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Journal Cover   Journal of Family Violence
  [SJR: 0.552]   [H-I: 45]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2851 - ISSN (Online) 0885-7482
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Review of Gender Violence Among Arab Immigrants in Canada: Key Issues for
           Prevention Efforts
    • Abstract: Migration can be a major risk factor for gender violence due to cultural differences, stereotypes, unemployment, and lack of knowledge about services and immigration laws. Even though it is possible to get evidence about many of these issues, there is a lack of evidence-informed interventions designed to reduce gender violence among Arab immigrants in Canada. The hierarchical structure within many Arab families in western societies can challenge prescribed gender roles, which might be perceived as a threat to the continuity of the culture and a reason for abuse. This literature review addresses issues for interventions that seek to reduce gender violence while recognizing resilience, family hierarchy, and the value of maintaining a family as potentially protective factors in prevention programming.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22
  • Men’s and Women’s Experience of IPV Part II: A Review of New
           Developments in Comparative Studies in Clinical Populations
    • Abstract: The present paper reviews literature on gender differences in the perpetration, motivation, and impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) in clinical samples published between 2002 and 2013 to update and extend a previous review by Hamberger (Violence & Victims, 20, 131–151, 2005). Results showed that women are likely to incur more costs related to abuse. Men arrested for IPV have more extensive criminal histories and higher recidivism rates than women. When identified as suspects, men and women are equally likely to be arrested, taking into account other relevant factors. Women are less likely to be prosecuted and more likely to be granted restraining orders at lower levels of violence. Female perpetrators have higher levels of psychopathology except for antisocial personality traits. Findings regarding drug and alcohol use are as yet conflicting; although there are gender differences, it is difficult to generalize from the present findings. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-22
  • Do Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence
           Differ in Regards to Their Help-Seeking? A Qualitative Study
    • Abstract: Socio-cultural and sociopolitical influences on women’s experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) and their decision-making processes are not well-understood. This study characterizes help-seeking behaviors of Hispanic and non-Hispanic survivors using Liang et al.’s analytical framework and identifies differences in barriers to help-seeking between these cultural groups. Transcripts from two focus groups of non-Hispanic survivors and one focus group of Hispanic survivors were coded to identify similar and dissimilar factors impacting Liang et al.’s three stages of help-seeking. Though several barriers were common, Hispanic participants felt informal support systems were inaccessible and being involved in IPV was shaming. They preferred to not seek help but act to change their circumstances. Non-Hispanic participants described extensive experience with formal systems, but relied on strong self-advocacy skills for effectiveness. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the socio-cultural context in which decision-making processes occur in order to provide the best support to IPV survivors.
      PubDate: 2015-05-16
  • Child Abuse and the Experience of Violence in College Dating
           Relationships: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Race
    • Abstract: Prior research suggests that being abused during childhood significantly increases one’s risk for the involvement in violent intimate relationships across the life course. The current study contributes to the literature by using a large sample of college students to explore the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between child abuse and later experiences of intimate partner violence. Results indicate that for both men and women, child abuse increases the risk for dating violence. Findings also suggest that specific race and gender combinations moderate the relationship between child abuse and later experiences of IPV, specifically regarding the risk for mutual or bidirectional violence. Implications for prevention and intervention and directions for future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15
  • Are Emergency Department Admissions in the Past Two Years Predictors of
           Femicide? Results from a Case–control Study in Italy
    • Abstract: Abstract It is unclear if femicide represents either the final outcome of an history of violence or a dramatic isolated event. The study aims to evaluate whether admissions in Emergency Departments during the 24 months preceding a woman’s death may be considered a risk predictor for femicide. A case–control study design was used. Victims of femicide during 2005–2010 with residence in Piedmont, Italy, were considered as cases (42). Women with the same residence who died in road traffic accidents were selected as controls (440). Odds Ratios were computed, adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Victims of femicide had a significantly higher probability to have an admission to Emergency Departments when compared to controls of the same age and socio-economic status. This suggests that femicide is in most cases preceded by episodes of physical violence that can be documented by admissions in Emergency Departments.
