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Journal Cover Journal of Family Violence
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 45]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2851 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7482
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Head Start’s Impact on Socio-Emotional Outcomes for Children Who
           Have Experienced Violence or Neighborhood Crime
    • Abstract: Abstract Using Head Start Impact Study Data, this study examines Head Start’s impact on socio-emotional outcomes for children who have experienced violence or crime. The children were divided into two groups: children who had ever experienced violence or crime and those who had not. The baseline characteristics for children, effects of violence on children, and the moderation effects of Head Start were examined. Child and family risk factors were associated with more experience of violence or crime, which negatively affected their socio-emotional outcomes. This was more prevalent for children living in rural areas and for White children. Enrollment in Head Start was positively associated with children’s socio-emotional outcomes, with greater impact on those who had ever experienced violence or crime.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Racial Minority Women and Criminal Justice Responses to Domestic Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract Racialized minority women’s experiences with Canadian specialized criminal justice responses to domestic violence have seldom been documented. Informed by an intersectionality framework, this qualitative study presents the struggles of 14 racial minority women from three Canadian cities and their experiences with the police and criminal court’s response to their partner’s acts of domestic violence. The results focus on how well specialized criminal justice responses address the needs of these women and protect them from further violence. Factors that facilitate or deter these women from approaching the criminal justice system for help are highlighted. The implications of these women’s narratives for criminal justice responses to domestic violence are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Masculinity and Spousal Violence: Discursive Accounts of Husbands Who
           Abuse Their Wives in Ghana
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the influence of cultural notions of masculinity and its enactments on husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana from a discursive psychological perspective. Two focus group discussions and four in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 perpetrators (husbands) from rural and urban Ghana. Participants’ discursive accounts revealed that social anxieties of husbands, their fear of being perceived by others as weak or emasculated, and their disappointment with unfulfilled notions of masculine sovereignty influence conjugal violence. Perpetrators constructed a wife’s expression of dissent to her husband’s wishes and commands as an encroachment on masculine spaces, a gender-norm violation, or as providing a public challenge to male identity and thus violence could be used as an obligatory passage to manhood. Perpetrators also mobilized shifting and ambivalent discourses that draw upon culturally familiar notions of maleness to both resist and authorize a patriarchal privilege in marriage.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Secure Base Narrative Representations and Intimate Partner Violence: a
           Dyadic Perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to understand the relationship between secure base phenomena and dating violence among couples. Within a relationship, a secure base can be defined as a balancing act of proximity-seeking and exploration at various times and contexts with the assurance of a caregiver’s availability and responsiveness in emotionally distressing situations. Participants were 87 heterosexual couples. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to examine the relationship between each partner’s scores on secure base representational knowledge and intimate partner violence. Findings demonstrated that women’s secure base representational knowledge had a significant direct negative effect on the victimization of both men and women, while men’s secure base representational knowledge did not have any significant partner or actor effects. Therefore, findings suggest that women with insecure attachments may be more vulnerable to being both the victims and the perpetrators of aggressive behavior. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • The Relationship of Reflective Functioning to Parent Child Interactions in
           a Sample of Fathers with Concurrent Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration
           and Substance Abuse Problems
    • Abstract: Abstract This study is the first to examine reflective functioning (RF) and direct parent–child interactions of fathers with concurrent intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and substance abuse (SA) problems. Twenty-four fathers, with children between the age of one and seven, completed a structured interview to assess RF, self-report measures of hostile-aggressive parenting behaviors, IPV perpetration severity, SA severity, and a coded play session with their children. Results of three simultaneous multiple regressions revealed that RF in fathers was not associated significantly with observed parenting behaviors. However, fathers’ SA severity emerged as a significant predictor for child avoidant behavior and dyadic tension, and fathers’ IPV perpetration severity contributed unique variance to child avoidant behavior and dyadic constriction. These results suggest that fathers’ SA severity and IPV perpetration behaviors may be more salient factors in predicting their father-child interactions than paternal RF.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • You’re Not Alone: Mental Health Outcomes in Therapy Groups for
