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EDUCATION (2210 journals)

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Instructional Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.345
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 15  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1952 - ISSN (Online) 0020-4277
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2643 journals]
  • Examining secondary school students’ views of model evaluation through
           an integrated framework of personal epistemology
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate students’ views of model evaluation through the lens of personal epistemology. We developed an integrated analytical framework by combining a developmental framework, including absolutist, multiplist, and evaluatist, with a multi-dimensional framework, including limits of knowing, certainty of knowing, and criteria of knowing. Furthermore, we examined the potential influence of the question contexts and the students’ grade levels. A total of 188 secondary school students were surveyed. Students answered two sets of model evaluation questions based on two scientific contexts. After reading the information about the two models, the students had to choose from three epistemic assumptions and then provide written justifications explaining their choice of assumptions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted for the multiple-choice questions and the written responses. In both contexts there were higher percentages of 11th-grade students choosing the evaluatist assumptions than the eighth-grade students. For students choosing multiplist and evaluatist assumptions, the 11th-grade students were more likely than the eighth-grade students to think in terms of pragmatic and evidential criteria as the criteria of knowing. Different contexts of the questions evoked different views of model evaluation particularly regarding the limits of knowing. Four additional categories of epistemic levels also emerged from the data. This study provides a new framework for understanding students’ thinking about model evaluation. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
  • The role of motivational profiles in learning problem-solving and
           self-assessment skills with video modeling examples
    • Abstract: Abstract In the current study, we examine the role of situation-specific motivational profiles in the effectiveness of video modeling examples for learning problem-solving and self-assessment accuracy in the domain of biology. A sample of 342 secondary school students participated in our study. Latent profile analysis resulted in four motivational profiles: (a) good-quality profile (high autonomous motivation, moderate introjected and external motivation), (b) moderately positive profile (moderate motivation levels with relatively higher autonomous motivation), (c) moderately negative profile (moderate motivation levels with relatively higher external motivation), and (d) poor-quality profile (moderate external, low autonomous motivation). Findings showed students with good-quality or moderately positive profiles learned more from the video modeling in terms of problem-solving and self-assessment accuracy than students with poor-quality or moderately negative profiles. Furthermore, students with a moderately negative profile outperformed students with a poor-quality profile on problem-solving and self-assessment accuracy. Results further indicated that students with good-quality and moderately positive profiles experienced studying the video modeling examples as less effortful than students with poor-quality or moderately negative profiles. Overall, our results demonstrated that knowing about students’ motivational profiles could help explain differences in how well students learn problem-solving as well as self-assessment skills from watching video modeling examples.
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
  • Multimethod assessment of self-regulated learning in college students:
           different methods for different components'
    • Abstract: Abstract Although self-regulated learning (SRL) is seen as highly relevant for successful college learning, college students oftentimes show a lack in SRL abilities. Therefore, it seems necessary to foster SRL in this group of leaners. In order to evaluate such training and to foster SRL in an optimal way, a valid assessment of this competence and its development is necessary. As different methods for the assessment of SRL show benefits and points of criticism, the present study used a multimethod approach to investigate convergence between and across different measures as well as their predictive validity for achievement. SRL was conceptualized of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational components. Seventy college students were assessed with two broad SRL-measures (questionnaire, strategy knowledge test) and two task-specific SRL measures (microanalyses, trace data) within a standardized laboratory setting. Moreover, GPA of college entrance diploma was gathered as an indicator of general achievement level. Results indicate moderate to high relations between the different components of SRL (cognition, metacognition, and motivation) within one assessment level and no relations between the different assessment methods within one component. With regard to achievement, we found that every component is predictive for achievement but only if measured with different assessment methods. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for future research and the use of different assessment methods for SRL.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
  • Observational narrative knowledging in early professional development of
           student teachers of English
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a narrative inquiry approach to understanding the early professional development (PD) of student teachers of English at a state university in Turkey. With the twofold functioning of narrative as a tool for both research and PD, we probe into how student teachers’ early PD trajectories are shaped through observational narrative knowledging. Data consisted of group discussions, semi-structured interviews, metaphor elicitations, and informal conversations that accompanied the main data collection tool, i.e., narrative frames collected during the practicum. The triangulated data were subjected to a multi-tiered collaborative content analysis. The findings showed that narrative-embedded observations helped student teachers organize and attach meaning to their early field experiences, and thus build on their self-awareness, critical thinking, and reflectivity for future classroom practices. We also reported how the participants reflected retrospectively, in the course of, and the posteriori of writing the classroom observational narratives. Through narrative knowledging, we offer a more nuanced approach to aiding student teachers’ early PD.
