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Journal Cover Journal of Family Violence
  [SJR: 0.639]   [H-I: 56]   [41 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2851 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7482
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Familial Sex Trafficking of Minors: Trafficking Conditions, Clinical
           Presentation, and System Involvement
    • Authors: Ginny Sprang; Jennifer Cole
      Pages: 185 - 195
      Abstract: It is well documented in the literature that child sex trafficking can be perpetrated by family members, though limited research has focused on describing this type of sexual exploitation. This pilot study addresses this gap by providing an analysis of familial sex trafficking considering trafficking dynamics, and rurality. Using a sample of 31 child welfare-involved children referred for behavioral health assessment and treatment, this mixed methods study explores: (1) victim and trafficker characteristics, the trafficking situation, law enforcement classifications of trafficking, clinical profiles of victims, and system involvement of children and youth involved in familial sex trafficking; (2) gender differences in clinical outcomes in sex-trafficked children; and (3) geographical differences in severity of the victimization experience. Major findings document high rates of family members trafficking children for illicit drugs; high severity of abuse as measured with the Sexual Abuse Severity Score, with higher severity of abuse for children living in rural communities; clinical threshold level scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC-A). Boys and girls had similar clinical profiles except boys had higher CBCL externalizing scores, and females had higher TSCC depression scores. Additionally, more than half of the children in this sample had attempted suicide in their lifetime. This formative study sheds light on the phenomenon of familial sex trafficking, thereby creating the context for further investigations. Implications for identification and effective responses to familial sex trafficking, with specific attention to gender and geography are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-018-9950-y
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Looking into the Day-To-Day Process of Victim Safety Planning
    • Authors: TK Logan; Robert Walker
      Pages: 197 - 211
      Abstract: Although safety planning is a widely recommended intervention for domestic violence and sexual assault victims, there has been limited research on the safety planning process, content, context or effectiveness. This study builds on prior research to increase the understanding of safety planning in every day practice through focus group discussions with domestic violence and sexual assault advocates from a variety of settings. Five focus groups with 37 participants from a variety of settings discussed typical safety planning strategies and addressing the complexity of safety in challenging situations. Six main themes emerged with regard to typical safety planning strategies. Additionally, discussions revealed there are no widely accepted protocols or evidence-based strategies regarding how to assess and handle common but risky situations. Lastly, results indicate that risks are multi-layered and impacted by resources available to victims as well as civil or criminal justice system procedures, policies and victim status. It is essential that evidence based best practices and protocols be developed for safety planning for a number of high risk situations along with ongoing training, supervision and support. Future research is needed to examine whether, and how, safety planning best practices and protocols should differ depending on agency setting or delivery mode (e.g., hotline, case management, counseling) and geographic context.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-018-9951-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Benefits and Challenges of Using Life History Calendars to Research
           Intimate Partner Violence
    • Authors: Brittany E. Hayes
      Pages: 227 - 238
      Abstract: Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) suffers from high rates of attrition, which can be a problem for collecting longitudinal data. As one strategy to help address this problem, this paper will highlight the application of life history calendars (LHCs) to research on IPV. LHCs are cost-effective retrospective alternatives to longitudinal data collection strategies and have the potential to improve recall of events. Additionally, LHC data can establish temporal order and capture instances of repeat victimization. Quantitatively representing repeat victimization is especially important for IPV research because many IPV victims report experiencing more than one incident of abuse. First, a brief overview of LHCs is presented and the Chicago Women Health Risk Study is presented as an example to illustrate the utility of the LHC. Statistical methods to analyze this type of data are discussed as they relate to the data from the Chicago Women Health Risk Study. More specifically, the application of multi-level modeling with repeated measures and survival analyses (also referred to as event history analysis) to calendar data are reviewed. Particular attention is given to using survival analyses to analyze LHC data, especially in instances when the respondent reports more than one incident on the LHC. Benefits of calendar data, including improved recall of events and the ability to address questions related to repeat victimization, are highlighted. Challenges of working with LHC data, such as missing data and the use of open versus closed coding schemes, are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-018-9955-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2018)
