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Journal Cover Journal of Family Violence
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 45]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2851 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7482
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Understanding the Roles of Context, Frequency, and Quantity of Alcohol
           Consumption in Child Physical Abuse: Risks for Mothers and Fathers
    • Abstract: Abstract Alcohol use is related to child physical abuse, although little is known about gender-specific risks factors. This study examines the relationships between alcohol outlets, context-specific drinking, dose–response drinking and child physical abuse for mothers and fathers. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1973 female and 1050 male respondents in 50 California cities. Weighted negative binomial models were used to calculate the frequency of physical abuse in the past year. Drinking more often at restaurants was related to higher frequency of physical abuse for fathers, while mothers who drank more frequently at bars and parties used physical abuse more often. There were no significant dose–response drinking relationships for fathers. Drinking higher amounts at bars, parties, and restaurants was associated with less frequent physical abuse for mothers. Our findings suggest that a focus on drinking contexts may reveal heightened risk for many mothers who do not consume large amounts of alcohol.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Intimate Partner Violence Screening in a Women Veterans’ Health
           Clinic: Assessing Feasibility
    • Abstract: Abstract Women presenting for care within a suburban Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital (VA) were screened for intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed to explore the feasibility of screening for IPV within a VA women’s health clinic, assess how well the screening measure captured women veterans’ experiences of IPV, and compare clinical correlates of IPV in women veterans who have and have not experienced IPV. Of 96 eligible women, 93 (97 %) answered a self-report question regarding experience of lifetime IPV and 72 (75 %) participated in a standardized screening. Among participants, 42 (47 %) reported experiencing past or current IPV, and of those, 11 (25 %) reported that they were currently experiencing IPV, and 31 (70 %) reported that they had experienced IPV in their past. Screening for IPV among women veterans in a women’s health clinic is feasible and identifies women who experience IPV, offering opportunities for referral and intervention.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Intimate Partner Violence Related Stress and the Coping Experiences of
           Survivors: “There’s Only So Much a Person Can Handle”
    • Abstract: Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent problem associated with multiple negative outcomes for survivors’ well-being. Coping has emerged as an important construct in understanding the association between IPV and survivors’ well-being. Research is needed to better understand the contextual complexity of IPV as a stressor, determine if IPV is a unique stressor, and document survivors’ coping experiences. This article reports findings of a qualitative study with 25 female survivors and 6 service providers. Analysis of interview data shows 3 key themes: (a) coping strategies used by survivors; (b) challenges and barriers to coping with IPV; and (c) IPV as a unique stressor. Despite multiple challenges and barriers to coping with IPV, survivors use multiple, varied strategies to cope with their experiences of abuse. However, given the context and nature of IPV, violent victimization is a distinct stressor with unique barriers that often require IPV-specific coping strategies.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Edleson Revisited: Reviewing Children’s Witnessing of Domestic
           Violence 15 Years Later
    • Abstract: Abstract A systematic review of literature was conducted using the criteria identified in Edleson’s (Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(8), 839–870, 1999) article titled “Children’s witnessing of domestic violence.” Based on the recommendations in Edleson’s (Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(8), 839–870, 1999) article, four themes were examined in the current research 1) the impact of exposure to domestic violence, 2) the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple forms of violence, 3) potential protective factors that highlight children’s resilience, and 4) the father-child relationship. Using similar methods identified in Edleson’s (Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(8), 839–870, 1999) article, the literature was searched and 46 articles reviewed during the Fall of 2014. The results highlight areas of great success in expanding the understanding of children’s exposure to domestic violence to increase identification and prevalence. However, the results found that after nearly 15 years, there has been little advancement in the research literature on emphasizing children’s voices in their experiences of domestic violence.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Conflict Appraisals in a Multiethnic Sample of Children Exposed to
           Intimate Partner Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract Childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health issue, affecting millions of children each year. IPV-exposed children are at risk for developing behavioral and emotional problems. The Cognitive-Contextual Framework posits that children’s post-conflict appraisals of threat and self-blame mediate these negative outcomes. However, conflict appraisals have primarily been studied in White, school-aged children. This study includes a large, multi-ethnic sample of children ages 5–12 (N = 158) who were interviewed regarding their experiences with family violence. The sample included White, Black, Latino/a, and biracial children. Self-blame was equivalent across groups. However, groups differed in threat appraisals, and Latino/a mothers and children reported discrepancies in the level of IPV-exposure. Directions for research and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Do Social Services Matter for Child Maltreatment Prevention?:
