. This effect against C. difficile sustained in liquid media under ampicillin (0.75 μg/ml) and Xyl (5%) application. Further, incubation of Inducia in the media with 5% Xyl fully stopped germination of spores of C. difficile VPI strain after 48 h. In infection model the 48 hamsters were administered ampicillin (30 mg/kg) and 10–30 spores of C. difficile VPI strain. They also received five days before and after the challenge a pretreatment with a synbiotic (single daily dose of L. plantarum Inducia 1 ml of 1010 CFU/ml and 20% xylitol in 1 ml by orogastric gavage). The survival rate of hamsters was increased to 78% compared to 13% (p = 0.003) survival rate of specimens who received no treatment. When administered Xyl the survival rate of hamsters reached 56% vs.13% (p = 0.06). In both Syn (6/9, p = 0.003) and Xyl (3/9, p = 0.042) groups the number of specimens not colonized with C. difficile significantly increased. In conclusion, the combination of xylitol with L. plantarum Inducia suppresses the germination of spores and outgrowth into vegetative toxin producing cells of C. difficile and reduces the colonization of gut with the pathogen. Putative therapeutical approach includes usage of the synbiotic during antimicrobial therapy for prevention of CDI and its potential to reduce recurrences of CDI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.019
  • Vaginal ecosystem modeling of growth patterns of anaerobic bacteria in
           microaerophilic conditions
    • Authors: Audrie A. Medina-Colorado; Kathleen L. Vincent; Aaron L. Miller; Carrie A. Maxwell; Lauren N. Dawson; Trevelyn Olive; Elena V. Kozlova; Marc M. Baum; Richard B. Pyles
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Author(s): Audrie A. Medina-Colorado, Kathleen L. Vincent, Aaron L. Miller, Carrie A. Maxwell, Lauren N. Dawson, Trevelyn Olive, Elena V. Kozlova, Marc M. Baum, Richard B. Pyles
      The human vagina constitutes a complex ecosystem created through relationships established between host mucosa and bacterial communities. In this ecosystem, classically defined strict bacterial aerobes and anaerobes thrive as communities in the microaerophilic environment. Levels of CO2 and O2 present in the vaginal lumen are impacted by both the ecosystem's physiology and the behavior and health of the human host. Study of such complex relationships requires controlled and reproducible causational approaches that are not possible in the human host that, until recently, was the only place these intact bacterial communities thrived. To address this need we have utilized our ex vivo human vaginal mucosa culture system to support controlled, reproducible colonization by vaginal microbiomes (VMB) collected from healthy and symptomatic donors. Parallel vaginal epithelial cells (VEC)-VMB co-cultures were exposed to increasingly microaerophilic conditions to study the impact of CO2 concentrations upon the anaerobic bacteria associated with dysbiosis and inflammation. Our data suggest that in the context of intact VMBs, increased CO2 concentrations favored specific lactobacilli species defined as aerobes or microaerophiles when grown as monocultures. The observed community changes also led to shifts in host VEC phenotypes with significant changes in the host transcriptome, including altered expression of select molecular transporter genes. These findings support the need for additional study of the environmental changes associated with behavior and health upon the symbiotic and adversarial relationships that are formed in microbial communities present in the human vaginal ecosystem.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.014
  • Tropism and virulence of Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes
           involved in implant-associated infection
    • Authors: Guillaume Ghislain Aubin; Jean-Philippe Lavigne; Yohan Foucher; Sarah Dellière; Didier Lepelletier; François Gouin; Stéphane Corvec
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Author(s): Guillaume Ghislain Aubin, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Yohan Foucher, Sarah Dellière, Didier Lepelletier, François Gouin, Stéphane Corvec
      The recognition of the pathogenicity of Cutibacterium acnes in implant-associated infection is not always obvious. In this paper, we aimed to distinguish pathogenic and non-pathogenic C. acnes isolates. To reach this goal, we investigated the clonal complex (CC) of a large collection of C. acnes clinical isolates through Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to assess C. acnes virulence and we investigated the presence of virulence factors in our collection. Ours results showed that CC36 and CC53 C. acnes isolates were more frequently observed in prosthetic joint infections (PJI) than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes isolates (p = 0.021). The C. elegans model developed here showed two distinct virulence groups of C. acnes (p < 0.05). These groups were not correlated to CC or clinical origin. Whole genome sequencing allowed us to identify a putative gene linked to low virulent strains. In conclusion, MLST remains a good method to screen pathogenic C. acnes isolates according to their clinical context but mechanisms of C. acnes virulence need to be assess thought transcriptomic analysis to investigate regulatory process.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.009
  • Are anaerobes a major, underappreciated cause of necrotizing
