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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2664 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1338 journals)            First | 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 | Last

Mammalian Species     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Marine Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Marine Biodiversity Records     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Marine Mammal Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Materials Science and Engineering: C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Mathematical Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Medicine and Biology: A Journal of the IMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Physics, Analysis and Geometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Matrix Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Médecine Nucléaire     Full-text available via subscription  
mBio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechanisms of Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
médecine/sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical and Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Membrane Protein Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metabolic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Metabolites     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Metallomics     Full-text available via subscription  
Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Methods in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Methods in Cell Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Methods in Ecology and Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Micologia Aplicada Internacional     Open Access  
Microarrays     Open Access  
Micron     Hybrid Journal  
Mitochondrial DNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mitochondrion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Chemotherapy     Open Access  
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Molecular & Cellular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular and Cellular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Based Mathematical Biology     Open Access  
Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Molecular Biology and Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Molecular Biology International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Biology of the Cell     Partially Free   (Followers: 14)
Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Brain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Breeding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Molecular Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Molecular Ecology Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Molecular Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Pain     Open Access  
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Reproduction & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids     Open Access  
Molecules and Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Moscow University Physics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Movement Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mycological Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mycopathologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mycorrhiza     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mycoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mycotoxin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
NAMMCO Scientific Publications     Open Access  
Nano Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nano Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Nanoscale Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural Product Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Natural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2424)
Nature Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
Nature China     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Nature Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Nature Protocols     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 236)
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 202)
Naturwissenschaften     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nematropica     Open Access  
NeoBiota     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neotropical Ichthyology     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Neurobiology of Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Neurobiology of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 | Last

Journal Cover Biochemistry and Cell Biology
   [11 followers]  Follow    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0829-8211 - ISSN (Online) 1208-6002
     Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [18 journals]   [SJR: 1.488]   [H-I: 65]
  • Biochemistry and Cell Biology
    • Pages: 1 - 30
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 11:47:19 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0111
      Issue No: Vol. 0, No. 0 (2014)
       
  • The apelin receptor: physiology, pathology, cell signalling, and ligand
           modulation of a peptide-activated class A GPCR
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. The apelin receptor (AR or APJ) is a class A (rhodopsin-like) G-protein-coupled receptor with wide distribution throughout the human body. Activation of the AR by its cognate peptide ligand, apelin, induces diverse physiological effects including vasoconstriction and dilation, strengthening of heart muscle contractility, angiogenesis, and regulation of energy metabolism and fluid homeostasis. Recently, another endogenous peptidic activator of the AR, Toddler/ELABELA, was identified as having a crucial role in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development. The AR is also implicated in pathologies including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target. Despite its established importance, the precise roles of AR signalling remain poorly understood. Moreover, little is known about the mechanisms of peptide–AR activation. Additional complexity arises from modulation of the AR by 2 endogenous peptide ligands, both with multiple bioactive isoforms of variable length and distribution. The various apelin and Toddler/ELABELA isoforms may also produce distinct cellular effects. Further complexity arises through formation of functionally distinct heterodimers between the AR and other G-protein-coupled receptors. This minireview outlines key (patho)physiological actions of the AR, addresses what is known about signal transduction downstream of AR activation, and concludes by discussing unique properties of the endogenous peptidic ligands of the AR.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0072
      Issue No: Vol. 0, No. 0 (2014)
       
  • Functional interdependence of NHE1 and merlin in human melanoma cells
    • Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Upregulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been correlated with tumor malignancy. In contrast, moesin-radixin-ezrin–like protein (merlin) is a tumor suppressor that protects from cancerogenesis. Merlin is highly related to the members of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) protein family that are directly attached to and functionally linked with NHE1. In addition, merlin inhibits the MAPK cascade and the Rho-GTPases known to activate NHE1 activity. The present study investigates whether NHE1 expression and activity affect merlin or, conversely, whether merlin has an impact on NHE1 in human melanoma (MV3) cells. Indeed, features of merlin-deficient MV3 cells point to a functional link: merlin-deficient cells showed a decreased NHE1 expression and, paradoxically, an increase in NHE1 activity as measured upon cytosolic acidification (NH4Cl prepulse method). Loss of merlin also led to an elevated cell motility that could be further increased by NHE1 overexpression, whereas NHE1 overexpression alone had no effect on migration. In contrast, neither NHE1 expression nor its activity had an impact on merlin expression. These results suggest a novel tumor suppressor function of merlin in melanoma cells: the inhibition of the proto-oncogenic NHE1 activity, possibly including its downstream signaling pathways.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Aug 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0041
      Issue No: Vol. 0, No. 0 (2014)
       
