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Journal Cover   Journal of Family Violence
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 45]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2851 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7482
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Difficult Temperament Moderates the Effect of Family Conflict on Chinese
           Children’s Behavior Problems and Social Competence During the
           Transition to Nursery Care
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined how child temperament moderated the effect of family conflict on behavior problems and social competence in a longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese children. Social competence and internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed first at three months after nursery entry (T1) and then at the end of the nursery year (T2). Temperament and physical and psychological modes of family conflict were assessed at T1. The results showed that temperament moderated the effect of physical conflict on externalizing problems at both T1 and T2, as well as the effect of psychological conflict on social competence and internalizing problems at T2. Children with difficult temperament were more susceptible to the negative influence of physical conflict (i.e., showing more externalizing and more rank-order increases in externalizing when exposed to more physically expressed conflict) and the positive influence of psychological conflict (i.e., showing more rank-order decreases in internalizing and increases in social competence when exposed to more openly and verbally expressed conflict). In contrast, children with easy temperament were less susceptible to the influence of physical conflict but more susceptible to the negative influence of psychological conflict (i.e., showing more rank-order decreases in social competence when exposed to more openly and verbally expressed conflict).
      PubDate: 2015-03-20
  • Parental Monitoring and Perceptions Related to Juvenile Offenders Who
           Fight and Carry Weapons
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study examined constructs of parents, namely parental monitoring and perceptions, who were accompanying their adolescent child to juvenile court. The Juvenile Offender Parent Questionnaire (JOPQ) was administered to 151 parents/guardians of juveniles between the ages of 13 and 17 being arraigned in juvenile court. Results reveal that parents of weapon carriers and parents of fighters both appear to be exasperated when compared with other parents who were also accompanying their adolescent child to juvenile court. Parents of weapon carriers and parents of fighters report increased exasperation with regard to their child, difficulty in monitoring their child’s behavior, fear of physical harm from their child, and the perception that their child has been exposed to more violence than the comparison group. Further avenues for research and intervention are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-20
  • Profiles of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization, Substance Misuse, and
           Depression Among Female Caregivers Involved with Child Protective Services
    • Abstract: Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, substance misuse, and depression are highly prevalent among female caregivers involved with child protective services (CPS). Understanding heterogeneity in the occurrence of these problems is essential to improving pathways to intervention. Latent class analysis was employed to determine whether homogeneous subgroups of female caregivers who experience different patterns of IPV victimization, substance misuse, and depression exist. A restricted three-class solution best fit the data. A substantial number of female caregivers comprises the high-risk subgroup (33 %) in which caregivers reported high rates of IPV victimization, substance misuse, and depression. Avery small proportion comprised the no-risk subgroup (9 %). Findings emphasize heterogeneity among female caregivers based on these risk factors, which may have implications for practitioners, CPS caseworkers, and researchers.