  • Jail Calls: What Do Kids Have to Do with It'
    • Authors: Amy Bonomi; David Martin
      Pages: 99 - 102
      Abstract: For many domestic violence victims, witness tampering continues throughout an abuser’s detention while awaiting court appearance and sentencing, often via phone calls made from jail. A common question we are asked when leading an investigation and providing expert testimony is how abusers involve their children (directly or indirectly) during jail calls. In this commentary, we use three case examples to illustrate how abusers involve their children (directly or indirectly) to further manipulate and tamper with their victim. As the three case examples illustrate, domestic abusers tend to use similar strategies with children during the jail calls as they do with their primary victim (e.g., minimizing the abuse, calling up images of a broken family due to impending charges and sentencing), and tend to triangulate their children against the victim.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9919-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Multilevel Modeling in Family Violence Research
    • Authors: Roderick A. Rose
      Pages: 109 - 122
      Abstract: Family violence researchers often use an ecological perspective to describe persons nested within groups. Further, family violence researchers frequently investigate whether group characteristics impact individual outcomes. The theoretical orientation and research designs typically used therefore present opportunities to utilize multilevel modeling (MLM) for clustered designs. It is widely understood that MLM corrects standard errors for grouped data, though other approaches can address this issue. Importantly, MLM presents a structured approach to the examination of group differences in outcomes, group differences in the association between the characteristics of persons and these outcomes, and the explanation of group differences using group-level characteristics. This journal frequently receives studies that use MLM for clustered designs, and a set of analytical guidelines may assist authors in preparing such articles so as to properly implement and better leverage the power of MLM to advance family violence research. I describe MLM for the new user, providing guidance on estimation of these models in the context of two examples. In addition, for more experienced users of MLM, I argue for greater attention to between-group and compositional effects that may be prevalent in family violence research, and the opportunities they may raise for a better understanding of the complexities at the group level. In closing I discuss some extensions of MLM and place MLM in the context of research design, providing guidelines for designing, carrying out, and reporting findings from studies that use these methods.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9938-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Understanding How Domestic Violence Support Services Promote Survivor
           Well-being: A Conceptual Model
    • Authors: Cris M. Sullivan
      Pages: 123 - 131
      Abstract: Domestic violence (DV) victim service programs have been increasingly expected by legislators and funders to demonstrate that they are making a significant difference in the lives of those using their services. Alongside this expectation, they are being asked to describe the Theory of Change guiding how they believe their practices lead to positive results for survivors and their children. Having a widely accepted conceptual model is not just potentially useful to funders and policy makers as they help shape policy and practice -- it can also help programs continually reflect upon and improve their work. This paper describes the iterative and collaborative process undertaken to generate a conceptual model describing how DV victim services are expected to improve survivors’ lives. The Social and Emotional Well-Being Framework guiding the model is an ideal structure to use to describe the goals and practices of DV programs because this framework: (1) accurately represents DV programs’ goal of helping survivors and their children thrive; and (2) recognizes the importance of community, social, and societal context in influencing individuals’ social and emotional well-being. The model was designed to guide practice and to generate new questions for research and evaluation that address individual, community, and systems factors that promote or hinder survivor safety and well-being.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9931-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Barriers and Supports to Dating Violence Communication between Latina