  • Characterization of human mutations in phosphorylatable amino acids of the
           cytosolic regulatory tail of SLC9A1
    • Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. The NHE1 isoform of the mammalian Na+/H+ exchanger is a ubiquitous plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH in cells by removing one intracellular proton in exchange for one extracellular sodium. Genetic defects in NHE1 have been shown to affect the growth and motor ability of mice, but mutations in humans have not been studied. NHE1 has a cytosolic C-terminal regulatory domain of approximately 300 amino acids. We investigated the functional effects of two human mutations found in the regulatory phosphorylatable amino acids Ser703 and Ser771. A Ser703Pro mutant protein had essentially the same activity, expression, and targeting as the wild type NHE1 protein. In contrast, the Ser771Pro protein had reduced activity and expression of NHE1 protein, though cell surface targeting was normal. In dual pulse assays the Ser771Pro mutant was not further activated by sustained intracellular acidosis but displayed an unusual activation by brief pulses of acidosis. The results demonstrate that the Ser771Pro human genetic mutation has significant and detrimental physiological effects on the activity of the NHE1 protein, SLC9A1.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0071
      Issue No: Vol. 0, No. 0 (2014)
       
  • Lessons from a red squirrel, mentors, and the pathway to success
    • Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. In this article I will review my personal career path starting with how a red squirrel got me interested in research, and the vital role that mentors played in my pathway to success — a pathway that taught me many lessons that I would like to share with the reader, particularly graduate students and post-doctoral fellows who are just starting down their own unique pathways.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jun 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0058
      Issue No: Vol. 0, No. 0 (2014)
       
  • Protein transport into the human ER and related diseases,
           Sec61-channelopathies
    • Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Protein transport into the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is relevant to the biogenesis of most soluble and membrane proteins of organelles, which are involved in endo- or exo-cytsosis. It involves amino-terminal signal peptides in the precursor polypeptides and various transport components in the cytosol plus the ER, and can occur co- or post-translationally. The two mechanisms merge at the level of the ER membrane, specifically at the level of the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex, which forms a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel in the ER membrane. Since the mammalian ER is also the main intracellular calcium storage organelle, and the Sec61 complex is calcium permeable, the Sec61 complex is tightly regulated in its equilibrium between the closed and open conformations, or “gated”, by ligands, such as signal peptides of the transport substrates and the ER lumenal Hsp70-type molecular chaperone BiP. Furthermore, BiP binding to the incoming polypeptide contributes to the efficiency and unidirectionality of transport. Recent insights into the structure and dynamic equilibrium of the Sec61 complex have various mechanistic as well as medical implications.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Tue, 27 May 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0043
      Issue No: Vol. 0, No. 0 (2014)
       
  • Import of ribosomal proteins into yeast mitochondria
    • Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Mitochondrial ribosomes of baker’s yeast contain at least 78 protein subunits. All but one of these proteins are nuclear-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, and imported into the matrix for biogenesis. The import of matrix proteins typically relies on N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences that form positively charged amphipathic helices. Interestingly, the N-terminal regions of many ribosomal proteins do not closely match the characteristics of matrix targeting sequences, suggesting that the import processes of these proteins might deviate to some extent from the general import route. So far, the biogenesis of only two ribosomal proteins, Mrpl32 and Mrp10, was studied experimentally and indeed showed surprising differences to the import of other preproteins. In this review article we summarize the current knowledge on the transport of proteins into the mitochondrial matrix, and thereby specifically focus on proteins of the mitochondrial ribosome.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Tue, 20 May 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0029
      Issue No: Vol. 0, No. 0 (2014)
       
