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Sexuality & Culture    [15 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1095-5143 - ISSN (Online) 1936-4822
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 0.214]   [H-I: 7]
  • Inconsistent Condom Use and History of Trauma Among Vietnamese Female Sex
           Workers in a Chinese Border Region
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous studies have indicated a potential association between trauma, such as physical violence, emotional violence and sexual violence, and high-risk sexual behavior. Female sex workers (FSWs) were interviewed to elicit history of traumatic events and sexual behaviors. Among 187 participants, 79 (42.2 %) inconsistently used condoms with clients in the past 30 days. Experiencing community violence (OR: 0.4; 95 % CI: 0.2, 0.8) was found to be significantly protective for inconsistent condom use. In this study, experiencing community violence was found to be protective for inconsistent condom use among FSWs, but none of the other trauma subgroups had significant associations with inconsistent condom use. Reasons for unprotected sex among FSW may be more related to economic or other contextual factors.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Points of Convergence: Introducing Sexual Scripting Theory to Discourse
           Approaches to the Study of Sexuality
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper explores the potential for increased development of the study of sexuality through blending the use of discourse approaches with sexual scripting theory. To date, these theoretical approaches have produced two different bodies of work that each contributes to the understanding of sexuality. Yet, rarely do they speak to each other. By using both theories concurrently, it will be possible to add greater depth to both forms of analyses. This means a greater emphasis on interaction within discourse approaches and a more in depth engagement of power in scripting approaches.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Semen Loss and Sexual Anxiety Among Young Unmarried Men: Being Young and
           Vulnerable in Rural India
    • Abstract: Abstract Premarital sex remains stigmatized even as the unmarried period of life is lengthening in India. This paper examines how young unmarried men in rural central India conceptualize and understand their sexual health and vulnerability. The data is qualitative, derived from four focus group discussions (N = 38 persons) of young unmarried males that were carried out in conjunction with a larger study on male involvement in reproductive health in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh in 2005. Young, unmarried rural men experience a wide range of functional situations which are culturally defined as health problems, such as “weakness,” thought to be caused by masturbation, nocturnal ejaculations, and the loss of semen. Despite constraints on communication on sexuality with married men, young unmarried men largely share with them the culturally hegemonic notion of semen loss as a health hazard. All four discussions pointed to the negative image of psycho-physiological changes related to maturation and further, to the belief that the reproductive functions of men can render them vulnerable and even harm them. Sexual anxiety in young men may in part reflect young men’s socially dependent and insecure life situation and social suffering. Young, unmarried rural men see marriage as the only release from sexual health problems although temporary relief is sought from private health care providers. In the future, men’s unmarried life stage is bound to lengthen in rural India, and consequently sexual health prior to the commencement of active intercourse should receive more attention in public health services and sex education.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Swinging in Norway in the Context of Sexual Health
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of the study was to describe the sexual scripts related to ‘swinging’ in Norwegians with particular emphasis on issues related the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 6 men and 6 women, including 5 heterosexual couples, 1 married man, and 1 single woman, all recruited from Internet groups for swingers. The results showed that the positive outcomes of swinging included the opportunity for participants to explore their own sexuality, see their partner have sex with others, and enhance their self-esteem. Swinging allowed them to act on secret fantasies and intrapsychic scripts. Negative attitudes towards male homosexuality, fear of STIs, and fear of being exposed were reported as problematic consequences of the lifestyle. Furthermore, the swinger script was more clearly defined for clubs than for private settings. In private settings, the swinger script typically borrowed elements from available scripts outside the swingers subculture, such as friendship or dating scripts. The lack of rules to protect oneself from STIs among the older swingers, and among swingers in private settings, may represent a potential threat to sexual health.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Redefining Queer: Women’s Relationships and Identity in an Age of
           Sexual Fluidity
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper examines ways some women work to define their sexual identities outside of or between traditional binary categories today. How does one’s own gender and the gender of one’s sexual and relationship partners through the life course affect the creation and maintenance of a sexual identity? Does our current system of sexual categories fit women’s experiences and identities? This study looks at women’s sexual experiences through an examination of female sex store patrons. Using Anthony Giddens theories of the pure relationship and plastic sexuality and ideas from queer theory alongside qualitative data about women’s sexual and relationship experiences, this paper sheds light on relationship and identity choices some American women are making today around their sexuality and provides new views on identity maintenance, gender, and sexual relationships.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Decriminalization of Sex Work: Feminist Discourses in Light of Research
