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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2958 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (230 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (103 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1417 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (45 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (207 journals)
    - BOTANY (214 journals)
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    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (134 journals)

BIOLOGY (1417 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of Fungi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genomes and Exomes     Open Access  
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Green Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Histology & Histopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Melittology     Open Access  
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Natural Products     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access  
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Progressive Research in Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Risk Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science of the University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Seed Science     Open Access  
Journal of Signal Transduction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Stored Products Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Structural Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Systematics Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System     Open Access  
Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Thermal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Thyroid Research     Open Access  
Journal of Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vector Ecology     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Virological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Visualized Experiments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access  
Journal of Zhejiang University - Science B     Hybrid Journal  
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknosains     Open Access  
Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Journal Of Natural Sciences     Open Access  
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Kew Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
KINOME     Open Access  
Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Kurtziana     Open Access  
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Large Marine Ecosystems     Full-text available via subscription  
Le Naturaliste canadien     Full-text available via subscription  
Letters in Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Life     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Life Sciences in Space Research     Hybrid Journal  
Life Sciences, Society and Policy     Open Access  
Limnological Papers     Open Access  
Lipid Insights     Open Access  
Lipid Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
mAbs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Macromolecular Bioscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Madroño     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Malacologia     Full-text available via subscription  
Malacologica Bohemoslovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Mammal Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mammal Study     Full-text available via subscription  
Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mammalian Genome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Materials Technology : Advanced Performance Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mechanisms of Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
médecine/sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mediterranean Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Membrane Protein Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Metabolites     Open Access  
Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Metallomics     Full-text available via subscription  
Metamorfosa : Journal of Bilogical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Methods in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Methods in Cell Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Methods in Ecology and Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 27)
Micologia Aplicada Internacional     Open Access  
Microarrays     Open Access  
Micron     Hybrid Journal  
Mitochondrial DNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mitochondrion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Chemotherapy     Open Access  
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Molecular & Cellular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular and Cellular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Molecular Based Mathematical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Molecular Biology and Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Molecular Biology International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Biology of the Cell     Partially Free   (Followers: 19)
Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Heat shock increases conjugation efficiency in Clostridium difficile
    • Authors: Joseph A. Kirk; Robert P. Fagan
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Joseph A. Kirk, Robert P. Fagan
      Clostridium difficile infection has increased in incidence and severity over the past decade, and poses a unique threat to human health. However, genetic manipulation of C. difficile remains in its infancy and the bacterium remains relatively poorly characterised. Low-efficiency conjugation is currently the only available method for transfer of plasmid DNA into C. difficile. This is practically limiting and has slowed progress in understanding this important pathogen. Conjugation efficiency varies widely between strains, with important clinically relevant strains such as R20291 being particularly refractory to plasmid transfer. Here we present an optimised conjugation method in which the recipient C. difficile is heat treated prior to conjugation. This significantly improves conjugation efficiency in all C. difficile strains tested including R20291. Conjugation efficiency was also affected by the choice of media on which conjugations were performed, with standard BHI media giving most transconjugant recovery. Using our optimised method greatly increased the ease with which the chromosome of R20291 could be precisely manipulated by homologous recombination. Our method improves on current conjugation protocols and will help speed genetic manipulation of strains otherwise difficult to work with.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Effects of corn silage and grass silage in ruminant rations on diurnal
           changes of microbial populations in the rumen of dairy cows
    • Authors: Melanie B. Lengowski; Maren Witzig; Jens Möhring; Gero M. Seyfang; Markus Rodehutscord
      Pages: 6 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Melanie B. Lengowski, Maren Witzig, Jens Möhring, Gero M. Seyfang, Markus Rodehutscord
      Here, we examined diurnal changes in the ruminal microbial community and fermentation characteristics of dairy cows fed total mixed rations containing either corn silage (CS) or grass silage (GS) as forage. The rations, which consisted of 52% concentrate and 48% GS or CS, were offered for ad libitum intake over 20 days to three ruminal-fistulated lactating Jersey cows during three consecutive feeding periods. Feed intake, ruminal pH, concentrations of short chain fatty acids and ammonia in rumen liquid, as well as abundance change in the microbial populations in liquid and solid fractions, were monitored in 4-h intervals on days 18 and 20. The abundance of total bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased in solids in cows fed CS instead of GS, and that of protozoa increased in both solid and liquid fractions. Feeding GS favored numbers of F. succinogenes and Selenomonas ruminantium in the liquid fraction as well as the numbers of Ruminobacter amylophilus, Prevotella bryantii and ruminococci in both fractions. Minor effects of silage were detected on populations of methanogens. Despite quantitative changes in the composition of the microbial community, fermentation characteristics were less affected by forage source. These results suggest a functional adaptability of the ruminal microbiota to total mixed rations containing either GS or CS as the source of forage. Diurnal changes in microbial populations were primarily affected by feed intake and differed between species and fractions, with fewer temporal fluctuations evident in the solid than in the liquid fraction. Interactions between forage source and sampling time were of minor importance to most of the microbial species examined. Thus, diurnal changes of microbial populations and fermentative activity were less affected by the two silages.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Analysis of the rumen bacterial diversity of goats during shift from
           forage to concentrate diet
    • Authors: Diego Javier Grilli; Kateřina Fliegerová; Jan Kopečný; Sebastián Paez Lama; Vanina Egea; Noelia Sohaefer; Celia Pereyra; María Soledad Ruiz; Miguel Angel Sosa; Graciela Nora Arenas; Jakub Mrázek
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Diego Javier Grilli, Kateřina Fliegerová, Jan Kopečný, Sebastián Paez Lama, Vanina Egea, Noelia Sohaefer, Celia Pereyra, María Soledad Ruiz, Miguel Angel Sosa, Graciela Nora Arenas, Jakub Mrázek
      High-grain feeding used in the animal production is known to affect the host rumen bacterial community, but our understanding of consequent changes in goats is limited. This study was therefore aimed to evaluate bacterial population dynamics during 20 days adaptation of 4 ruminally cannulated goats to the high-grain diet (grain: hay – ratio of 40:60). The dietary transition of goats from the forage to the high-grain-diet resulted in the significant decrease of rumen fluid pH, which was however still higher than value established for acute or subacute ruminal acidosis was not diagnosed in studied animals. DGGE analysis demonstrated distinct ruminal microbial populations in hay-fed and grain-fed animals, but the substantial animal-to-animal variation were detected. Quantitative PCR showed for grain-fed animals significantly higher number of bacteria belonging to C. leptum group at 10 days after the incorporation of corn into the diet and significantly lower concentration of bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria phylum at the day 20 after dietary change. Taxonomic distribution analysed by NGS at day 20 revealed the similar prevalence of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in all goats, significantly higher presence of the unclassified genus of groups of Bacteroidales and Ruminococcaceae in grain-fed animals and significantly higher presence the genus Prevotella and Butyrivibrio in the forage-fed animals. The three different culture-independent methods used in this study show that high proportion of concentrate in goat diet does not induce any serious disturbance of their rumen ecosystem and indicate the good adaptive response of caprine ruminal bacteria to incorporation of corn into the diet.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Changes in the antibiotic susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria from
           2007–2009 to 2010–2012 based on the CLSI methodology
    • Authors: Christine J. Hastey; Halsey Boyd; Audrey N. Schuetz; Karen Anderson; Diane M. Citron; Jody Dzink-Fox; Meredith Hackel; David W. Hecht; Nilda V. Jacobus; Stephen G. Jenkins; Maria Karlsson; Cynthia C. Knapp; Laura M. Koeth; Hannah Wexler; Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter
      Pages: 27 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Christine J. Hastey, Halsey Boyd, Audrey N. Schuetz, Karen Anderson, Diane M. Citron, Jody Dzink-Fox, Meredith Hackel, David W. Hecht, Nilda V. Jacobus, Stephen G. Jenkins, Maria Karlsson, Cynthia C. Knapp, Laura M. Koeth, Hannah Wexler, Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter
      Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates was conducted at four independent sites from 2010 to 2012 and compared to results from three sites during the period of 2007–2009. This data comparison shows significant changes in antimicrobial resistance in some anaerobic groups. Therefore, we continue to recommend institutions regularly perform susceptibility testing when anaerobes are cultured from pertinent sites. Annual generation of an institutional-specific antibiogram is recommended for tracking of resistance trends over time.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • A case of multiple recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection with
           severe hematochezia in an immunocompromised host
    • Authors: Xuewu Zhang; Yunbo Chen; Silan Gu; Beiwen Zheng; Tao Lv; Yinjun Lou; Jie Jin
      Pages: 31 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Xuewu Zhang, Yunbo Chen, Silan Gu, Beiwen Zheng, Tao Lv, Yinjun Lou, Jie Jin
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in incidence and severity. Clinically, diarrhea frequently occurs, but severe hematochezia is rarely seen with CDI. We describe here a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipient who experienced life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding due to severe CDI. Subsequent stool surveillance and molecular typing observed the patient who had two episodes of recurrence with a new strain of C. difficile distinct from the initial infection. We analyze C. difficile strains obtained from the patient, and also discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this case.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T11:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Robinsoniella peoriensis, originally isolated from swine manure, and early
           periprosthetic hip infection: Case report and review of the literature
    • Authors: Heime Rieber; Andre Frontzek; Andreas Bell; Lars Frommelt
      Pages: 33 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Heime Rieber, Andre Frontzek, Andreas Bell, Lars Frommelt
      We report on the first case of a periprosthetic joint infection with the anaerobic spore-forming Gram-positive rod Robinsoniella peoriensis as the causative agent. The bacterium was first isolated from a swine manure storage pit and has so far rarely been associated with human infections.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T12:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Porphyromonas pogonae identification from a soft tissue infection: The
           first human case
    • Authors: Bongyoung Kim; Hyunjoo Pai; Kyu Tae Hwang; Yangsoon Lee
      Pages: 37 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 42
      Author(s): Bongyoung Kim, Hyunjoo Pai, Kyu Tae Hwang, Yangsoon Lee
      We report a first human case of Porphyromonas pogonae causing soft tissue infection in a patient with open fracture. Strong β-hemolytic, aerotolerant, and non-pigmented gram-negative coccobacilli which matched Porphyromonas pogonae by PCR for 16S rRNA genes were identified from the pus specimen. The clinical course of the patient improved with repeated surgical drainage and tigecycline administration.