           Adolescents and Their Mothers: A Qualitative Analysis
    • Authors: Carla M. Shaffer; Rosalie Corona; Terri N. Sullivan; Vanessa Fuentes; Shelby E. McDonald
      Pages: 133 - 145
      Abstract: Few Latinx parents and adolescents talk with one another about dating violence, yet communication with parents could help adolescents make better decisions about dating relationships. Seventeen Latina adolescents (15–17 years old) and their mothers living in Washington D.C and central Virginia participated in semi-structured interviews to explore their perceptions of dating violence behavior and communication with parents about dating violence. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded for emergent themes using a grounded theory approach. Seven themes emerged and were grouped into three domains: (a) Parental Messages about Problems in Dating Relationships; (b) Barriers and Supports for Parent-Adolescent Communication about Dating Problems; and, (c) Cultural Values and Differences. The results of this study can be used to inform future work focused on improving parent-adolescent communication about dating violence and to enhance healthy adolescent Latina dating decisions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9936-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration from Adolescence to Young
           Adulthood: Trajectories and the Role of Familial Factors
    • Authors: Angela M. Kaufman-Parks; Alfred DeMaris; Peggy C. Giordano; Wendy D. Manning; Monica A. Longmore
      Pages: 27 - 41
      Abstract: Prior empirical research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in adolescence and young adulthood often focuses on exposure to violence in the family-of-origin using retrospective and cross-sectional data. Yet individuals’ families matter beyond simply the presence or absence of abuse, and these effects may vary across time. To address these issues, the present study employed five waves of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) to investigate the trajectory of IPV from adolescence to young adulthood (N = 950 respondents, 4,750 person-periods) with a specific focus on how familial factors continue to matter across the life course. Results indicated that family-of-origin violence and parent-child relationship quality were independent predictors of IPV. The effect of parent-child relationship quality on IPV also became greater as individuals aged. These results have implications for policies targeted at reducing IPV.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9924-5
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Positive Parenting
           Strategies Among Parents Who Have Experienced Relationship Violence
    • Authors: Danielle N. Moyer; Amy R. Page; Darby Q. McMakin; Amy R. Murrell; Ethan G. Lester; Haley A. Walker
      Abstract: Evidence supports the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for well-being and behavior change among parents. This study examined the impact of a brief ACT intervention on positive parenting strategies, psychological flexibility, and distress among parents who have experienced relationship violence.As part of a larger study, 43 parents were recruited from a community outreach center and completed measures of parenting, ACT processes, and distress. Participants were pseudo-randomly assigned to either receive their treatment-as-usual (TAU) or ACT plus TAU. Twenty-five participants received four weekly sessions of ACT plus TAU, and 18 received TAU only. Positive parenting behaviors among parents in the ACT + TAU group improved immediately following treatment compared to the TAU group. Improvements were maintained six weeks following treatment. The hypothesis that psychological flexibility would mediate improvements was not supported.The present study provides initial, preliminary support for the secondary benefits of brief, broad ACT interventions for positive parenting behaviors among parents who have experienced relationship violence. Clinical implications for implementing ACT for parents who have experienced relationship violence and methodological limitations are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-018-9956-5
  • Identifying the Needs of American Indian Women Who Sought Shelter: A
           Practitioner-Researcher Partnership
    • Authors: Kathleen A. Fox; Bonnie S. Fisher; Scott H. Decker
      Abstract: American Indian women across all ages are significantly more likely than women of other ethnic groups to be victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking. Despite their increased risk of interpersonal violence, there are few published studies or reports that explicitly examine the needs of victimized American Indian women. Therefore, both researchers and service providers know very little about the multifaceted needs of victimized American Indian women and whether current community services are meeting the needs of victimized native women. Identifying such needs is a logical next step so that victim service agencies can develop and effectively provide services tailored to victimized American Indian women. This commentary addresses these gaps by (1) identifying the needs of American Indian