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
  • Preparatory effects of problem solving versus studying examples prior to
    • Abstract: Abstract The Productive Failure (PF) approach prompts students to attempt to solve a problem prior to instruction – at which point they typically fail. Yet, research on PF shows that students who are involved in problem solving prior to instruction gain more conceptual knowledge from the subsequent instruction compared to students who receive the instruction first. So far, there is no conclusive evidence, however, that the beneficial effects of PF are explained by the attempt to generate one’s own solutions prior to instruction. The literature on example-based learning suggests that observing someone else engaging in problem-solving attempts may be an equally effective means to prepare students for instruction. In an experimental study, we compared a PF condition, in which students were actively engaged in problem solving prior to instruction, to two example conditions, in which students either observed the complete problem-solving-and-failing process of another student engaging in PF or looked at the outcome of this process (i.e., another student’s failed solution attempts). Rather than worked examples of the correct solution procedure, the students observed examples of failed solution attempts. We found that students’ own problem solving was not superior to the two example conditions. In fact, students who observed the complete PF process even outperformed students who engaged in PF themselves. Additional analyses revealed that the students’ prior knowledge moderated this effect: While students who observed the complete PF process were able to take advantage of their prior knowledge to gain more conceptual knowledge from the subsequent instruction, prior knowledge did not affect students’ post-test performance in the PF condition.
      PubDate: 2021-01-04
  • Mind maps as primers when reading-for-learning in elementary grades'
           An eye tracking study
    • Abstract: Abstract Mind maps are often used to help readers process texts, but their effectiveness is empirically under-investigated. This study explores whether the use of mind maps presented either before or after the text can prime successful selective processing strategies related to the text topic structure. Differences in performance outcomes (i.e., memory and comprehension) are also investigated. Sixty-four late elementary education students were randomly assigned to a text-only-condition (T), mind map-text-condition (MMT) or text-mind map-condition (TMM). All groups studied an informative text while their eye movements were registered. Multilayered posttests and interviews were administered. Linear mixed effect models and one-way analysis of variances show that presenting a mind map beforehand primes more successful selective processing strategies than when the mind map is presented afterwards or not presented. In contrast, the TMM-condition outperformed the others in their amount of free recall and coherence. This study suggests that both receiving a mind map before or after text processing can be beneficial during targeted instruction in view of successful reading-for-learning.
      PubDate: 2021-01-03
  • Preparing preservice teachers to use block-based coding in scientific
           modeling lessons
    • Abstract: Abstract Scientific modeling and coding are critical skills to be integrated into K-12 instruction. Research has shown that preservice teachers are often ill-prepared for teaching scientific modeling, and lack opportunities to learn coding within teacher education programs. The present study reports the implementation of an instructional module and online system, called Coding in Scientific Modeling Lessons (CS-ModeL), which was designed to scaffold preservice science teachers’ learning to code simulations and design scientific modeling lessons that feature simulation coding. In this study, we examined preservice teachers’ epistemic discourse during simulation coding, perceptions of coding for future teaching, and coding-enhanced scientific modeling lessons. This was a qualitative single case study that involved six participants enrolled in a science teacher education course. Participants worked in pairs during scientific modeling activities, and each pair was considered an embedded unit within the single case. Data sources included transcripts of screen recordings captured during simulation coding, transcripts of individual semi-structured interviews, and lessons in which participants used simulation coding as part of scientific modeling activities. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Findings revealed that participants’ epistemic discourse led to correction of science misconceptions. However, lack of debugging and conflict argumentation skills detracted from their epistemic discourse quality. Participants perceived coding as a beneficial skill for K-12 students though they voiced concerns about teaching with coding unassisted. Participants failed to design truly interdisciplinary and authentic scientific modeling activities including simulation coding. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-12-12
  • Thank you to the 2020 Instructional Science reviewers!