    • Authors: Hannah Zhao-Fleming; Sharmila Dissanaike; Kendra Rumbaugh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Author(s): Hannah Zhao-Fleming, Sharmila Dissanaike, Kendra Rumbaugh
      Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are the most severe and rapidly progressing class of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). They are a surgical emergency and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. While NSTIs remain relatively rare, their incidence is steadily rising. Earlier diagnosis and more focused antibiotic treatments can potentially improve patient outcome, but both of these solutions require a more accurate understanding of the microbial component of these infections. While molecular detection methods, namely 16S sequencing, have not been traditionally used to identify the causative microorganisms in NSTIs, they are becoming more commonplace for other types of SSTIs, especially for chronic wound infections. In chronic wound infections, 16S sequencing has revealed a higher than previously detected prevalence of obligate anaerobes. Therefore, it is possible that 16S sequencing may also detect a higher than expected proportion of obligate anaerobes in NSTIs. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge concerning the diagnosis and treatment of NSTIs and present reasons why the role of anaerobes may be significantly underestimated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.012
  • Distinct roles for dietary lipids and Porphyromonas gingivalis infection
           on atherosclerosis progression and the gut microbiota
    • Authors: Carolyn D. Kramer; Alexandra M. Simas; Xianbao He; Robin R. Ingalls; Ellen O. Weinberg; Caroline Attardo Genco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Author(s): Carolyn D. Kramer, Alexandra M. Simas, Xianbao He, Robin R. Ingalls, Ellen O. Weinberg, Caroline Attardo Genco
      Mounting evidence in humans supports an etiological role for the microbiota in inflammatory atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells and lipids in vascular tissue. While retention of lipoprotein into the sub-endothelial vascular layer is believed to be the initiating stimulus leading to the development of atherosclerosis, activation of multiple pathways related to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction sustain the process by stimulating recruitment of leukocytes and immune cells into the sub-endothelial layer. The Gram-negative oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has been associated with the development and acceleration of atherosclerosis in humans and these observations have been validated in animal models. It has been proposed that common mechanisms of immune signaling link stimulation by lipids and pathogens to vascular inflammation. Despite the common outcome of P. gingivalis and lipid feeding on atherosclerosis progression, we established that these pro-atherogenic stimuli induced distinct gene signatures in the ApoE−/- mouse model of atherosclerosis. In this study, we further defined the distinct roles of dietary lipids and P. gingivalis infection on atherosclerosis progression and the gut microbiota. We demonstrate that diet-induced lipid lowering resulted in less atherosclerotic plaque in ApoE−/- mice compared to ApoE−/- mice continuously fed a Western diet. However, the effect of diet-induced lipid lowering on plaque accumulation was blunted by P. gingivalis infection. Using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, we demonstrate that dietary intervention as well as P. gingivalis infection result in distinct bacterial communities in fecal and cecal samples of ApoE−/- mice as compared to ApoE−/- mice continuously fed either a Western diet or a normal chow diet. Collectively, we identified distinct microbiota changes accompanying atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting a future avenue for investigation on the impact of the gut microbiota, diet, and P. gingivalis infection on atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.011
  • Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal
           samples from patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics
    • Authors: Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen; Simon A.F. Schwensen; Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen; Ulrik Stenz Justesen; Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Author(s): Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A.F. Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
      Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B. fragilis in this patient group, and 3) to determine the association between previous antibiotic treatment and reduced susceptibility to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Consecutive faecal samples (n = 197) were collected from patients at the departments of haematology, oncology, and infectious diseases at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Three colonies from each sample were identified by Matrix Assisted Lazer Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and isolates were screened for resistance to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam. B. fragilis isolates were tested for the cfiA metallo-beta-lactamase gene. Fisher's Exact test was used to test for correlation between antimicrobial exposure and reduced susceptibility. A total of 359 isolates were tested for reduced susceptibility. Of these 28%, 5%, <1%, and 11% were intermediate susceptible or resistant to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam respectively. Three metronidazole resistant Bacteroides spp. were isolated. The proportion of B. fragilis belonging to division II (cfiA+) was 5.3%. Previous exposure to meropenem was associated with reduced susceptibility to meropenem (p= 0.001). In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance is prevalent and the distribution of species appears to be affected in the B. fragilis group from patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, with meropenem exposure being associated with meropenem resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.013
  • Performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of oral Prevotella species
    • Authors: Mervi Gürsoy; Inka Harju; Jaakko Matomäki; Anne Bryk; Eija Könönen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Author(s): Mervi Gürsoy, Inka Harju, Jaakko Matomäki, Anne Bryk, Eija Könönen
      During the past decade, the clinically relevant genus Prevotella has expanded considerably. Prevotella species can be isolated from nearly all types of oral infections but also from various non-oral infections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced in clinical microbiology laboratories as a convenient method for identifying bacterial isolates from clinical specimens. Here we tested the diagnostic accuracy of a total of 123 oral Prevotella isolates, selected based on their biochemical profile, by Bruker MALDI-TOF MS. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing was used as a reference method. The performance of MALDI-TOF MS to identify the isolates to the genus level was excellent with 100.0% accuracy, while a good identification rate of 88.6% was achieved to the species level with a log score of ≥2.0. The isolates representing P. aurantiaca and P. jejuni, which are currently missing from the MALDI BioTyper database, were identified correctly to the genus level. Of the 123 isolates, one P. pallens isolate (0.8%) was identified with a score variation of 1.7–1.999. Overall, biochemical testing produced a high proportion (70.7%) of incorrect identifications within different species. MALDI-TOF MS offers a reliable and rapid method for the identification of Prevotella species included in the database.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.008
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms in
           Hong Kong by the tentative EUCAST disc diffusion method
    • Authors: Pak-Leung Ho; Chong-Yee Yau; Lok-Yan Ho; Eileen Ling-Yi Lai; Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu; Cindy Wing-Sze Tse; Kin-Hung Chow
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Author(s): Pak-Leung Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Lok-Yan Ho, Eileen Ling-Yi Lai, Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Kin-Hung Chow
      This study used a recently developed EUCAST disc diffusion method to measure the susceptibility of 741 B. fragilis group isolates to six antibiotics. Isolates nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole by the disc method were further investigated by E-test. Species identification was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR assays and 16S rRNA sequencing. The most common species were B. fragilis (n = 424, including 81 division II and 343 division I isolates), B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 111), B. ovatus (n = 53) and B. vulgatus (n = 46). Overall, metronidazole following by imipenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate are the most active agents with over 90% of all the isolates being susceptible at the tentative disc breakpoints. Susceptibility rates for moxifloxacin (69.5%), piperacillin-tazobactam (58.2%) and clindamycin (37.2%) were much lower. Metronidazole is the only agent active against >90% of B. fragilis, non-fragilis Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates. With the exception of B. fragilis division II, imipenem was active against 88.0%–98.3% of isolates of the other species. Susceptibility rates for clindamycin (14.4%–54.3%) and moxifloxacin (33.3%–80.6%) were low across all species and many isolates had no inhibition zone around the discs. E-test testing confirmed 8.2% (61/741) and 1.6% (12/741) isolates as nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole, respectively with B. fragilis and B. thetaoiotaomicron accounting for a large share of the observed resistance to both agents. Two imipenem-resistant and one metronidazole-resistant B. dorei were misidentified as B. vulgatus by MALDI-TOF MS. These data highlights the importance anaerobic susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories to guide therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.005
  • Bifidobacterium longum vertebrodiscitis in a patient with cirrhosis and
           prostate cancer
    • Authors: Heather L. Wilson; Chong Wei Ong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Author(s): Heather L. Wilson, Chong Wei Ong
      Bifidobacterium species are anaerobic, Gram-positive bacilli that colonize the human intestinal tract and oral cavity. They are an infrequent cause of invasive human infection. We report a case of Bifidobacterium longum lumbar vertebrodiscitis in a 71 year old man who was subsequently diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and prostate cancer. The clinical outcome was good following antibiotic treatment with penicillin and clindamycin. The laboratory identification of Bifidobacterium species and risk factors for invasive infection are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.004
  • Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently
           by acarbose addition during two nutritional types of simulated severe
           subacute ruminal acidosis in vitro
    • Authors: Yue Wang; Junhua Liu; Yuyang Yin; Weiyun Zhu; Shengyong Mao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Author(s): Yue Wang, Junhua Liu, Yuyang Yin, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
      Little information is available on whether or not the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on the prevention of ruminal acidosis is influenced by the type of diet during ruminant feeding. This study was conducted to explore the effect of acarbose addition on the prevention of severe subacute ruminal acidosis induced by either cracked wheat or beet pulp in vitro. Cracked wheat and beet pulp were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms obtained from three dairy cows. When cracked wheat was used as the substrate and fermented for 24 h, compared with the control, acarbose addition decreased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, and lactate (P < 0.05), while linearly increasing the ratio of acetate to propionate, pH value and, the ammonia-nitrogen level (P < 0.05). Applying Illumina MiSeq sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the ACE (abundance-based coverage estimator) value, Chao 1 value, and Shannon index increased significantly (P < 0.05), while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the relative abundance of Tenericutes as well as Proteobacteria after adding acarbose compared to the control. On the other hand, when beet pulp was used as the substrate, acarbose addition had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the fermentation parameters and the Chao 1 value, the Shannon index, and the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. In general, these findings indicate that acarbose had more effects on ruminal fermentation when wheat was used as the substrate, whereas it exhibited little effect on ruminal fermentation when beet pulp was used as the substrate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.003
  • The effect of penicillin administration in early life on murine gut
           microbiota and blood lymphocyte subsets
    • Authors: Jaroslaw Daniluk; Urszula Daniluk; Malgorzata Rusak; Milena Dabrowska; Joanna Reszec; Magdalena Garbowicz; Kinga Humińska; Andrzej Dabrowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Author(s): Jaroslaw Daniluk, Urszula Daniluk, Malgorzata Rusak, Milena Dabrowska, Joanna Reszec, Magdalena Garbowicz, Kinga Humińska, Andrzej Dabrowski
      Background and aim Antibiotics have many beneficial effects but their uncontrolled use may lead to increased risk of serious diseases in the future. Our hypothesis is that an early antibiotic exposition may affect immune system by altering gut microbiota. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of penicillin treatment on gut microorganisms and immune system of mice. Methods: 21-days old C57BL6/J/cmdb male mice were treated with low-dose of penicillin (study group) or water only (control group) for 4 weeks. Tissue and stool samples for histology or microbiome assessment and peripheral blood for CBC and flow cytometry evaluation were collected. Results: We found high variability in microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels between littermate mice kept in the same conditions, independently of treatment regimen. Interestingly, low-dose of penicillin caused significant increase of Parabacteroides goldsteinii in stool and in colon tissue in comparison to control group (9.5% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.008 and 10.7% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, mice treated with penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated percentage of B cells (median 10.5% vs 8.0%, p = 0.01) and decrease in the percentage of total CD4+ cell (median 75.4% vs 82.5%, p = 0.0039) with subsequent changes among subsets - increased percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg), T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Conclusion: Our study showed significant effect of penicillin on B and T cells in peripheral blood of young mice. This effect may be mediated through changes in gut microbiota represented by the expansion of Parabacteroides goldsteinii.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.015
  • Effect of operating temperature on anaerobic digestion of the Brazilian
           waterweed Egeria densa and its microbial community
    • Authors: Keiko Watanabe; Mitsuhiko Koyama; Junko Ueda; Syuhei Ban; Norio Kurosawa; Tatsuki Toda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Author(s): Keiko Watanabe, Mitsuhiko Koyama, Junko Ueda, Syuhei Ban, Norio Kurosawa, Tatsuki Toda
