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Journal Cover Journal of Family Violence
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 45]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2851 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7482
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Conflict Appraisals in a Multiethnic Sample of Children Exposed to
           Intimate Partner Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract Childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue, affecting millions of children each year. IPV-exposed children are at risk for developing behavioral and emotional problems. The Cognitive-Contextual Framework posits that children’s post-conflict appraisals of threat and self-blame mediate these negative outcomes. However, conflict appraisals have primarily been studied in White, school-aged children. This study includes a large, multi-ethnic sample of children ages 5–12 (N = 158) who were interviewed regarding their experiences with family violence. The sample included White, Black, Latino/a, and biracial children. Self-blame was equivalent across groups. However, groups differed in threat appraisals, and Latino/a mothers and children reported discrepancies in the level of IPV-exposure. Directions for research and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03
  • The Effect of Family Violence on Sexual Victimization among Young Women
    • Abstract: Abstract Young people who grow up in a violent family context are more vulnerable to become victims of sexual aggression outside the family context. The present study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms that explain this link among young women by looking at the mediating role of sexual exposure behavior and target vulnerability. Data were used from an online survey among 237 young women aged 16 to 26 (M = 21.0 years, SD = 2.75). Experiencing violence from (one of) the parents and to a lesser extent witnessing interparental violence were related to an elevated risk for sexual victimization. Witnessing interparental violence was related to increased target vulnerability but this factor did not mediate the link with sexual victimization. Experiencing parental violence was related to both increased sexual exposure behavior and increased target vulnerability and these factors did mediate the link with sexual victimization.
      PubDate: 2016-02-02
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Female Nurses’ Employment: Disclosure
           and Consequences
    • Abstract: Abstract The study examined the relationship between women’s disclosure of intimate partner violence and their experience of employment interference, work-related consequences, and work participation in 140 nurses. Participants reported experiencing at least one employment interference tactic and 40 % of them disclosed their experience. Employment interference, work-related consequences, and work participation did not differ between nurses who disclosed violence/employment interference and those who did not. Further, our participants may have chosen to disclose employment interference in order to express their discomfort rather than to seek assistance or advice. Distribution of power governed by gender is an obstacle facing women in Jordan, limiting the extent to which they can be protected from experiencing IPV in the workplace.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • IPV Stigma and its Social Management: The Roles of Relationship-Type,
           Abuse-Type, and Victims’ Sex
    • Abstract: Abstract Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) often encounter negative societal reactions to their abuse. A quantitative self-report study examined the existence of these potential identity-threats to former IPV victims (N = 345, n = 106 males, n = 239 females). Biological sex, abuse type (i.e., psychological, physical) and severity, and IPV relationship type (i.e., situational couple violence, intimate terrorism) were each modeled as predictors of IPV stigma and its social management strategies. Results indicated differences in how IPV stigma was experienced and communicatively managed by diverse victims. Findings, interpreted through an applied lens for IPV practitioners and victims, also add nuance to existing theories of IPV, interpersonal communication, and social stigma.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • The Association Between Affective and Problem-Solving Communication and
           Intimate Partner Violence Among Caucasian and Mexican American Couples: a
           Dyadic Approach
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study examined individuals’ subjective evaluation of their effectiveness with regard to affective communication and problem-solving communication, and their relation to intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Data from 100 Caucasian American and Mexican American couples were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. For affective communication, a significant partner effect emerged, indicating that husbands’ higher dissatisfaction with affective communication was related to wives’ higher IPV victimization. For problem-solving communication, a significant actor effect emerged, indicating that husbands’ higher dissatisfaction with problem-solving communication was related to husbands’ higher IPV victimization. While these findings largely generalized to Caucasian Americans, they did not generalize to Mexican Americans.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Security in the Interparental Subsystem (SIS) Scale: Psychometric