      PubDate: 2016-08-12T13:08:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • A genetic assay for gene essentiality in Clostridium
    • Authors: David J.F. Walker; John T. Heap; Klaus Winzer; Nigel P. Minton
      Pages: 40 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): David J.F. Walker, John T. Heap, Klaus Winzer, Nigel P. Minton
      Essential genes of pathogens are potential therapeutic targets, but are difficult to verify. Here, gene essentiality was determined by targeted knockout following engineered gene duplication. Null mutants of candidate essential genes of Clostridium difficile were viable only in the presence of a stable second copy of the gene.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T12:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • First isolation of Clostridium indolis in a patient with chronic osteitis:
           A case report and literature review of human infections related to
           Clostridium saccharolyticum group species
    • Authors: Romain Lotte; Laurène Lotte; Philippe Bouvet; Nicolas Degand; Antonin Bal; Michel Carles; Regis Bernard de Dompsure; Michel-Robert Popoff; Raymond Ruimy
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Romain Lotte, Laurène Lotte, Philippe Bouvet, Nicolas Degand, Antonin Bal, Michel Carles, Regis Bernard de Dompsure, Michel Popoff, Raymond Ruimy
      Clostridium indolis is an anaerobic spore-forming Gram-positive bacillus belonging to the Clostridium saccharolyticum group. Its clinical significance in human remains poorly known. We describe the first case of osteitis related to C. indolis, identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and provide a literature review of human infections related to C. saccharolyticum group species.

      PubDate: 2016-08-12T13:08:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Multidrug-resistant oral Capnocytophaga gingivalis responsible for an
           acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Case report
           and literature review
    • Authors: Elodie Ehrmann; Anne Jolivet-Gougeon; Martine Bonnaure-Mallet; Thierry Fosse
      Pages: 50 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Elodie Ehrmann, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Thierry Fosse
      Introduction Capnocytophaga genus was recently known to highly contribute to the beta-lactam (BL) and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance gene reservoir in the oral microbiota (BL: bla CSP-1 and bla CfxA; MLS: erm(F) and erm(C)). But fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance remains uncommon in literature, without available data on resistance mechanisms. Case report For the first time, a case of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was described in a 78-year-old immunocompetent patient due to a multidrug-resistant Capnocytophaga gingivalis isolate with significant microbiological finding. C.gingivalis acquired resistance to third generation cephalosporins (bla CfxA3 gene), MLS (erm(F) gene), and fluoroquinolones. Genetics of the resistance, unknown as regards fluoroquinolone, was investigated and a substitution in QRDR of GyrA was described (Gly80Asn substitution) for the first time in the Capnocytophaga genus. Literature review A comprehensive literature review of Capnocytophaga spp. extra-oral infection was conducted. Including the present report, on 43 cases, 7 isolates were BL-resistant (17%), 4 isolates were MLS-resistant (9.5%) and 4 isolates were FQ-resistant (9.5%). The studied clinical isolate of C.gingivalis was the only one to combine resistance to the three groups of antibiotics BL, MLS and FQ. Four cases of Capnocytophaga lung infection were reported, including three infections involving C. gingivalis (two FQ resistant) and one involving C. sputigena. Conclusion This multidrug-resistant C. gingivalis isolate illustrated the role of oral flora as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance and its contribution to the limitation of effective antibiotics in severe respiratory infections.

      PubDate: 2016-08-16T13:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of oral microbiota in undernourished and eutrophic children
           using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization
    • Authors: M. Testa; S. Erbiti; A. Delgado; I.L. Cardenas
      Pages: 55 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): M. Testa, S. Erbiti, A. Delgado, I.L. Cardenas
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among nutritional status, gingival health and the composition of oral microbiota in children of a public school from a very poor area of San Miguel de Tucuman. Forty-five children ranging in age from 6 to 14 years old, 13 males and 32 females were studied. Twenty of these children were undernourished (Lejarraga-Morasso Table) and twenty-five were eutrophic. A clinical study that included DMF and dmf indexes, Löe Silness Plaque Index and bleeding on probing was performed. For microbiological study, saliva samples without stimulation were taken; aliquots of them were immediately placed in TAE buffer pH 7.6, adding NaOH (N and keeping at -70 °C until processed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method to check the presence of 40 oral microorganism species. Positive bleeding on probing was present in more than 80% of children, without significant differences between eutrophic and undernourished groups. Same result were obtain for the other clinical indexes (p > 0.05, Two Way ANOVA). Significant differences were found for some oral microorganism species, with a higher percentage of undernourished children harboring them. That was the case of S. gordonii (p < 0.05), Capnocitophaga gingivalis and C. ochraceae (p < 0.01 and p < 0.10, respectively), F. nucleatum ss nucleatum (p < 0.05), P. nigrescens (p < 0.10), Campylobacter gracilis (p < 0,05), and T. denticola (p < 0.10, multiple logistic regression). Significant differences were also found between children groups for E. saborreum (p < 0.001), P. acnes (p < 0.10), G. morbillorum (p < 0.05) and L. buccalis (p < 0.10). Gingivitis and bleeding on probing would not be related to nutritional status in the groups of children studied. There were significant differences for the presence of some of the main periodontal pathogen species between eutrophic and undernourished children. It would be important to study the meaning of significant differences found for the other microorganisms more deeply.