           Abused Women
    • Abstract: Abstract Few evaluations have assessed the outcomes of group therapy for women abused by intimate partners. Most group programs emphasize support rather than offering therapy, although women abused by partners often present with significant clinical mental health issues. This paper describes, “You’re Not Alone,” a 14-week therapy group model for women abused by intimate partners informed by a narrative approach Jenkins (The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 12 (4), 186-195 1991). The results present the demographic characteristics of the 379 women who began group, and a comparison of those who completed treatment (N = 214) versus those who dropped out (N = 165). Women with less income and a psychiatric history were less likely to complete group, as were women with higher depression, clinical stress, and mental health symptoms. The pretest/posttest outcome evaluation for the completers used measures of mental health symptoms, self-esteem, depression, and clinical stress, finding statistically significant improvements on most measures with moderate effect sizes. Practice implications and suggestions are presented.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Children’s Exposure to Partner Violence in Homes Where Men Seek Help
           for Partner Violence Victimization
    • Abstract: Abstract In the last several decades, the field of family violence has paid increasing attention to children’s exposure to partner violence (CEPV). Most of this research has focused on the children of women seeking help for partner violence (PV) victimization. In this paper we examine exposure to PV among children of men who sought help for PV victimization (n = 408), as compared with children of men in a population-based sample (n = 666). We examined children’s exposure to psychological, physical, and sexual PV and also examined CEPV that is perpetrated by women, men, or both partners. The results show that CEPV is higher among children of helpseeking men than among children of men from the population-based sample, and that most of that PV is perpetrated by the female partner. We did not find differences in CEPV based in child age or gender. We discuss implications for the field of family violence professionals.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Traumatic Reminders, and Partner
           Aggressive Tendencies Among Veterans
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined whether laboratory exposure to traumatic reminders potentiated the relationship between veterans’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate partner aggression (IPA) articulations elicited during an anger-induction task. The sample included 82 male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations (ATSS) procedure was used to assess physical IPA articulations (i.e., expressions of physically aggressive intentions toward the partner) and verbal IPA articulations (i.e., statements intended to insult or demean the partner) made during “relationship anger” provoking scenarios. Participants were administered versions of the ATSS both with and without trauma cue presentation. Results indicated that trauma cue exposure potentiated the relationship between veterans’ PTSD symptoms and physical IPA articulations, but did not strengthen the significant relationship between PTSD symptoms and verbal IPA articulations. Findings contribute to the literature on veterans’ PTSD symptoms and IPA perpetration by highlighting the influence of traumatic reminders.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder and Physical Partner Violence Among Single
           and Dual Substance-Abusing Couples
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study examined how antisocial personality disorder (APD) and substance use disorder contributed to partners’ reports of physical partner violence among single and dual substance-abusing couples. Participants were 69 heterosexual couples entering treatment in which one or both partners met criteria for substance use disorder. APD diagnosis of the male partner was linked to significantly higher male-to-female and female-to-male perpetration of physical partner violence and victimization. Female partner’s APD diagnosis was associated with women’s reports of victimization by their male partners. Dual substance use diagnosis emerged as a moderator, in which the effect of men’s APD diagnosis on men’s perpetration of physical partner violence and victimization was significantly reduced if both partners had substance use disorder. Findings underscore the importance of both partners’ APD diagnosis and substance use status for understanding physical partner violence among single and dual substance-abusing couples.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • A Spatial Latent Gaussian Model for Intimate Partner Violence Against Men
           in Africa
    • Abstract: Abstract This study used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the prevalence and correlates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men in Africa. Nationally representative data from 12 countries was analysed using a Spatial Latent Gaussian Model to capture the linear and non-linear nature of covariates while accounting for spatial heterogeneity. The results showed that female perpetrated abuse was significantly associated with education, alcohol consumption, intergenerational cycle of violence, polygamy, wealth, and type of union. As far as age of perpetrator (female) or victim (male) and spousal age difference were concerned, they had a non-linear effect on IPV. Furthermore, the spatial effects highlighted lack of spatial autocorrelation between the prevalence of IPV as one moves from country to country.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01
  • Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial Relationships
    • Abstract: Abstract Research from the U.S. suggests that interracial relationships tend to have an elevated risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). The purposes of this study were to examine IPV in interracial relationships in Canada and explore the extent to which indicators derived from potential explanations account for the elevated risk of IPV in interracial relationships. Data were from a nationally representative sample of more than 19,000 Canadians, of whom 399 were in an interracial relationship and 9,969 were in a non-interracial relationship. Results showed that individuals in interracial relationships faced a significantly elevated risk of IPV victimization. Logistic regression analyses suggested that the presence of children and short union duration were particularly important in accounting for 56 % of the elevated odds of IPV in interracial relationships. Interracial relationships are a vulnerable population and the implications of the elevated risk of IPV in these unions need to be considered in IPV prevention efforts.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23
  • Perspectives on Treating Couples Impacted by Intimate Partner Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract Intimate partner violence remains a persistent social and clinical problem with far-reaching effects for families and communities. With considerable debate surrounding its treatment, two main approaches are commonly described in outcome research and clinical practice literature: gender-specific (e.g. male-only groups) and systemic approaches (e.g. conjoint treatment for couples). Proponents of the former approach cite the risks of systemic approaches that unwittingly sustain the oppression of women, while proponents of the latter highlight the importance of addressing reciprocal patterns of violence and cumulative sources of stress upon a couple. In this review, the author describes some of the issues pertinent to this debate, highlighting areas of risk and hope. The combined use of gender-specific and conjoint treatment may be beneficial for some couples under particular circumstances. The paper closes with considerations for conducting conjoint treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-04-23
  • Intimate Partner Violence in Cohabiting Families: Reports by Multiple
           Informants and Associations with Adolescent Outcomes
    • Abstract: Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common, particularly in families with children. Observing such verbal and physical aggression has consistently been linked to unfavorable outcomes for affected children. Although cohabiting families are becoming increasingly prevalent and preliminary data suggest that rates of IPV may be high in these families, little is currently known about IPV and its impact as experienced by adolescents living in cohabiting families. This study used data from low-income urban Black cohabiting families (N = 92) to (1) examine agreement of reports of verbal and physical IPV between the adolescent and the mother and between the adolescent and the male cohabiting partner (MCP) and (2) test associations between IPV and youth mental health. A higher percentage of adolescents reported the occurrence of IPV, particularly physical violence, than did mothers and MCPs. Relative to those living in minimally violent or verbally violent homes, adolescents living in verbally and physically violent homes reported higher rates of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. These youth also reported higher levels of self-blame for the conflict and a worse relationship with the MCP but not the mother.
      PubDate: 2016-04-22
  • How Can We End the Stigma Surrounding Domestic and Sexual Violence? A
           Modified Delphi Study with National Advocacy Leaders
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to use a modified Delphi methodology study to identify priority actions that can be taken at the individual, local, and national levels to eliminate the stigma surrounding domestic and sexual violence. An expert panel of national organizational leaders provided input about the nature of the stigma surrounding domestic and sexual violence, as well as strategies to end this stigma. The findings were organized into three themes: (a) the social context of the stigma surrounding domestic and sexual violence; (b) the impact of the stigma on resources for victims and survivors; and (c) strategies for eradicating the stigma surrounding domestic and sexual violence. Implications of the study’s findings for research, practice, and advocacy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • Mediating Effects of Existential and Religious Well-Being Among Abused,
           Suicidal African American Women
    • Abstract: Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV), an international public health matter, is linked to psychological distress including suicidal behavior. Despite the noted sequelae associated with IPV, many individuals display resilience in the face of IPV exposure. This study examines two potential protective factors in the IPV-suicidal ideation link, namely existential and religious well-being, in a sample of African American women. Low-income, African American, female suicide attempters who were abused by a partner within the previous year (N = 111) were administered the Conflicts Tactics Scale-2, Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. Mediational models testing indirect effects through the bootstrapping method revealed that the total effect of IPV on suicidal ideation was positive and significant, confirming suicidal ideation as a consequential outcome of IPV among African American women. This effect was mediated by existential well-being; however, religious well-being was not a significant mediator, suggesting that existential well-being serves a unique protective role in the IPV-suicidal ideation relation. The results provide additional support for the well-known positive effects of existential well-being on mental health among African American samples. Culturally-informed, meaning-making interventions to enhance existential well-being appear to be effective in reducing suicidal ideation in this population.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • 12-Month Prevalence, Trends, Gender Differences, and the Impact of Mental