  • Meeting report: The 57th Annual Meeting of the CSMB, Membrane Proteins in
           Health and Disease
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Oct 2014 18:58:23 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0131
       
  • The effects of a protein osmolyte on the stability of the integral
           membrane protein glycerol facilitator
    • Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Osmolytes are naturally occurring molecules used by a wide variety of organisms to stabilize proteins under extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure, denaturant concentration, and desiccation. The effects of the osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as well as the influence of detergent head group and acyl chain length on the stability of the Escherichia coli integral membrane protein glycerol facilitator (GF) tetramer to thermal and chemical denaturation by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are reported. TMAO promotes the association of the normally tetrameric α-helical protein into higher order oligomers in dodecyl-maltoside (DDM), but not in tetradecyl-maltoside (TDM), lyso-lauroylphosphatidyl choline (LLPC), or lyso-myristoylphosphatidyl choline (LMPC), as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS); an octameric complex is particularly stable as indicated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. TMAO increases the heat stability of the GF tetramer an average of 10 °C in the 4 detergents and also protects the protein from denaturation by SDS. However, it did not promote re-association to the tetramer when added to SDS-dissociated protein. TMAO also promotes the formation of rod-like detergent micelles, and DLS was found to be useful for monitoring the structure of the protein and the redistribution of detergent during thermal dissociation of the protein. The protein is more thermally stable in detergents with the phosphatidylcholine head group (LLPC and LMPC) than in the maltoside detergents. The implications of the results for osmolyte mechanism, membrane protein stability, and protein–protein interactions are discussed.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Oct 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0076
       
  • Discovery of novel membrane binding structures and functions
    • Authors: Irina Kufareva, Marc Lenoir, Felician Dancea, Pooja Sridhar, Eugene Raush, Christin Bissig, Jean Gruenberg, Ruben Abagyan, Michael Overduin
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. The function of a protein is determined by its intrinsic activity in the context of its subcellular distribution. Membranes localize proteins within cellular compartments and govern their specific activities. Discovering such membrane-protein interactions is important for understanding biological mechanisms and could uncover novel sites for therapeutic intervention. We present a method for detecting membrane interactive proteins and their exposed residues that insert into lipid bilayers. Although the development process involved analysis of how C1b, C2, ENTH, FYVE, Gla, pleckstrin homology (PH), and PX domains bind membranes, the resulting membrane optimal docking area (MODA) method yields predictions for a given protein of known three-dimensional structures without referring to canonical membrane-targeting modules. This approach was tested on the Arf1 GTPase, ATF2 acetyltransferase, von Willebrand factor A3 domain, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae MsrB protein and further refined with membrane interactive and non-interactive FAPP1 and PKD1 pleckstrin homology domains, respectively. Furthermore we demonstrate how this tool can be used to discover unprecedented membrane binding functions as illustrated by the Bro1 domain of Alix, which was revealed to recognize lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). Validation of novel membrane-protein interactions relies on other techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which was used here to map the sites of micelle interaction. Together this indicates that genome-wide identification of known and novel membrane interactive proteins and sites is now feasible and provides a new tool for functional annotation of the proteome.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0074
       
  • C/EBPβ regulates P2X7 receptor expression in response to glucose
           challenge in intestinal epithelial cells
    • Authors: Maude S. Bilodeau, Guillaume Arguin, Fernand-Pierre Gendron
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Activation of the ATP-dependent P2X7 receptor modulates glucose transport in intestinal epithelial cells through the downregulation of glucose transporter GLUT2. In the present study, we show that an increase in glucose concentration stimulates P2X7 receptor transcription via modulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) α and β expression. The described human P2X7 receptor promoter region (GenBank Y12851) was cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter gene in pGL4.10 plasmid and used to determine whether C/EBPs, namely C/EBPα and C/EBPβ, are able to stimulate the transcription of P2X7 receptor. Results show that C/EBPβ was the main regulator of P2X7 receptor expression in response to a glucose challenge. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further revealed that C/EBPβ occupied the –213 to +6 nt P2X7 promoter region. Surprisingly, C/EBPα was also able to bind this region as revealed by ChIP assays, but without inducing receptor transcription. In fact, C/EBPα and the C/EBPβ-LIP isoform blocked the C/EBPβ-dependent regulation of P2X7 receptor transcription. These findings suggest that glucose is not only the major source of energy for cell function but may also act as a signaling molecule to stimulate the expression of regulatory proteins.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0098
       