      PubDate: 2016-08-21T13:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • In vitro analysis of partially hydrolyzed guar gum fermentation on
           identified gut microbiota
    • Authors: Justin Carlson; Trevor Gould; Joanne Slavin
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Justin Carlson, Trevor Gould, Joanne Slavin
      Background Prebiotic dietary fibers resist digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and allow for stimulation of bacteria in the distal intestine and colon. Stimulation of bacteria among different individuals varies greatly, depending on a wide range of variables. Objective To determine the range of differences in response between individuals, a preclinical in vitro fermentation was conducted with six fecal donors. The primary objective was to compare the fecal microbiota of six individuals at baseline, 12 h and 24 h post-exposure to partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG). Method Fecal donations were collected from six healthy individuals consuming a non-specific Western diet, free of antibiotic treatments in the past year, not affected by any GI diseases and not consuming any probiotic or prebiotic supplements. Fecal samples were exposed to 0.5 g of PHGG and measured for bacterial changes at 0, 12 and 24 h base on 16S rRNA sequencing. Results Parabacteroides increased from 3.48% of sequence reads to 10.62% of sequence reads after 24 h (p = 0.0181) and Bacteroidetes increased from 45.89% of sequence reads to 50.29% of sequence reads (p = 0.0008). Conclusions PHGG stimulates growth of Parabacteroides, a genus of bacteria that have been inversely associated with IBS and ulcerative colitis. PHGG provides stimulation of beneficial Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides and Parabacteroides), which may be correlated with many positive health markers and outcomes. PHGG is a prebiotic dietary fiber that is readily fermentable.

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T14:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2016)
       
  • Preface for Anaerobe – Special issue on Clostpath9
    • Authors: Panagiotis Papatheodorou; Klaus Aktories
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 41
      Author(s): Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Klaus Aktories


      PubDate: 2016-09-30T16:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2016)
       
  • Tohru Shimizu Memorial
    • Authors: Julian I. Rood; Bruce A. McClane; Kaori Ohtani
      Pages: 3 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 41
      Author(s): Julian I. Rood, Bruce A. McClane, Kaori Ohtani


      PubDate: 2016-09-30T16:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2016)
       
  • Functional analysis of an feoB mutant in Clostridium perfringens strain 13
    • Authors: Milena M. Awad; Jackie K. Cheung; Joanne E. Tan; Alastair G. McEwan; Dena Lyras; Julian I. Rood
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 41
      Author(s): Milena M. Awad, Jackie K. Cheung, Joanne E. Tan, Alastair G. McEwan, Dena Lyras, Julian I. Rood
      Bacterial pathogens have adopted numerous mechanisms for acquiring iron from host proteins during an infection, including the direct acquisition of ferric iron from heme-associated proteins or from iron-scavenging siderophores. Ferric iron then is transported into the cytosol, where it can be utilized by the bacterial pathogen. Under anaerobic conditions bacteria can also transport ferrous iron using the transmembrane complex FeoAB, but little is known about iron transport systems in anaerobic bacteria such as the pathogenic clostridia. In this study we sought to characterize the iron acquisition process in Clostridium perfringens. Bioinformatic analysis of the Clostridium perfringens strain 13 genome sequence revealed that it has seven potential iron acquisition systems: three siderophore-mediated systems, one ferric citrate uptake system, two heme-associated acquisition systems and one ferrous iron uptake system (FeoAB). The relative level of expression of these systems was determined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays that were specific for one gene from each system. Each of these genes was expressed, with the feoAB genes generating the most abundant iron-uptake related transcripts. To further examine the role of this system in the growth of C. perfringens, insertional inactivation was used to isolate a chromosomal feoB mutant. Growth of this mutant in the presence and absence of iron revealed that it had altered growth properties and a markedly reduced total iron and manganese content compared to the wild type; effects that were reversed upon complementation with the wild-type feoB gene. These studies suggest that under anaerobic conditions FeoB is the major protein required for the uptake of iron into the cell and that it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens infections.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T16:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2016)
       
  • The interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with receptor
           claudins
    • Authors: Archana Shrestha; Francisco A. Uzal; Bruce A. McClane
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 41
      Author(s): Archana Shrestha, Francisco A. Uzal, Bruce A. McClane
      Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has significant medical importance due to its involvement in several common human gastrointestinal diseases. This 35 kDa single polypeptide toxin consists of two domains: a C-terminal domain involved in receptor binding and an N-terminal domain involved in oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. The action of CPE starts with its binding to receptors, which include certain members of the claudin tight junction protein family; bound CPE then forms a series of complexes, one of which is a pore that causes the calcium influx responsible for host cell death. Recent studies have revealed that CPE binding to claudin receptors involves interactions between the C-terminal CPE domain and both the 1st and 2nd extracellular loops (ECL-1 and ECL-2) of claudin receptors. Of particular importance for this binding is the docking of ECL-2 into a pocket present in the C-terminal domain of the toxin. This increased understanding of CPE interactions with claudin receptors is now fostering the development of receptor decoy therapeutics for CPE-mediated gastrointestinal disease, reagents for cancer therapy/diagnoses and enhancers of drug delivery.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T16:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2016)
       
  • Bile acid sensitivity and in vivo virulence of clinical Clostridium
           difficile isolates
    • Authors: Brittany B. Lewis; Rebecca A. Carter; Eric G. Pamer
      Pages: 32 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 41
      Author(s): Brittany B. Lewis, Rebecca A. Carter, Eric G. Pamer
      Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium that causes diarrheal illnesses. Disease onset is linked with exposure to oral antibiotics and consequent depletion of secondary bile acids. Here we investigate the relationship between in vitro secondary bile acid tolerance and in vivo disease scores of diverse C. difficile strains in mice.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T16:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2016)
       
  • Structural and functional changes within the gut microbiota and
           susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection
    • Authors: Caná L. Ross; Jennifer K. Spinler; Tor C. Savidge
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 41
      Author(s): Caná L. Ross, Jennifer K. Spinler, Tor C. Savidge
      Alteration of the gut microbial community structure and function through antibiotic use increases susceptibility to colonization by Clostridium difficile and other enteric pathogens. However, the mechanisms that mediate colonization resistance remain elusive. As the leading definable cause of infectious diarrhea, toxigenic C. difficile represents a burden for patients and health care systems, underscoring the need for better diagnostics and treatment strategies. Next-generation sequence data has increased our understanding of how the gut microbiota is influenced by many factors including diet, disease, aging and drugs. However, a microbial-based biomarker differentiating C. difficile infection from antibiotic-associated diarrhea has not been identified. Metabolomics profiling, which is highly responsive to changes in physiological conditions, have shown promise in differentiating subtle disease phenotypes that exhibit a nearly identical microbiome community structure, suggesting metabolite-based biomarkers may be an ideal diagnostic for identifying patients with CDI. This review focuses on the current understanding of structural and functional changes to the gut microbiota during C. difficile infection obtained from studies assessing the microbiome and metabolome of samples from patients and murine models.