      PubDate: 2015-05-10
  • Emotional Awareness and Breaking the Cycle of Revictimization
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study investigated the moderating effect of emotional awareness on the relation between childhood abuse and both intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult relationship quality. Israeli female graduate students (N = 425), aged 25 or older, either married or in long-term cohabitation, completed an Internet-based questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SEM multiple-group analysis. Emotional awareness was found to be a protective factor against revictimization. Child abuse was associated with IPV among women with a low level of emotional awareness, but not among women with a high level of emotional awareness. Emotional awareness did not moderate the relation between child abuse and relationship quality. The findings are discussed in relation to revictimization and resilience theories, and to clinical implications.
      PubDate: 2015-05-10
  • Men’s and Women’s Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A
           Review of Ten Years of Comparative Studies in Clinical Samples; Part I
    • Abstract: Abstract The present paper reviews literature published between 2002 and 2013 regarding gender differences in the perpetration, motivation, and impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) in clinical samples in order to update and extend a previous review by Hamberger (2005). Results showed that although both women and men are active participants in acts of physical IPV and emotional abuse, women’s physical violence appears to be more in response to violence initiated against them. Although both men and women participate in emotional abuse tactics, the type and quality appears to differ between the sexes. Men tend to use tactics that threaten life and inhibit partner autonomy; women use tactics that consist of yelling and shouting. Men are the predominant perpetrators of sexual abuse. Analysis of patterns of violence and abuse suggests that women are more highly victimized, injured, and fearful than men in clinical samples. Research and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09
  • Multidimensional Trait Emotional Intelligence and Aggressive Tendencies in
           Male Offenders of Domestic Violence
    • Abstract: Abstract This study was undertaken to identify the role of six facets of trait-emotional intelligence (EI) in men’s aggressive tendencies toward intimate partners (N = 131). Consistent with past research, hierarchical regression showed emotional self-regulation and empathy were negatively and uniquely predictive of four self-reported aggressive tendencies: physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. Canonical correlations yielded two distinct patterns of relationships between EI and aggressive tendencies. The first canonical correlation supported an overall negative relationship, especially involving dependent variables anger and hostility. A second canonical correlation revealed higher physical and verbal aggression were associated with higher emotional self-recognition, regulation of others’ emotions, nonverbal emotional expression, and lower empathy. Findings support a multidimensional understanding of EI and aggressive tendencies.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Risk for Cervical Cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the literature and present a comprehensive model of three pathways through which IPV increases the risk for cervical cancer. The first pathway is increased exposure to cervical cancer risk factors among IPV victims, including smoking, psychosocial stress, risky sexual behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STDs/STIs), particularly human papillomavirus infection. The second pathway is poor compliance with cervical cancer screening. The third pathway is delay/discontinuation in treatment for cervical dysplasia and neoplasia. Control imposed by the abusive partner, competing life priorities, and limited access to financial/support resources restrict a woman’s ability to seek cancer services. Higher rates, severity, and duration of IPV among low-income, Black, and Hispanic women may explain the pervasive cervical cancer disparities.