    • PubDate: 2020-12-09
  • When failure fails to be productive: probing the effectiveness of
           productive failure for learning beyond STEM domains
    • Abstract: Abstract The current work builds on research demonstrating the effectiveness of Productive Failure (PF) for learning. While the effectiveness of PF has been demonstrated for STEM learning, it has not yet been investigated whether PF is also beneficial for learning in non-STEM domains. Given this need to test PF for learning in domains other than mathematics or science, and the assumption that features embodied in a PF design are domain-independent, we investigated the effect of PF on learning social science research methods. We conducted two quasi-experimental studies with 212 and 152 10th graders. Following the paradigm of typical PF studies, we implemented two conditions: PF, in which students try to solve a complex problem prior to instruction, and Direct Instruction (DI), in which students first receive instruction followed by problem solving. In PF, students usually learn from their failure. Failing to solve a complex problem is assumed to prepare students for deeper learning from subsequent instruction. In DI, students usually learn through practice. Practicing and applying a given problem-solving procedure is assumed to help students to learn from previous instruction. In contrast to several studies demonstrating beneficial effects of PF on learning mathematics and science, in the present two studies, PF students did not outperform DI students on learning social science research methods. Thus, the findings did not replicate the PF effect on learning in a non-STEM domain. The results are discussed in light of mechanisms assumed to underlie the benefits of PF.
      PubDate: 2020-11-19
  • It matters how to recall – task differences in retrieval practice
    • Abstract: Abstract The type of a recall task may substantially influence the effects of learning by retrieval practice. In a within-subject design, 54 university students studied two expository texts, followed by retrieval practice with either short-answer tasks (targeted retrieval) or a free-recall task (holistic retrieval). Concerning the direct effects of retrieval practice, short-answer tasks led to increased retention of directly retrieved targeted information from the learning contents, whereas free-recall tasks led to better retention of further information from the learning contents. Concerning indirect effects, short-answer tasks improved metacognitive calibration; free-recall tasks increased self-efficacy and situational interest. These findings confirm the assumption that the effects of retrieval practice depend on the type of recall task: short-answer tasks help us remember targeted information units and foster metacognitive calibration. Free-recall tasks help us remember a broader spectrum of information, and they foster motivational factors.
      PubDate: 2020-11-10
  • Holistic and dynamic: teacher-researcher reflections on operating
           mobile-assisted learning tasks supported by WeChat for Chinese as a
           foreign language
    • Abstract: Abstract Teacher perspectives have been lacking in the mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) literature. To fill this gap, this study investigates how Chinese teachers implemented WeChat-supported language tasks and the challenges they encountered in the process. Based on technology-mediated task-based language teaching and authentic assessment frameworks, we designed tasks that aimed to achieve both pedagogical goals (focusing on linguistic forms and achieving authenticity) and technological goals. Teachers’ reflective journals revealed that implementing WeChat-supported tasks was a holistic and dynamic process, entailing four interrelated phases and requiring continuous management of unexpected events. This indicates that teachers should develop new skills and play complex, well-rounded roles to meet both the pedagogical and technological goals of technology-mediated tasks in MALL in the digital era.
      PubDate: 2020-10-27
  • Example-based learning: should learners receive closed-book or open-book
           self-explanation prompts'
    • Abstract: Abstract In learning from examples, students are often first provided with basic instructional explanations of new principles and concepts and second with examples thereof. In this sequence, it is important that learners self-explain by generating links between the basic instructional explanations’ content and the examples. Therefore, it is well established that learners receive self-explanation prompts. However, there is hardly any research on whether these prompts should be provided in a closed-book format—in which learners cannot access the basic instructional explanations during self-explaining and thus have to retrieve the main content of the instructional explanations that is needed to explain the examples from memory (i.e., retrieval practice)—or in an open-book format in which learners can access the instructional explanations during self-explaining. In two experiments, we varied whether learners received closed- or open-book self-explanation prompts. We also varied whether learners were prompted to actively process the main content of the basic instructional explanations before they proceeded to the self-explanation prompts. When the learners were not prompted to actively process the basic instructional explanations, closed-book prompts yielded detrimental effects on immediate and delayed (1 week) posttest performance. When the learners were prompted to actively process the basic instructional explanations beforehand, closed-book self-explanation prompts were not less beneficial than open-book prompts regarding performance on a delayed posttest. We conclude that at least when the retention interval does not exceed 1 week, closed-book self-explanation prompts do not entail an added value and can even be harmful in comparison to open-book ones.
