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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1143 journals)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Stress Management
  [SJR: 0.757]   [H-I: 33]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1072-5245
   Published by American Psychological Association (APA) Homepage  [68 journals]
  • Effects of a brief mindfulness meditation intervention on student stress
           and heart rate variability.
    • Authors: Shearer; Annie; Hunt, Melissa; Chowdhury, Mifta; Nicol, Lorena
      Abstract: College can be a time of immense stress. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be an effective stress management technique. A significant limitation of the mindfulness literature, however, is a reliance on inactive control groups. We compared a mindfulness intervention with both an ecologically valid, active control (interacting with a dog during a group study break) and a no-treatment control. Participants (n = 74) were randomly assigned to groups, with the treatment groups completing 4 weekly sessions (duration: 1 hr). By the end of the 4th session, those in the mindfulness group exhibited significantly lower state anxiety compared with those in the other groups, while the dog group was also significantly less anxious than the control group. In addition, both the dog and the mindfulness groups exhibited significantly less dysphoric affect than the control group. All of the participants came in for a posttreatment assessment during which they were given a cognitive stressor challenge. Electrocardiogram data were collected during the cognitive challenge allowing us to assess heart rate variability (HRV)—a measure of the body’s ability to modulate the physiological stress response. Participants in the mindfulness group exhibited significantly higher HRV during the cognitive challenge than those in the other 2 groups, signifying a more-adaptive response to stress (p < .05). Individuals in the dog group, meanwhile, were no different from control participants. These preliminary findings suggest that brief mindfulness training can help college students manage their stress in response to the ubiquitous academic and cognitive challenges of college life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2015-10-12
      DOI: 10.1037/a0039814
       
  • Uprooting stress, coping, and anxiety: A longitudinal study of
           international students.
    • Authors: Szabo; Agnes; Ward, Colleen; Jose, Paul E.
      Abstract: Although a substantial body of literature on stress and coping in international students exists, research has focused on the difficulties of adapting to a new cultural environment rather than the stress of leaving home (termed ‘uprooting’). The present study examined uprooting stress and coping (primary and secondary) strategies as predictors of anxiety in a 3-month longitudinal study of 127 international students. Given the low controllability of uprooting, it was hypothesized that primary coping would predict increments in anxiety over time, whereas secondary coping would predict decrements. Interactions between stress and coping strategies were also expected with primary coping exacerbating and secondary coping buffering the negative effects of stress on anxiety. The data were subjected to a hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for anxiety at Time 1, cultural background, length of residence, and English language proficiency. The analysis revealed that coping strategies at Time 1 exerted main effects on anxiety at Time 2 with primary coping predicting higher, and secondary coping predicting lower, levels of anxiety. Although uprooting stress did not exert a main effect on anxiety, it interacted with coping in that, specifically as hypothesized, primary coping exacerbated the negative effects of stress while secondary coping buffered its influence on anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2015-10-12
      DOI: 10.1037/a0039771
       
  • The role of work–nonwork boundary management in work stress
           recovery.
    • Authors: Kinnunen; Ulla; Rantanen, Johanna; de Bloom, Jessica; Mauno, Saija; Feldt, Taru; Korpela, Kalevi
      Abstract: The aim of the present study conducted among 1,106 Finnish employees was to identify boundary management profiles based on cross-role interruption behaviors from work to nonwork and from nonwork to work. Adopting a person-oriented approach through latent profile analysis, 5 profiles were identified: Work Guardians (21% of the employees), Nonwork Guardians (14%), Integrators (25%), Separators (18%), and an Intermediate Group (22%). We then examined differences between these profiles with respect to recovery experiences (psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control during off-job time) and recovery outcomes (vigor and exhaustion). Work Guardians had the poorest situation in terms of recovery experiences and outcomes. Integrators came close to Work Guardians in their responses, but they showed better relaxation and control during off-job time. Nonwork Guardians and Separators had the most beneficial recovery experiences. The Intermediate Group scored near the average in all evaluations. Altogether the findings suggest that boundary management profiles play a significant role, especially regarding recovery experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2015-09-21
      DOI: 10.1037/a0039730
       