    • Abstract: Abstract Three main ideological stances exist regarding sex work issues: abolitionism, sex-positive feminism, and decriminalization. We argue for decriminalization based on decades of research results. Research on female sex workers is most often done through feminist theory and focus on gender relationships and on the experience of oppression and/or agency. Such studies examine the motivations to do sex work, the experience of being objectified, the stigma related to sex work, and, finally, the impact of this kind of work on self-esteem, on couple relationships, and on social relationships. Research on male sex workers examines power dynamics, representations of masculinity, self-perception, and the socioeconomic conditions that lead to sex work and influence safe-sex practices. Usually, feminist approaches do not take the experiences of male sex workers into account. However, taking these experiences into consideration would give a broader perspective to the understanding of sex work, as the experiences of male sex workers show many aspects similar to those of female sex workers. We contend that a woman’s sexual experience has been socially constructed as being part of her identity, in such a way that she becomes socially devalued whenever she does not comply to norms, thus making sex work a ‘degrading’ experience even though it is not intrinsically so.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • College as Context: Influences on Interpersonal Sexual Scripts
    • Abstract: Abstract Scripting theory (Gagnon and Simon in Sexual conduct: the social sources of human sexuality, Aldine, Chicago, 1973; Simon and Gagnon in Arch Sex Behav 13:97–120, 1986; Qual Sociol 26:491–497, 2003) is used to examine the impact of religion, gender, social class, and race as well as the college social environment on sexual interaction. Research has investigated how social networks and contexts shape sexual scripts. College campuses are important contexts for sexuality, locating students within peer networks and, given the emergence of a hookup culture, presenting them with multiple options for sexual behavior. Survey data collected from 614 students on two campuses revealed that many types of hooking up and sexual relationships are common. These intimate interactions are conceptualized as interpersonal scripts and classified as relational, recreational, or a combination of those scripts. Findings suggest that hooking up varies by gender, race, alcohol consumption, and perceptions of the hooking up behavior of close friends, but not by social class, Greek affiliation, religiosity, religious attendance, or perceptions of campus norms. Relationships vary only by perceptions of close friends’ participation in relationships. The implications of college as a social context for sexual scripts are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • You’re Better Respected When You Carry Yourself as a Man: Black
           Men’s Personal Accounts of the Down Low “lifestyle”
    • Abstract: Abstract Although the notion of a down low life style, called various things at various times, has a long history in the black community, the past few years have been marked by an exponential increase in attention of this phenomenon in both the mainstream press and scholarly work. However, much of this work has focused on exploring whether men on the down low present a unique threat for HIV infection to black women. Currently, there exist very few scholarly works exploring the lives of black men who have sex with men and women that specifically address their own experiences living on the down low or how these men personally define what it means to be on the down low. In this article, we explore why black men who have sex with men and black men who have sex with men and women, including those who self-identify as gay, bisexual or as being on the down low, come to use the down low label and what it means to them to be on the down low.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Transgender Representation by the        class="a-plus-plus">People’       class="a-plus-plus">s Daily Since 1949
    • Abstract: Abstract With a focus on Chinese literature of the dynastic period, previous studies on transgender representation in China demonstrated a dichotomy between the attitude of the uppermost class and that of the general public. Apart from literature representation, other studies on “deviant” sexuality in contemporary China tend to attribute this complicated attitude to the non-religious Confucianism-rooted culture that is tolerant yet intolerant. Especially since China entered socialism, this complexity was incorporated into socialist ideologies, leading to unique and distinctive treatment of sexual “deviance”. By examining transgender representation by the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, the People’s Daily, this study aims to disclose how sexual “deviance” has been regulated throughout the decades, how gender ideology changes over time under the influence of political, cultural and technological factors, and how a transgender identity was dismantled or facilitated by these factors in turn.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • “Hit Me Baby”: From Britney Spears to the Socialization of
           Sexual Objectification of Girls in a Middle School Drama Program
    • Abstract: Abstract This language socialization study integrates ethnographic and intertextual methods of data collection and analysis to examine how one middle school drama class’s performance of Britney Spears’s first hit song, originally titled “Hit Me Baby One More Time,” exemplifies not only how sexually charged media can contribute to the normalization of sexist, abusive, and thus also violent behavior toward women, but also how local caretaking adults can contribute to these socialization practices even within the context of official educational activities. Prior studies related to the socialization of gender equality and sexual abuse prevention in educational institutions have focused on whether and how adult intervention may prevent or stop gender and thus also sexually related abuse. This study indicates that further research into adult complicity and the need for intervention into adult behavior may also be called for. The ethnographic fieldwork for this paper was conducted during a larger language socialization study at a middle school in the western United States. This included the videotaping of rehearsals and performances by middle school students of popular songs. The intertextual data chosen for analysis is based on these ethnographic observations. The conclusion that some adults are actively socializing female sexual objectification and male dominance during school-based activities is based on observations of these locally occurring interactions.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • The Effect of Sex Knowledge, Parent–Child Attachment, and Family
           Characteristics on Intimate Relationship Satisfaction of Mozambican