           Interactions between Social Support and Parent's Knowledge of Available
           Local Social Services
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite wide recognition that increased social support is associated with positive parenting behaviors, there is limited understanding regarding the mechanisms through which the neighborhood context can increase or hinder social connections. In a sample of 1,050 parents in Franklin County, OH, this study examines the role of availability of social services in child maltreatment. Through negative binomial regression, the study finds that greater availability of social services is associated with lower levels of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the availability of social services moderates the relationship between social support and child maltreatment, such that the relationship between social support and child maltreatment is weaker for parents in neighborhoods with greater availability of services. The findings suggest that increasing services and awareness of such services might be an opportunity for child maltreatment prevention.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Evaluating an Online Program to Help Children Exposed to Domestic
           Violence: Results of Two Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study reports the results of two randomized controlled trials investigating effects of an online program (Change A Life) designed to educate individuals about children’s exposure to domestic violence (DV), and to increase individuals’ self-efficacy for providing support to children exposed to DV. In both a community sample (n = 110) and a college student sample (n = 146), participants who completed Change A Life, compared to those who completed a control program, reported increased knowledge about children’s exposure to DV. In the community sample, but not the college student sample, those who completed Change A Life also reported increased self-efficacy for helping children exposed to DV. Neither participant sex nor history of exposure to domestic violence moderated intervention effects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Childhood Maltreatment in College Women: Effect on Severe Physical Partner
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined risk of severe physical partner violence victimization as a function of childhood maltreatment among college women. Engaged and soon to be engaged female students were recruited for the study. Compared to their counterparts, risk of severe physical partner violence was three-fold greater in women who experienced childhood physical violence and five-fold greater among those who witnessed mother-to-father violence. Victims of childhood maltreatment may encounter social and personal problems that increase their vulnerability to violence in adulthood. Physical violence is a problem among college students and is related to their experiences of childhood victimization.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence in Canada: a Comparison of Victims
           Who Were and Were Not Abused During Pregnancy
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors, indicators of severity, and differences in post-violence health effects for victims who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy compared to victims who experienced IPV outside the pregnancy period. Data were from Statistics Canada’s 2009 General Social Survey. Among IPV victims, 10.5 % experienced physical and/or sexual violence during pregnancy. Victims who had experienced violence during pregnancy were more likely than victims who were not abused during pregnancy to experience both less severe and more severe forms of violence. In fully adjusted models, younger age, separated or divorced marital status, as well as partners’ patriarchal domination, destruction of property, and drinking were significant predictors of pregnancy violence. Measures indicative of more severe violence and of a number of adverse post-violence health effects were significantly elevated among victims who experienced pregnancy violence relative to victims who were not abused during pregnancy. Implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • A Preliminary Evaluation of the Spanish Parent–Child Aggression
           Acceptability Movie Task in Spain
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study presents a preliminary evaluation of a Spanish adaptation of an implicit analog procedure, the Parent–child Aggression Acceptability Movie task (Spanish Parent-CAAM). Based on Social Information Processing theory, Spanish Parent-CAAM scores were expected to relate to self-reported PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, and child abuse risk in Spanish students; 245 undergraduates in Spain completed the Spanish Parent-CAAM along with self-report measures of PCA attitudes, negative children attributions, inclination to punish misbehavior, and child abuse risk. Findings indicate Spanish Parent-CAAM scores were significantly related to explicit measures of PCA, attributions of intentional child misbehavior, propensity to punish such misbehavior, and increased child abuse potential. Results are considered within the cultural context of Spain’s corporal punishment ban and PCA attitudes.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • ‘My Eyes Were Open’: Awakened Maternal Identity and Leaving
           Violent Relationships for the Infant/Children