      To develop an effective treatment for the globally invasive Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa, anaerobic digestion was observed at 37 °C, 55 °C, and 65 °C. The average methane production rate at 55 °C was 220 mL L−1 day−1, which was two-fold that at 37 °C and 65 °C. Volatile fatty acid accumulation was detected under thermophilic conditions; however, although there was methane production, the system did not shutdown. The microbial communities differed between mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C and 65 °C) conditions. A bacterial community consisting of the phyla Bacteroidetes (43%), Firmicutes (37%), Proteobacteria (9%), Synergistetes (5%), Spirochaetes (1%), and unclassified bacteria (5%) were detected under mesophilic condition. In contrast, the phylum Firmicutes was dominant under thermophilic conditions. In the archaeal community, Methanosaeta concilii (40%), Methanolinea sp. (17%), and unclassified euryarchaeota (43%) were detected under mesophilic condition. Methanosarcina thermophila (87% at 55 °C, 54% at 65 °C) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (13% at 55 °C, 46% at 65 °C) were detected under thermophilic conditions. At both 37 °C and 55 °C, acetoclastic methanogenesis likely occurred because of the lower abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. At 65 °C, the growth of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila was limited by the high temperature, therefore, acetate oxidation and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis may have occurred.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.014
  • Characterization of vaginal Lactobacillus species by rplK -based multiplex
           qPCR in Russian women
    • Authors: Vladimir V. Demkin; Stanislav I. Koshechkin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Author(s): Vladimir V. Demkin, Stanislav I. Koshechkin
      We describe a multiplex qPCR assay for identification and quantitative assessment of a set of vaginal Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. helveticus, L. iners, and L. jensenii. The assay extends the previously developed qPCR method for Lactobacillus detection and total quantification based on targeting the rplK gene. Both assays use only single pair of primers and a set of probes combined in three reactions, comprising a vaginal Lactobacillus diagnostic assay panel. The utility of the diagnostic panel was evaluated by analyzing of vaginal swab specimens from 145 patients with different status of vaginal health. Most frequently, only one Lactobacillus species was dominant (68,9%), mostly L. crispatus (18,6%) or L. iners (33,1%), but two or three Lactobacillus species were also being simultaneously detected (24,9%). The diagnostic panel will facilitate investigations of the role of Lactobacillus species in the health of the female reproductive system and promote studies of variability of the vaginal microbiota.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.011
  • Distribution and phylogeny of Brachyspira spp. in human intestinal
           spirochetosis revealed by FISH and 16S rRNA-gene analysis
    • Authors: Pablo Rojas; Annett Petrich; Julia Schulze; Alexandra Wiessner; Christoph Loddenkemper; Hans-Jörg Epple; William Sterlacci; Michael Vieth; Judith Kikhney; Annette Moter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Author(s): Pablo Rojas, Annett Petrich, Julia Schulze, Alexandra Wiessner, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Jörg Epple, William Sterlacci, Michael Vieth, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter
      During six years as National Reference Laboratory for Spirochetes we investigated 149 intestinal biopsies from 91 patients, which were histopathologically diagnosed with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing. Aim of this study was to complement histopathological findings with FISH and PCR for definite diagnosis and species identification of the causative pathogens. HIS is characterized by colonization of the colonic mucosa of the human distal intestinal tract by Brachyspira spp. Microbiological diagnosis of HIS is not performed, because of the fastidious nature and slow growth of Brachyspira spp. in culture. In clinical practice, diagnosis of HIS relies solely on histopathology without differentiation of the spirochetes. We used a previously described FISH probe to detect and identify Brachyspira spp. in histological gut biopsies. FISH allowed rapid visualization and identification of Brachyspira spp. in 77 patients. In most cases, the bright FISH signal already allowed rapid localization of Brachyspira spp. at 400× magnification. By sequencing, 53 cases could be assigned to the B. aalborgi lineage including “B. ibaraki” and “B. hominis”, and 23 cases to B. pilosicoli. One case showed mixed colonization. The cases reported here reaffirm all major HIS Brachyspira spp. clusters already described. However, the phylogenetic diversity seems to be even greater than previously reported. In 14 cases, we could not confirm HIS by either FISH or PCR, but found colonization of the epithelium by rods and cocci, indicating misdiagnosis by histopathology. FISH in combination with molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing has proved to be a valuable addition to histopathology. It provides definite diagnosis of HIS and allows insights into phylogeny and distribution of Brachyspira spp. HIS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in diarrhea of unknown origin, particularly in patients from risk groups (e.g. patients with colonic adenomas, inflammatory polyps, inflammatory bowel disease or HIV infection and in men who have sex with men).

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.012
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