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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2968 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (230 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1418 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1418 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Green Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Histology & Histopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Melittology     Open Access  
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access  
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access  
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription  
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access  
Limnological Papers     Open Access  
Lipid Insights     Open Access  
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription  
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Materials Technology : Advanced Performance Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mechanisms of Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
médecine/sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mediterranean Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Membrane Protein Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Metabolites     Open Access  
Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Metallomics     Full-text available via subscription  
Metamorfosa : Journal of Bilogical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Methods in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Methods in Cell Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Methods in Ecology and Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 28)
Micologia Aplicada Internacional     Open Access  
Microarrays     Open Access  
Micron     Hybrid Journal  
Mitochondrial DNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mitochondrion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Chemotherapy     Open Access  
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Molecular & Cellular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular and Cellular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Molecular Based Mathematical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Molecular Biology and Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Molecular Biology International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Biology of the Cell     Partially Free   (Followers: 20)
Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Brain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
           effects on the anaerobic bacteria
    • Authors: Lyudmila Boyanova
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Lyudmila Boyanova
      Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T19:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type A from wild bharals (Pseudois
           nayaur) following sudden death in Tibet, China
    • Authors: Lingwei Zhu; Wei Zhou; Tiecheng Wang; Haiyang Xiang; Xue Ji; Yixiao Han; Yuan Tian; Yang Sun; Jun Liu; Xuejun Guo
      Pages: 20 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Lingwei Zhu, Wei Zhou, Tiecheng Wang, Haiyang Xiang, Xue Ji, Yixiao Han, Yuan Tian, Yang Sun, Jun Liu, Xuejun Guo
      Dozens of wild bharals died suddenly in Tibet. Necropsy showed severe congestion and hemorrhage in multiple organs, with large numbers of Gram-positive bacilli. Strains of Clostridium perfringens type A were isolated from the different organs and the intestinal contents. The other possible pathogens were ruled out by PCR.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T19:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • First Robinsoniella peoriensis aortic cross homograft mycotic
           pseudoaneurysm: A case report and review of the literature
    • Authors: H. Mertes; L. Defourny; M. Tré-Hardy; R. Lhommel; G. El Khoury; H. Rodriguez-Villalobos; L. Belkhir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): H. Mertes, L. Defourny, M. Tré-Hardy, R. Lhommel, G. El Khoury, H. Rodriguez-Villalobos, L. Belkhir
      Mycotic aortic aneurysm is a rare and challenging complication of aortic homografts caused by an infection and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report the first case of an aortic cross homograft mycotic pseudoaneurysm caused by Robinsoniella peoriensis in a 70-year-old man. Our patient underwent surgery for a recurrence of aortic cross mycotic pseudoaneurysm at the level of the aortic homograft he had had 7 years before. A clot-removal of the pseudoaneurysm was surgically carried out and the homograft was completely removed. Anaerobic culture from tissue samples yielded pure growth of a spore-forming Gram-positive rod, identified later as Robinsoniella peoriensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was then discharged with oral clindamycin according to the in vitro susceptibility testing. Identification of R. peoriensis might be challenging in clinical laboratories with no access to molecular methods.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.014
       
  • The role of gut microbiota in health and disease: In vitro modeling of
           host-microbe interactions at the aerobe-anaerobe interphase of the human
           gut
    • Authors: Julius Z.H. von Martels; Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad; Arno R. Bourgonje; Tjasso Blokzijl; Gerard Dijkstra; Klaas Nico Faber; Hermie J.M. Harmsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Julius Z.H. von Martels, Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad, Arno R. Bourgonje, Tjasso Blokzijl, Gerard Dijkstra, Klaas Nico Faber, Hermie J.M. Harmsen
      The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition. Functional studies using (in vitro) gut models are required to investigate the precise interactions that occur between specific bacteria (or bacterial mixtures) and gut epithelial cells. As most gut bacteria are obligate or facultative anaerobes, studying their effect on oxygen-requiring human gut epithelial cells is technically challenging. Still, several (anaerobic) bacterial-epithelial co-culture systems have recently been developed that mimic host-microbe interactions occurring in the human gut, including 1) the Transwell “apical anaerobic model of the intestinal epithelial barrier”, 2) the Host-Microbiota Interaction (HMI) module, 3) the “Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic” (HoxBan) system, 4) the human gut-on-a-chip and 5) the HuMiX model. This review discusses the role of gut microbiota in health and disease and gives an overview of the characteristics and applications of these novel host-microbe co-culture systems.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.001
       
  • Fatal community-acquired ribotype 002 Clostridium difficile bacteremia
    • Authors: Nicolas Dauby; Agnès Libois; Johan van Broeck; Michel Delmée; Olivier Vandenberg; Delphine Martiny
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Nicolas Dauby, Agnès Libois, Johan van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Olivier Vandenberg, Delphine Martiny
      Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate. The patient received treatment by intra-venous amoxicillin-clavulanate and oral vancomycin but eventually died on the seventh day of admission with concomitant pneumonia and pulmonary embolism.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.013
       
  • Simple biogas desulfurization by microaeration – Full scale
           experience
    • Authors: Bindzar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): P. Jeníček, J. Horejš, L. Pokorná-Krayzelová, J. Bindzar, J. Bartáček
      Hydrogen sulfide in biogas is common problem during anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high sulfate concentration (breweries, distilleries, etc.) and needs to be removed before biogas utilization. Physico-chemical desulfurization methods are energetically demanding and expensive compare to biochemical methods. Microaeration, i.e. dosing of small amount of air, is suitable and cost effective biochemical method of sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. It has been widely used in biogas plants, but its application in anaerobic reactors for wastewater treatment has been rarely studied or tested. The lack of full-scale experience with microaeration in wastewater treatment plants has been overcome by evaluating the results of seven microaerobic digesters in central Europe. The desulfurization efficiency has been more than 90% in most of the cases. Moreover, microaeration improved the degradability of COD and volatile suspended solids.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
       
  • Characterization of the planktonic microbiome in upflow anaerobic sludge
           blanket reactors during adaptation of mesophilic methanogenic granules to
           thermophilic operational conditions
    • Authors: Xinyu Zhu; Laura Treu; Panagiotis G. Kougias; Stefano Campanaro; Irini Angelidaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Xinyu Zhu, Laura Treu, Panagiotis G. Kougias, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
      Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology refers to reactor technology where granules, i.e. self-immobilised microbial associations, are the biological catalysts involved in the anaerobic digestion process. During the start-up period, UASB reactors operate at relatively long HRT and therefore the liquid phase of the reactor becomes a favourable environment for microbial growth. The current study aimed to elucidate the dynamicity of the suspended microbial community in UASB reactors, during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the taxonomic composition of the microbiome. The results showed that the microbial community was mainly composed by hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria. Results revealed relevant shifts in the microbial community composition, which is mainly determined by the operational conditions and the reactor performance. Finally, shared OTUs between the microbial consortia of the suspended and the granular sludge showed that planktonic microbiota is significantly influencing the granule microbial community composition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.015
       
  • Pomegranate ellagitannins stimulate the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila
           in vivo
    • Authors: Susanne M. Henning; Paula H. Summanen; Ru-Po Lee; Jieping Yang; Sydney M. Finegold; David Heber; Zhaoping Li
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 43
      Author(s): Susanne M. Henning, Paula H. Summanen, Ru-Po Lee, Jieping Yang, Sydney M. Finegold, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
      Results from our previous human pomegranate extract (POM extract) intervention study demonstrated that about seventy percent of participants were able to form urolithin A from ellagitannins in the intestine (urolithin A producers). Urolithin A formation was associated with a high proportion of Akkermansia muciniphila in fecal bacterial samples as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. Here we investigated whether A. muciniphila counts increased in stool samples collected after the POM extract intervention compared to baseline stool samples using real-time PCR. In addition, we performed in vitro culture studies to determine the effect of POM extract and ellagic acid on the growth of A. muciniphila and to analyze ellagic acid metabolites formed in the culture broth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Supplementation of culture broth with 10 μM of ellagic acid did not change A. muciniphila growth while the addition of 0.18 mg/ml and 0.28 mg/ml of POM extract to the culture broth inhibited the growth of A. muciniphila significantly. Incubation of A. muciniphila with POM extract resulted in formation of ellagic acid and incubation of A. muciniphila with ellagic acid demonstrated hydrolysis of ellagic acid to metabolites different from urolithin A. The in vitro culture studies with A. muciniphila partially explain our in vivo findings that the presence of A. muciniphila was associated with breakdown of ellagic acid for further metabolism by other members of the microbiota. This is the first report of the role of A. muciniphila in ellagitannin hydrolysis. However, we conclude that enzymes from other bacteria must be involved in the formation of urolithin A in the human intestine.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T14:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
       
  • Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobic
           bacteremia in an acute care hospital
    • Authors: Thean Yen Tan; Lily Siew Yong Ng; Lee Ling Kwang; Suma Rao; Li Ching Eng
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 43
      Author(s): Thean Yen Tan, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Lee Ling Kwang, Suma Rao, Li Ching Eng
      This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009 to 2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints. Metronidazole-resistant and carbapenem-resistant anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were screened for the nim and cfiA genes. Clinical data was obtained retrospectively from electronic medical records. During the 3 year period, Bacteroides fragilis group (41%), Clostridium species (14%), Propionibacterium species (9%) and Fusobacterium species (6%) were the most commonly isolated anaerobes. Patients with anaerobic bacteraemia that were included in the study were predominantly above 60 years of age, with community-acquired infections. The most commonly used empiric antibiotic therapies were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (44%) and metronidazole (10%). The crude mortality was 25%, and appropriate initial antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with improved survival. Intra-abdominal infections (39%) and soft-tissue infections (33%) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all bacteraemia. Antibiotics with the best anaerobic activity were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with in-vitro susceptibility rates of 95%, 95%, 94% and 92% respectively. Susceptibilities to penicillin (31%), clindamycin (60%) and moxifloxacin (84%) were more variable. Two multidrug-resistant isolates of Bacteroides species were positive for nim and cfiA genes respectively, while another two imipenem-resistant Fusobacterium species were negative for cfiA genes. This study demonstrated that anaerobic bacteraemia in our patient population was predominantly associated with intra-abdominal and soft-tissue infections. Overall antibiotic resistance was high for penicillin and clindamycin, and the presence of emerging resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole warrants further monitoring.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T15:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
       
  • Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobic
           bacteremia in an acute care hospital
    • Authors: Thean Yen Tan; Lily Siew Yong Ng; Lee Ling Kwang; Suma Rao; Li Ching Eng
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 43
      Author(s): Thean Yen Tan, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Lee Ling Kwang, Suma Rao, Li Ching Eng
      This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009 to 2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints. Metronidazole-resistant and carbapenem-resistant anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were screened for the nim and cfiA genes. Clinical data was obtained retrospectively from electronic medical records. During the 3 year period, Bacteroides fragilis group (41%), Clostridium species (14%), Propionibacterium species (9%) and Fusobacterium species (6%) were the most commonly isolated anaerobes. Patients with anaerobic bacteraemia that were included in the study were predominantly above 60 years of age, with community-acquired infections. The most commonly used empiric antibiotic therapies were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (44%) and metronidazole (10%). The crude mortality was 25%, and appropriate initial antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with improved survival. Intra-abdominal infections (39%) and soft-tissue infections (33%) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all bacteraemia. Antibiotics with the best anaerobic activity were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with in-vitro susceptibility rates of 95%, 95%, 94% and 92% respectively. Susceptibilities to penicillin (31%), clindamycin (60%) and moxifloxacin (84%) were more variable. Two multidrug-resistant isolates of Bacteroides species were positive for nim and cfiA genes respectively, while another two imipenem-resistant Fusobacterium species were negative for cfiA genes. This study demonstrated that anaerobic bacteraemia in our patient population was predominantly associated with intra-abdominal and soft-tissue infections. Overall antibiotic resistance was high for penicillin and clindamycin, and the presence of emerging resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole warrants further monitoring.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T15:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 43 (2016)
       
  • Heat shock increases conjugation efficiency in Clostridium difficile
    • Authors: Joseph A. Kirk; Robert P. Fagan
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Joseph A. Kirk, Robert P. Fagan
      Clostridium difficile infection has increased in incidence and severity over the past decade, and poses a unique threat to human health. However, genetic manipulation of C. difficile remains in its infancy and the bacterium remains relatively poorly characterised. Low-efficiency conjugation is currently the only available method for transfer of plasmid DNA into C. difficile. This is practically limiting and has slowed progress in understanding this important pathogen. Conjugation efficiency varies widely between strains, with important clinically relevant strains such as R20291 being particularly refractory to plasmid transfer. Here we present an optimised conjugation method in which the recipient C. difficile is heat treated prior to conjugation. This significantly improves conjugation efficiency in all C. difficile strains tested including R20291. Conjugation efficiency was also affected by the choice of media on which conjugations were performed, with standard BHI media giving most transconjugant recovery. Using our optimised method greatly increased the ease with which the chromosome of R20291 could be precisely manipulated by homologous recombination. Our method improves on current conjugation protocols and will help speed genetic manipulation of strains otherwise difficult to work with.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Effects of corn silage and grass silage in ruminant rations on diurnal
           changes of microbial populations in the rumen of dairy cows
    • Authors: Melanie B. Lengowski; Maren Witzig; Jens Möhring; Gero M. Seyfang; Markus Rodehutscord
      Pages: 6 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Melanie B. Lengowski, Maren Witzig, Jens Möhring, Gero M. Seyfang, Markus Rodehutscord
      Here, we examined diurnal changes in the ruminal microbial community and fermentation characteristics of dairy cows fed total mixed rations containing either corn silage (CS) or grass silage (GS) as forage. The rations, which consisted of 52% concentrate and 48% GS or CS, were offered for ad libitum intake over 20 days to three ruminal-fistulated lactating Jersey cows during three consecutive feeding periods. Feed intake, ruminal pH, concentrations of short chain fatty acids and ammonia in rumen liquid, as well as abundance change in the microbial populations in liquid and solid fractions, were monitored in 4-h intervals on days 18 and 20. The abundance of total bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased in solids in cows fed CS instead of GS, and that of protozoa increased in both solid and liquid fractions. Feeding GS favored numbers of F. succinogenes and Selenomonas ruminantium in the liquid fraction as well as the numbers of Ruminobacter amylophilus, Prevotella bryantii and ruminococci in both fractions. Minor effects of silage were detected on populations of methanogens. Despite quantitative changes in the composition of the microbial community, fermentation characteristics were less affected by forage source. These results suggest a functional adaptability of the ruminal microbiota to total mixed rations containing either GS or CS as the source of forage. Diurnal changes in microbial populations were primarily affected by feed intake and differed between species and fractions, with fewer temporal fluctuations evident in the solid than in the liquid fraction. Interactions between forage source and sampling time were of minor importance to most of the microbial species examined. Thus, diurnal changes of microbial populations and fermentative activity were less affected by the two silages.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Analysis of the rumen bacterial diversity of goats during shift from
           forage to concentrate diet
    • Authors: Diego Javier Grilli; Kateřina Fliegerová; Jan Kopečný; Sebastián Paez Lama; Vanina Egea; Noelia Sohaefer; Celia Pereyra; María Soledad Ruiz; Miguel Angel Sosa; Graciela Nora Arenas; Jakub Mrázek
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Diego Javier Grilli, Kateřina Fliegerová, Jan Kopečný, Sebastián Paez Lama, Vanina Egea, Noelia Sohaefer, Celia Pereyra, María Soledad Ruiz, Miguel Angel Sosa, Graciela Nora Arenas, Jakub Mrázek
      High-grain feeding used in the animal production is known to affect the host rumen bacterial community, but our understanding of consequent changes in goats is limited. This study was therefore aimed to evaluate bacterial population dynamics during 20 days adaptation of 4 ruminally cannulated goats to the high-grain diet (grain: hay – ratio of 40:60). The dietary transition of goats from the forage to the high-grain-diet resulted in the significant decrease of rumen fluid pH, which was however still higher than value established for acute or subacute ruminal acidosis was not diagnosed in studied animals. DGGE analysis demonstrated distinct ruminal microbial populations in hay-fed and grain-fed animals, but the substantial animal-to-animal variation were detected. Quantitative PCR showed for grain-fed animals significantly higher number of bacteria belonging to C. leptum group at 10 days after the incorporation of corn into the diet and significantly lower concentration of bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria phylum at the day 20 after dietary change. Taxonomic distribution analysed by NGS at day 20 revealed the similar prevalence of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in all goats, significantly higher presence of the unclassified genus of groups of Bacteroidales and Ruminococcaceae in grain-fed animals and significantly higher presence the genus Prevotella and Butyrivibrio in the forage-fed animals. The three different culture-independent methods used in this study show that high proportion of concentrate in goat diet does not induce any serious disturbance of their rumen ecosystem and indicate the good adaptive response of caprine ruminal bacteria to incorporation of corn into the diet.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Changes in the antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria from
           2007–2009 to 2010–2012 based on the CLSI methodology
    • Authors: Christine J. Hastey; Halsey Boyd; Audrey N. Schuetz; Karen Anderson; Diane M. Citron; Jody Dzink-Fox; Meredith Hackel; David W. Hecht; Nilda V. Jacobus; Stephen G. Jenkins; Maria Karlsson; Cynthia C. Knapp; Laura M. Koeth; Hannah Wexler; Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter
      Pages: 27 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Christine J. Hastey, Halsey Boyd, Audrey N. Schuetz, Karen Anderson, Diane M. Citron, Jody Dzink-Fox, Meredith Hackel, David W. Hecht, Nilda V. Jacobus, Stephen G. Jenkins, Maria Karlsson, Cynthia C. Knapp, Laura M. Koeth, Hannah Wexler, Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter
      Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates was conducted at four independent sites from 2010 to 2012 and compared to results from three sites during the period of 2007–2009. This data comparison shows significant changes in antimicrobial resistance in some anaerobic groups. Therefore, we continue to recommend institutions regularly perform susceptibility testing when anaerobes are cultured from pertinent sites. Annual generation of an institutional-specific antibiogram is recommended for tracking of resistance trends over time.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Multidrug-resistant oral Capnocytophaga gingivalis responsible for an
           acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Case report
           and literature review
    • Authors: Elodie Ehrmann; Anne Jolivet-Gougeon; Martine Bonnaure-Mallet; Thierry Fosse
      Pages: 50 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Elodie Ehrmann, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Thierry Fosse
      Introduction Capnocytophaga genus was recently known to highly contribute to the beta-lactam (BL) and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance gene reservoir in the oral microbiota (BL: bla CSP-1 and bla CfxA; MLS: erm(F) and erm(C)). But fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance remains uncommon in literature, without available data on resistance mechanisms. Case report For the first time, a case of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was described in a 78-year-old immunocompetent patient due to a multidrug-resistant Capnocytophaga gingivalis isolate with significant microbiological finding. C.gingivalis acquired resistance to third generation cephalosporins (bla CfxA3 gene), MLS (erm(F) gene), and fluoroquinolones. Genetics of the resistance, unknown as regards fluoroquinolone, was investigated and a substitution in QRDR of GyrA was described (Gly80Asn substitution) for the first time in the Capnocytophaga genus. Literature review A comprehensive literature review of Capnocytophaga spp. extra-oral infection was conducted. Including the present report, on 43 cases, 7 isolates were BL-resistant (17%), 4 isolates were MLS-resistant (9.5%) and 4 isolates were FQ-resistant (9.5%). The studied clinical isolate of C.gingivalis was the only one to combine resistance to the three groups of antibiotics BL, MLS and FQ. Four cases of Capnocytophaga lung infection were reported, including three infections involving C. gingivalis (two FQ resistant) and one involving C. sputigena. Conclusion This multidrug-resistant C. gingivalis isolate illustrated the role of oral flora as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance and its contribution to the limitation of effective antibiotics in severe respiratory infections.