  • Multi-physiopathological consequences of the c.1392G>T CFTR mutation
           revealed by clinical and cellular investigations
    • Authors: Raed Farhat, Ayman El-Seedy, Kamal El-Moussaoui, Marie-Claude Pasquet, Catherine Adolphe, Eric Bieth, Jeanne Languepin, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Alain Kitzis, Véronique Ladevèze
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. This study combines a clinical approach and multiple level cellular analyses to determine the physiopathological consequences of the c.1392G>T (p.Lys464Asn) CFTR exon 10 mutation, detected in a CF patient with a frameshift deletion in trans and a TG(11)T(5) in cis. Minigene experiment, with different TG(m)T(n) alleles, and nasal cell mRNA extracts were used to study the impact of c.1392G>T on splicing in both in cellulo and in vivo studies. The processing and localization of p.Lys464Asn protein were evaluated, in cellulo, by western blotting analyses and confocal microscopy. Clinical and channel exploration tests were performed on the patient to determine the exact CF phenotype profile and the CFTR chloride transport activity. c.1392G>T affects exon 10 splicing by inducing its complete deletion and encoding a frameshift transcript. The polymorphism TG(11)T(5) aggravates the effects of this mutation on aberrant splicing. Analysis of mRNA obtained from parental airway epithelial cells confirmed these in cellulo results. At the protein level the p.Lys464Asn protein showed neither maturated form nor membrane localization. Furthermore, the in vivo channel tests confirmed the absence of CFTR activity. Thus, the c.1392G>T mutation alone or in association with the TG repeats and the poly T tract revealed obvious impacts on splicing and CFTR protein processing and functionality. The c.[T(5); 1392G>T] complex allele contributes to the CF phenotype by affecting splicing and inducing a severe misprocessing defect. These results demonstrate that the classical CFTR mutations classification is not sufficient: in vivo and in cellulo studies of a possible complex allele in a patient are required to provide correct CFTR mutation classification, adequate medical counseling, and adapted therapeutic strategies.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0042
       
  • Cytochrome P450 expression in mouse brain: specific isoenzymes involved in
           Phase I metabolizing system of porphyrinogenic agents in both microsomes
           and mitochondria
    • Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Brain cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolizes a variety of drugs to produce their pharmacological effects within the brain. We have previously observed that porphyrinogenic agents altered CYP levels in brain. The aim of this work was to further study the involvement of mice brain mitochondrial and microsomal Phase I drug metabolizing system when porphyrinogenic agents, such as Enflurane, Isoflurane, allylisopropylacetamide, veronal, ethanol, and Griseofulvin were administered. To this end, CYP2E1, CYP2B1, and CYP3A4 expression were measured. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) expression was also determined. Western Blots were performed in microsomes and mitochondria of whole brain. Some of the drugs studied altered expression mainly in microsomes. Chronic Isoflurane augmented mitochondrial isoform, although this anaesthetic diminished microsomal expression. Ethanol and topical Griseofulvin affected expression in microsomes but not in mitochondria. CYP2E1 mitochondrial activity was induced by acute Enflurane; while the activity of the microsomal protein was enhanced in alcoholised animals. Ethanol also induced CYP2E1 expression in microsomes, although Isoflurane provoked opposite effects in mitochondria and microsomes. Expression of CPR was also induced. Several reports support an emergent role of CYP enzymes in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, so CYP response in brain could be one of the multiples factors influencing porphyria acute attacks.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0088
       