      PubDate: 2016-09-30T16:09:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2016)
       
  • The Human Microbiome Handbook, Jason Tetro, Emma Allen-Vercoe (Eds.).
           DEStech Publications (March 2016)
    • Authors: Laura Cox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Laura M. Cox


      PubDate: 2016-11-30T13:33:38Z
       
  • Rapid identification of Robinsoniella peoriensis using specific 16S rRNA
           gene PCR primers
    • Authors: Terence R. Whitehead; Christelle Anoma; Richard W. McLaughlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Terence R. Whitehead, Christelle Anoma, Richard W. McLaughlin
      Robinsoniella peoriensis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium initially isolated and characterized from swine manure and feces. Since then strains of this species have been identified from a variety of mammalian and other GI tracts. More recently strains of this species have been isolated from a plethora of human infections. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop methods to rapidly identify this microorganism in the medical and other laboratories. This report describes the use of PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of R. peoriensis to identify strains of this bacterium.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T13:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.008
       
  • Actinotignum schaalii subcutaneous abscesses in a patient with
           hidradenitis suppurativa: Case report and literature review
    • Authors: Sofia Maraki; George Evangelou; Dimitra Stafylaki; Efstathia Scoulica
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Sofia Maraki, George Evangelou, Dimitra Stafylaki, Efstathia Scoulica
      Actinotignum schaalii (formerly Actinobaculum schaalii) is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic rod that is typically involved in urinary tract infections in elderly patients or those with underlying urological pathologies. In contrast, abscess formation caused by A. schaalii is very rare. We present a case of multiple abscesses in the perineal area in a young patient with hidradenitis suppurativa associated with A. schaalii and Prevotella melaninogenica and review the relevant literature on the topic.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T13:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.010
       
  • Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobic
           bacteremia in an acute care hospital
    • Authors: Thean Yen Tan; Lily Siew Yong Ng; Lee Ling Kwang; Suma Rao; Li Ching Eng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Thean Yen Tan, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Lee Ling Kwang, Suma Rao, Li Ching Eng
      This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Materials & Methods Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009-2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints. Metronidazole-resistant and carbapenem-resistant anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were screened for the nim and cfiA genes. Clinical data was obtained retrospectively from electronic medical records. Results During the 3 year period, Bacteroides fragilis group (41%), Clostridium species (14%), Propionibacterium species (9%) and Fusobacterium species (6%) were the most commonly isolated anaerobes. Patients with anaerobic bacteraemia that were included in the study were predominantly above 60 years of age, with community-acquired infections. The most commonly used empiric antibiotic therapies were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (44%) and metronidazole (10%). The crude mortality was 25%, and appropriate initial antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with improved survival. Intra-abdominal infections (39%) and soft-tissue infections (33%) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all bacteraemia. Antibiotics with the best anaerobic activity were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with in-vitro susceptibility rates of 95%, 95%, 94% and 92% respectively. Susceptibilities to penicillin (31%), clindamycin (60%) and moxifloxacin (84%) were more variable. Two multidrug-resistant isolates of Bacteroides species were positive for nim and cfiA genes respectively, while another two imipenem-resistant Fusobacterium species were negative for cfiA genes. Conclusion This study demonstrated that anaerobic bacteraemia in our patient population was predominantly associated with intra-abdominal and soft-tissue infections. Overall antibiotic resistance was high for penicillin and clindamycin, and the presence of emerging resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole warrants further monitoring.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T13:33:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.009
       
  • Trends in antimicrobial resistance among Bacteroides species and
           Parabacteroides species in the United States from 2010–2012 with
           comparison to 2008–2009
    • Authors: D.R. Snydman; N.V. Jacobus; L.A. McDermott; E.J.C. Goldstein; L. Harrell; S.G. Jenkins; D. Newton; R. Patel; D.W. Hecht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): D.R. Snydman, N.V. Jacobus, L.A. McDermott, E.J.C. Goldstein, L. Harrell, S.G. Jenkins, D. Newton, R. Patel, D.W. Hecht
      The susceptibility trends for Bacteroides fragilis and related species against various antibiotics were determined using data from 3 years of surveillance (2010–2012) on 779 isolates referred by 7 medical centers. The antibiotic test panel included imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, linezolid, chloramphenicol and . MICs were determined using the agar dilution CLSI reference method. Carbapenem resistance remained low (range 1.1%–2.5%) and unchanged from 2008 to 9 through 2010–2012. Resistance also remained low to the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (1.1%–4.4%). While resistance to clindamycin and moxifloxacin remained high; rates were lower for B. fragilis in 2010-12 (24% and 19% respectively) compared to the earlier time frame of 2008-9 (29% and 35% respectively for the earlier time frame). There were notable species and resistance associations which have been demonstrated previously. No resistance to metronidazole or chloramphenicol resistance was seen. These data demonstrate the continued variability in resistance among Bacteroides and Parabacteroides species, but do demonstrate that carbapenems and beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations remain very active throughout the United States.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.003
       
  • TiO2/UV based photocatalytic pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas
           production
    • Authors: Merlin Alvarado-Morales; Panagiotis Tsapekos; Muhammad Awais; Muhammad Gulfraz; Irini Angelidaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Merlin Alvarado-Morales, Panagiotis Tsapekos, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Gulfraz, Irini Angelidaki
      The present study deals with the application of an advanced oxidation process combining UV irradiation in the presence of the photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an effective pretreatment method of wheat straw as means for increasing its biodegradability for increased biogas production by anaerobic digestion (AD). Especially attention was paid in oxidation of the lignin in straw, besides release the sugars from the lignocellulosic structure of straw. Specifically, four different TiO2 concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/w) TiO2) were tested at three different irradiation times (0, 1, 2, and 3 h). Products of lignin-fraction oxidation, namely, vanillic acid, ferullic acid and acetic acid were quantified for each set of pretreatment conditions. Subsequently, biochemical methane potentials (BMPs) assays were conducted under thermophilic conditions from differentially pretreated samples and the pretreatment with the best performance was further tested in continuous mode operation. From BMP assays, 1.5% (w/w) TiO2/straw at 3 h of UV light exposure pretreatment resulted in 37% (p < 0.05) increase in methane yield and 25% in CSTRs. It was concluded that the presence of TiO2 and the products of lignin oxidation did not inhibit the AD process. Finally, a simplified energy assessment showed that all pretreatment conditions become feasible when amounts of substrate to be treated are greater than the threshold value of 1.15 g.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.002
       