    • Abstract: Abstract A qualitative secondary analysis explored stories of mothers (n = 49) who left violent relationships (VRs) through a lens of maternal identity. Constant comparative method identified a theory of Awakened Maternal Identity (AMI) and Leaving VR for the Infant/Children. Mothers described how the VR diminished their maternal identity (DMI). Partners controlled the VR though unrealistic infant care expectations, criticisms of infant care, harsh parenting, and control over mothering decisions. DMI lowered the mother’s capacity to provide emotionally nurturing infant care. Over time, mothers experienced AMI- as their ‘eyes were opened’ they experienced a stronger sense of mothering responsibility, focused more on the infants and children, and eventually prioritized their relationship with the infants and children over the partner. AMI seemed a turning point that led to leaving the VR for the infants/children. Recommendations offered for professionals to foster AMI as potential means to initiate the leaving VRs.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
  • Parenting and Safety Program for System-Involved Female Survivors of
           Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Follow-up Study
    • Abstract: Abstract This article reports findings from a qualitative follow-up investigation of a mandated parenting and safety program for system-involved female IPV survivors. Participants were contacted 12 months or more after program completion and invited to participate in individual interviews. The interviews focused on the longer-term life changes survivors attributed to the program. Data were collected from 38 survivors. Qualitative analysis determined 4 key themes: relationship changes (e.g., most women were no longer with abusive partners), parenting changes (e.g., improved communication and discipline strategies), personal life changes (e.g., improved help-seeking and self-esteem), and new or ongoing challenges (e.g., financial stress). Overall, findings suggest that tailored, mandated programming — when positive and empowering — may lead to some longer-term beneficial outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
  • Consideration of Risk and Protective Factors for Families at Risk for
           Child Maltreatment: An Intervention Approach
    • Abstract: Abstract Child maltreatment is associated with a complex interplay of risk and protective factors. Intervention service decisions for child maltreatment need an empirically-supported approach integrating targeted risk and protective factors. A literature review led to the proposed approach to address the interplay between risk (intimate partner violence; IPV and depression) and protective factors (social support and family resources) to help guide decision-making in home-based prevention services for vulnerable families. This approach suggests that social support and family resources are two pivotal protective factors in buffering against child maltreatment potential, while addressing core risk factors. This approach is consistent with research suggesting that home-based parenting programs should target central risk and protective factors in child maltreatment. Application of this approach can guide training of providers delivering home-based services and support decision-making. Future research is warranted to test this approach in empirically-supported interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
  • Comparing Intimately Violent to Non-violent Veterans in Treatment for
           Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    • Abstract: Abstract The impact on relationships and adjustment to life after warzone deployments is a major concern, especially when the Veteran also struggles with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this manuscript, we describe and compare Veterans who are intimately violent to non-violent Veterans who are in treatment for PTSD. In order to accurately identify the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) we relied on both Veterans’ and their partners’ reports in the form of interviews and questionnaires. Additionally, we examined the following variables to determine if PTSD severity, childhood witnessing of inter-parental IPV, substance use/abuse, mutuality, and demographic variables could reliably differentiate Veterans perpetrating IPV from those who were not. Of the overall sample (N = 882; Veterans and partners), 43% of the male Veterans met our operationally defined criteria for IPV. Among the variables identified above, only the level of relationship mutuality significantly differentiated the intimately violent from non-violent.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
  • Domestic Violence and its Relationship with Quality of Life in Iranian
           Women of Reproductive Age
    • Abstract: Abstract Violence against women is a major concern for public health. This study was conducted in Tabriz (Iran) to investigate domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in women of reproductive age. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 558 women selected through a two-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected by Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires. Negotiation-emotional violence had the highest prevalence (93 %) and severe injury (12 %) had the lowest. There was a significant inverse correlation between chronicity of psychological, physical, sexual and injury domains of domestic violence and quality of life and a significant positive correlation between negotiation-emotional domain and quality of life. There is a significant relationship between domestic violence and quality of life. So, regarding the importance of empowering women and improving their quality of life, we must help eliminate violence against women.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09
  • Attitudes toward Wife Abuse of Police Officers and Judiciary Members in
           Turkey: Profession, Gender, Ambivalent Sexism and Sex Roles