  • Paracellular calcium transport across renal and intestinal epithelia
    • Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Calcium (Ca2+) is a key constituent in a myriad of physiological processes from intracellular signalling to the mineralization of bone. As a consequence, Ca2+ is maintained within narrow limits when circulating in plasma. This is accomplished via regulated interplay between intestinal absorption, renal tubular reabsorption, and exchange with bone. Many studies have focused on the highly regulated active transcellular transport pathways for Ca2+ from the duodenum of the intestine and the distal nephron of the kidney. However, comparatively little work has examined the molecular constituents creating the paracellular shunt across intestinal and renal epithelium, the transport pathway responsible for the majority of transepithelial Ca2+ flux. More specifically, passive paracellular Ca2+ absorption occurs across the majority of the intestine in addition to the renal proximal tubule and thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop. Importantly, recent studies demonstrated that Ca2+ transport through the paracellular shunt is significantly regulated. Therefore, we have summarized the evidence for different modes of paracellular Ca2+ flux across renal and intestinal epithelia and highlighted recent molecular insights into both the mechanism of secondarily active paracellular Ca2+ movement and the identity of claudins that permit the passage of Ca2+ through the tight junction of these epithelia.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0061
       
  • Expression of polycystins and fibrocystin on primary cilia of lung cells
    • Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Mutations in polycystin-1, polycystin-2, or fibrocystin account for autosomal dominant or recessive polycystic kidney disease. Renal cystogenesis is linked to abnormal localization and function of these cystoproteins in renal primary cilia. They are also expressed in extrarenal tissues in which their functions are unclear. Here we found that human type-II alveolar epithelial A549, airway submucosal Calu-3 cells, and rat bronchioles contain primary or multiple cilia in which we detected these cystoproteins. At sub-confluency, polycystin-1 was expressed on plasma membrane, while polycystin-2 was localized to the ER of resting cells. Both polycystins were detected on the spindle and mid-body of mitotic cells, while fibrocystin was on centrosome throughout cell cycle. Polycystins and fibrocystin may participate in regulating mucociliary sensing and transport within pulmonary airways.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0062
       
  • Conformational changes opening and closing the CFTR chloride channel:
           Insights from cysteine scanning mutagenesis
    • Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal genetic disease affecting young people in North America, is caused by failure of the chloride ion channel known as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). CFTR belongs to the large family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters. In CFTR, ATP-driven events at the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) open and close a gate that controls chloride permeation. However, the conformational changes concomitant with opening and closing of the CFTR gate are unknown. Diverse techniques including substituted cysteine accessibility method, disulfide cross-linking, and patch-clamp recording have been used to explore CFTR channel structure. Here, we consider the architecture of both the open and the closed CFTR channel. We review how CFTR channel structure changes between the closed and the open channel conformations and portray the relative function of both cytoplasmic and vestigial gates during the gating cycle. Understanding how the CFTR channel gates chloride permeation is central for understanding how CFTR defects lead to CF. Such knowledge opens the door for novel ways to maximize CFTR channel activity in a CF setting.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0038
       
  • Retinol dehydrogenases: Membrane-bound enzymes for the visual function
    • Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Retinoid metabolism is important for many physiological functions, such as differenciation, growth, and vision. In the visual context, after the absorption of light in rod photoreceptors by the visual pigment rhodopsin, 11-cis retinal is isomerized to all-trans retinal. This retinoid subsequently undergoes a series of modifications during the visual cycle through a cascade of reactions occurring in photoreceptors and in the retinal pigment epithelium. Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) are enzymes responsible for crucial steps of this visual cycle. They belong to a large family of proteins designated as short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases. The structure of these RDHs has been predicted using modern bioinformatics tools, which allowed to propose models with similar structures including a common Rossman fold. These enzymes undergo oxidoreduction reactions, whose direction is dictated by the preference and concentration of their individual cofactor (NAD(H)/NADP(H)). This review presents the current state of knowledge on functional and structural features of RDHs involved in the visual cycle as well as knockout models. RDHs are described as integral or peripheral enzymes. A topology model of the membrane binding of these RDHs via their N- and (or) C-terminal domain has been proposed on the basis of their individual properties. Membrane binding is a crucial issue for these enzymes because of the high hydrophobicity of their retinoid substrates.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0082
       