      PubDate: 2015-03-19
  • Patterns and Predictors of Service Use Among Women Who Have Separated from
           an Abusive Partner
    • Abstract: Abstract Using baseline data from a survey of 309 Canadian women recently separated from an abusive partner, we investigated patterns of access to health, social, legal, and violence-specific services and whether abuse history and social and health variables predict service use. We compared rates of service use to population rates, and used logistic regression to identify determinants of use. Service use rates were substantially higher than population estimates in every category, particularly in general and mental health sectors. Although women were confident in their ability to access services, they reported substantial unmet need, difficulty accessing services, and multiple barriers. The strongest unique predictors of use varied across service type. Health variables (high disability chronic pain, symptoms of depression and PTSD), low income, and mothering were the most consistent predictors. Service providers and policy makers must account for social location, abuse history, and health status of Intimate Violence (IPV) survivors. Strategies to enhance access to primary health care services, and to create a system of more integrated, accessible services, are required.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
  • Between Support and Vulnerability: Examining Family Support Among Women
           Victims of Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico
    • Abstract: Abstract Based on a recent survey and six focus groups, we use a mixed methods approach to examine the help-seeking behavior of Mexican female victims of partner violence in law-enforcement agencies and among family members. Support the family provides women is critically examined. The results of the study suggest that families are not always a source of support: 41 % of the women who turned to public authorities did not mention it to their families, and 11 % did not seek help because they feared their families would find out. Formal help-seeking at law-enforcement agencies is the only choice for many Mexican women since family support has a dual nature, positive and negative. Families may further victimize female victims since partner violence against women triggers the contradiction among core familistic values: individual expectations (family obligations and support) might go against family expectations.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17
  • Childhood Adversities and Adult Use of Potentially Injurious Physical
           Discipline in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined the intergenerational continuity of potentially injurious physical discipline of children in a community sample from Japan and the confounding effects of childhood adversities on the continuity. Using the data from the World Mental Health Japan Survey (n = 1186), we found that experience of physical discipline as children was significantly associated with the use of physical discipline as parents independent of other childhood adversities. This association was also independent of the respondents’ mental disorders and household income. No significant gender differences were found in the associations between childhood physical discipline and adult perpetration. The current study on Japan provided empirical support consistent with results found in other countries regarding the intergenerational transmission of child physical abuse.
      PubDate: 2015-03-14
  • Challenges and Retention of Domestic Violence Shelter Advocates: a
           Grounded Theory
    • Abstract: Abstract Using grounded theory methods, this study examines the experience of shelter advocates and the relationship between the challenges of advocacy, shelter culture, and retention. Challenges fell into three categories: managing shelter shock, letting go of being the hero, and balancing advocate roles. Sub-challenges included hearing client stories, managing crisis, accessing resources, accepting clients going back to abusive situations, facilitating empowerment, and enforcing rules. Shelter culture strongly influenced advocates’ adjustment. Advocates with supportive cultures expressed less frustration and were more likely to continue employment, while those with less-supportive cultures expressed more frustration and were more likely to leave the domestic violence field or promote within the field to create macro-level change. Implications for shelters and future directions for research are included.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
  • Unwanted Pursuit Behavior After Breakup: Occurrence, Risk Factors, and
           Gender Differences
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated unwanted pursuit behavior (UPB) perpetration in 631 adult ex-partners. UPB involves the unwanted pursuit of intimacy, a widespread and usually less severe form of stalking. The occurrence and various risk factors of UPB perpetration were examined, accounting for differences between male and female ex-partners and same- and opposite-gender ex-partners. Ex-partners showed on average five to six UPBs after their separation. Male and female and same- and opposite-gender ex-partners displayed an equal number of UPBs. The number of perpetrated UPBs was explained by breakup characteristics (ex-partner initiation of the breakup and rumination or cognitive preoccupation with the ex-partner), relationship characteristics (anxious attachment in the former relationship), and individual perpetrator characteristics (borderline traits and past delinquent behaviors). Rumination was a stronger predictor in female than male ex-partners. Borderline traits and anxious attachment positively predicted UPB perpetration in opposite-gender but not in same-gender ex-partners. Implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-10
  • Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence on Substance Use and Depression
           for Women and Men
    • Abstract: Abstract Using data from a nationally representative, longitudinal, and prospective sample of men and women, and controlling for prior involvement in the outcomes and demographic effects, the consequences of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) on substance use and depression were examined over a 3-year period. The results were unexpected. Men in the sample were more likely than women to report the prevalence of minor and violent IPV victimization, whereas women in the sample were more likely than men to report the prevalence of minor and violent IPV perpetration. Additionally, the consequences of IPV were more apparent for male respondents than for female respondents. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study’s limitations, and future research directions.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05
  • Factors Associated with the Cessation of Intimate Partner Violence in
           Women Attending Primary Care in Spain