      PubDate: 2020-09-01
  • The impact of digital distraction on lecture note taking and student
    • Abstract: Abstract Laptop computers allow students to type lecture notes instead of relying on the traditional longhand (i.e. paper–pencil) method. The present research compared laptop and longhand note-taking methods by investigating how the quality (i.e. complete versus incomplete idea units) and quantity (i.e. total words and total idea units) of typed and handwritten notes differed when students did or did not reply to text messages during a simulated lecture. Accounting for the presence of text messaging while participants took notes situated the present study within the reality facing many students in today’s digital age. Findings indicated that a considerable proportion of the idea units captured in participants’ notes were incomplete, regardless of note-taking method or exposure to distraction during the simulated lecture. However, only the total number of complete idea units stored in student notes meaningfully predicted lecture learning. Furthermore, the presence of digital distraction was particularly disruptive to the quality and quantity of laptop users’ lecture notes relative to longhand note takers. Finally, digital distraction emerged as a more meaningful predictor of lecture learning than note-taking method. Recommendations for improving the quality of student lecture notes are discussed and avenues for future research into note-taking completeness and the interplay between digital distraction and note-taking method are proposed.
      PubDate: 2020-08-25
  • Promoting students’ use of epistemic understanding in the evaluation of
           socioscientific issues through a practice-based approach
    • Abstract: Abstract The epistemic understanding of science has always been an important part of science education, and critical engagement with socioscientific issues (SSI) is a desirable outcome of scientific literacy. However, investigations into the link between these two concepts have been inconclusive. Many students have very limited interest in epistemic understanding as they engage with SSI. This intervention study aims to address this gap between knowledge and practice, to promote students’ use of epistemic understanding, and to evaluate SSI through a practice-based approach, using the Apt-AIR framework (Barzilai and Chinn in J Learn Sci 27(3):353–389, 2018). The participants were 109 undergraduate students with various majors. A variety of measures were administered before and after a general education course titled “Making Sense of Science-related Social Issues”, including an essay writing task to assess the participants’ use of epistemic understanding when evaluating SSI, and a reflective task with follow-up interviews to identify the teaching components that could explain the students’ changes in ability, if any. Statistical analyses of pre- and post-course performance revealed a significant shift toward epistemic understanding (p < .00001). The qualitative data provided insight into the teaching components leading to this shift, and suggested interconnections between aspects of the Apt-AIR framework. The results of this study support a shift in practice for learning about science, and they highlight the need to link epistemic understanding and practice for a multi-perspective evaluation of SSI.
      PubDate: 2020-08-17
  • Is drawing after learning effective for metacognitive monitoring only when
           supported by spatial scaffolds'
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, we investigated whether drawing after learning supports metacognitive monitoring especially when students are supported in their drawing efforts. Therefore, eighty-eight participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. They were asked to learn from a text comprising five paragraphs about the formation of auroras. After reading each of the five paragraphs, one group had to mentally imagine the contents (control group), a second group had to draw from scratch, and a third group had to draw with the help of spatial scaffolds. All participants provided judgments of learning (JOL) for each paragraph, and took a knowledge test afterwards. Results revealed that students who drew, both with and without scaffold, monitored their learning more accurately on an absolute level. Even though there were no differences between the two drawing conditions for monitoring accuracy, JOLs were based on the actual drawing quality only when students drew with the help of spatial scaffolds. Results thus hint towards the potential of (scaffolded) drawing to support metacognitive monitoring. Reasons for why drawing with spatial scaffolds did not improve monitoring compared to drawing from scratch are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-07-10
  • Mine the process: investigating the cyclical nature of upper primary
           school students’ self-regulated learning
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study investigates primary school students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) process by exploring the sequence in which SRL activities are conducted during learning. The aims of this study are twofold: investigating the presence of the theoretically hypothesized cyclical nature in students’ SRL process, as well as potential differences herein for high, average, and low achievers. Think-aloud data of 104 upper primary school students were analysed by means of process mining analysis. The results indicate that students commonly adopt a cyclical approach to learning by implementing preparatory, performance, and appraisal activities during learning. However, the results indicate clear differences in the quality of students’ SRL process. High achievers, compared to low and average achievers, show a more strategic and adaptive approach to learning during all phases of their learning process. They more strategically and effectively orient on and plan assignments, combine different cognitive strategies, and adopt self-evaluation to regulate their learning process.