  • Isolation of a sulfide-producing bacterial consortium from cooling-tower
           water: Evaluation of corrosive effects on galvanized steel
    • Authors: Esra Ilhan-Sungur; Derya Ozuolmez; Ayşın Çotuk; Nurhan Cansever; Gerard Muyzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Esra Ilhan-Sungur, Derya Ozuolmez, Ayşın Çotuk, Nurhan Cansever, Gerard Muyzer
      Sulfidogenic Clostridia and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) often cohabit in nature. The presence of these microorganisms can cause microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of materials in different ways. To investigate this aspect, bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water and used in corrosion tests of galvanized steel. The identity of the isolates was determined by comparative sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments, separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This analysis showed that, in spite of the isolation process, colonies were not pure and consisted of a mixture of bacteria affiliated with Desulfosporosinus meridiei and Clostridium sp. To evaluate the corrosive effect, galvanized steel coupons were incubated with a mixed culture for 4, 8, 24, 72, 96, 168, 360 and 744 h, along with a control set in sterile culture medium only. The corrosion rate was determined by weight loss, and biofilm formation and corroded surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the sulfide-producing bacterial consortium led to a slight increase in the corrosion of galvanized steel coupons, when compared to the previous studies it can be said that Clostridium sp. can reduce the corrosive effect of the Desulfosporosinus sp. strain.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.005
       
  • Survival and prevalence of Clostridium difficile in manure compost derived
           from pigs
    • Authors: Masaru Usui; Mayuko Kawakura; Nobuki Yoshizawa; Lai Lai San; Chie Nakajima; Yasuhiko Suzuki; Yutaka Tamura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Masaru Usui, Mayuko Kawakura, Nobuki Yoshizawa, Lai Lai San, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Yutaka Tamura
      Pigs, particularly piglets, have been identified as reservoir hosts of Clostridium difficile. To examine the survival ability of this pathogen in pig feces-based manure compost, C. difficile spores, which were prepared to contain as few vegetative cells as possible, were artificially inoculated into pig feces and incubated at different temperatures. While C. difficile survived in the feces incubated at temperatures below 37 °C for over 30 days, cell numbers gradually decreased at thermophilic temperatures (over 55 °C; p < 0.05). Next, to clarify the prevalence of C. difficile in field manure compost, we isolated and characterized C. difficile from the final products of manure compost products of 14 pig farms. A total of 11 C. difficile strains were isolated from 5 of 14 (36% positive rate) samples tested. Of these 11 strains, 82% were toxigenic, with ribotype 078 being the most prevalent. Thus, the application of composted manure to land therefore poses a possible risk of C. difficile transfer to the food chain.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.004
       
  • Mini review: Update on bioaugmentation in anaerobic processes for biogas
           production
    • Authors: Nzila Alexis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Nzila Alexis
      Anaerobic digestion (AD) is increasingly being used and exploited as a strategy to generate biomethane, which can be used as a renewable and clean energy. AD rests on the biodegradation of organic compounds in anaerobic condition, and these organic compounds are generally agricultural-, industrial- and domestic-wastes. However, problems of AD decrease efficiency, as the result of bioreactor stress, are generally encountered. The primarily cause of this stress is the presence of high concentrations of inhibitory substances such as nitrate, sulfate, heavy metals and oxygen among others. Another cause of AD decrease efficiency is the use of organic compounds that are less amenable to biodegradation such as lignocellulosic compounds. One of the strategies to overcome these limitations is the addition in bioreactors of “stress resistant”- or “efficient biomethane generating”- microorganisms to improve AD process. This strategy, known as bioaugmentation, has been used for the last 15 years to increase biomethane production. In this review, work carried out on this bioaugmentation process has been summarised, and new strategies that could be used or exploited to improve the success of this approach have also been discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T20:38:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.007
       
  • Isolation and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens from
           healthy Merino lambs in Patagonia region, Argentina
    • Authors: A.C. Mignaqui; R.B. Marcellino; T. Ronco; J.S. Pappalardo; B. Nonnemann; K. Pedersen; C.A. Robles
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): A.C. Mignaqui, R.B. Marcellino, T. Ronco, J.S. Pappalardo, B. Nonnemann, K. Pedersen, C.A. Robles
      The presence and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens in healthy Merino lambs over a six-month period was investigated in this study. Overall, a high prevalence of C. perfringens was detected, even in day-old lambs. Even though the majority of the isolates were characterized as being of type A, types C and D were also isolated. Furthermore, a high genetic diversity was observed by PFGE among the type A isolates.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T19:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.015
       
  • Letter to Editor
    • Authors: Maja Rupnik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Maja Rupnik


      PubDate: 2016-11-16T19:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.010
       
  • Establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota of preterm
           infants in a Lebanese tertiary hospital
    • Authors: Tarek Itani; Carole Ayoub Moubareck; Imad Melki; Clotilde Rousseau; Irène Mangin; Marie-José Butel; Dolla Karam Sarkis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Tarek Itani, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Imad Melki, Clotilde Rousseau, Irène Mangin, Marie-José Butel, Dolla Karam Sarkis
      The establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota is known to be associated with profound short- and long-term effects on the health of full-term infants (FTI), but studies are just starting for preterm infants (PTI). The data also mostly come from western countries and little information is available for the Middle East. Here, we determined the composition and dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during the first month of life for PTI (n = 66) and FTI (n = 17) in Lebanon. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). We observed differences in the establishment and composition of the intestinal microbiota between the two groups. q-PCR showed that PTI were more highly colonized by Staphylococcus than FTI in the first three weeks of life; whereas FTI were more highly colonized by Clostridium clusters I and XI. At one month of life, PTI were mainly colonized by facultative anaerobes and a few strict anaerobes, such as Clostridium cluster I and Bifidobacterium. The type of feeding and antibiotic treatments significantly affected intestinal colonization. TTGE revealed low species diversity in both groups and high inter-individual variability in PTI. Our findings show that PTI had altered intestinal colonization with a higher occurrence of potential pathogens (Enterobacter, Clostridium sp) than FTI. This suggests the need for intervention strategies for PTI to modulate their intestinal microbiota and promote their health.

      PubDate: 2016-11-09T19:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.11.001
       
  • Detection of toxigenic Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum
           from food sold in Lagos, Nigeria
    • Authors: Emelda E. Chukwu; Francisca O. Nwaokorie; AkitoyeO. Coker; Mario J. Avila-Campos; Rosa L. Solis; Luis A. Llanco; Folasade T. Ogunsola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Emelda E. Chukwu, Francisca O. Nwaokorie, AkitoyeO. Coker, Mario J. Avila-Campos, Rosa L. Solis, Luis A. Llanco, Folasade T. Ogunsola
      Food-borne diseases contribute to the huge burden of sickness and death globally and in the last decade, have become more frequently reported in Africa. In line with this, food safety is becoming a significant and growing public health problem in Nigeria. Diarrhoea is a common problem in Nigeria and has been reported but there has been little data on the possibility of clostridia as aetiological agents. Clostridium species are ubiquitous in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and can serve as a marker for faecal contamination. We set out to determine the potential of these foods to transmit clostridium species. A total of 220 food commodities from six local governments in Lagos State were sampled. Isolates obtained were identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Toxinotyping was done using multiplex-PCR with primers specific for alpha, beta, epsilon and iota-toxin genes, enterotoxigenic cpe gene and neurotoxigenic BoNt gene. Fifty (22.7%) clostridial species were isolated of which 29 (58%) were identified as C. perfringens. Toxinotyping of the 29 strains showed that 28 (96.6%) were toxin producing C. perfringens type A while one (3.4%) was C. perfringens type D. Two (4%) C. botulinum species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, both harbouring BoNt/A gene. The contamination rates of food with Clostridium species show that food hygiene is a problem and Clostridium species may be a source of food borne disease in Lagos State, Nigeria.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.009
       