      PubDate: 2015-05-07
  • Negative Affect Reciprocity as an Explanation of the Correlation between
           Perpetrating and Being a Victim of Sexual Coercion
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this research was to test the negative affect reciprocity explanation of the positive correlation between being a victim of and perpetrating sexual coercion. In the first study, 92 participants who were in a romantic relationship filled out measures of sexual coercion and measures of relationship aggression. Supporting the negative affect reciprocity explanation, all of the measures (coercion and aggression) were positively intercorrelated. In the second study, 51 couples filled out the above measures. Supporting the negative affect reciprocity explanation, four of the six sexual coercion measures intercorrelate with themselves and all of the aggression measures intercorrelated. However, only some of the coercion and aggression measures intercorrelated suggesting that negative affect reciprocity in the two areas is to some extent independent. Both studies found that sexual coercion and aggression were to some extent negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction but not probability of marriage.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06
  • Measuring Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Service Providers’
           Attitudes: The Development of the Survivor-Defined Advocacy Scale (SDAS)
    • Abstract: Abstract Survivor-defined advocacy, which emphasizes survivor empowerment and systemic change, is an emerging preferred practice for intimate partner violence (IPV) service delivery. IPV service providers’ attitudes can facilitate or impede the implementation of this practice model. This article reports on the development and revision of the Survivor-Defined Advocacy Scale (SDAS), which assesses IPV service providers’ attitudes about their work and clients. Results for the SDAS yielded a two-factor solution: Survivor Empathy and Systems Advocacy. This study also examined the SDAS relationship to provider demographics, perceptions of organizational values, and compassion satisfaction. Compassion satisfaction accounted for most of the variance in survivor-defined advocacy. The implications of these findings and the potential uses of the SDAS with IPV providers are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-05
  • Decisions to Prosecute Battered Women’s Homicide Cases: An
           Exploratory Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Discretionary decisions to prosecute cases in which a battered woman kills her partner were investigated using several research strategies and targeting a range of case elements. Law students presented with case elements reported they would consider legal elements over nonlegal (or “supplemental”) elements when making a decision to prosecute. In contrast, law students assessed through an open-ended format as to important case factors for deciding to prosecute spontaneously generated high proportions of supplemental case elements compared with legal factors. Vignette comparisons of 42 case elements on participants’ likelihood to prosecute identified salient factors including legal and supplemental variables. Themes from the open-ended responses are discussed, as well as the extent to which supplemental factors were more likely to be considered in prosecution decisions when assessed through different methodological strategies.
      PubDate: 2015-05-05
  • Connecting Partner Violence to Poor Functioning for Mothers and Children:
           Modeling Intergenerational Outcomes
    • Abstract: Abstract Violence against women, a global epidemic, frequently begins in childhood. Many abused women are mothers and many children witness the abuse of their mothers. To better understand the intergenerational impact and associated health outcomes, we tested 300 mother-child pairs using structural equation modeling. Mother’s history of abuse during childhood directly impacted the level of adult abuse, which predicted her child’s witness to the abuse. Maternal pain predicted maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD. Mother’s mental health predicted the degree of child dysfunction, such as aggression and depression. These findings offer evidence for the urgent need to provide mental health interventions to improve maternal functioning of abused mothers as a conduit intervention to prevent child dysfunction and promote mother-child health.
      PubDate: 2015-05-03
  • Pregnant Women’s Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and
           Seeking Help from Health Care Professionals: A Jordanian Qualitative Study
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of pregnant women disclosing Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and seeking help from Health Care Professionals (HCPs) at public Hospitals in Jordan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 pregnant women. The findings revealed that the women were not satisfied with the care providers’ procedures, responses, or follow-up. Women also preferred to discuss IPV issues with females, experts, and same age or older HCPs. Lack of privacy, continuity of care, time constraints, and barriers for disclosing were dominant themes that emerged from women’s contacts with HCPs. Women felt more able to disclose IPV if they were confident that circumstances would be safe enough to do so. HCPs require specialized and structured training programs in IPV screening and case management.
      PubDate: 2015-05-03
  • Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Male Baby Boom and Elderly
           South Korean Cohorts
    • Abstract: The current study seeks to identify the past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to find out how factors from the ecological system perspectives relate to IPV among baby boomers and the current elderly. The 2010 National Domestic Violence Survey data of South Korea were used. The samples consisted of current elderly men (N = 180), early baby boomers (N = 134), and late baby boomers (N = 168). The findings were that 21.4 % of the late baby boomers, 13.4 % of the early baby boomers and 11.7 % of the current elderly reported IPV in the past year. For the late and early baby boomers, it was shown that controlling behavior was associated with IPV. Among the current elderly group, depression and patriarchal attitude were associated with IPV. The findings suggest specifically targeted intervention programs in order to mitigate IPV by generation in South Korea.