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
  • Teacher and student enactments of a transdisciplinary
           art-science-computing unit
    • Abstract: Abstract Transdisciplinary learning environments have potential to bring together the arts, sciences, and computing within schools. We investigate the student and teacher enactment of sensemaking practices that break down disciplinary silos. We describe a pedagogical approach, Luminous Science, where students make dynamic, computationally-rich artistic representations of data from a classroom garden. Then we present an analysis of students’ sensemaking practices used during the transdisciplinary unit in three cases of art, science and computing classrooms. Qualitative analysis of a student group and teachers’ curricular materials in each of these classrooms elucidates how teachers’ enactment choices, organization, and facilitation of the unit we co-designed with them facilitated opportunities for students’ transdisciplinary thinking and learning. We show that when teachers’ enactments supported increased computational complexity and ties between artifact and phenomenon, then students participated in deeper transdisciplinary sensemaking. We discuss the implications for the design of curricular materials and professional development to support effective organization and discourse practices by teachers in orchestrating transdisciplinary sensemaking.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
  • Exploring problem conceptualization and performance in STEM problem
           solving contexts
    • Abstract: Abstract Problem solving abilities are critical components of contemporary Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. Research in the area of problem solving has uncovered much about the representation, processes and heuristic approaches to problem solving. However, critics claim this overemphasis on the process of solving problems has led to a dearth in understanding of the earlier stages such as problem conceptualization. This paper aims to address some of these concerns by exploring the area of problem conceptualization and the underlying cognitive mechanisms that may play a supporting role in reasoning success. Participants (N = 12) were prescribed a series of convergent problem-solving tasks representative of those used for developmental purposes in STEM education. During the problem-solving episodes, cognitive data were gathered by means of an electroencephalographic headset and used to investigate students’ cognitive approaches to conceptualizing the tasks. In addition, interpretive qualitative data in the form of post-task interviews and problem solutions were collected and analyzed. Overall findings indicated a significant reliance on memory during the conceptualization of the convergent problem-solving tasks. In addition, visuospatial cognitive processes were found to support the conceptualization of convergent problem-solving tasks. Visuospatial cognitive processes facilitated students during the conceptualization of convergent problems by allowing access to differential semantic content in long-term memory.
      PubDate: 2020-06-06
  • Negotiating status hierarchies in middle school inquiry science:
           implications for marginal non-participation
    • Abstract: Abstract While previous classroom studies of status hierarchies tell us who has low status and how to increase those learners’ participation in small group contexts via teacher-led interventions, we know little about how one becomes low status, or the role peers play in legitimating or delegitimating inequitable relations. This study used the sociocultural concept of marginal non-participation to describe interactional moves learners use to navigate status hierarchies in an inquiry science context where student authority may permit learners to obstruct peers’ participation. Participants were three collaborative groups of 3–4 learners in 7th grade science classrooms where a series of inquiry curriculum units were being implemented. Interviews were used alongside a microgenetic analysis of video-recorded group work observations to identify interactions that legitimated and delegitimated status hierarchies. Legitimation involved communicating acceptance of differential belonging and competence while delegitimation involved challenging differential reward by fostering widespread participation. Low- and high-status group members were active in both processes. Results suggest that diffuse status characteristics and science capital inform how status hierarchies are negotiated and that learners adapt disciplinary norms for status legitimating and delegitimating ends. Implications for learners’ participation in scientific practices and identification with science are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-05-17
  • Can we further improve tablet-based drawing to enhance learning' An
           empirical test of two types of support
    • Abstract: Abstract Digital drawing can foster learning, but only if the drawing is of sufficient quality. Hence, the focus of the present study was to investigate whether and how two types of drawing support may foster drawing quality and, in turn, learning outcomes. To this end, participants (N = 156) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in which they either just read text (control), were prompted to make a free-hand representational drawing (unsupported drawing), or they were additionally supported in their drawing efforts because a background (global support) or single elements for the drawing (local support) were already provided. Learning outcomes were assessed by means of recognition, transfer, and a drawing test. Results revealed that students from all three drawing conditions (unsupported, global, and local support) scored better on the transfer and drawing tests than the control condition. Both types of drawing support did neither increase drawing quality nor learning in comparison to unsupported drawing. Reasons for the latter findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-05-11
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