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to identify factors associated with the likelihood of IPV cessation among women attending Spanish primary healthcare. Of the 2465 women who reported lifetime IPV, 36.1 % stated that violence had ceased. Those women not currently abused had higher levels of education and social support, were workers or students, and had no dependent children. When IPV duration was less than 5 years, the likelihood of cessation was two times higher than when IPV continued beyond 5 years. For women who have experienced physical IPV, the probability of ending the violent relationship was 10 times higher than for those suffering from psychological IPV. The implications of the findings regarding clinical significance and future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-03
  • Achieving a Sustainable Livelihood After Leaving Intimate Partner
           Violence: Challenges and Opportunities
    • Abstract: Abstract A community-based research (CBR) study was carried out with single mothers who had left abusive relationships in order to better understand their experiences of finding a sustainable livelihood after experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Using the photovoice method and guided by the Sustainable Livelihoods (SL) framework, participants took photographs representing their experiences of violence through their transition to single motherhood and beyond. The findings reported through their photos and stories reveal an often long and arduous journey amidst the complexity of single parenting and the effects of violence. As with many people living on a low income, they incorporated creative strategies to survive and enhance their own and their children’s quality of life. Important areas for change are suggested through aspects of the SL framework and primary prevention.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Homelessness as Mediators of the Effects of
           Cumulative Childhood Victimization Clusters on Adolescent Mothers’
           Depression Symptoms
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examines the relationships between cumulative victimization that began during childhood (witnessing intimate partner violence [IPV], physical abuse by a caregiver, and sexual victimization), adolescent IPV victimization, homelessness, and depression symptoms within a sample of 206 urban adolescent mothers. We used cluster analysis to identify five profiles of cumulative childhood victimization, and explored the extent to which adolescent IPV victimization and homelessness mediated the relationships between these clusters and participants’ current depression symptoms. Overall, we found that a significant portion of the effect of cumulative childhood victimization on current depression was explained by IPV victimization and homelessness, indicating that both are important mediators of childhood violence exposure within this high-risk sample of young women.
      PubDate: 2015-02-28
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Risk of Psychiatric Symptoms: the Moderating
           Role of Attachment
    • Abstract: Abstract Numerous studies have examined attachment in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, but less is known about adult attachment insecurity relative to victimization. This study’s objective was to evaluate attachment insecurity as a moderator of the association between IPV victimization and risk of psychiatric symptoms. Data come from a subsample (n = 215) of female healthcare workers in a longitudinal study of violence and health. Structural equation modeling was conducted to evaluate the association between IPV victimization and posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms and to examine IPV exposure and psychiatric outcomes by levels of attachment insecurity. Findings suggest that anxious attachment confers vulnerability to depression following conflict and highlight the importance of attachment security in the context of interventions for interpersonal violence.
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
  • Patterns in Child–Father Contact after Parental Separation in a
           Sample of Child Witnesses to Intimate Partner Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite the well-documented negative consequences for children experiencing violence perpetrated by their fathers against their mothers, little is known about how characteristics of exposure to violence are related to child–father contact after parental separation. In this study, we (a) describe contact patterns between children and fathers after parental separation and (b) analyze links between patterns of violence and contact in a sample of child witnesses to intimate partner violence in Sweden. Information about 165 children (aged 3–13 years) was obtained from their mothers, who had been subjected to violence by the child’s father. In 60 % of the cases, the parents had joint custody. Results suggest that children without contact with their father have witnessed more violence than children with contact. However, when they do have contact, previous violence against the mother does not correlate either with amount or type of child–father contact. Instead, high socioeconomic status and negotiation skills correlated positively with amount of contact.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
  • Childhood Sibling Aggression and Emotional Difficulties and Aggressive
           Behavior in Adulthood
    • Abstract: Abstract Preliminary evidence indicates that childhood sibling aggression, the most common form of family violence, might be associated with aggression and emotional difficulties in adulthood. Three hundred twenty-two adult participants, recruited from various sources, completed an online survey retrospectively examining this relationship further. Levels of childhood sibling aggression perpetration and victimization were highly correlated, precluding separate analyses. Significant associations between childhood sibling aggression and adult emotional difficulties and aggression were found, even after controlling for exposure to other forms of family violence and other demographic variables. Neither gender nor reported sibling relationship moderated the childhood sibling aggression and adult difficulties effects. These findings, while mostly exploratory, suggest that greater attention should be paid to childhood sibling aggression.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
  • Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Abstract This study uses the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007 to identify factors associated with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) for currently married Bangladeshi women. Twenty five percent of women reported experiencing at least one form of IPV. The most prevalent form of IPV is slapping; and, according to respondents, the main reason given for IPV is without any reason. However, results show that women who think their husbands are justified in beating them, and who witnessed their fathers hit or beat their mothers, are more likely to experience IPV. Results revealed that such women are, respectively, 1.21 and 2.37 times more likely to experience violence than their counterparts. Therefore, these two important factors need urgent attention to reduce IPV against women in Bangladesh.