  • Bacteroides pyogenes causing serious human wound infection from animal
           bites
    • Authors: Jillian S.Y. Lau; Tony M. Korman; Alex Yeung; Richard Streitberg; Michelle J. Francis; Maryza Graham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Jillian S.Y. Lau, Tony M. Korman, Alex Yeung, Richard Streitberg, Michelle J. Francis, Maryza Graham
      Bacteroides pyogenes is part of the normal oral flora of domestic animals. There is one previous report of human infection, with B. pyogenes bacteremia following a cat bite (Madsen 2011). We report seven severe human infections where B. pyogenes was identified by Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDTI-TOF MS), but not by VITEK MS and was misidentified by VITEK ANC card.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.008
       
  • Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Propionibacterium acnes caused by
           amino acid substitutions of DNA gyrase but not DNA topoisomerase IV
    • Authors: Keisuke Nakase; Yui Sakuma; Hidemasa Nakaminami; Norihisa Noguchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Keisuke Nakase, Yui Sakuma, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Norihisa Noguchi
      With the aim of elucidating the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones resistance in Propionibacterium acnes, we determined the susceptibility of fluoroquinolones in 211 isolates from patients with acne vulgaris. We identified five isolates (2.4%) with reduced susceptibility to nadifloxacin (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 4 μg/ml). Determination of the sequences of the DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and DNA topoisomerase (parC and parE) genes showed the amino acid substitutions Ser101Leu and Asp105Gly of GyrA in four and one of the isolates, respectively. In vitro mutation experiments showed that low-level fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants with the Ser101Leu or Asp105Gly substitution in GyrA could be obtained from selection with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. The pattern of substitution (Ser101Trp in GyrA) caused by nadifloxacin selection was different from that induced by the other fluoroquinolones. In the isolation of further high-level resistant mutants, acquisition of another amino acid substitution of GyrB in addition to those of GyrA was detected, but there were no substitutions of ParC and ParE. In addition, the mutant prevention concentration and mutation frequency of nadifloxacin were lowest among the tested fluoroquinolones. The growth of the Ser101Trp mutant was lower than that of the other mutants. Our findings suggest that the Ser101Trp mutant of P. acnes emerges rarely and disappears immediately, and the risk for the prevalence of fluoroquinolones-resistant P. acnes differs according to the GyrA mutation type. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in P. acnes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.012
       
  • Severe forefoot infection complicated by Fusobacterium russii
    • Authors: Elisabeth Ullrich; Andrea J. Grisold; Gebhard Feierl; David B. Lumenta; Eva Leitner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Elisabeth Ullrich, Andrea J. Grisold, Gebhard Feierl, David B. Lumenta, Eva Leitner
      We present the first case of a complicated foot infection caused by Fusobacterium russii in Austria. F. russii is highly associated with mammals such as cats and dogs. Our case underlines the difficulties in isolation and identification of anaerobes and the pitfalls in antimicrobial treatment of polymicrobial infections.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.010
       
  • Anti-botulism single-shot vaccine using chitosan for protein encapsulation
           by simple coacervation
    • Authors: Roger S. Sari; Anna Christina de Almeida; Alex S.R. Cangussu; Edson V. Jorge; Otto D. Mozzer; Hércules Otacílio Santos; Wagner Quintilio; Igor Viana Brandi; Viviane Aguiar Andrade; Angelo Samir M. Miguel; Eliane M. Sobrinho Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Roger S. Sari, Anna Christina de Almeida, Alex S.R. Cangussu, Edson V. Jorge, Otto D. Mozzer, Hércules Otacílio Santos, Wagner Quintilio, Igor Viana Brandi, Viviane Aguiar Andrade, Angelo Samir M. Miguel, Eliane M. Sobrinho Santos
      The aim of the present study was to compare the potency and safety of vaccines against Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) type C and D formulated with chitosan as controlled release matrix and vaccines formulated in conventional manner using aluminum hydroxide. Parameters were established for the development of chitosan microspheres, using simple coacervation to standardize the use of this polymer in protein encapsulation for vaccine formulation. To formulate a single shot vaccine inactivated antigens of C. botulinum type C and D were used with original toxin titles equal to 5.2 and 6.2 log LD50/ml, respectively. For each antigen a chitosan based solution of 50 mL was prepared. Control vaccines were formulated by mixing toxoid type C and D with aluminum hydroxide [25% Al(OH)3, pH 6.3]. The toxoid sterility, innocuity and potency of vaccines were evaluated as stipulated by MAPA-BRASIL according to ministerial directive no. 23. Encapsulation efficiency of BSA in chitosan was 32.5–40.37%, while that the encapsulation efficiency to toxoid type C was 41,03% (1.94 mg/mL) and of the toxoid type D was 32.30% (1.82 mg/mL). The single shot vaccine formulated using chitosan for protein encapsulation through simple coacervation showed potency and safety similar to conventional vaccine currently used in Brazilian livestock (10 and 2 IU/mL against C. botulinum type C and D, respectively). The present work suggests that our single shot vaccine would be a good option as a cattle vaccine against these C. botulinum type C and D.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.013
       
  • GABA production and structure of gadB/gadC genes in Lactobacillus and
           Bifidobacterium strains from human microbiota
    • Authors: R.A. Yunes; E.U. Poluektova; M.S. Dyachkova; K.M. Klimina; A.S. Kovtun; O.V. Averina; V.S. Orlova; V.N. Danilenko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): R.A. Yunes, E.U. Poluektova, M.S. Dyachkova, K.M. Klimina, A.S. Kovtun, O.V. Averina, V.S. Orlova, V.N. Danilenko
      Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate. Fifty eight strains were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bificobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). Time profiles of cell growth and GABA production as well as the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on GABA production were studied for L. plantarum 90sk, L. brevis 15f, B. adolescentis 150 and B. angulatum GT102. DNA of these strains was sequenced; the gadB and gadC genes were identified. The presence of these genes was analyzed in 14 metagenomes of healthy individuals. The genes were found in the following genera of bacteria: Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Odoribacter, Prevotella), Proteobacterium (Esherichia), Firmicutes (Enterococcus), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium). These data indicate that gad genes as well as the ability to produce GABA are widely distributed among lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (mainly in L. plantarum, L. brevis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. dentium) and other gut-derived bacterial species. Perhaps, GABA is involved in the interaction of gut microbiota with the macroorganism and the ability to synthesize GABA may be an important feature in the selection of bacterial strains – psychobiotics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.011
       
  • Response to Maja Rupnik
    • Authors: Paul A. Lawson; Diane M. Citron; Kerin L. Tyrell; Sydney M. Finegold
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Paul A. Lawson, Diane M. Citron, Kerin L. Tyrell, Sydney M. Finegold