  • The study of vacuolar-type ATPases by single particle electron microscopy
    • Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Nature’s molecular machines often work through the concerted action of many different protein subunits, which can give rise to large structures with complex activities. Vacuolar-type ATPases (V-ATPases) are membrane-embedded protein assemblies with a unique rotary catalytic mechanism. The dynamic nature and instability of V-ATPases make structural and functional studies of these enzymes challenging. Electron microscopy (EM) techniques, especially single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) and negative-stain EM, have provided extensive insight into the structure and function of these protein complexes. This minireview outlines what has been learned about V-ATPases using electron microscopy, highlights current challenges for their structural study, and discusses what cryo-EM will allow us to learn about these fascinating enzymes in the future.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Sep 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0086
       
  • Acid-base transport in pancreatic cancer: Molecular mechanisms and
           clinical potential
    • Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Solid tumors are characterized by a microenvironment that is highly acidic, while intracellular pH (pHi) is normal or even elevated. This is the result of elevated metabolic rates in the highly proliferative cancer cells, in conjunction with often greatly increased rates of net cellular acid extrusion. Studies in various cancers have suggested that while the acid extrusion mechanisms employed are generally the same as those in healthy cells, the specific transporters upregulated vary with the cancer type. The main such transporters include Na+/H+ exchangers, various HCO3− transporters, H+ pumps, and lactate-H+ cotransporters. The mechanisms leading to their dysregulation in cancer are incompletely understood but include changes in transporter expression levels, trafficking and membrane localization, and posttranslational modifications. In turn, accumulating evidence has revealed that in addition to supporting their elevated metabolic rate, their increased acid efflux capacity endows the cancer cells with increased capacity for invasiveness, proliferation, and chemotherapy resistance. The pancreatic duct exhibits an enormous capacity for acid-base transport, rendering pHi dysregulation a potentially very important topic in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC — accounting for about 90% of all pancreatic cancers — has one of the highest cancer mortality rates known, and new diagnostic and treatment options are highly needed. However, very little is known about whether pH regulation is altered in PDAC and, if so, the possible role of this in cancer development. Here, we review current models for pancreatic acid-base transport and pH homeostasis and summarize current views on acid-base dysregulation in cancer, focusing where possible on the few studies to date in PDAC. Finally, we present new data-mining analyses of acid-base transporter expression changes in PDAC and discuss essential directions for future work.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Aug 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0078
       
  • The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6
           (TRPV6): Genetics, biochemical properties, and functions of exceptional
           calcium channel proteins
    • Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 (TRPV6) gene and cDNA were identified 15 years ago and exceptional observations on TrpV6 proteins and their function as a Ca2+-selective cation channel have been made since then. In this review we will summarize recent studies regarding the genetics, biochemical properties, and physiological functions of murine and human TrpV6 channel proteins. We will focus on TRPV6 gene polymorphisms, the start of TRPV6 translation at a non-AUG codon and the functions of TRPV6 in intestinal Ca2+ uptake, sperm maturation, and male fertility.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Aug 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0063
       
  • Functional role of arginine 425 in the mammalian Na+/H+ exchanger
    • Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, e-First Articles. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is the principal plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger of mammalian cells and functions by exchanging one intracellular proton for one extracellular sodium ion. Critical transmembrane segments of Na+/H+ exchangers have discontinuous transmembrane helices, which result in a dipole within the membrane. Amino acid R425 has been suggested to play an important role in neutralizing one such helix dipole. To investigate this hypothesis, R425 was mutated to alanine, glutamine, histidine, or lysine and the mutant NHE1 proteins were expressed and characterized in NHE1-deficient cells. The R425A and R425E mutants exhibited complete loss of expression of mature, fully glycosylated NHE1, reduced expression overall, and greatly reduced cell surface targeting. The cell surface targeting, expression, and activity of the R425H and R425K mutant proteins were also impaired, though residual NHE1 activity remained. When reduced targeting and expression were accounted for, the R425H and R425K mutant proteins had activity similar to that of the wild-type protein. The results suggest that R425 is critical for NHE1 expression, targeting, and activity and that replacement with another basic residue can rescue activity. The findings are consistent with a role for R425 in both neutralizing a helix dipole and maintaining NHE1 structure and function.
      Citation: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0070
       
 
 
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