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Journal Cover   Journal of Family Violence
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 45]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2851 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7482
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Antecedents to the Perpetration of Domestic Violence in Curaçao
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high gender empowerment, for example Curaçao. Curaçao demonstrates gender similarity in committing domestic violence, resembling Western countries: 25–33 % have committed psychological domestic violence, 11–17 % physical violence, and 1–6 % sexual violence. Antecedents to the perpetration of domestic violence are similar for both sexes as well. Domestic violence victimization, especially in cases of severe physical violence, increases the probability of becoming a perpetrator. Other perpetrator risk factors are a high education (psychological violence) and having children in the household (physical violence).
      PubDate: 2015-10-05
  • Stalking in College Student Dating Relationships: A Descriptive
    • Abstract: Abstract Violence in college student dating relationships is a prevalent problem. However, little research has examined stalking, behaviors that have most commonly been examined after relationship termination, not within intact relationships. The purpose of the present study was to descriptively examine the prevalence and frequency of various stalking behaviors among male and female college students in a current dating relationship (N = 650). Results demonstrated that the prevalence of some stalking behaviors were as high as 38 % in the previous 6 months. Additionally, out of 15 potential stalking behaviors, men and women only differed on the frequency of one stalking behavior (leaving unwanted items for a partner). Findings demonstrate that stalking behaviors are relatively common among college students in dating relationships.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Negative Affect Reciprocity as an Explanation of the Correlation between
           Perpetrating and Being a Victim of Sexual Coercion
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this research was to test the negative affect reciprocity explanation of the positive correlation between being a victim of and perpetrating sexual coercion. In the first study, 92 participants who were in a romantic relationship filled out measures of sexual coercion and measures of relationship aggression. Supporting the negative affect reciprocity explanation, all of the measures (coercion and aggression) were positively intercorrelated. In the second study, 51 couples filled out the above measures. Supporting the negative affect reciprocity explanation, four of the six sexual coercion measures intercorrelate with themselves and all of the aggression measures intercorrelated. However, only some of the coercion and aggression measures intercorrelated suggesting that negative affect reciprocity in the two areas is to some extent independent. Both studies found that sexual coercion and aggression were to some extent negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction but not probability of marriage.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Measuring Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Service Providers’
           Attitudes: The Development of the Survivor-Defined Advocacy Scale (SDAS)
    • Abstract: Abstract Survivor-defined advocacy, which emphasizes survivor empowerment and systemic change, is an emerging preferred practice for intimate partner violence (IPV) service delivery. IPV service providers’ attitudes can facilitate or impede the implementation of this practice model. This article reports on the development and revision of the Survivor-Defined Advocacy Scale (SDAS), which assesses IPV service providers’ attitudes about their work and clients. Results for the SDAS yielded a two-factor solution: Survivor Empathy and Systems Advocacy. This study also examined the SDAS relationship to provider demographics, perceptions of organizational values, and compassion satisfaction. Compassion satisfaction accounted for most of the variance in survivor-defined advocacy. The implications of these findings and the potential uses of the SDAS with IPV providers are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Personal Mastery Buffers the Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on
           Women’s Health and Family Functioning
    • Abstract: Abstract Personal mastery has been associated with many positive outcomes and may attenuate negative responses to life stressors. Our research extends prior work by examining whether personal mastery can buffer women from long-term outcomes associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA). We expected that: (1) women with CSA histories would report more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, and more physical health problems compared to women without such histories; (2) personal mastery would be associated with better outcomes in these domains; and (3) personal mastery would attenuate the effects of CSA on women’s outcomes. Data were obtained from a larger study of parenting among women with and without CSA histories. Our predictions were fully supported for depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, and partially supported for physical health. The current findings contribute to knowledge about the long-term effects of CSA and identify a protective factor that may buffer the negative sequelae of traumatic events.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Adult Mental Health