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the effects that sex knowledge, parent–child attachment, and family characteristics have on intimate relationship satisfaction (consisting of the degree of independence, intimacy, romantic attitude and behaviours, assertive conflict resolution/communication, liberated beliefs of sexual roles and equality of decision-making) of a sample of 412 young Mozambican college students. Participants completed the Portuguese Version of Parenting Bonding Instrument, the Portuguese Version of Stevens’ Relationship Questionnaire, and a Sexual Knowledge Questionnaire. A descriptive correlational analysis was conducted to investigate the association between sex knowledge, parent–child attachment, and intimate relationship satisfaction. ANOVA was conducted to investigate the effects of family characteristics on intimate relationship satisfaction. A t test analysis was also carried out to determine gender differences with regard to relationship satisfaction. The results indicated a significant correlation between sex knowledge and intimate relationship satisfaction among Mozambican students: exposure to sex knowledge correlated positively with liberated ideas about sexual roles and equality of decision-making. Parent–child attachment is also associated with later intimate relationship satisfaction: There is a significant positive relationship between mother care and assertive conflict resolution and communication, whereas there is a significant negative relationship between mother and father overprotection as well as independence and intimacy, respectively. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference between each parent’s family characteristics and their effect on independence, intimacy, and assertive conflict resolution as categories of relationship satisfaction. Participants who grew up with married parents tend to dislike independence, enjoy more intimacy, and endorse more assertive conflict resolution attitudes. Participants who grew up with single parents tend to be more independent, endorse less assertive conflict resolution attitudes, and tend to enjoy intimacy less than those who grew up with married and divorced–remarried parents. It seems that the family characteristics of children who grow up do not have a significant effect on adults’ intimate relationship satisfaction concerning romantic attitudes and also liberated, egalitarian beliefs regarding male and female roles. Finally, there is no significant support for an association between relationship satisfaction and gender.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Male–Female Reactions to Variations in Sexual Explicitness in
           Pornography: An Empirical Test of Predictions of Intra- and Inter-gender
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous research has established that men and women respond differently to distinctive characteristics of mediated sexual portrayals. The current study experimentally tests a series of predictions derived from both sperm competition, and minimal parental investment perspectives about between- and within-gender responses to content manipulations of sexually explicit videos. Results indicate that men experienced greater post-exposure arousal and less negative affect after viewing sexually explicit videos than did women. Further, men who viewed more explicit sexual depictions tended to report greater post-exposure arousal than those who saw less explicit depictions. No within-gender differences were found for women in terms of content explicitness. Also, regardless of degree of explicitness, women reported lower levels of post-exposure arousal in response to content depicting male ejaculation than content that does not. Men, though expressing greater post-exposure arousal to less explicit content depicting male sexual climax than that which does not, showed no difference in arousal response when they saw more intensely explicit depictions, whether or not male ejaculation was shown. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future application of evolutionary theory in studies of mediated sexual content.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Caught Between Two Worlds: Sexuality and Young Muslim Women in Melbourne,
    • Abstract: Abstract Existing research suggests that culture has a significant influence on the sexuality of culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Australia. However, few studies have explored the influence of both religion and culture on sexuality of young Muslim women. This paper qualitatively examines the influence of Islam, Muslim culture and Australian culture on the sexuality of young Muslim women in Melbourne, Australia. This research employed an in-depth interview technique to gather data on the lived experiences of 11 young Muslim women. The findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on the sexuality of young Muslim women. Additionally, this study highlights the challenges that young Muslim women face in regards to balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture and Islamic religion. This study contributes to knowledge about the lived experiences of young Muslim women in Australia regarding meanings of sexuality and the difficulties they have in balancing the influences of religion and culture. This knowledge can be useful for the provision of sexual health care that reflects a culturally and religiously sensitive approach for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • The Object of One’s Desire: How Perceived Sexual Empowerment Through
           Objectification is Related to Sexual Outcomes
    • Abstract: Abstract There is a debate as to whether or not gaining a sense of sexual empowerment through being an object of sexual desire results in empowerment. This debate has been largely theoretical, but there are now operationalizations of self-sexualization, enjoying sexualization, and perceiving sex as a source of personal power which allow for the collection of data on this topic. The current study examined whether these constructs were related to attitudinal and behavioral indicators of sexual satisfaction and sexual agency. An online sample of young, heterosexual, sexually active women was recruited. Our constructs of interest were related to some positive sexual outcomes, including sexual esteem and sexual assertiveness. At the same time, these constructs were related to having faked orgasm, and both self-sexualization and the belief that sex can be a source of power were related to greater frequency of having faked an orgasm. Additionally, none of the variables was significantly related to sexual satisfaction or ease of orgasm. Thus, while there may be some positive sexual outcomes associated with these variables, there are other indicators that a sense of empowerment through objectified sexuality may interfere with true sexual subjectivity.