           Health Services on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Discharged
           Psychiatric Inpatients
    • Abstract: Abstract Minimal research has examined partner violence committed by individuals with severe mental illness. This study examined rates of IPV in the first year post-discharge from psychiatric hospitalization, trends over time, gender differences, and the impact of follow-up mental health services. One in five (20.3 %) patients committed at least one act of IPV in the first year. Whereas women were more than twice as likely to perpetrate IPV, men were nearly twice as likely to be violent toward non-family members. Risk of IPV was highest immediately post-discharge and decreased over time, with the sharpest decline after 20 weeks in the community. Mental health treatment was associated with a 40 % decrease and medication non-adherence a 50 % increase in risk for IPV. Partner violence is a prevalent concern among discharged psychiatric patients, and these findings suggest that coordinated risk management efforts should focus on the time immediately following hospital discharge.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • Emotion Dysregulation, Gender, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration:
           An Exploratory Study in College Students
    • Abstract: Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent problem, as it is bidirectional and perpetrated by both men and women. Emotion dysregulation may influence IPV perpetration among men and women. This cross-sectional survey study of 598 college students investigated the associations between two important factors related to IPV perpetration: gender and emotion dysregulation. Findings illustrated an association between emotion dysregulation and IPV perpetration. The bivariate association between physical violence and one facet of emotion dysregulation differed by gender, such that lack of emotional awareness was associated with violence perpetrated by women, but not men; however, this was not supported in multivariate analyses. These preliminary findings suggest that future work should examine how different emotion regulation deficits may increase IPV by gender.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • Antecedents to the Perpetration of Domestic Violence in Curaçao
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high gender empowerment, for example Curaçao. Curaçao demonstrates gender similarity in committing domestic violence, resembling Western countries: 25–33 % have committed psychological domestic violence, 11–17 % physical violence, and 1–6 % sexual violence. Antecedents to the perpetration of domestic violence are similar for both sexes as well. Domestic violence victimization, especially in cases of severe physical violence, increases the probability of becoming a perpetrator. Other perpetrator risk factors are a high education (psychological violence) and having children in the household (physical violence).
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • Interpreting Sexual Dating Encounters: Social Information Processing
           Differences in Men and Women
    • Abstract: Abstract Research has shown that college women are at considerable risk for sexual assault by dating partners, and studies have shown early detection of threat risk cues is an important factor in rape avoidance. This study examined how men and women process sexual encounters in a date rape situation and how they differ in interpretation of cues and response decision-making using Crick and Dodge’s (1994) model of social information processing (SIP). Participants listened to an audio vignette depicting a female resisting sexual contact as the male continues to make sexual advances. The vignette was paused at a point in which there is ambiguity concerning the sexual intentions of the actors, and multiple choice/forced answer questions reflecting five stages in social information processing (causal and intent interpretation, goal clarification, response decision, response efficacy, and response evaluation) were administered. Analyses revealed males and females significantly differed in all SIP stages, and emotional reaction was a significant predictor of response decision. Implications of the findings were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
  • How Has Living with Intimate Partner Violence Affected the Work
           Situation? A Qualitative Study among Abused Women in Norway
    • Abstract: Abstract A qualitative study was conducted among 18 abused women from different parts of Norway to explore what paid work means for women exposed to partner violence and how living with an abusive partner affected their working life. Based on systematic text condensation analyses of their experiences as described in individual and focus group interviews, the study’s findings reveal two major themes. The first is about recovery and survival, and the other about the spillover of problems caused by a violent partner into paid work. Work was important to the women, as it represented time off from violence, contact with others who cared for them, and maintenance of self-esteem and self-confidence. Having their own money provided security and strengthened the belief that they could manage on their own. The spillover of intimate partner violence problems appeared through feelings of fear, shame and guilt at work.
      PubDate: 2016-02-24
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