           Problems: Relationships with Gender and Age of Exposure
    • Abstract: Abstract Relatively little is known about the associations between childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adulthood mental health problems. This study used 2,500 Swedish young adults’ retrospective self-reports to determine the prevalence of childhood exposure to IPV and examine the relationships between such exposure and gender, age of exposure and adult mental health problems. Twenty-eight percent of participants reported any childhood exposure to IPV. Exposure was more common among women, who were also younger at first exposure and exposed to more severe violence than men. Both exposure and severity of IPV were related to all mental health problems examined. The interaction of IPV exposure and gender, while significant, explained relatively little of the variance in mental health problems.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Decisions to Prosecute Battered Women’s Homicide Cases: An
           Exploratory Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Discretionary decisions to prosecute cases in which a battered woman kills her partner were investigated using several research strategies and targeting a range of case elements. Law students presented with case elements reported they would consider legal elements over nonlegal (or “supplemental”) elements when making a decision to prosecute. In contrast, law students assessed through an open-ended format as to important case factors for deciding to prosecute spontaneously generated high proportions of supplemental case elements compared with legal factors. Vignette comparisons of 42 case elements on participants’ likelihood to prosecute identified salient factors including legal and supplemental variables. Themes from the open-ended responses are discussed, as well as the extent to which supplemental factors were more likely to be considered in prosecution decisions when assessed through different methodological strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Review of Gender Violence Among Arab Immigrants in Canada: Key Issues for
           Prevention Efforts
    • Abstract: Abstract Migration can be a major risk factor for gender violence due to cultural differences, stereotypes, unemployment, and lack of knowledge about services and immigration laws. Even though it is possible to get evidence about many of these issues, there is a lack of evidence-informed interventions designed to reduce gender violence among Arab immigrants in Canada. The hierarchical structure within many Arab families in western societies can challenge prescribed gender roles, which might be perceived as a threat to the continuity of the culture and a reason for abuse. This literature review addresses issues for interventions that seek to reduce gender violence while recognizing resilience, family hierarchy, and the value of maintaining a family as potentially protective factors in prevention programming.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • The Comorbid and Individual Impacts of Maternal Depression and Substance
           Dependence on Parenting and Child Behavior Problems
    • Abstract: Abstract Maternal depression, substance dependence, and the comorbidity of these conditions are highly prevalent risk factors among families involved with Child Protective Services (CPS). Data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being I (NSCAW I) were analyzed to examine the influence of maternal substance dependence, depression, and comorbidity on parenting and child behavior over 36-months among children reported to CPS who remained in the home at all waves. Although neglect and child behavior problems were highest for mothers with comorbidity at baseline, mothers with substance dependence had the poorest self-reported parenting and child behavior problems over time. Results indicate a need for intensive targeted services to address the complex needs of CPS-involved mothers with substance dependence and their in-home children.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Are Emergency Department Admissions in the Past Two Years Predictors of
           Femicide? Results from a Case–control Study in Italy
    • Abstract: Abstract It is unclear if femicide represents either the final outcome of an history of violence or a dramatic isolated event. The study aims to evaluate whether admissions in Emergency Departments during the 24 months preceding a woman’s death may be considered a risk predictor for femicide. A case–control study design was used. Victims of femicide during 2005–2010 with residence in Piedmont, Italy, were considered as cases (42). Women with the same residence who died in road traffic accidents were selected as controls (440). Odds Ratios were computed, adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Victims of femicide had a significantly higher probability to have an admission to Emergency Departments when compared to controls of the same age and socio-economic status. This suggests that femicide is in most cases preceded by episodes of physical violence that can be documented by admissions in Emergency Departments.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Gender Equality, Liberalism and Attitude Toward Prostitution: Variation in
           Cross-National Study
