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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1140 journals)

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Journal Cover CESifo Economic Studies
  [SJR: 0.599]   [H-I: 15]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1610-241X - ISSN (Online) 1612-7501
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Energy Prices, Technological Knowledge, and Innovation in Green Energy
           Technologies: a Dynamic Panel Analysis of European Patent Data
    • Authors: Kruse, J; Wetzel, H.
      Pages: 397 - 425
      Abstract: We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries over the period 1978–2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies, and that the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997 (JEL codes: C33, O31, Q40, Q42, Q55).
      Keywords: C33 - Models with Panel Data, O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives, Q40 - General, Q42 - Alternative Energy Sources, Q55 - Technological Innovation
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv021
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Public Support for R&D and the Educational Mix of R&D Employees
    • Authors: Dumont, M; Spithoven, A, Teirlinck, P.
      Pages: 426 - 452
      Abstract: In this article we assess the impact of public support for R&D activities on the educational mix of R&D employees in private companies. Data on tax incentives in support of R&D activities of companies in Belgium are matched with R&D survey data to investigate changes in the share of R&D employees with a specific degree: PhD, higher education (second stage and first stage, respectively), and other qualifications. Estimations show that public support significantly raises the share of researchers holding a PhD. There are indications that researchers with a PhD substitute for R&D employees with lower degrees. We also show that controlling for the changes in the educational mix of R&D personnel lowers the estimates of the impact of public support on the wages of researchers.
      Keywords: H32 - Firm, O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D, O38 - Government Policy
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv017
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Employment Protection and Misallocation of Resources Across Plants:
           International Evidence
    • Authors: Lashitew; A. A.
      Pages: 453 - 490
      Abstract: Employment protection affects aggregate productivity via several channels in potentially contradicting ways, which makes it difficult to establish the relationship between the two. This study focuses on the misallocation of production factors across plants, which has been shown in past studies to substantially reduce aggregate productivity. The study provides new evidence on the effect of employment protection on resource misallocation using a large data set of manufacturing plants covering more than 90 countries. For measuring misallocation, I use the within-industry dispersion of the marginal product of labor and total factor productivity. The results show that higher cost of dismissing redundant workers is positively associated with misallocation. This effect appears to be larger in industries that have greater demand for adjusting labor, that is, in industries with intrinsically high layoff rates, and in expanding or shrinking industries. (JEL codes: O40, J08, L60, D24)
      Keywords: D24 - Production; Cost; Capital and Total Factor Productivity; Capacity, J08 - Labor Economics Policies, L60 - General, O40 - General
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv023
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • TARGET2: How Costly is Buying Time?
    • Authors: Erler, A; Hohberger, S.
      Pages: 491 - 505
      Abstract: The article assesses the real costs and profits of German claims on the Eurosystem through TARGET2. While Germany’s nominal profits from holding TARGET2 claims depend on the development of the nominal interest rate, the real profits are determined by the real interest rate as well as the real exchange rate. The article finds that at the end of 2014, Germany faced current costs of approximately EUR 17 billion in real terms. Calculating the costs and profits of every member country in the euro area reveals that the TARGET2 system mirrors an implicit distribution mechanism, with a volume of approximately EUR 40 billion. The results underline the aspect that even without a euro area breakup or exit of one member country, holding TARGET2 claims can cause high economic costs in real terms. (JEL codes: E42, E44, F32)
      Keywords: E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System, E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv028
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Honest Grading, Grade Inflation, and Reputation
    • Authors: Ehlers, T; Schwager, R.
      Pages: 506 - 521
      Abstract: When students receive better grades without any corresponding increase in ability, this is called grade inflation. Conventional wisdom says that such grade inflation is unavoidable since it is essentially costless to award good grades. In this article, we point out an effect driving into the opposite direction: Grade inflation is not actually costless, since it has an impact on future cohorts of graduates, or, put differently, by grading honestly, a school can build up reputation. Introducing a concern for reputation into an established signalling model of grading, we show that this mechanism reduces or even avoids grade inflation. (JEL codes: I21, I23, and D82)
      Keywords: D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information, I21 - Analysis of Education, I23 - Higher Education Research Institutions
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv022
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Reciprocity in Organizations: Evidence from the UK
    • Authors: Englmaier, F; Kolaska, T, Leider, S.
      Pages: 522 - 546
      Abstract: Recent laboratory evidence suggests that personality traits, in particular social preferences, may affect contractual outcomes under moral hazard. Using the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2004 we find that behaviour of employers and employees is consistent with the presence of gift-exchange motives: firms that screen applicants for personality are less likely to pay low wages and more likely to provide (non-pecuniary) benefits. Firms likewise benefit from employee screening, as they can implement more team-working and are generally more successful. Other human resource management practices only poorly predict these patterns. Moreover, there is no association between dismissals and personality tests, indicating that personality tests do not merely improve the fit between applicant and employer. Hence, we conclude that motivation based on gift-exchange motives is a plausible explanation for our results.
      Keywords: D22 - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis, M52 - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifw006
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • The Destinations of State Trade Missions
    • Authors: Cassey; A. J.
      Pages: 547 - 571
      Abstract: From 1997 to 2006, US state governors led more than 500 trade missions to foreign countries. Trade missions are potentially a form of public investment in export promotion. I create a theory of public investment by introducing government to a Melitz (2003)–Chaney (2008) model. Controlling for state and country characteristics, the model accounts for the frequency and destination of trade missions and predicts a positive relationship between missions and exports by destination. By collecting data on trade mission origins and destinations, I estimate this relationship in the data and find that mission destinations are qualitatively consistent with the model. (JEL codes: F13, H76, O24)
      Keywords: F13 - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations, H76 - State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories, O24 - Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv026
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
  • Illegal Immigration, Foreign Aid, and the Transit Countries
    • Authors: Djajic, S; Michael, M. S.
      Pages: 572 - 593
      Abstract: This article examines the problem facing an advanced, final-destination country as it seeks cooperation from its less-well-off neighbors to impede unauthorized, third-country migrants from transiting their territories. With that aim, it transfers aid to the transit countries in support of their border-control efforts. Aid recipients, however, may have an incentive to divert resources to border security objectives other than immigration control. We characterize the donor’s optimal allocation of aid between the transit countries and the optimal use of aid by the latter in the Nash equilibrium. These values of the policy instruments are subsequently compared with those in an equilibrium where the transit countries (i) compete for a share of aid, (ii) collude to maximize joint welfare, and (iii) follow the donor who moves first. (JEL codes: F22).
      Keywords: F22 - International Migration
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T22:20:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1093/cesifo/ifv024
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 3 (2016)
       
 
 
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