      PubDate: 2016-08-16T13:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of oral microbiota in undernourished and eutrophic children
           using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization
    • Authors: M. Testa; S. Erbiti; A. Delgado; I.L. Cardenas
      Pages: 55 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): M. Testa, S. Erbiti, A. Delgado, I.L. Cardenas
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among nutritional status, gingival health and the composition of oral microbiota in children of a public school from a very poor area of San Miguel de Tucuman. Forty-five children ranging in age from 6 to 14 years old, 13 males and 32 females were studied. Twenty of these children were undernourished (Lejarraga-Morasso Table) and twenty-five were eutrophic. A clinical study that included DMF and dmf indexes, Löe Silness Plaque Index and bleeding on probing was performed. For microbiological study, saliva samples without stimulation were taken; aliquots of them were immediately placed in TAE buffer pH 7.6, adding NaOH (N and keeping at -70 °C until processed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method to check the presence of 40 oral microorganism species. Positive bleeding on probing was present in more than 80% of children, without significant differences between eutrophic and undernourished groups. Same result were obtain for the other clinical indexes (p > 0.05, Two Way ANOVA). Significant differences were found for some oral microorganism species, with a higher percentage of undernourished children harboring them. That was the case of S. gordonii (p < 0.05), Capnocitophaga gingivalis and C. ochraceae (p < 0.01 and p < 0.10, respectively), F. nucleatum ss nucleatum (p < 0.05), P. nigrescens (p < 0.10), Campylobacter gracilis (p < 0,05), and T. denticola (p < 0.10, multiple logistic regression). Significant differences were also found between children groups for E. saborreum (p < 0.001), P. acnes (p < 0.10), G. morbillorum (p < 0.05) and L. buccalis (p < 0.10). Gingivitis and bleeding on probing would not be related to nutritional status in the groups of children studied. There were significant differences for the presence of some of the main periodontal pathogen species between eutrophic and undernourished children. It would be important to study the meaning of significant differences found for the other microorganisms more deeply.

      PubDate: 2016-08-21T13:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • In vitro analysis of partially hydrolyzed guar gum fermentation on
           identified gut microbiota
    • Authors: Justin Carlson; Trevor Gould; Joanne Slavin
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Justin Carlson, Trevor Gould, Joanne Slavin
      Background Prebiotic dietary fibers resist digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and allow for stimulation of bacteria in the distal intestine and colon. Stimulation of bacteria among different individuals varies greatly, depending on a wide range of variables. Objective To determine the range of differences in response between individuals, a preclinical in vitro fermentation was conducted with six fecal donors. The primary objective was to compare the fecal microbiota of six individuals at baseline, 12 h and 24 h post-exposure to partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG). Method Fecal donations were collected from six healthy individuals consuming a non-specific Western diet, free of antibiotic treatments in the past year, not affected by any GI diseases and not consuming any probiotic or prebiotic supplements. Fecal samples were exposed to 0.5 g of PHGG and measured for bacterial changes at 0, 12 and 24 h base on 16S rRNA sequencing. Results Parabacteroides increased from 3.48% of sequence reads to 10.62% of sequence reads after 24 h (p = 0.0181) and Bacteroidetes increased from 45.89% of sequence reads to 50.29% of sequence reads (p = 0.0008). Conclusions PHGG stimulates growth of Parabacteroides, a genus of bacteria that have been inversely associated with IBS and ulcerative colitis. PHGG provides stimulation of beneficial Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides and Parabacteroides), which may be correlated with many positive health markers and outcomes. PHGG is a prebiotic dietary fiber that is readily fermentable.