women in a domestic violence shelter in Arizona, and (2) highlighting the researcher-practitioner partnership that made it possible to gain access to these victims. Drawing on survey responses from 37 American Indian female clients and interviews with 10 staff members, the findings reveal that the domestic violence agency service provider is meeting many of their needs. Findings also indicate that clients have a wide variety of specific personal needs (e.g., safety, housing, transportation), needs relating to their children (e.g., safety, education, socialization), community needs (e.g., relating to their tribe), as well as legal needs (e.g., help obtaining a restraining order or divorce). These multifaceted needs are discussed and specific recommendations are provided for successful researcher-practitioner partnerships.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-018-9953-8
  • Economic Burden of Child Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence in the
           United States
    • Authors: Megan R. Holmes; Francisca G. C. Richter; Mark E. Votruba; Kristen A. Berg; Anna E. Bender
      Abstract: Because the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) carry long lasting consequences for the affected children, IPV exposure may impose a significant economic burden to localities, states, and society at large, made explicit over the victim’s lifetime and over a wide range of behaviors and outcomes, including use of social services, health and healthcare utilization, educational outcomes, workforce productivity, and criminal behavior. While much research has been conducted on the effect of IPV exposure on multiple short- and long-term outcomes, no research to date has examined the economic burden associated with IPV exposure. Using an incidence-based approach, we estimated the aggregate discounted costs associated with healthcare spending, criminal behavior, and labor market productivity accrued by a 20-year-old victim in 2016 projected to the age of 65, applying a 3% discount rate. The average lifetime costs derived from childhood IPV exposure are estimated to be over $50,000 per victim (2016 U.S. dollars) due to increased healthcare costs ($11,000), increased crime costs ($14,000), and productivity losses ($26,000). Over an annual birth cohort of young adults, these costs amount to over $55 billion nationwide. IPV exposure imposes a substantial economic burden to society at large in the form of increased healthcare costs, increased crime costs, and reduced productivity. This study offers an explicit quantification of substantial lifetime costs, which should encourage policy makers to redouble efforts to reduce the incidence of IPV and successfully ameliorate its effects on IPV-exposed children.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-018-9954-7
  • Risk for Revictimization of Intimate Partner Violence by Multiple
           Partners: a Systematic Review
    • Authors: Elisabeth Christie Ørke; Solveig Karin Bø Vatnar; Stål Bjørkly
      Abstract: Are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) by multiple partners (MP) different from victims of IPV by one partner' Are there different victim-related risk factors for IPV by MP' This systematic literature review identified seven empirical studies that related to these issues. The review findings indicated that (1) empirical research on IPV by MP appears to be scarce, with only limited recent development; (2) there were significant differences between women who had been subjected to IPV in a single relationship and women with IPV by MP; (3) IPV by MP was significantly associated with childhood domestic trauma, drug abuse, IPV characteristics, and attachment style; (4) regarding PTSD and personality disorders, the results were mixed and inconclusive; and (5) depression did not appear as a salient risk factor for IPV by MP. Interpretations must be made cautiously because of the wide diversity in measurement approaches. It is important that service personnel and researchers attend with increased awareness to women with IPV by MP.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-018-9952-9
  • Why is Family Violence Lower Among Mexican Immigrants' The Protective
           Features of Mexican Culture
    • Authors: Theodore R. Curry; Maria Cristina Morales; Egbert Zavala; Jorge Luis Hernandez
      Abstract: Although immigrants tend to be less involved in crime than the native-born, less is known about whether immigration is protective regarding family violence and, if so, why. This is especially problematic given that some cultural features of immigrants, such as machismo, may increase family violence. Using a random sample of adults in El Paso County, Texas, the present study finds that family violence is substantially lower among first generation Mexican immigrants compared to 1.5 generation immigrants, second generation Americans and third generation or higher Americans. Higher levels of acculturation to Mexico among first generation immigrants partially mediated, or explained, this finding. However, familism and machismo were not higher among first generation Mexican immigrants; and, while lower among first generation immigrants, acculturation to the US was not associated with higher levels of family violence. Implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9947-y