      PubDate: 2015-05-03
  • Stalking in College Student Dating Relationships: A Descriptive
    • Abstract: Violence in college student dating relationships is a prevalent problem. However, little research has examined stalking, behaviors that have most commonly been examined after relationship termination, not within intact relationships. The purpose of the present study was to descriptively examine the prevalence and frequency of various stalking behaviors among male and female college students in a current dating relationship (N = 650). Results demonstrated that the prevalence of some stalking behaviors were as high as 38 % in the previous 6 months. Additionally, out of 15 potential stalking behaviors, men and women only differed on the frequency of one stalking behavior (leaving unwanted items for a partner). Findings demonstrate that stalking behaviors are relatively common among college students in dating relationships.
      PubDate: 2015-05-03
  • Personal Mastery Buffers the Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on
           Women’s Health and Family Functioning
    • Abstract: Personal mastery has been associated with many positive outcomes and may attenuate negative responses to life stressors. Our research extends prior work by examining whether personal mastery can buffer women from long-term outcomes associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA). We expected that: (1) women with CSA histories would report more depressive symptoms, poorer family functioning, and more physical health problems compared to women without such histories; (2) personal mastery would be associated with better outcomes in these domains; and (3) personal mastery would attenuate the effects of CSA on women’s outcomes. Data were obtained from a larger study of parenting among women with and without CSA histories. Our predictions were fully supported for depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, and partially supported for physical health. The current findings contribute to knowledge about the long-term effects of CSA and identify a protective factor that may buffer the negative sequelae of traumatic events.
      PubDate: 2015-05-03
  • A Case–Control Study on Socio-Psycho-Somatic Consequences of
           Intimate Partner Violence in North-West of Iran
    • Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is classified into physical, sexual, emotional, and psychological types. The aim of this study is to determine the complications of IPV in Iran. A case control study was done on women referred to the forensic medicine center with a complaint of IPV as cases, and women referred to the urban health centers for routine care as control group. The most common physical complication was hematoma in 99 and 33 % of cases and controls respectively. Among chronic complaints, headache was the most frequent among 64 and 19 % of case and control groups respectively. Depression and anxiety were the most common mental complications. The effects of IPV are serious problems and should be considered in counseling.
      PubDate: 2015-05-03
  • Factors Associated with the Cessation of Intimate Partner Violence in
           Women Attending Primary Care in Spain
    • Abstract: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the likelihood of IPV cessation among women attending Spanish primary healthcare. Of the 2465 women who reported lifetime IPV, 36.1 % stated that violence had ceased. Those women not currently abused had higher levels of education and social support, were workers or students, and had no dependent children. When IPV duration was less than 5 years, the likelihood of cessation was two times higher than when IPV continued beyond 5 years. For women who have experienced physical IPV, the probability of ending the violent relationship was 10 times higher than for those suffering from psychological IPV. The implications of the findings regarding clinical significance and future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Physicians’ Attitudes and Preparedness to Deal with Intimate Partner
           Violence Against Women in Serbia
    • Abstract: This study aimed to measure attitudes and perceived preparedness of physicians in Serbia to deal with intimate partner violence against women and to test and culturally validate scales that were used for these measurements. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 435 physicians from 23 primary healthcare centers in Serbia. Physicians’ attitudes toward IPV were better than perceived preparedness (mean score 52.03 out of 100, SD 10.78 vs. 46.92 out of 100, SD 21.71). Three components of attitudes were identified, explaining 50.34 % of variance. Both attitudes and preparedness scales proved to have good reliability (α = 0.66 and α = 0.94). Previous education moderately predicted preparedness, however it was inconsistently associated with attitudes.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17
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