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.014
       
  • Effect of early antibiotic administration on cecal bacterial communities
           and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein
           levels
    • Authors: Chuanjian Zhang; Miao Yu; Yuxiang Yang; Chunlong Mu; Yong Su; Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
      The study investigated the effects of early antibiotic administration (EAA) on cecal bacterial communities and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein levels. Eighteen litters (total 180) of piglets on day (d) 7 were fed either a commercial creep feed or commercial creep feed + antibiotic (Olaquindox, Oxytetracycline Calcium and Kitasamycin) until d 42. On d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly fed a normal crude protein (CP) diet (20% and 18% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16% and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively), generating 4 groups, Control-Low CP (Con-LP), Control-normal CP (Con-NP), Antibiotic-Low CP (Ant-LP) and Antibiotic-Normal CP (Ant-NP), respectively. On d 77 and d 120, 5 pigs per group were slaughtered and cecal materials were collected for bacterial analysis. With cecal bacteria, principle component analysis (PCA) of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile showed two distinct groups of samples from low-CP diet and samples from normal-CP diet. Real-time PCR showed that EAA did not have significant effect on major bacterial groups, only showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) with CP levels for Lactobacillus counts on d 77 and Clostridium cluster XIVa counts on d 120 with higher values in the Con-NP group compared to the Ant-NP groups. Low-CP diet increased (P < 0.05) short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) producing bacteria counts (Bacteroidetes on d 77 and d 120; Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIVa on d 77), but decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts on d 77 and d 120. For metabolites, EAA increased (P < 0.05) protein fermentation products (p-cresol, indole and skatole on d 77; ammonia, putrescine and spermidine on d 120), and showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) with CP levels for p-cresol and skatole concentrations on d 77 and putrescine and spermidine concentrations on d 120 with higher values in the Ant-LP group compared to the Con-LP groups. Low-CP diet increased (P < 0.05) SCFA concentration (propionate and butyrate) on d 77, but reduced (P < 0.05) the protein fermentation products (ammonia, phenol and indole on d 77; branched chain fatty acid (BCFA), ammonia, tyramine, cadaverine and indole on d 120). These results indicate that EAA had less effect on bacterial communities, but increased bacterial fermentation of proteins in the cecum under low-CP diet. Low-CP diet altered bacterial communities with an increase in the counts of SCFA-producing bacteria and a decrease in the counts of Escherichia coli, and markedly reduced the protein fermentation products.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T18:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.016
       
  • Virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among the gram positive
           anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna
    • Authors: Lyudmila Boyanova; Rumyana Markovska; Ivan Mitov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Lyudmila Boyanova, Rumyana Markovska, Ivan Mitov
      This review focuses on the virulence arsenal of the most pathogenic species among Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Finegoldia magna according to recently published data from 2012-2016. Virulence factors like sortase dependent pili and F. magna adhesion factor (FAF) facilitate the start of the infection. Albumin binding protein (PAB) enhances F. magna survival. FAF, subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease (SufA) and superantigen protein L protect the bacteria from factors of innate defense system. SufA, capsule and tissue-destroying enzymes provide a deep penetration or spread of the infections and the protein L is associated with infection severity. Biofilm production results in infection chronification and complicated treatment as well as to persistence of multi-species biofilms. Resistance rates to quinolones (13.0->70%) and clindamycin (0–40.0%) are important, and resistance to penicillins (<4%), chloramphenicol (7.0%) and metronidazole (<7%) has been reported. F. magna should not be overlooked when present in monoinfections or mixed infections in humans.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T17:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.007
       
  • Distribution of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes and high proportion of
           027 and 176 in some hospitals in four South Eastern European countries
    • Authors: Maja Rupnik; Arjana Tambic Andrasevic; Elena Trajkovska Dokic; Ivanka Matas; Milica Jovanovic; Selma Pasic; Aleksander Kocuvan; Sandra Janezic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Maja Rupnik, Arjana Tambic Andrasevic, Elena Trajkovska Dokic, Ivanka Matas, Milica Jovanovic, Selma Pasic, Aleksander Kocuvan, Sandra Janezic
      While Clostridium difficile epidemiology is well documented in many European countries, data are largely missing for South Eastern European region. Here we report the PCR ribotype distribution of 249 C. difficile isolates received for typing from six hospital settings from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Macedonia and Serbia in time period from 2008 to 2015. Twenty-four PCR ribotypes were detected. The majority of strains from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia belonged to PCR ribotype 027 (65.8%). Other three dominating PCR ribotypes were 176 (18 strains; Croatia), 001/072 (15 strains; all countries) and 014/020 (15 strains; all countries).

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T17:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.005
       
  • Effect of smokeless tobacco products on human oral bacteria growth and
           viability
    • Authors: Min Liu; Jinshan Jin; Hongmiao Pan; Jinhui Feng; Carl E. Cerniglia; Maocheng Yang; Huizhong Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Min Liu, Jinshan Jin, Hongmiao Pan, Jinhui Feng, Carl E. Cerniglia, Maocheng Yang, Huizhong Chen
      To evaluate the toxicity of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) on oral bacteria, seven smokeless tobacco aqueous extracts (STAEs) from major brands of STPs and three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) were used in a growth and viability test against 38 oral bacterial species or subspecies. All seven STAEs showed concentration-dependent effects on the growth and viability of tested oral bacteria under anaerobic culture conditions, although there were strain-to-strain variations. In the presence of 1 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 4 strains decreased over 0.32–2.14 log10 fold, while 14 strains demonstrated enhanced growth of 0.3–1.76 log10 fold, and the growth of 21 strains was not significantly affected. In the presence of 10 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 17 strains was inhibited 0.3–2.11 log10 fold, 18 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3–0.97 log10 fold, and 4 strains were not significantly affected. In the presence of 50 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 32 strains was inhibited 0.3–2.96 log10 fold, 8 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3–1.0 log10 fold, and 2 strains were not significantly affected. All seven STAEs could promote the growth of 4 bacterial strains, including Eubacterium nodatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus constellatus. Exposure to STAEs modulated the viability of some bacterial strains, with 21.1–66.5% decrease for 4 strains at 1 mg/ml, 20.3–85.7% decrease for 10 strains at 10 mg/ml, 20.0–93.3% decrease for 27 strains at 50 mg/ml, and no significant effect for 11 strains at up to 50 mg/ml. STAEs from snuffs inhibited more tested bacterial strains than those from snus indicating that the snuffs may be more toxic to the oral bacteria than snus. For TSNAs, cell growth and viability of 34 tested strains were not significantly affected at up to 100 μg/ml; while the growth of P. micros was enhanced 0.31–0.54 log10 fold; the growth of Veillonella parvula was repressed 0.33–0.36 log10 fold; and the cell viabilities of 2 strains decreased 56.6–69.9%. The results demonstrate that STAEs affected the growth of some types of oral bacteria, which may affect the healthy ecological balance of oral bacteria in humans. On the other hand, TSNAs did not significantly affect the growth of the oral bacteria.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T17:27:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.006
       
  • The effect of quercetin on genetic expression of the commensal gut
           microbes Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Enterococcus caccae and Ruminococcus
           gauvreauii
    • Authors: Jenni Firrman; LinShu Liu; Liqing Zhang; Gustavo Arango Argoty; Minqian Wang; Peggy Tomasula; Masuko Kobori; Sherri Pontious; Weidong Xiao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Jenni Firrman, LinShu Liu, Liqing Zhang, Gustavo Arango Argoty, Minqian Wang, Peggy Tomasula, Masuko Kobori, Sherri Pontious, Weidong Xiao
      Quercetin is one of the most abundant polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables. The ability of the gut microbiota to metabolize quercetin has been previously documented; however, the effect that quercetin may have on commensal gut microbes remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the commensal gut microbes Ruminococcus gauvreauii, Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Enterococcus caccae were determined through evaluation of growth patterns and cell morphology, and analysis of genetic expression profiles between quercetin treated and non-treated groups using Single Molecule RNA sequencing via Helicos technology. Results of this study revealed that phenotypically, quercetin did not prevent growth of Ruminococcus gauvreauii, mildly suppressed growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and moderately inhibited growth of Enterococcus caccae. Genetic analysis revealed that in response to quercetin, Ruminococcus gauvreauii down regulated genes responsible for protein folding, purine synthesis and metabolism. Bifidobacterium catenulatum increased expression of the ABC transport pathway and decreased metabolic pathways and cell wall synthesis. Enterococcus caccae upregulated genes responsible for energy production and metabolism, and downregulated pathways of stress response, translation and sugar transport. For the first time, the effect of quercetin on the growth and genetic expression of three different commensal gut bacteria was documented. The data provides insight into the interactions between genetic regulation and growth. This is also a unique demonstration of how RNA single molecule sequencing can be used to study the gut microbiota.