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T14:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • The role of the bacterial microbiota on reproductive and pregnancy health
    • Authors: Deborah B. Nelson; L. Christie Rockwell; Morgan D. Prioleau; Laura Goetzl
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Deborah B. Nelson, L. Christie Rockwell, Morgan D. Prioleau, Laura Goetzl
      Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microbiome and identifying the vast communities of microorganisms that inhabit our bodies and much work continues to examine the individual contribution of bacteria on health and disease to inform future therapies. This review explores the current literature outlining the contribution of important bacteria on reproductive health among sexually active men and women, outlines gaps in current research to determine causal and interventional relationships, and suggests future research initiatives. Novel treatments options to reduce adverse outcomes must recognize the heterogeneity of the bacteria within the microbiome and adequately assess long-term benefits in reducing disease burden and re-establishing a healthy Lactobacillus-dominant state. Recognizing other reservoirs outside of the lower genital track and within sexual partners as well as genetic and individual moderators may be most important for long-term cure and reduction of disease. It will be important to develop useful screening tools and comprehensively examine novel therapeutic options to promote the long-term reduction of high-risk bacteria and the re-establishment of healthy bacterial levels to considerably improve outcomes among pregnant women and sexually active men and women.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T14:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • A case of Bacteroides pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess
    • Authors: Jong Eun Park; So-Young Park; Dong Joon Song; Hee Jae Huh; Chang-Seok Ki; Kyong Ran Peck; Nam Yong Lee
      Pages: 78 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Jong Eun Park, So-Young Park, Dong Joon Song, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Kyong Ran Peck, Nam Yong Lee
      Bacteroides pyogenes, a non-spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-negative rod, is a component of the oral flora of animals and has, on occasion, been reported to cause human infection through dog or cat bites. We report the first case of B. pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess with no history of an animal bite. The microorganism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T14:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Counterselection employing mutated pheS for markerless genetic deletion in
           Bacteroides species
    • Authors: Yasuhiro Kino; Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji; Masashi Fujita; Ayano Tada; Saori Yoneda; Kazuya Murakami; Masahito Hashimoto; Tetsuya Hayashi; Katsuichiro Okazaki; Tomomi Kuwahara
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Yasuhiro Kino, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Masashi Fujita, Ayano Tada, Saori Yoneda, Kazuya Murakami, Masahito Hashimoto, Tetsuya Hayashi, Katsuichiro Okazaki, Tomomi Kuwahara
      Markerless gene deletion is necessary for multiple gene disruptions due to the limited number of antibiotic resistant markers for some bacteria. However, even in transformable strains, obtaining the expected mutation without a marker requires laborious screening of a large number of colonies. Previous studies had success in various bacteria with a counter-selection system where a conditional lethal gene was incorporated into the vector. We examined the efficacy of the mutated pheS gene (pheS*) as a counter-selective marker for gene deletion in Bacteroides. This mutation produces an amino acid substitution (A303G) in the alpha subunit of Bacteroides phenylalanyl tRNA synthetase, which in E. coli alters the specificity of the tRNA synthetase resulting in a conditional lethal mutation due to the incorporation of p-chloro-phenylalanine (p-Cl-Phe) into protein. B. fragilis YCH46 and B. thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 transformed with a pheS*-harboring shuttle vector were clearly growth-inhibited in the presence of >5 mM p-Cl-Phe in liquid defined minimal media (DMM) and on DMM agar plates. A targeting plasmid was constructed to delete the genetic region for capsular polysaccharide PS2 in B. fragilis or PS1 in B. thetaiotaomicron. After counterselection, p-Cl-Phe-resistant colonies were generated at a frequency of 8.1 × 10−3 for B. fragilis and 1.7 × 10−3 for B. thetaiotaomicron. Of the p-Cl-Phe-resistant colonies, 4.2% and 72% harbored the correct genetic deletion for B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron, respectively. These results indicate that mutated pheS is a useful counter-selective gene to construct markerless genetic deletions in Bacteroides.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T14:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • The role of Fusobacterium necrophorum in pharyngotonsillitis – A
           review
    • Authors: Karin Holm; Steffen Bank; Hanne Nielsen; Lena Hagelskjær Kristensen; Jørgen Prag; Anders Jensen
      Pages: 89 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Karin Holm, Steffen Bank, Hanne Nielsen, Lena Hagelskjær Kristensen, Jørgen Prag, Anders Jensen
      Fusobacterium necrophorum is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of the invasive disease Lemierre's syndrome. In addition, it is also associated with peritonsillar abscess formation and otitis media in small children. Recent research has shown that F. necrophorum may be involved in pharyngotonsillitis especially in adolescent and young adults and that it may be the second most common bacterial cause of pharyngotonsillitis after Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococci). Peritonsillar abscesses and Lemierre's syndrome due to F. necrophorum are also found in this age group, suggesting that they may be complications of F. necrophorum pharyngotonsillitis. In this review we present the present knowledge about the role of F. necrophorum in pharyngotonsillitis with special emphasis on the age distribution. We argue that F. necrophorum is an important pathogen involved in pharyngotonsillitis in the age group of 13–40 years of age and we urge clinical microbiology labs to set up the appropriate techniques to be able to detect F. necrophorum from throat swabs.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T14:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
           Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry) for routine identification of anaerobic
           bacteria
    • Authors: Belén Rodríguez-Sánchez; Luis Alcalá; Mercedes Marín; Adrián Ruiz; Elena Alonso; Emilio Bouza
      Pages: 101 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Belén Rodríguez-Sánchez, Luis Alcalá, Mercedes Marín, Adrián Ruiz, Elena Alonso, Emilio Bouza
      Information regarding the use of MALDI-TOF MS as an alternative to conventional laboratory methods for the rapid and reliable identification of bacterial isolates is still limited. In this study, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated on 295 anaerobic isolates previously identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and with biochemical tests (Rapid ID 32A system, BioMérieux). In total, 85.8% of the isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS at the species level vs 49.8% using the Rapid ID 32A system (p < 0.0001). None of the isolates was discordantly identified at the genus level using MALDI-TOF MS and only 9 of them could not be identified using the method. Thus, our results show that MALDI-TOF MS is a robust and reliable tool for the identification of anaerobic isolates in the microbiology laboratory. Its implementation will reduce the turnaround time for a final identification and the number of isolates that require 16S rRNA sequencing.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T14:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum tonsillitis with mild case of Lemierre's
           syndrome
    • Authors: Pavan Kumar; Panchavati Bhavini Kar Ali Hassoun Robert Centor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Pavan Kumar Panchavati, Bhavini Kar, Ali Hassoun, Robert M. Centor


      PubDate: 2016-12-29T16:01:25Z
       
  • Detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum in two cases of empyema and lung
           abscess using paromomycin-vancomycin supplemented Brucella HK agar
    • Authors: Kentaro Nagaoka; Katsunori Yanagihara; Yosuke Harada; Koichi Yamada; Yohei Migiyama; Yoshitomo Morinaga; Koichi Izumikawa; Shigeru Kohno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Kentaro Nagaoka, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Shigeru Kohno
      Fusobacterium nucleatum was found in patients with empyema or pulmonary abscess, using paromomycin-vancomycin Brucella HK agar. In vitro examination revealed that growth of the strains differed significantly in different media. Clinicians should be aware that suboptimal F. nucleatum cultivation methods may result in an underestimation of its frequency.

      PubDate: 2016-12-29T16:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2016.09.013
       
  • Probiotics and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection
    • Authors: E.J.C. Goldstein; S.J. Johnson; P.-J. Maziade; C.T. Evans; J.C. Sniffen; M. Millette; L.V. McFarland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): E.J.C. Goldstein, S.J. Johnson, P.-J. Maziade, C.T. Evans, J.C. Sniffen, M. Millette, L.V. McFarland
      The role of probiotics as adjunctive measures in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been controversial. However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that they have a role in primary prevention of CDI. Elements of this controversy are reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of action, the value and cost effectiveness of probiotics are addressed with a focus on three agents, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+).

