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Journal Cover International Journal of Stress Management     [SJR: 0.554]   [H-I: 28]
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   ISSN (Print) 1072-5245
   Published by American Psychological Association (APA) Homepage  [68 journals]
  • Initial evidence for the buffering effect of physical activity on the
           relationship between workplace stressors and individual outcomes.
    • Authors: Sliter; Katherine A.; Sinclair, Robert; Cheung, Janelle; McFadden, Anna
      Abstract: Workplace stressors can have a significant negative impact on employees’ well-being and on the financial well-being of their organizations. Many workplace stressors cannot be eliminated, meaning that individuals and organizations must seek ways to reduce negative outcomes associated with these stressors. One strategy that may help buffer the negative effects of workplace stressors is physical activity. The present study examined physical activity as a moderator of the stressor–strain relationship in an occupation known to be highly stressful: nursing. A sample of 152 registered nurses responded to a survey about their physical activity habits and frequently experienced stressors (patient stressors, staff demands, and workload) and psychological outcomes (depression, engagement, and life satisfaction) they experienced. All stressors related significantly to all outcomes, except for workload as relating to depression. After statistically controlling for the stressors, physical activity explained significant incremental variance in all 3 outcomes. Furthermore, physical activity moderated a majority of the stressor–outcome relationships, such that the strength of the relationship between stressors and outcomes was weaker for those who engaged in more physical activity than for those who did not. These results imply that physical activities may mitigate some of the negative consequences of work stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      DOI: 10.1037/a0038110
  • Extending conservation of resources theory: The interaction between
           emotional labor and interpersonal influence.
    • Authors: Park; Hyung In; O’Rourke, Eric; O’Brien, Kimberly E.
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to extend the literature on conservation of resources (COR) theory (Hobfoll, 1989) within a school setting. In one such extension, past research examined the effects of surface acting and deep acting, forms of emotional labor, on burnout, and the current study additionally showed support for applying COR theory to naturally felt emotions, a third form of emotional labor. We argued that naturally felt emotions would help the performer conserve resources, in contrast to surface acting which depletes the performer’s resources. Furthermore, the negative effects of surface acting were extended beyond burnout, by integrating interpersonally targeted organizational citizenship behavior (OCB-I). Specifically, we found that naturally felt emotions were positively related to OCB-I. Finally, we established that interpersonal influence could act as a resource, buffering the negative effects of surface acting on reduced personal accomplishment, a facet of burnout, and OCB-I. Moreover, we used a broader sample of 95 school employees than typical school samples, including teacher, aides, and administrators, to investigate whether the results would extend beyond the classroom to the overall school setting. In general, results from our study provided further support for COR theory, and also suggest that interpersonal influence training might be beneficial to reduce the negative effect of surface acting among school employees. Deep acting is also recommended as a useful strategy to handle emotional labor over surface acting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      DOI: 10.1037/a0038109
  • Managing employee creativity and health in nursing homes: The moderating
           role of matching job resources and matching occupational rewards.
    • Authors: de Jonge; Jan; Gevers, Josette; Dollard, Maureen
      Abstract: Health care staff in nursing homes are facing increasingly high job demands at work, which can have a detrimental impact on their health and work motivation. The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how matching job resources and matching occupational rewards can buffer the adverse effects of high job demands. The aim of this study is to test the moderating role of matching job resources and matching occupational rewards in the relation between corresponding job demands and employee creativity and adverse health (i.e., emotional exhaustion and physical health complaints). A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 184 health care workers from a nursing home in The Netherlands. Hierarchical regression analyses showed the proposed 3-way interaction effects of matching cognitive job resources and matching cognitive occupational rewards on the relation between cognitive job demands and employee creativity. In general, findings showed more moderating effects of job resources than of occupational rewards. In line with DISC theory, it is recommended that employers provide health care workers with those job resources that match the type of job demands concerned, conditioned by matching occupational rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2014-10-13
      DOI: 10.1037/a0038149
  • Performance under acute stress: A qualitative study of soldiers’
           experiences of hand-to-hand combat.
    • Authors: Jensen; Peter R.; Wrisberg, Craig A.
      Abstract: The chief aim of this study was to obtain in-depth descriptions of soldiers’ first-person experiences of hand-to-hand combat during wartime operations using a stress and coping framework (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The results of phenomenological interviews revealed 4 major themes which, based on several participants’ own words, were labeled “immediate threat,” “flip the switch,” “fast,” and “adrenaline.” It was concluded that the hand-to-hand combat experiences of these soldiers (a) imposed stressors from a variety of sources, (b) required coping responses comprising a swift and accurate interpretation of environmental conditions and rapid deployment of problem-focused strategies, and (c) evoked a constellation of powerful physiological and psychological reactions. Implications of this study for military personnel include the importance of “expecting the unexpected” in seemingly routine yet potentially hazardous combat operations, an emphasis on developing highly automated, problem-focused coping strategies and physical fighting skills, and the need for training in variable and unpredictable environments that demand rapid skill adaptations to context specific stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2014-09-29
      DOI: 10.1037/a0037998
  • Is burnout a depressive disorder' A reexamination with special focus
           on atypical depression.
    • Authors: Bianchi; Renzo; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Laurent, Eric
      Abstract: Whether burnout and depression cover the same psychopathology remains to be elucidated. To date, subtypes of depression have been overlooked in research on the burnout–depression overlap. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorders in workers with burnout while examining the overlap of burnout with the atypical subtype of depression. The present study included 5,575 schoolteachers (mean age = 41 years; 78% female). Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Depression was measured with the 9-item depression scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Atypical features of depression were examined using a dedicated module, referenced to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). We found that 90% of the teachers identified as burned out met diagnostic criteria for depression. Among them, 92% scored 15 or higher on the PHQ-9, a threshold at which active treatment with pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy is recommended. The features of atypical depression were observed in 63% of the burned-out participants with major depression. Emotional exhaustion, the hallmark of burnout, was more strongly associated with depression than with depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment, the 2 other putative dimensions of burnout. The present study suggests that the burnout–depression overlap has been largely underestimated. Atypical depression may account for a substantial part of this overlap. Overall, our findings point to depressive symptoms and depressive disorders as central concerns in the management of burnout. The clinical research on treatments for depression offers solutions that may help workers identified as burned out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2014-09-15
      DOI: 10.1037/a0037906
  • E-mail in the workplace: The role of stress appraisals and normative
           response pressure in the relationship between e-mail stressors and
           employee strain.
    • Authors: Brown; Rowena; Duck, Julie; Jimmieson, Nerina
      Abstract: In many organizations, e-mail is an effective and dominant workplace application tool; however, research identifying its role as a potential workplace stressor remains limited. Utilizing the Transactional Model of Stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), 215 full-time administrative and academic staff at a university were surveyed about workplace e-mail. The aim was to study the effects of potential e-mail stressors on emotional exhaustion as mediated and moderated by person and situation variables. Results indicated that 2 distinct e-mail stressors—high quantity and poor quality (in terms of high emotionality and ambiguity) of workplace e-mail—were associated both with stress appraisals (e-mail overload and e-mail uncertainty) and with emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, the effects of the 2 e-mail stressors on emotional exhaustion were mediated by appraised e-mail overload. Perceived normative response pressure—a relevant aspect of the specific work environment—added to the explanation of emotional exhaustion and accentuated the positive effect of e-mail ambiguity on emotional exhaustion, although effects involving normative response pressure were not explained by the stress appraisals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2014-07-28
      DOI: 10.1037/a0037464
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