      PubDate: 2014-01-11
  • Peter Coviello: Tomorrow’s Parties. Sex and the Untimely in
           Nineteenth-Century America
    • PubDate: 2014-01-10
  • Cynthia Enloe: Seriously! Investigating Crashes and Crises as if Women
    • PubDate: 2014-01-10
  • Condoms, Sex, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Exploring Sexual Health
           Issues Among Asian-Indian College Students
    • Abstract: Abstract Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to pose a serious risk to college students in the US. According to the Centers for Disease Control, the highest rates of STIs are among college students and adolescents. Specifically regarding Asian-Indian students, more research is needed to thoroughly understand the knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviors of this population. A comprehensive review of the literature found a paucity of studies involving Asian-Indian involvement in sexual activity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to fill gaps in the research. The present study examined Asian-Indian college students’ involvement in sexual behaviors, overall STI knowledge, condom use rate, perceived benefits and barriers to condom use, and history of STIs and STI testing. A five page survey was completed by 122 Asian-Indian college students. Results indicated that overall STI knowledge was low. Females, students who perceived fewer barriers to condom use and students who had lived in the US for at least 3 years held significantly higher STI knowledge levels than their counterparts. Such findings could be used by community and university-based health educators to more effectively serve the needs of Asian-Indian students.
      PubDate: 2014-01-09
  • “My Family Would Crucify Me!”: The Perceived Influence of
           Social Pressure on Cross-Cultural and Interfaith Dating and Marriage
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study examined the perceived influence of parental and social pressure on individuals’ perceptions regarding cross-cultural and interfaith dating and marriage. The questions of interest were: (1) What is the influence of parental attitudes towards interfaith and cross-cultural relationships? (2) How do the participants feel it impacts upon them? And lastly, (3) How do the participants predict they will respond to their children’s choice of such relationships? Fifty-five university students with diverse backgrounds participated in this study. The findings indicate that the majority of the participants were influenced by the social pressure put upon them. Moreover, the participants perceived the previous generation as “racist”. However, interestingly there are signs of a generational attitude shift. Finally, the findings show that over 80 % of the participants did not want to interfere in their children’s partner selection. The remaining 20 % were against interfaith and cross-cultural dating and marriages.
      PubDate: 2014-01-07
  • Sex and Gender in the 1980s Heavy Metal Scene: Groupies, Musicians, and
           Fans Recall Their Experiences
    • Abstract: Abstract Groupies, heavy metal musicians, and highly devoted fans (metalheads) were some of the most salient identity groups for teenagers and emerging adults in the 1980s—the tail end of the Baby Boom and the beginning of the newly emerging Generation X. Met with appalled reactions from conventional society, the heavy metal scene nevertheless appeared to help at least some disenchanted youth negotiate turbulent times. The present study of 144 middle-aged 1980s groupies, metal fans, and professional musicians used both quantitative and qualitative data to develop insights into the developmental processes of these emerging adults of the 1980s. Metalheads described their childhood experiences, including maltreatment, their sexual and substance use activities in the 1980s, identity issues, and reported on current indicators of adjustment, such as education, mental health, and happiness. The results confirm that youth involved in the metal scene had high rates of substance use, risky sexual behaviors, and especially for groupies, traumatic childhood experiences, as well as drug dependence and sexual violence during their groupie days. However, despite their trauma and risky behaviors, participants were able to thrive and develop healthy adult lives, from which they look back fondly on those 1980s experiences. The richness of these data provide insights into the search for identity for marginalized youth, and provide hypotheses for future research on the understudied developmental processes of such adolescent style cultures.
      PubDate: 2014-01-03
  • How do Iranian women from Rafsanjan conceptualize their sexual
    • Abstract: Abstract In Iran, women’s sexual behaviors have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual meanings generated through the lived experience of women residing in Rafsanjan, a city in the Kerman province, where interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 51 Iranian women. Content analysis was adopted to extract the meanings and perceptions. We categorized the findings into three aspects: sexual capacity, motivation, and performance. Sexual desire was the most important concept that women used when they were referring to their sexual capacity. Marriage was the main institution in which women’s motivation for sexual relationships and encounters resided, and “the priority of men’s sexual needs and characteristics” was identified as the core principle of marriage. The concept of sexual performance was more salient and tied to the husband’s sexual initiation. Analyzing the women’s narratives revealed that women’s sexual self-understandings and their sexual behaviors are strongly determined by “androcentricity”, this being relevant both to sexuality education and reproductive health. Recognition of this issue will facilitate understanding of the cultural foundations of sexuality among Iranians and help health providers in suggesting culturally appropriate and compatible forms of health care.
      PubDate: 2013-12-24
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