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T15:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.007
       
  • First report of metronidazole resistant, nimD-positive, Bacteroides
           stercoris isolated from an abdominal abscess in a 70-year-old woman
    • Authors: Erik Otte; Hans Linde Nielsen; Henrik Hasman; David Fuglsang-Damgaard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Erik Otte, Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Hasman, David Fuglsang-Damgaard
      We here present the first case of a metronidazole resistant nimD positive Bacteroides stercoris. The isolate originated from a polymicrobial intra-abdominal abscess in a 70-year-old woman. The nimD gene was detected by use of whole-genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent use of the ResFinder 2.1 web service.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T15:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.010
       
  • Probiotics and prevention of Clostridium difficile infection
    • Authors: E.J.C. Goldstein; S.J. Johnson; P.-J. Maziade; C.T. Evans; J.C. Sniffen; M. Millette; L.V. McFarland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): E.J.C. Goldstein, S.J. Johnson, P.-J. Maziade, C.T. Evans, J.C. Sniffen, M. Millette, L.V. McFarland
      The role of probiotics as adjunctive measures in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been controversial. However, a growing body of evidence has suggested that they have a role in primary prevention of CDI. Elements of this controversy are reviewed and the proposed mechanisms of action, the value and cost effectiveness of probiotics are addressed with a focus on three agents, Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+).

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T15:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.007
       
  • First report of metronidazole resistant, nimD-positive, Bacteroides
           stercoris isolated from an abdominal abscess in a 70-year-old woman
    • Authors: Erik Otte; Hans Linde Nielsen; Henrik Hasman; David Fuglsang-Damgaard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Erik Otte, Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Hasman, David Fuglsang-Damgaard
      We here present the first case of a metronidazole resistant nimD positive Bacteroides stercoris. The isolate originated from a polymicrobial intra-abdominal abscess in a 70-year-old woman. The nimD gene was detected by use of whole-genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent use of the ResFinder 2.1 web service.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T15:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.010
       
  • Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through
           combined harvesting and pretreatment
    • Authors: P. Tsapekos; P.G. Kougias; H. Egelund; U. Larsen; J. Pedersen; P. Trénel; I. Angelidaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): P. Tsapekos, P.G. Kougias, H. Egelund, U. Larsen, J. Pedersen, P. Trénel, I. Angelidaki
      An important challenge that has to be addressed to achieve sustainable anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates is the development of energy and cost efficient pretreatment methods. Technologies orientated to simultaneously harvest and mechanically pretreat the biomass at the field could meet these criteria as they can potentially reduce the energy losses. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of two full-scale harvesting machines to enhance the biogas production and subsequently, improve energy balance. The performances of Disc-mower and Excoriator were assessed on meadow and cultivated grass silages. The results showed that relatively high methane production can be achieved from meadow and cultivated grass harvested in different seasons. The findings indicated that the bioenergy production can be improved based on the selection of the appropriate harvesting technology. More specifically, Excoriator, which cuts and subsequently applies shearing forces on harvested biomass, enhanced the methane production up to 10% and the overall energy budget was improved proportionally to the driving speed increase.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T14:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.005
       
  • Recurrent obstructive acute pyelonephritis: A rare form of Actinobaculum
           schaalii infection in a HIV-1 infected patient
    • Authors: Anaïs Vallet; Nicolas Noël; Rachid Bahi; Elina Teicher; Yann Quertainmont; Jean-François Delfraissy; Sophie Ferlicot; Anaïs Potron; Cécile Goujard; Olivier Lambotte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Anaïs Vallet, Nicolas Noël, Rachid Bahi, Elina Teicher, Yann Quertainmont, Jean-François Delfraissy, Sophie Ferlicot, Anaïs Potron, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte
      Actinobaculum schaalii is a rarely reported, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium which role as uropathogen is emerging. We report here the case of a 47 year old HIV-1 infected woman presented with five recurrent episodes of obstructive pyelonephritis in the context of multiple renal stones. No bacteria was found until the fifth episode, during which prolonged urinary cultures as well as 16S rDNA sequencing allowed the diagnosis of A. schaalii infection. She had developed a life-threatening condition with severe renal failure. A right nephrectomy was performed and found that the intrarenal stones were attributed to the antiretroviral therapy. The renal parenchyma corresponded to an end-stage renal disease with chronic pyelonephritis without abcesses or granules. The situation improved after six months of amoxicillin therapy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T14:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.004
       
  • Isolation of Clostridium difficile from dogs with digestive disorders,
           including stable metronidazole-resistant strains
    • Authors: Cristina Orden; Jose L. Blanco; Sergio Álvarez-Pérez; Mercedes Garcia-Sancho; Fernando Rodriguez-Franco; Angel Sainz; Alejandra Villaescusa; Celine Harmanus; Ed Kuijper; Marta E. Garcia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Cristina Orden, Jose L. Blanco, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Mercedes Garcia-Sancho, Fernando Rodriguez-Franco, Angel Sainz, Alejandra Villaescusa, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Marta E. Garcia
      The prevalence of Clostridium difficile in 107 dogs with diverse digestive disorders attended in a Spanish veterinary teaching hospital was assessed. The microorganism was isolated from 13 dogs (12.1%) of different disease groups. Isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 078, 106, 154 and 430 (all of them toxigenic) and 110 (non-toxigenic), and were resistant to several antimicrobial drugs. Notably, seven isolates obtained from different dogs displayed stable resistance to metronidazole. The results of this study provide further evidence that dogs can act as a reservoir of C. difficile strains of epidemic ribotypes with resistance to multiple antibiotics.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T14:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.008
       
  • SigCH, an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor of Porphyromonas
           gingivalis regulates the expression of cdhR and hmuYR
    • Authors: Koki Ota; Yuichiro Kikuchi; Kentaro Imamura; Daichi Kita; Kouki Yoshikawa; Atsushi Saito; Kazuyuki Ishihara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Koki Ota, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Kentaro Imamura, Daichi Kita, Kouki Yoshikawa, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
      Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors play an important role in the bacterial response to various environmental stresses. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a prominent etiological agent in human periodontitis, possesses six putative ECF sigma factors. So far, information is limited on the ECF sigma factor, PGN_0319. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PGN_0319 (SigCH) of P. gingivalis, focusing on the regulation of hmuY and hmuR, which encode outer-membrane proteins involved in hemin utilization, and cdhR, a transcriptional regulator of hmuYR. First, we evaluated the gene expression profile of the sigCH mutant by DNA microarray. Among the genes with altered expression levels, those involved in hemin utilization were downregulated in the sigCH mutant. To verify the microarray data, quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis was performed. The RNA samples used were obtained from bacterial cells grown to early-log phase, in which sigCH expression in the wild type was significantly higher than that in mid-log and late-log phases. The expression levels of hmuY, hmuR, and cdhR were significantly decreased in the sigCH mutant compared to wild type. Transcription of these genes was restored in a sigCH complemented strain. Compared to the wild type, the sigCH mutant showed reduced growth in log phase under hemin-limiting conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that recombinant SigCH protein bound to the promoter region of hmuY and cdhR. These results suggest that SigCH plays an important role in the early growth of P. gingivalis, and directly regulates cdhR and hmuYR, thereby playing a potential role in the mechanisms of hemin utilization by P. gingivalis.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T14:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.006
       
  • Low antibiotic resistance among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria in
           periodontitis 5 years following metronidazole therapy
    • Authors: G. Dahlen; H. Preus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): G. Dahlen, H. Preus
      The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination. E-tests against metronidazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and clindamycin were employed. The 73/85 strains were Gram-negative rods (21 Porphyromonas spp., 22 Prevotella/Bacteroides spp., 23 Fusobacterium/Filifactor spp., 3 Campylobacter spp. and 4 Tannerella forsythia). These were all isolated from the treated patients irrespective of therapy procedures (+/−metronidazole) 5 years prior. Three strains (Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium propionicum, Parvimonas micra) showed MIC values for metronidazole over the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing break point of >4 μg/mL. All Porphyromonas and Tannerella strains were highly susceptible. Metronidazole resistant Gram-negative strains were not found, while a few showed resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. In this population of 161 patients who had been subject to mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunct metronidazole 5 years prior, no cultivable antibiotic resistant anaerobes were found in the predominant subgingival microbiota.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T14:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.009
       