  • Advocate Safety Planning Training, Feedback, and Personal Challenges
    • Authors: T K Logan; Robert Walker
      Abstract: Of all the advocacy services provided to partner violence and sexual assault victims, safety planning may be most central. However, unlike many community behavioral health or case management services, there is virtually no literature on standards of care in safety planning, ways to measure its effectiveness, or discussion of the challenges advocates face in their day-to-day practice of planning for victim safety. The purpose of this paper is to describe advocate perceptions of training and supervision, how they obtain feedback about their work with victims, and their personal challenges in safety planning with victims. Study results highlight the need for more guidance, training, and support as well as more coping strategies for the numerous personal challenges advocates face in their day-to-day safety planning work. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9949-9
  • Parent–Child Discordance and Child Trauma Symptomatology Throughout
           Therapy: Correlates and Treatment Response
    • Authors: Veerpal Bambrah; Tessie Mastorakos; Kristina M. Cordeiro; Kristin Thornback; Robert T. Muller
      Abstract: Children and their caregivers often disagree when reporting on child behavioural and emotional difficulties. But how does parent–child discordance relate to outcomes, particularly among children undergoing trauma therapy' This study examined parent–child discordance in relation to children’s trauma symptoms and therapy outcomes. Participants included 96 trauma-exposed children and their caregivers, who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Discordance was calculated using absolute difference scores between child- and parent- reported psychological symptoms. Parent–child discordance, calculated at pre-therapy, post-therapy, and at a six-month follow-up, predicted the severity of children’s posttraumatic stress, dissociation, and internalizing and externalizing difficulties at each respective time-point. Pre-therapy discordance predicted improvements in externalizing behaviours after therapy and at follow-up. Improvements in discordance predicted improvements in trauma-specific symptoms over the course of treatment and at follow-up. The findings underscore how changes in parent–child discordance are related to child trauma symptoms and treatment response. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9948-x
  • Promoting Clarity and Transparency in Family Violence Research: Editorial
           Comments on the Journal’s Revised Author Guidelines
    • Authors: Rebecca J. Macy
      Abstract: The intractable problem of family violence can best be addressed through evidence-based practices and policies, and the Journal of Family Violence (JOFV) seeks to be a platform for scholarship that advances the family violence field toward evidence-based solutions. Nonetheless, JOFV cannot be such a platform without clear, transparent, and rigorous publication policies and standards. Accordingly, this editorial offers potential authors guidance concerning the types of articles that JOFV publishes (i.e., full-length articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, brief reports, and letters to the editor) as well as information about the journal’s editorial and peer review processes. This guidance is offered to help ensure that authors are well informed about the journal’s policies, practices, and processes even before they submit their manuscripts for publication consideration.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9946-z
  • “All the System is Simply a Soap Bubble”: Legal Help-Seeking for
           Domestic Violence Among Women in Kyrgyzstan
    • Authors: Saltanat Childress; Darald Hanusa
      Abstract: This paper examines limitations in how law enforcement and public health systems respond to domestic violence in Kyrgyzstan. Findings from interviews with domestic violence victims show that these women are subject to ineffectual practices and negative attitudes that tend to minimize domestic abuse and disempower victims. The findings reveal several problematic issues: inconsistencies in the implementation of the law, impunity for abusers because of both personal attitudes and social affinities between the police and abusers, ineffective enforcement of protective orders, and superficial processing of domestic violence cases by the legal system. Additional barriers to help-seeking include a lack of institutional support and guidelines for offering mental health services for victims as well as a scarcity of housing, childcare, and employment opportunities for women seeking to break the cycle of abuse. The findings underscore the need for society-wide changes in attitudes toward domestic violence, stricter mechanisms for enforcing the law, and mandatory training for service providers to facilitate the provision of more accessible and affirmative support to victims.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9945-0
  • Bringing Community Based Participatory Research to Domestic Violence
           Scholarship: an Online Toolkit