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study tested the relationship between attitudes toward gender equality and attitudes toward prostitution by employing an international sample of 48,630 subjects in 54 countries from the fifth wave (2005–2007) of the World Values Survey. Unlike previous studies, the current mixed level logistic regression results found no fixed effect between an individual’s gender equality attitude and attitude toward prostitution. However, the findings on other variables suggested that liberals are more likely to have a somewhat more favorable attitude toward prostitution than conservatives. Those who hold a higher social status, who are less religious, and who do not have a strong belief in marriage are more likely to have a somewhat favorable attitude toward prostitution.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Vicarious Post-Traumatic Growth: Domestic Violence Therapists Versus
           Social Service Department Therapists in Israel
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, there has been growing interest in the implications of treating victims of trauma for therapists. The concept of vicarious post-traumatic growth (VPTG) relates to the positive implications of treating trauma victims. This study compared VPTG among 143 domestic violence therapists versus 71 therapists working at social service departments in Israel. In addition, an attempt was made to identify background characteristics and personal factors as well as environmental factors that contribute to VPTG, with emphasis on the contribution of secondary traumatization. The findings revealed that VPTG was slightly above a moderate level. Among the therapists working at social service departments, VPTG was higher. Moreover, secondary traumatization contributed significantly to VPTG as a linear variable and as a curvilinear variable.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Do Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence
           Differ in Regards to Their Help-Seeking? A Qualitative Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Socio-cultural and sociopolitical influences on women’s experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) and their decision-making processes are not well-understood. This study characterizes help-seeking behaviors of Hispanic and non-Hispanic survivors using Liang et al.’s analytical framework and identifies differences in barriers to help-seeking between these cultural groups. Transcripts from two focus groups of non-Hispanic survivors and one focus group of Hispanic survivors were coded to identify similar and dissimilar factors impacting Liang et al.’s three stages of help-seeking. Though several barriers were common, Hispanic participants felt informal support systems were inaccessible and being involved in IPV was shaming. They preferred to not seek help but act to change their circumstances. Non-Hispanic participants described extensive experience with formal systems, but relied on strong self-advocacy skills for effectiveness. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the socio-cultural context in which decision-making processes occur in order to provide the best support to IPV survivors.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • You’re Not Alone: Mental Health Outcomes in Therapy Groups for
           Abused Women
    • Abstract: Abstract Few evaluations have assessed the outcomes of group therapy for women abused by intimate partners. Most group programs emphasize support rather than offering therapy, although women abused by partners often present with significant clinical mental health issues. This paper describes, “You’re Not Alone,” a 14-week therapy group model for women abused by intimate partners informed by a narrative approach Jenkins (The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 12 (4), 186-195 1991). The results present the demographic characteristics of the 379 women who began group, and a comparison of those who completed treatment (N = 214) versus those who dropped out (N = 165). Women with less income and a psychiatric history were less likely to complete group, as were women with higher depression, clinical stress, and mental health symptoms. The pretest/posttest outcome evaluation for the completers used measures of mental health symptoms, self-esteem, depression, and clinical stress, finding statistically significant improvements on most measures with moderate effect sizes. Practice implications and suggestions are presented.
      PubDate: 2015-09-28
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Traumatic Reminders, and Partner
           Aggressive Tendencies Among Veterans
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined whether laboratory exposure to traumatic reminders potentiated the relationship between veterans’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate partner aggression (IPA) articulations elicited during an anger-induction task. The sample included 82 male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations (ATSS) procedure was used to assess physical IPA articulations (i.e., expressions of physically aggressive intentions toward the partner) and verbal IPA articulations (i.e., statements intended to insult or demean the partner) made during “relationship anger” provoking scenarios. Participants were administered versions of the ATSS both with and without trauma cue presentation. Results indicated that trauma cue exposure potentiated the relationship between veterans’ PTSD symptoms and physical IPA articulations, but did not strengthen the significant relationship between PTSD symptoms and verbal IPA articulations. Findings contribute to the literature on veterans’ PTSD symptoms and IPA perpetration by highlighting the influence of traumatic reminders.