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined the attitudes of police officers and judiciary members toward wife abuse in Turkey and the relation between these attitudes and profession, ambivalent sexism (hostile/benevolent sexism), gender, and gender roles. The following instruments were used for the analyses: The Attitudes Toward Wife Abuse Scale (AWAS), the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The participants were 300 police officers and 150 judiciary members selected from different regions of Turkey. Results showed that compared to judiciary members, police officers are more tolerant of physical and verbal abuse of women in marriage, but less tolerant of the idea of the victim leaving an abusive marriage partner. Similarly, men were more tolerant than women of those husbands who physically and verbally abuse their wives, but less supportive of the wife leaving the abusive partner. Profession and ambivalent sexism (hostile/benevolent sexism) were found to be the strongest predictors of attitudes toward wife abuse.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09
  • Conceptualization of Intimate Partner Violence: Exploring Gender
           Differences Using Concept Mapping
    • Abstract: Abstract While numerous studies have explored prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV), one area that has yet to be sufficiently explored is whether men and women agree on the acts, behaviours, and attitudes that comprise IPV. Through the use of concept mapping, we examined the similarities and differences in the conceptualization of IPV among a diverse sample of men and women. Although men and women conceptualized physical and sexual violence similarly, men tended to rate non-physical behaviors related to control as less important to the definition of IPV than women. Moreover, even when men and women used similar labeling language for grouping of items, the statements included in each cluster were substantially different for non-physically abusive items. A greater understanding of similarities and differences in the conceptualization of IPV by gender can help inform appropriate gender specific IPV intervention and prevention efforts.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07
  • Women’s Knowledge of the Domestic Violence Legislation in Erbil,
           Iraq and their Response to Spousal Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract This study assessed the knowledge of 82 married women about existing legislations and law enforcement structure in Iraqi Kurdistan region to combat violence against women and women’s response to spousal violence. A female physician interviewed the participants using a specially designed questionnaire. The women possessed good knowledge about the presence of legislation (76.8 %) and related law enforcement structure (70.7 % to 74.4 %) to combat violence against women, but they lacked adequate knowledge about how to contact the law enforcement agencies. Women’s response to spousal violence primarily included self-defense (37.8 %) or keeping silent (26.8 %), rather than seeking justice (4.9 %). Women’s educational status was positively associated with reporting violence to police (52.1 % vs 29.4 %, p = 0.041) and the health staff (62.5 % vs 35.3 %, p = 0.015). Further research is needed to explore the reasons behind women’s poor knowledge of the details of the existing law enforcement structure and women’s reluctance to seek justice.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
  • The Words of Violence: Autobiographical Narratives of Abused Women
    • Abstract: Abstract Personal narratives tell the stories of people’s lives as well as provide insight into the meaning of those experiences. These narratives both reflect and are influenced by the relationships within which an individual is embedded. In this study, autobiographical narratives for two groups of women were compared: women who had experienced habitual gender-based domestic violence in their couple relationships and women who had not. The language of narratives was analyzed by LIWC (Language Inquiry and Word Count procedure). Results showed that the language and structure of narratives by women with a history of domestic violence indicated greater stress and trauma, more incoherent space-time organization, and poorer relationship quality. Women who experienced violence wrote longer narratives that contained proportionately more negative emotion words and more references to cognitions and physical/body issues, and indicated more disorganized structure by means of incoherent use of verbal tense, more impoverished use of connectives, and greater use of negative sentence syntax and discrepancy words. They also included proportionately more pronoun references to ‘I’,‘You’,’ and ‘He’, indicating self vs. partner conflictual relationships. However, women who had experienced relationship violence for longer decreased their references to the emotions of fear and anxiety, suggesting adaptation to violence over time.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
  • Profile of Men Who Are Victims of Physical Violence by an Intimate Partner
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize the profile of men who are victims of interpersonal physical violence (IPV) by an intimate partner. This study is a retrospective analysis of suspected cases of male victims of IPV by an intimate partner, aged 18 years or older, treated at a Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Center in Brazil. Sociodemographic variables of the victims, the types of violence and the patterns of injuries were evaluated. Over this period, 1520 suspected victims of IPV by an intimate partner were examined; 14.6 % (n = 222) of them were men. Based on Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) two dimensions were formed: the first dimension (internal reliability = 0613) was primarily formed by the relationship between aggressor and victim, the marital status and the type of IPV, and the second dimension (reliability = 0509) by the day of week, the period of day and the marital status.
      PubDate: 2016-05-07
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