           Characteristics in a Sample of Portuguese Adolescents
    • Abstract: Abstract The Security in the Interparental Subsystem Scale (SIS) is based on emotional security theory. This study examined the psychometric properties of an adaptation of the SIS to a sample of Portuguese adolescents (60.3 % girls; 10 to 18 years old; Mage = 13 years; N = 229), recruited in public schools. Discriminant and concurrent validity were assessed by analyzing SIS dimensions associations with adolescents’ exposure to interparental conflict (IC), and psychological adjustment, respectively. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the SIS supported a six-factor solution, with satisfactory internal consistency. Evidence for discriminant and concurrent validity was provided: most SIS dimensions significantly discriminated between adolescents exposed to higher vs. lower levels of IC; and a significant positive association between emotional reactivity and adolescents’ externalizing symptoms was found. These findings suggest that the SIS is a reliable tool for assessing adolescents’ emotional insecurity in the interparental relationship within the context of this sample.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Women College Students’ Reasons for Engaging in Psychological Dating
           Aggression: a Qualitative Examination
    • Abstract: Abstract Dating violence frequently occurs within women college students’ relationships, but few examinations of their reasons for engaging in psychological aggression have been conducted. Accordingly, the current study investigated psychological aggression initiated by women undergraduates against their male partners using a qualitative methodology. Overall, 72 of the 206 participants responded to an open-ended question examining their reasons for initiating psychological aggression. Six domains of reasons were identified; the two most frequently reported precipitants were negative affect and a partner’s transgression. One domain, “self-soothing,” (i.e., aggressing to help oneself feel better) had not been observed in studies of women’s initiation of physical aggression. These reasons could be targeted in prevention and intervention programs for reducing dating aggression among undergraduates.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Breaking the Cycle: Association of Attending Therapy Following Childhood
           Abuse and Subsequent Perpetration of Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite “cycle of violence” (Widom Psychological Bulletin, 106, 3–28, 1989, p. 4) theories prevailing for the past 30 years, few studies have looked at the empirical relationship between experiencing childhood physical abuse and becoming perpetrators of violence in adulthood. Those studies that do exist omit consideration of intervening therapeutic experiences. In the present study, archival data from an outpatient mental health clinic was used to examine whether therapeutic experiences mediate the relationship between experiencing childhood physical abuse by a parental figure and subsequent involvement as a perpetrator of physical violence. Treatment-seeking individuals (N = 816) responded to three items about whether they had experiences of childhood physical abuse, whether they acted violently in adulthood, and whether they had ever before received counseling or therapy. Past counseling/psychotherapy treatment was a significant mediator between experiencing childhood physical abuse and perpetrating physical violence in adulthood, even after controlling for the effect of the victims’ gender. Findings suggest that psychotherapeutic experiences after experiencing childhood physical abuse may decrease the likelihood of perpetrating violence in adulthood. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Theoretical Considerations on Men’s Experiences of Intimate Partner
           Violence: An Interview-Based Study
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aims at exploring and interpreting men’s experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the light of selected current theoretical contributions to the field, with an emphasis on Michael P. Johnson’s violence typology. The material consisted of twenty interviews with men who self-identified as having been subjected to IPV. Men generally did not consider physical violence to be threatening when it was perpetrated by women. They were also not subjected to the multiple control tactics that define the intimate terrorism category of Johnson’s violence typology, lending support to the argument that women’s and men’s experiences of IPV differ in opposite-sex relationships. Furthermore, our findings encourage the integration of structural inequalities related to gender and sexuality in analyses of men’s experiences of IPV.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Microcredit and Marital Violence: Moderating Effects of Husbands’
           Gender Ideology
    • Abstract: Abstract Evidence on the relation between women’s microcredit participation and their exposure to marital violence has been inconsistent across studies. This study examined how women’s various levels of microcredit participation are associated with marital violence against women (MVW), while also taking into account the husbands’ gender ideology. The study included 243 wife-abusive men in rural Bangladesh. Multiple regressions were performed to predict the frequency of MVW in the preceding year. Of the married women, 52.3 % were microcredit participants, 11.1 % of whom were active participants and 41.2 % nominal participants. The study showed that women’s active microcredit participation was negatively associated with MVW, and nominal participation was positively associated with MVW among the husbands who held a more conservative gender ideology. The findings suggest that women-focused microcredit interventions should also take into account men’s gender ideologies.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Men’s Experiences of the Criminal Justice System Following Female
           Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study aimed to explore men’s experience of the UK Criminal Justice System (CJS) following female-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). Unstructured face-to-face and Skype interviews were conducted with six men aged between 40–65 years. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Due to the method of analysis and the sensitive nature of the research, the researcher engaged in a process of reflexivity. Four main themes were identified, including ‘Guilty until Proven Innocent: Victim Cast as Perpetrator;’ ‘Masculine Identity;’ ‘Psychological Impact’ and ‘Light at the End of the Tunnel.’ Themes were discussed and illustrated with direct quotes drawn from the transcripts. Directions for future research, criminal justice interventions, and therapeutic interventions were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • Partner Violence Entrapment Scale: Development and Psychometric Testing
    • Abstract: Abstract This article describes the development and testing of the psychometric properties of the Partner Violence Entrapment Scale (PVES), an instrument that evaluates the women’s perceived reasons for staying in violent partner relationships. After initial pilot testing, the scale was administered to 213 Spanish women who were victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). An exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: Socio-Economic Problems, Attachment and Fear of Loneliness, Blaming Oneself and Resignation, Impact on Children, Fear of Harm and Worry for the Partner, and Feelings of Confusion. Discriminant validity was established by demonstrating associations between PVES factors and socio-demographic, clinical and abuse variables. The scale appears to be a useful assessment tool for social and clinical settings. Its factor structure, reliability, and validity need to be replicated in other populations and samples.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • College Students’ Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence: a
           Comparative Study of China and the U.S.
    • Abstract: Abstract Although attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) have been the subject of many studies, little research has been conducted to comparatively assess public definitions of IPV in Western and non-Western countries. Drawing upon survey data collected from approximately 500 Chinese and American college students, this study compared and contrasted Chinese and American college students in their beliefs about what constitute IPV. Chinese students were found to be less likely to define abusive acts as IPV than their U.S. counterparts. Gender-role attitudes, such as beliefs of male dominance and IPV as crime, were among the most prominent predictors of students’ definitions of IPV. Chinese and American college students’ attitudes differed not only in what was defined as IPV, but also in what were the factors that shaped such attitudes. Directions for future research and policy were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • The Contribution of Family Relationships to Child-to-Parent Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract Child-to-parent violence is a social problem that is qualitatively different from other types of family violence, since adolescents direct their violence toward those who should represent authority and provide for their welfare. One of the goals of this study was to analyze the importance of the quality of family relationships and different strategies of family discipline with regard to violent or prosocial behavior of adolescents toward their parents. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test a model of violent behavior towards parents. Participants were 585 children aged between 12 and 18 from eight schools in the Basque Country (Spain). Positive family discipline and supervision were not associated with lower levels of violence against parents. Family relationships had direct effects on child-to-parent violence, and power-assertive discipline showed a mediating effect in that association. It seems that affectivity and quality of family relationships are the most important aspects for preventing violent behaviors.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
  • A Preliminary Evaluation of the Spanish Parent–Child Aggression
           Acceptability Movie Task in Spain
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study presents a preliminary evaluation of a Spanish adaptation of an implicit analog procedure, the Parent–child Aggression Acceptability Movie task (Spanish Parent-CAAM). Based on Social Information Processing theory, Spanish Parent-CAAM scores were expected to relate to self-reported PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, and child abuse risk in Spanish students; 245 undergraduates in Spain completed the Spanish Parent-CAAM along with self-report measures of PCA attitudes, negative children attributions, inclination to punish misbehavior, and child abuse risk. Findings indicate Spanish Parent-CAAM scores were significantly related to explicit measures of PCA, attributions of intentional child misbehavior, propensity to punish such misbehavior, and increased child abuse potential. Results are considered within the cultural context of Spain’s corporal punishment ban and PCA attitudes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