      PubDate: 2016-10-13T17:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.004
       
  • Transcriptomic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms in vitro
    • Authors: Anika C. Jahns; Hinnerk Eilers; Oleg A. Alexeyev
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Anika C. Jahns, Hinnerk Eilers, Oleg A. Alexeyev
      Propionibacterium acnes is a well-known commensal of the human skin connected to acne vulgaris and joint infections. It is extensively studied in planktonic cultures in the laboratory settings but occurs naturally in biofilms. In this study we have developed an in vitro biofilm model of P. acnes and studied growth features, matrix composition, matrix penetration by fluorescent-labelled antibiotics as well as gene expression. Antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms was studied and could be enhanced by increased glucose concentrations. Biofilm cells were characterized by up-regulated stress-induced genes and up-regulation of genes coding for the potential virulence-associated CAMP factors. P. acnes can generate persister cells showing a reversible tolerance to 50 fold MIC of common antibiotics.

      PubDate: 2016-10-13T17:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.001
       
  • In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the
           normal intestinal microbiota
    • Authors: Andrej Weintraub; Mamun-Ur Rashid; Carl Erik Nord
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Andrej Weintraub, Mamun-Ur Rashid, Carl Erik Nord
      Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC50, 0.008 mg/L). The MIC50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents.

      PubDate: 2016-10-13T17:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.002
       
  • Characterization of Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotype 018: A problematic
           emerging type
    • Authors: Fabrizio Barbanti; Patrizia Spigaglia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Fabrizio Barbanti, Patrizia Spigaglia
      Recent surveys indicate that the majority of toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains isolated in European hospitals belonged to PCR-ribotypes (RTs) different from RT 027 or RT 078. Among these types, RT 018 has been reported in Italy and, more recently, in Korea and Japan. In Italy, strains RT 018 have become predominant in the early 2000s, whereas the majority of strains isolated before were RT 126, a type belonging to the same lineage as the RT 078. In this study, we have found that Italian strains RT 018 are resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Rifampicin resistance is rarely observed in strains RT 018 from other countries and in Italian strains RT 078 and RT 126, therefore the decennial use of rifamycin antibiotics in Italy may be one of the driving factors for the spread of RT 018 in our country. The strains RT 018 examined showed a significant higher adhesion to Caco-2 cells compared to strains RT 078 and RT 126. Furthermore, strains RT 018 became predominant in in vitro competition assays with strains RT 078 or RT 126. If maintained in vivo, these characteristics could lead to a rapid colonization of the intestine by strains RT 018. Under the conditions used, isolates RT 018 produced significantly higher toxins levels compared to strains RT 078 and RT 126, while heat-resistant CFUs production seems to be strain-dependent. Robust toxin production and enhanced sporulation could in part explain the high diffusion and interpatient transmissibility observed for strains RT 018 in the hospital environment. In conclusion, the characteristics observed in the Italian isolates RT 018 seem to contribute in conferring an adaptive advantage to these strains, allowing their successful spread in our country.

      PubDate: 2016-10-13T17:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.10.003
       
  • The unappreciated in vitro activity of tedizolid against Bacteroides
           fragilis species, including strains resistant to metronidazole and
           carbapenems
    • Authors: Ellie J.C. Goldstein; Diane M. Citron; Kerin L. Tyrrell; Elisa Leoncio; C. Vreni Merriam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Ellie J.C. Goldstein, Diane M. Citron, Kerin L. Tyrrell, Elisa Leoncio, C. Vreni Merriam
      The comparative in vitro activity of tedizolid against 124 Bacteroides group species isolates, including carbapenem, metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam resistant strains, had an MIC90 of 2 μg/ml (range, 0.5–4 μg/ml) and was 1–4 times more active than linezolid that had an MIC90 of 8 μg/ml (range, 2–16 μg/ml).

      PubDate: 2016-10-06T16:39:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.09.008
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 41


      PubDate: 2016-09-30T16:09:34Z
       
  • New insights into Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin activation and
           action on the brain during enterotoxemia
    • Authors: John C. Freedman; Bruce A. McClane; Francisco A. Uzal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): John C. Freedman, Bruce A. McClane, Francisco A. Uzal
      Epsilon toxin (ETX), produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, is responsible for diseases that occur mostly in ruminants. ETX is produced in the form of an inactive prototoxin that becomes proteolytically-activated by several proteases. A recent ex vivo study using caprine intestinal contents demonstrated that ETX prototoxin is processed in a step-wise fashion into a stable, active ∼27 kDa band on SDS-PAGE. When characterized further by mass spectrometry, the stable ∼27 kDa band was shown to contain three ETX species with varying C-terminal residues; each of these ETX species is cytotoxic. This study also demonstrated that, in addition to trypsin and chymotrypsin, proteases such as carboxypeptidases are involved in processing ETX prototoxin. Once absorbed, activated ETX species travel to several internal organs, including the brain, where this toxin acts on the vasculature to cross the blood-brain barrier, produces perivascular edema and affects several types of brain cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In addition to perivascular edema, affected animals show edema within the vascular walls. This edema separates the astrocytic end-feet from affected blood vessels, causing hypoxia of nervous system tissue. Astrocytes of rats and sheep affected by ETX show overexpression of aquaporin-4, a membrane channel protein that is believed to help remove water from affected perivascular spaces in an attempt to resolve the perivascular edema. Amyloid precursor protein, an early astrocyte damage indicator, is also observed in the brains of affected sheep. These results show that ETX activation in vivo seems to be more complex than previously thought and this toxin acts on the brain, affecting vascular permeability, but also damaging neurons and other cells.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:01:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.06.006
       
  • Gene regulation by the VirS/VirR system in Clostridium perfringens
    • Authors: Kaori Ohtani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Kaori Ohtani
      The Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming rod, Clostridium perfringens, is widely distributed in nature, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. C. perfringens produces many secreted toxins and enzymes that are involved in the pathogenesis of gas gangrane and gastrointestinal disease. One of the most important systems regulating the production of these proteins in C. perfringens is the VirS/VirR-VR-RNA signal transduction cascade. The Agr system also important for the regulation of toxin genes. VirS appears to sense the peptide produced by the Agr (accessory gene regulator) system. The VirS/VirR-VR-RNA cascade controls the pathogenesis of C. perfringens infections by regulating virulence related genes and genes for energy metabolism. These systems are important for the host cell-induced upregulation of toxin production.

      PubDate: 2016-06-15T02:04:32Z
       
 
 
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