  • Explaining emotional exhaustion and work engagement: The role of job
           demands-resources and Type D personality.
    • Authors: van den Tooren; Marieke; Rutte, Christel
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to show that Type D personality—a personality trait characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and high levels of social inhibition—can explain a significant amount of variance in emotional exhaustion and work engagement above and beyond the variance explained by job demands and job resources. An Internet survey was conducted in a large, representative sample of the Dutch working population. In line with our hypotheses, results showed that when controlling for the effects of job demands and job resources, employees with a Type D personality experience more emotional exhaustion and less work engagement than employees without a Type D personality. The main effects of job demands and job resources were in line with our hypotheses, except for the relation between job demands and work engagement; job demands appeared to enhance work engagement. This study contributes to knowledge in several ways. First, this study shows the importance of Type D personality in the development of emotional exhaustion and work engagement next to job demands and job resources. Second, our results add to a growing body of evidence showing that job demands, job resources, and personality should be incorporated in 1 model in order to predict emotional exhaustion and work engagement in an optimal way. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2015-09-14
      DOI: 10.1037/a0039754
       
  • Cognitive appraisal of work intensification.
    • Abstract: Due to economic and technological changes, work has intensified over the past few decades. This intensification of work takes a toll on employees’ well-being and job satisfaction. To explain the effects of work intensification on its outcomes we draw on the transactional stress model and examine the mediating role of cognitive appraisal. Furthermore, we examined whether a favorable participative climate influences the relation between work intensification and its appraisal. In Study 1, mediation analyses of 2-wave panel data (N = 253) supported the hypothesized mediating effect of cognitive appraisal on the relationship between work intensification and emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction, respectively. The cross-sectional Study 2 (N = 932) provided support for the salient role of cognitive appraisal in the relationship of work intensification to its outcomes. Moreover, data from Study 2 revealed that a favorable participative climate serves as a resource in the relationship between work intensification and cognitive appraisal. Additionally, results of a moderated mediation analysis showed that a favorable participative climate weakens the indirect effect of work intensification on its outcomes. Our studies emphasize the importance of promoting a favorable participative climate in organizations to better manage the work intensification resulting from economic and technological changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2015-09-14
      DOI: 10.1037/a0039689
       
  • Work–family enrichment and marital satisfaction among Chinese
           couples: A crossover-spillover perspective.
    • Authors: Liu; Huimin; Ngo, Hang Yue; Cheung, Fanny M.
      Abstract: This study investigated how individuals’ work–family enrichment (WFE) crosses over to affect their partners’ marital satisfaction, as well as spills over to affect their own marital satisfaction in a sample of 361 Chinese dual-earner couples. Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, the broaden-and-build theory, and the person perception literature, we examined social support and social undermining as the underlying mechanisms responsible for the transmission processes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that for the crossover associations, husbands’ WFE related to wives’ marital satisfaction through wives’ perceptions of increased social support, whereas wives’ WFE related to husbands’ marital satisfaction through husbands’ perceptions of decreased social undermining. For the spillover associations, husbands’ WFE related to their own marital satisfaction through perceiving more social support in their partners, whereas wives’ WFE related to their own marital satisfaction through perceiving more social support as well as less social undermining in their partners. The findings add to the literature by examining the transmission of positive experiences between marital partners through varied patterns of social interaction, as well as by highlighting perceptions of the partner’s behaviors as a relevant mechanism to explain the transmission between work and marriage within the same individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2015-09-07
      DOI: 10.1037/a0039753
       
  • Mental health awareness training (MHAT): The development and evaluation of
           an intervention for workplace leaders.
    • Authors: Dimoff; Jennifer K.; Kelloway, E. Kevin; Burnstein, Matthew D.
      Abstract: We report on the development and evaluation of a 3-hr training program designed to increase organizational leaders’ mental health literacy. In Study 1, we used a wait-list control design to randomly assign organizational leaders (N = 43) to a training or control group. Leaders who received the training reported enhanced knowledge of, and attitudes toward, mental health, as well as increased self-efficacy and intent to promote mental health at work. In Study 2, these effects were replicated based on a sample of 142 leaders from another organization. Further analysis suggested that training had a direct effect on knowledge and self-efficacy, but indirect effects on attitudes and intentions. Analysis of organizational data suggests that the program resulted in a reduction in the duration of short-term disability claims. Results support the effectiveness of a brief training session to enhance leaders’ mental health literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: 2015-07-06
      DOI: 10.1037/a0039479
       
 
 
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