      PubDate: 2015-02-25
  • Violence Exposure in Young Children: Child-Oriented Routines as a
           Protective Factor for School Readiness
    • Abstract: Abstract Although domestic and community violence exposure has been associated with poor child functioning, protective factors, such as daily routines, may shield children from these negative outcomes. This study investigated whether daily, child-oriented routines moderated the association between exposure to violence and school readiness in preschool-aged children. Eighty-three preschool children completed a test of school readiness, and a primary caregiver completed measures of violence exposure and adherence to daily routines. Results indicated that discipline and daily living routines moderated the association between domestic violence exposure and school readiness. Findings suggest that routines in the home may serve a protective role for young children exposed to violence, but the protective impact was lessened when domestic violence exposure was high.
      PubDate: 2015-02-25
  • The Impact of Internet Crimes Against Children Work on Relationships with
           Families and Friends: An Exploratory Study
    • Abstract: Abstract The work of Internet Crimes against Children (ICAC) taskforces requires frequent viewing of the sexual exploitation of children. We explored how ICAC personnel believe their work impacts their relationships with family members. More than 600 ICAC members were surveyed about their work and how they felt it intersects with their familial relationships. We found that those who described their job as positively affecting their relationships had lower secondary traumatic stress (STS) scores than those who did not. The interaction between gender and STS score was found to be significant in predicting one’s comfort in expressing intimacy with his or her own children. We conclude by discussing how the findings illuminate the intersection between ICAC work and one’s personal life.
      PubDate: 2015-02-25
  • Impacts of a Coparenting-Focused Intervention on Links Between Pre-birth
           Intimate Partner Violence and Observed Parenting
    • Abstract: Abstract Our understanding of the role of preventive interventions in buffering the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mothers’ and fathers’ earliest parenting is limited. Couples (N = 167) in a community sample reported on past-year IPV prenatally and were observed interacting with their 1 year-old children; couples were randomly assigned to an 8-session prevention program designed to improve coparenting or a control condition. Links between mothers’ and fathers’ violence and parenting were largely significant, but only for control group couples. Coparenting did not significantly mediate associations between IPV and parenting among control group couples. This study adds to our understanding of the associations between IPV and early parenting, and has important implications for prevention.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
  • Domestic Violence Service Providers’ Perceptions of Safety Planning:
           a Focus Group Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Although safety planning is a widespread practice with clients impacted by domestic violence, the research on it is limited. In this article, we present a review of existing literature describing practices and research in order to understand the gaps in the field’s current understanding of safety planning practices. Next, we describe the methodology, findings, and implications of a focus group study that aimed to identify domestic violence service providers’ perspectives toward safety planning. The major themes discussed include safety risks for domestic violence victims; safety planning within the community context; and agency policies, procedures, and forms related to safety planning.
      PubDate: 2015-02-17
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