      PubDate: 2015-09-26
  • Secure Base Narrative Representations and Intimate Partner Violence: a
           Dyadic Perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to understand the relationship between secure base phenomena and dating violence among couples. Within a relationship, a secure base can be defined as a balancing act of proximity-seeking and exploration at various times and contexts with the assurance of a caregiver’s availability and responsiveness in emotionally distressing situations. Participants were 87 heterosexual couples. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to examine the relationship between each partner’s scores on secure base representational knowledge and intimate partner violence. Findings demonstrated that women’s secure base representational knowledge had a significant direct negative effect on the victimization of both men and women, while men’s secure base representational knowledge did not have any significant partner or actor effects. Therefore, findings suggest that women with insecure attachments may be more vulnerable to being both the victims and the perpetrators of aggressive behavior. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Masculinity and Spousal Violence: Discursive Accounts of Husbands Who
           Abuse Their Wives in Ghana
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the influence of cultural notions of masculinity and its enactments on husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana from a discursive psychological perspective. Two focus group discussions and four in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 perpetrators (husbands) from rural and urban Ghana. Participants’ discursive accounts revealed that social anxieties of husbands, their fear of being perceived by others as weak or emasculated, and their disappointment with unfulfilled notions of masculine sovereignty influence conjugal violence. Perpetrators constructed a wife’s expression of dissent to her husband’s wishes and commands as an encroachment on masculine spaces, a gender-norm violation, or as providing a public challenge to male identity and thus violence could be used as an obligatory passage to manhood. Perpetrators also mobilized shifting and ambivalent discourses that draw upon culturally familiar notions of maleness to both resist and authorize a patriarchal privilege in marriage.
      PubDate: 2015-09-22
  • 12-Month Prevalence, Trends, Gender Differences, and the Impact of Mental
           Health Services on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Discharged
           Psychiatric Inpatients
    • Abstract: Abstract Minimal research has examined partner violence committed by individuals with severe mental illness. This study examined rates of IPV in the first year post-discharge from psychiatric hospitalization, trends over time, gender differences, and the impact of follow-up mental health services. One in five (20.3 %) patients committed at least one act of IPV in the first year. Whereas women were more than twice as likely to perpetrate IPV, men were nearly twice as likely to be violent toward non-family members. Risk of IPV was highest immediately post-discharge and decreased over time, with the sharpest decline after 20 weeks in the community. Mental health treatment was associated with a 40 % decrease and medication non-adherence a 50 % increase in risk for IPV. Partner violence is a prevalent concern among discharged psychiatric patients, and these findings suggest that coordinated risk management efforts should focus on the time immediately following hospital discharge.
      PubDate: 2015-09-17
  • Implicit Theories in Intimate Partner Violence Sex Offenders: an
           Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract An increased understanding of the cognitive characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Sex Offenders would have implications for clinical intervention and risk assessment in this distinctive offending behaviour group. The improved understanding of cognitions in violent offenders, sex offenders, and IPV offenders has led to the development and implementation of specific offender behaviour programmes taking these cognitive characteristics into account. Recently, empirical investigations have focussed on qualitative exploration of cognition to propose implicit theories (ITs), that is distinct sets of schemas that offenders hold in relation to themselves, the world, and others. The current paper utilises Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore cognition in 11 Intimate Partner Sex Offenders. Five superordinate and 14 subthemes were identified, which are representative of Implicit Theories present in this specific offender group. These ITs are discussed in relation to other offending behaviour groups in addition to their clinical implications in the development of effective interventions and risk assessment tools.
      PubDate: 2015-09-14
  • The Relationship of Reflective Functioning to Parent Child Interactions in
           a Sample of Fathers with Concurrent Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration
           and Substance Abuse Problems
    • Abstract: Abstract This study is the first to examine reflective functioning (RF) and direct parent–child interactions of fathers with concurrent intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and substance abuse (SA) problems. Twenty-four fathers, with children between the age of one and seven, completed a structured interview to assess RF, self-report measures of hostile-aggressive parenting behaviors, IPV perpetration severity, SA severity, and a coded play session with their children. Results of three simultaneous multiple regressions revealed that RF in fathers was not associated significantly with observed parenting behaviors. However, fathers’ SA severity emerged as a significant predictor for child avoidant behavior and dyadic tension, and fathers’ IPV perpetration severity contributed unique variance to child avoidant behavior and dyadic constriction. These results suggest that fathers’ SA severity and IPV perpetration behaviors may be more salient factors in predicting their father-child interactions than paternal RF.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10
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