  • Blautia massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a fresh human fecal sample
           and emended description of the genus Blautia
    • Authors: Guillaume A. Durand; Thao Pham; Sokhna Ndongo; Sory Traore; Grégory Dubourg; Jean-Christophe Lagier; Caroline Michelle; Nicholas Armstrong; Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Didier Raoult; Matthieu Million
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Guillaume A. Durand, Thao Pham, Sokhna Ndongo, Sory Traore, Grégory Dubourg, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Caroline Michelle, Nicholas Armstrong, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
      The strain GD9T is the type strain of the newly proposed species Blautia massiliensis sp. nov., belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae. It was isolated from a fresh stool sample collected from a healthy human using the culturomics strategy. Cells are Gram-negative rods, oxygen intolerant, non-motile and non-spore forming. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain GD9T was closely related to Blautia luti, with a 97.8% sequence similarity. Major fatty acids were C14:0 (19.8%) and C16:0 (53.2%). Strain GD9T exhibits a genome of 3,717,339 bp that contains 3346 protein-coding genes and 81 RNAs genes including 63 tRNAs. The features of this organism are described here, with its complete genome sequence and annotation. Compared with other Blautia species which are Gram positive, the strain was Gram negative justifying an emended description of the genus Blautia.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T14:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.001
       
  • Rhodomyrtone inhibits lipase production, biofilm formation, and
           disorganizes established biofilm in Propionibacterium acnes
    • Authors: Suttiwan Wunnoo; Jongkon Saising; Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Suttiwan Wunnoo, Jongkon Saising, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
      Virulence enzymes and biofilm a play crucial role in the pathogenesis of Propionibacterium acnes, a major causative agent of acne vulgaris. In the present study, the effects of rhodomyrtone, a pure compound identified from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves extract against enzyme production and biofilm formation production by 5 clinical isolates and a reference strain were evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis by both lipase and protease enzymes significantly decreased upon treatment with the compound at 0.125–0.25 μg/mL (p < 0.05). Lipolytic zones significantly reduced in all isolates while decrease in proteolytic activities was found only in 50% of the isolates. Rhodomyrtone at 1/16MIC and 1/8MIC caused significant reduction in biofilm formation of the clinical isolates (p < 0.05). Percentage viability of P. acnes within mature biofilm upon treated with the compound at 4MIC and 8MIC ranged between 40% and 85%. Pronounced properties of rhodomyrtone suggest a path towards developing a novel anti-acne agent.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T14:21:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.002
       
  • Rapid identification of Robinsoniella peoriensis using specific 16S rRNA
           gene PCR primers
    • Authors: Terence R. Whitehead; Christelle Anoma; Richard W. McLaughlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Terence R. Whitehead, Christelle Anoma, Richard W. McLaughlin
      Robinsoniella peoriensis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium initially isolated and characterized from swine manure and feces. Since then strains of this species have been identified from a variety of mammalian and other GI tracts. More recently strains of this species have been isolated from a plethora of human infections. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop methods to rapidly identify this microorganism in the medical and other laboratories. This report describes the use of PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of R. peoriensis to identify strains of this bacterium.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T13:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.008
       
  • Actinotignum schaalii subcutaneous abscesses in a patient with
           hidradenitis suppurativa: Case report and literature review
    • Authors: Sofia Maraki; George Evangelou; Dimitra Stafylaki; Efstathia Scoulica
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Sofia Maraki, George Evangelou, Dimitra Stafylaki, Efstathia Scoulica
      Actinotignum schaalii (formerly Actinobaculum schaalii) is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic rod that is typically involved in urinary tract infections in elderly patients or those with underlying urological pathologies. In contrast, abscess formation caused by A. schaalii is very rare. We present a case of multiple abscesses in the perineal area in a young patient with hidradenitis suppurativa associated with A. schaalii and Prevotella melaninogenica and review the relevant literature on the topic.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T13:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.010
       
  • Trends in antimicrobial resistance among Bacteroides species and
           Parabacteroides species in the United States from 2010–2012 with
           comparison to 2008–2009
    • Authors: D.R. Snydman; N.V. Jacobus; L.A. McDermott; E.J.C. Goldstein; L. Harrell; S.G. Jenkins; D. Newton; R. Patel; D.W. Hecht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): D.R. Snydman, N.V. Jacobus, L.A. McDermott, E.J.C. Goldstein, L. Harrell, S.G. Jenkins, D. Newton, R. Patel, D.W. Hecht
      The susceptibility trends for Bacteroides fragilis and related species against various antibiotics were determined using data from 3 years of surveillance (2010–2012) on 779 isolates referred by 7 medical centers. The antibiotic test panel included imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, linezolid, chloramphenicol and . MICs were determined using the agar dilution CLSI reference method. Carbapenem resistance remained low (range 1.1%–2.5%) and unchanged from 2008 to 9 through 2010–2012. Resistance also remained low to the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (1.1%–4.4%). While resistance to clindamycin and moxifloxacin remained high; rates were lower for B. fragilis in 2010-12 (24% and 19% respectively) compared to the earlier time frame of 2008-9 (29% and 35% respectively for the earlier time frame). There were notable species and resistance associations which have been demonstrated previously. No resistance to metronidazole or chloramphenicol resistance was seen. These data demonstrate the continued variability in resistance among Bacteroides and Parabacteroides species, but do demonstrate that carbapenems and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations remain very active throughout the United States.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.003
       
  • Isolation of a sulfide-producing bacterial consortium from cooling-tower
           water: Evaluation of corrosive effects on galvanized steel
    • Authors: Esra Ilhan-Sungur; Derya Ozuolmez; Ayşın Çotuk; Nurhan Cansever; Gerard Muyzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Esra Ilhan-Sungur, Derya Ozuolmez, Ayşın Çotuk, Nurhan Cansever, Gerard Muyzer
      Sulfidogenic Clostridia and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) often cohabit in nature. The presence of these microorganisms can cause microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of materials in different ways. To investigate this aspect, bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water and used in corrosion tests of galvanized steel. The identity of the isolates was determined by comparative sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments, separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This analysis showed that, in spite of the isolation process, colonies were not pure and consisted of a mixture of bacteria affiliated with Desulfosporosinus meridiei and Clostridium sp. To evaluate the corrosive effect, galvanized steel coupons were incubated with a mixed culture for 4, 8, 24, 72, 96, 168, 360 and 744 h, along with a control set in sterile culture medium only. The corrosion rate was determined by weight loss, and biofilm formation and corroded surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the sulfide-producing bacterial consortium led to a slight increase in the corrosion of galvanized steel coupons, when compared to the previous studies it can be said that Clostridium sp. can reduce the corrosive effect of the Desulfosporosinus sp. strain.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.005
       
  • Survival and prevalence of Clostridium difficile in manure compost derived
           from pigs
    • Authors: Masaru Usui; Mayuko Kawakura; Nobuki Yoshizawa; Lai Lai San; Chie Nakajima; Yasuhiko Suzuki; Yutaka Tamura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Masaru Usui, Mayuko Kawakura, Nobuki Yoshizawa, Lai Lai San, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Yutaka Tamura
      Pigs, particularly piglets, have been identified as reservoir hosts of Clostridium difficile. To examine the survival ability of this pathogen in pig feces-based manure compost, C. difficile spores, which were prepared to contain as few vegetative cells as possible, were artificially inoculated into pig feces and incubated at different temperatures. While C. difficile survived in the feces incubated at temperatures below 37 °C for over 30 days, cell numbers gradually decreased at thermophilic temperatures (over 55 °C; p < 0.05). Next, to clarify the prevalence of C. difficile in field manure compost, we isolated and characterized C. difficile from the final products of manure compost products of 14 pig farms. A total of 11 C. difficile strains were isolated from 5 of 14 (36% positive rate) samples tested. Of these 11 strains, 82% were toxigenic, with ribotype 078 being the most prevalent. Thus, the application of composted manure to land therefore poses a possible risk of C. difficile transfer to the food chain.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.004
       
  • Isolation and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens from
           healthy Merino lambs in Patagonia region, Argentina
    • Authors: A.C. Mignaqui; R.B. Marcellino; T. Ronco; J.S. Pappalardo; B. Nonnemann; K. Pedersen; C.A. Robles
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): A.C. Mignaqui, R.B. Marcellino, T. Ronco, J.S. Pappalardo, B. Nonnemann, K. Pedersen, C.A. Robles
      The presence and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens in healthy Merino lambs over a six-month period was investigated in this study. Overall, a high prevalence of C. perfringens was detected, even in day-old lambs. Even though the majority of the isolates were characterized as being of type A, types C and D were also isolated. Furthermore, a high genetic diversity was observed by PFGE among the type A isolates.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T19:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.015
       
  • Establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota of preterm
           infants in a Lebanese tertiary hospital
    • Authors: Tarek Itani; Carole Ayoub Moubareck; Imad Melki; Clotilde Rousseau; Irène Mangin; Marie-José Butel; Dolla Karam Sarkis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Tarek Itani, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Imad Melki, Clotilde Rousseau, Irène Mangin, Marie-José Butel, Dolla Karam Sarkis
      The establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota is known to be associated with profound short- and long-term effects on the health of full-term infants (FTI), but studies are just starting for preterm infants (PTI). The data also mostly come from western countries and little information is available for the Middle East. Here, we determined the composition and dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during the first month of life for PTI (n = 66) and FTI (n = 17) in Lebanon. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). We observed differences in the establishment and composition of the intestinal microbiota between the two groups. q-PCR showed that PTI were more highly colonized by Staphylococcus than FTI in the first three weeks of life; whereas FTI were more highly colonized by Clostridium clusters I and XI. At one month of life, PTI were mainly colonized by facultative anaerobes and a few strict anaerobes, such as Clostridium cluster I and Bifidobacterium. The type of feeding and antibiotic treatments significantly affected intestinal colonization. TTGE revealed low species diversity in both groups and high inter-individual variability in PTI. Our findings show that PTI had altered intestinal colonization with a higher occurrence of potential pathogens (Enterobacter, Clostridium sp) than FTI. This suggests the need for intervention strategies for PTI to modulate their intestinal microbiota and promote their health.

      PubDate: 2016-11-09T19:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.001
       
  • Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Propionibacterium acnes caused by
           amino acid substitutions of DNA gyrase but not DNA topoisomerase IV
    • Authors: Keisuke Nakase; Yui Sakuma; Hidemasa Nakaminami; Norihisa Noguchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Keisuke Nakase, Yui Sakuma, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Norihisa Noguchi
      With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, we determined the susceptibility of fluoroquinolones in 211 isolates from patients with acne vulgaris. We identified five isolates (2.4%) with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 4 μg/ml). Determination of the sequences of the DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and DNA topoisomerase (parC and parE) genes showed the amino acid substitutions Ser101Leu and Asp105Gly of GyrA in four and one of the isolates, respectively. In vitro mutation experiments showed that low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants with the Ser101Leu or Asp105Gly substitution in GyrA could be obtained from selection with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The pattern of substitution (Ser101Trp in GyrA) caused by nadifloxacin selection was different from that induced by the other fluoroquinolones. In the isolation of further high-level resistant mutants, acquisition of another amino acid substitution of GyrB in addition to those of GyrA was detected, but there were no substitutions of ParC and ParE. In addition, the mutant prevention concentration and mutation frequency of nadifloxacin were lowest among the tested fluoroquinolones. The growth of the Ser101Trp mutant was lower than that of the other mutants. Our findings suggest that the Ser101Trp mutant of P. acnes emerges rarely and disappears immediately, and the risk for the prevalence of fluoroquinolones-resistant P. acnes differs according to the GyrA mutation type. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in P. acnes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.012
       
  • Severe forefoot infection complicated by Fusobacterium russii
    • Authors: Elisabeth Ullrich; Andrea J. Grisold; Gebhard Feierl; David B. Lumenta; Eva Leitner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Elisabeth Ullrich, Andrea J. Grisold, Gebhard Feierl, David B. Lumenta, Eva Leitner
      We present the first case of a complicated foot infection caused by Fusobacterium russii in Austria. F. russii is highly associated with mammals such as cats and dogs. Our case underlines the difficulties in isolation and identification of anaerobes and the pitfalls in antimicrobial treatment of polymicrobial infections.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.010
       
  • Anti-botulism single-shot vaccine using chitosan for protein encapsulation
           by simple coacervation
    • Authors: Roger S. Sari; Anna Christina de Almeida; Alex S.R. Cangussu; Edson V. Jorge; Otto D. Mozzer; Hércules Otacílio Santos; Wagner Quintilio; Igor Viana Brandi; Viviane Aguiar Andrade; Angelo Samir M. Miguel; Eliane M. Sobrinho Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Roger S. Sari, Anna Christina de Almeida, Alex S.R. Cangussu, Edson V. Jorge, Otto D. Mozzer, Hércules Otacílio Santos, Wagner Quintilio, Igor Viana Brandi, Viviane Aguiar Andrade, Angelo Samir M. Miguel, Eliane M. Sobrinho Santos
      The aim of the present study was to compare the potency and safety of vaccines against Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) type C and D formulated with chitosan as controlled release matrix and vaccines formulated in conventional manner using aluminum hydroxide. Parameters were established for the development of chitosan microspheres, using simple coacervation to standardize the use of this polymer in protein encapsulation for vaccine formulation. To formulate a single shot vaccine inactivated antigens of C. botulinum type C and D were used with original toxin titles equal to 5.2 and 6.2 log LD50/ml, respectively. For each antigen a chitosan based solution of 50 mL was prepared. Control vaccines were formulated by mixing toxoid type C and D with aluminum hydroxide [25% Al(OH)3, pH 6.3]. The toxoid sterility, innocuity and potency of vaccines were evaluated as stipulated by MAPA-BRASIL according to ministerial directive no. 23. Encapsulation efficiency of BSA in chitosan was 32.5–40.37%, while that the encapsulation efficiency to toxoid type C was 41,03% (1.94 mg/mL) and of the toxoid type D was 32.30% (1.82 mg/mL). The single shot vaccine formulated using chitosan for protein encapsulation through simple coacervation showed potency and safety similar to conventional vaccine currently used in Brazilian livestock (10 and 2 IU/mL against C. botulinum type C and D, respectively). The present work suggests that our single shot vaccine would be a good option as a cattle vaccine against these C. botulinum type C and D.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.013
       
  • GABA production and structure of gadB/gadC genes in Lactobacillus and
           Bifidobacterium strains from human microbiota
    • Authors: R.A. Yunes; E.U. Poluektova; M.S. Dyachkova; K.M. Klimina; A.S. Kovtun; O.V. Averina; V.S. Orlova; V.N. Danilenko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): R.A. Yunes, E.U. Poluektova, M.S. Dyachkova, K.M. Klimina, A.S. Kovtun, O.V. Averina, V.S. Orlova, V.N. Danilenko
      Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate. Fifty eight strains were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bificobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). Time profiles of cell growth and GABA production as well as the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on GABA production were studied for L. plantarum 90sk, L. brevis 15f, B. adolescentis 150 and B. angulatum GT102. DNA of these strains was sequenced; the gadB and gadC genes were identified. The presence of these genes was analyzed in 14 metagenomes of healthy individuals. The genes were found in the following genera of bacteria: Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Odoribacter, Prevotella), Proteobacterium (Esherichia), Firmicutes (Enterococcus), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium). These data indicate that gad genes as well as the ability to produce GABA are widely distributed among lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (mainly in L. plantarum, L. brevis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. dentium) and other gut-derived bacterial species. Perhaps, GABA is involved in the interaction of gut microbiota with the macroorganism and the ability to synthesize GABA may be an important feature in the selection of bacterial strains – psychobiotics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.011
       