    • Authors: Lisa A. Goodman; Kristie A. Thomas; Nkiru Nnawulezi; Carrie Lippy; Josephine V. Serrata; Susan Ghanbarpour; Cris Sullivan; Megan H. Bair-Merritt
      Abstract: In the absence of ongoing involvement in the communities that are the subjects of research, even well-intentioned researchers can develop questions that are not relevant to community needs, employ methods that hurt community members, or disseminate findings in ways that are inaccessible to those most affected. Recognizing these harms, a growing number of domestic violence (DV) researchers have embraced community-based participatory research (CBPR), an approach in which researchers and community members share power at every level of the research process, co-creating knowledge that can be applied to enhance community well-being. Despite growing interest in this approach, however, there are insufficient opportunities for interested researchers to learn how to actually engage in it, especially in the DV context. To remedy this gap, the authors of this paper collaborated to develop an online toolkit for emerging researchers interested in CPBR. This brief report frames the need for CBPR in DV research using short vignettes that come from our own research experience; introduces Power Through Partnerships: A CBPR Toolkit for Domestic Violence Researchers; and presents recommendations for developing, promoting, and disseminating future CBPR research. We chose to announce the development and availability of this toolkit in an academic journal in order to highlight its scholarly and practical relevance for researcher audiences who might be less familiar with the CBPR approach.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9944-1
  • Childhood Abuse, Intrapersonal Strength, and Suicide Resilience in African
           American Females who Attempted Suicide
    • Authors: Shweta Kapoor; Heather Key Domingue; Natalie N. Watson-Singleton; Funlola Are; Corinn A. Elmore; Courtney L. Crooks; Amber Madden; Sallie A. Mack; Janelle S. Peifer; Nadine J. Kaslow
      Abstract: There is a significant association between childhood abuse and suicidal behavior in low-income African American women with a recent suicide attempt. Increasingly, empirical focus is shifting toward including suicide resilience, which mitigates against suicidal behavior. This cross-sectional study examines childhood abuse, intrapersonal strengths, and suicide resilience in 121 African American women, average age of 36.07 years (SD = 11.03) with recent exposure to intimate partner violence and a suicide attempt. To address the hypothesis that childhood abuse will be negatively related to suicide resilience and that this effect will be mediated by intrapersonal strengths that serve as protective factors, structural equation modeling examined the relations among three latent variables: childhood abuse (measured via physical, sexual, and emotional abuse), intrapersonal strengths (assessed by self-efficacy and spiritual well-being), and suicide resilience (operationalized via the three components of suicide resilience—internal protective, external protective, and emotional stability). The initial measurement model and the structural model both indicated excellent fit. Results indicated that childhood abuse was negatively associated with intrapersonal strengths and suicide resilience, intrapersonal strengths were positively associated with suicide resilience, and intrapersonal strengths fully mediated the association between childhood abuse and suicide resilience. Thus, the results suggest a positive and protective influence of intrapersonal strengths on suicide resilience in the face of childhood abuse in suicidal African American women. The clinical implications and directions for future research that emerge from these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9943-2
  • “Give me some space”: exploring youth to parent aggression and
    • Authors: Lynne Gabriel; Zahra Tizro; Hazel James; Jane Cronin-Davis; Tanya Beetham; Alice Corbally; Emily Lopez-Moreno; Sarah Hill
      Abstract: A small scale qualitative project, undertaken by an interdisciplinary domestic violence research group involving academic researchers and research assistants, with colleagues from Independent Domestic Abuse Services (IDAS), investigated youth aggression and violence against parents. Following the literature review, data was generated through several research conversations with young people (n = 2), through semi-structured interviews with mothers (n = 3) and practitioners (n = 5), and through a practitioner focus group (n = 8). Thematic analysis and triangulation of the data from parents, practitioners and young people, elicited interconnected and complex overarching themes. Young people could be both victim and perpetrator. The witnessing or experiencing of domestic aggression and violence raised the concept of ‘bystander children’. The impact of young people experiencing familial violence was underestimated by parents. For practitioners, the effects of working with domestic violence was shown to be significant - both positively and negatively.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10896-017-9928-1
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