  • Evaluating an Online Program to Help Children Exposed to Domestic
           Violence: Results of Two Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study reports the results of two randomized controlled trials investigating effects of an online program (Change A Life) designed to educate individuals about children’s exposure to domestic violence (DV), and to increase individuals’ self-efficacy for providing support to children exposed to DV. In both a community sample (n = 110) and a college student sample (n = 146), participants who completed Change A Life, compared to those who completed a control program, reported increased knowledge about children’s exposure to DV. In the community sample, but not the college student sample, those who completed Change A Life also reported increased self-efficacy for helping children exposed to DV. Neither participant sex nor history of exposure to domestic violence moderated intervention effects.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder and Physical Partner Violence Among Single
           and Dual Substance-Abusing Couples
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study examined how antisocial personality disorder (APD) and substance use disorder contributed to partners’ reports of physical partner violence among single and dual substance-abusing couples. Participants were 69 heterosexual couples entering treatment in which one or both partners met criteria for substance use disorder. APD diagnosis of the male partner was linked to significantly higher male-to-female and female-to-male perpetration of physical partner violence and victimization. Female partner’s APD diagnosis was associated with women’s reports of victimization by their male partners. Dual substance use diagnosis emerged as a moderator, in which the effect of men’s APD diagnosis on men’s perpetration of physical partner violence and victimization was significantly reduced if both partners had substance use disorder. Findings underscore the importance of both partners’ APD diagnosis and substance use status for understanding physical partner violence among single and dual substance-abusing couples.
      PubDate: 2016-01-21
  • Childhood Maltreatment in College Women: Effect on Severe Physical Partner
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined risk of severe physical partner violence victimization as a function of childhood maltreatment among college women. Engaged and soon to be engaged female students were recruited for the study. Compared to their counterparts, risk of severe physical partner violence was three-fold greater in women who experienced childhood physical violence and five-fold greater among those who witnessed mother-to-father violence. Victims of childhood maltreatment may encounter social and personal problems that increase their vulnerability to violence in adulthood. Physical violence is a problem among college students and is related to their experiences of childhood victimization.
      PubDate: 2016-01-16
  • Intimate Partner Violence Screening in a Women Veterans’ Health
           Clinic: Assessing Feasibility
    • Abstract: Abstract Women presenting for care within a suburban Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital (VA) were screened for intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed to explore the feasibility of screening for IPV within a VA women’s health clinic, assess how well the screening measure captured women veterans’ experiences of IPV, and compare clinical correlates of IPV in women veterans who have and have not experienced IPV. Of 96 eligible women, 93 (97 %) answered a self-report question regarding experience of lifetime IPV and 72 (75 %) participated in a standardized screening. Among participants, 42 (47 %) reported experiencing past or current IPV, and of those, 11 (25 %) reported that they were currently experiencing IPV, and 31 (70 %) reported that they had experienced IPV in their past. Screening for IPV among women veterans in a women’s health clinic is feasible and identifies women who experience IPV, offering opportunities for referral and intervention.
      PubDate: 2016-01-16
  • ‘My Eyes Were Open’: Awakened Maternal Identity and Leaving
           Violent Relationships for the Infant/Children
    • Abstract: Abstract A qualitative secondary analysis explored stories of mothers (n = 49) who left violent relationships (VRs) through a lens of maternal identity. Constant comparative method identified a theory of Awakened Maternal Identity (AMI) and Leaving VR for the Infant/Children. Mothers described how the VR diminished their maternal identity (DMI). Partners controlled the VR though unrealistic infant care expectations, criticisms of infant care, harsh parenting, and control over mothering decisions. DMI lowered the mother’s capacity to provide emotionally nurturing infant care. Over time, mothers experienced AMI- as their ‘eyes were opened’ they experienced a stronger sense of mothering responsibility, focused more on the infants and children, and eventually prioritized their relationship with the infants and children over the partner. AMI seemed a turning point that led to leaving the VR for the infants/children. Recommendations offered for professionals to foster AMI as potential means to initiate the leaving VRs.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
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