  • Effect of early antibiotic administration on cecal bacterial communities
           and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein
           levels
    • Authors: Chuanjian Zhang; Miao Yu; Yuxiang Yang; Chunlong Mu; Yong Su; Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
      The study investigated the effects of early antibiotic administration (EAA) on cecal bacterial communities and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein levels. Eighteen litters (total 180) of piglets on day (d) 7 were fed either a commercial creep feed or commercial creep feed + antibiotic (Olaquindox, Oxytetracycline Calcium and Kitasamycin) until d 42. On d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly fed a normal crude protein (CP) diet (20% and 18% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16% and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively), generating 4 groups, Control-Low CP (Con-LP), Control-normal CP (Con-NP), Antibiotic-Low CP (Ant-LP) and Antibiotic-Normal CP (Ant-NP), respectively. On d 77 and d 120, 5 pigs per group were slaughtered and cecal materials were collected for bacterial analysis. With cecal bacteria, principle component analysis (PCA) of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile showed two distinct groups of samples from low-CP diet and samples from normal-CP diet. Real-time PCR showed that EAA did not have significant effect on major bacterial groups, only showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) with CP levels for Lactobacillus counts on d 77 and Clostridium cluster XIVa counts on d 120 with higher values in the Con-NP group compared to the Ant-NP groups. Low-CP diet increased (P < 0.05) short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) producing bacteria counts (Bacteroidetes on d 77 and d 120; Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIVa on d 77), but decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts on d 77 and d 120. For metabolites, EAA increased (P < 0.05) protein fermentation products (p-cresol, indole and skatole on d 77; ammonia, putrescine and spermidine on d 120), and showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) with CP levels for p-cresol and skatole concentrations on d 77 and putrescine and spermidine concentrations on d 120 with higher values in the Ant-LP group compared to the Con-LP groups. Low-CP diet increased (P < 0.05) SCFA concentration (propionate and butyrate) on d 77, but reduced (P < 0.05) the protein fermentation products (ammonia, phenol and indole on d 77; branched chain fatty acid (BCFA), ammonia, tyramine, cadaverine and indole on d 120). These results indicate that EAA had less effect on bacterial communities, but increased bacterial fermentation of proteins in the cecum under low-CP diet. Low-CP diet altered bacterial communities with an increase in the counts of SCFA-producing bacteria and a decrease in the counts of Escherichia coli, and markedly reduced the protein fermentation products.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.016
       
  • Effect of smokeless tobacco products on human oral bacteria growth and
           viability
    • Authors: Min Liu; Jinshan Jin; Hongmiao Pan; Jinhui Feng; Carl E. Cerniglia; Maocheng Yang; Huizhong Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Min Liu, Jinshan Jin, Hongmiao Pan, Jinhui Feng, Carl E. Cerniglia, Maocheng Yang, Huizhong Chen
      To evaluate the toxicity of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) on oral bacteria, seven smokeless tobacco aqueous extracts (STAEs) from major brands of STPs and three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) were used in a growth and viability test against 38 oral bacterial species or subspecies. All seven STAEs showed concentration-dependent effects on the growth and viability of tested oral bacteria under anaerobic culture conditions, although there were strain-to-strain variations. In the presence of 1 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 4 strains decreased over 0.32–2.14 log10 fold, while 14 strains demonstrated enhanced growth of 0.3–1.76 log10 fold, and the growth of 21 strains was not significantly affected. In the presence of 10 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 17 strains was inhibited 0.3–2.11 log10 fold, 18 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3–0.97 log10 fold, and 4 strains were not significantly affected. In the presence of 50 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 32 strains was inhibited 0.3–2.96 log10 fold, 8 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3–1.0 log10 fold, and 2 strains were not significantly affected. All seven STAEs could promote the growth of 4 bacterial strains, including Eubacterium nodatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus constellatus. Exposure to STAEs modulated the viability of some bacterial strains, with 21.1–66.5% decrease for 4 strains at 1 mg/ml, 20.3–85.7% decrease for 10 strains at 10 mg/ml, 20.0–93.3% decrease for 27 strains at 50 mg/ml, and no significant effect for 11 strains at up to 50 mg/ml. STAEs from snuffs inhibited more tested bacterial strains than those from snus indicating that the snuffs may be more toxic to the oral bacteria than snus. For TSNAs, cell growth and viability of 34 tested strains were not significantly affected at up to 100 μg/ml; while the growth of P. micros was enhanced 0.31–0.54 log10 fold; the growth of Veillonella parvula was repressed 0.33–0.36 log10 fold; and the cell viabilities of 2 strains decreased 56.6–69.9%. The results demonstrate that STAEs affected the growth of some types of oral bacteria, which may affect the healthy ecological balance of oral bacteria in humans. On the other hand, TSNAs did not significantly affect the growth of the oral bacteria.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T17:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.006
       
  • The effect of quercetin on genetic expression of the commensal gut
           microbes Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Enterococcus caccae and Ruminococcus
           gauvreauii
    • Authors: Jenni Firrman; LinShu Liu; Liqing Zhang; Gustavo Arango Argoty; Minqian Wang; Peggy Tomasula; Masuko Kobori; Sherri Pontious; Weidong Xiao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Jenni Firrman, LinShu Liu, Liqing Zhang, Gustavo Arango Argoty, Minqian Wang, Peggy Tomasula, Masuko Kobori, Sherri Pontious, Weidong Xiao
      Quercetin is one of the most abundant polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables. The ability of the gut microbiota to metabolize quercetin has been previously documented; however, the effect that quercetin may have on commensal gut microbes remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the commensal gut microbes Ruminococcus gauvreauii, Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Enterococcus caccae were determined through evaluation of growth patterns and cell morphology, and analysis of genetic expression profiles between quercetin treated and non-treated groups using Single Molecule RNA sequencing via Helicos technology. Results of this study revealed that phenotypically, quercetin did not prevent growth of Ruminococcus gauvreauii, mildly suppressed growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and moderately inhibited growth of Enterococcus caccae. Genetic analysis revealed that in response to quercetin, Ruminococcus gauvreauii down regulated genes responsible for protein folding, purine synthesis and metabolism. Bifidobacterium catenulatum increased expression of the ABC transport pathway and decreased metabolic pathways and cell wall synthesis. Enterococcus caccae upregulated genes responsible for energy production and metabolism, and downregulated pathways of stress response, translation and sugar transport. For the first time, the effect of quercetin on the growth and genetic expression of three different commensal gut bacteria was documented. The data provides insight into the interactions between genetic regulation and growth. This is also a unique demonstration of how RNA single molecule sequencing can be used to study the gut microbiota.

      PubDate: 2016-10-13T17:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.004
       
  • Transcriptomic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms in vitro
    • Authors: Anika C. Jahns; Hinnerk Eilers; Oleg A. Alexeyev
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Anika C. Jahns, Hinnerk Eilers, Oleg A. Alexeyev
      Propionibacterium acnes is a well-known commensal of the human skin connected to acne vulgaris and joint infections. It is extensively studied in planktonic cultures in the laboratory settings but occurs naturally in biofilms. In this study we have developed an in vitro biofilm model of P. acnes and studied growth features, matrix composition, matrix penetration by fluorescent-labelled antibiotics as well as gene expression. Antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms was studied and could be enhanced by increased glucose concentrations. Biofilm cells were characterized by up-regulated stress-induced genes and up-regulation of genes coding for the potential virulence-associated CAMP factors. P. acnes can generate persister cells showing a reversible tolerance to 50 fold MIC of common antibiotics.

      PubDate: 2016-10-13T17:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.001
       
  • In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the
           normal intestinal microbiota
    • Authors: Andrej Weintraub; Mamun-Ur Rashid; Carl Erik Nord
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Andrej Weintraub, Mamun-Ur Rashid, Carl Erik Nord
      Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L). The MIC50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents.

      PubDate: 2016-10-13T17:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.002
       
  • The unappreciated in vitro activity of tedizolid against Bacteroides
           fragilis species, including strains resistant to metronidazole and
           carbapenems
    • Authors: Ellie J.C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; Kerin L. Tyrrell; Elisa Leoncio; C. Vreni Merriam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Ellie J.C. Goldstein, Diane M. Citron, Kerin L. Tyrrell, Elisa Leoncio, C. Vreni Merriam
      The comparative in vitro activity of tedizolid against 124 Bacteroides group species isolates, including carbapenem, metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam resistant strains, had an MIC90 of 2 μg/ml (range, 0.5–4 μg/ml) and was 1–4 times more active than linezolid that had an MIC90 of 8 μg/ml (range, 2–16 μg/ml).

      PubDate: 2016-10-06T16:39:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.008
       
 
 
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