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HOMOSEXUALITY (38 journals)

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Journal Cover Sexuality & Culture
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1095-5143 - ISSN (Online) 1936-4822
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 0.214]   [H-I: 7]
  • When Sex Is on the Air: Impression Formation After Exposure to Sexual
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study examines how young men and women, when primed with sexual cues in entertainment media, incorporate these cues into their first impressions of an unfamiliar target. Respondents (n = 188) were exposed to popular music either with or without sexual lyrics. Respondents in the sexual music condition recognized the sexual conveyance of that music. Respondents in the other condition rated the sexuality in their music as low. After exposure, respondents evaluated unknown targets—job applicants represented by their resumés. Sexual conveyance elevated ratings of sexual qualities attributed to the targets, suggesting sexual objectification of the targets. Sexual quality ratings then predicted evaluations of the targets’ merit, including knowledge and integrity. Although the association between sexual quality and overall merit ratings were positive for both men and women, men exhibited a significantly stronger association than women did. Findings support a postconscious automatic processing interpretation of media priming effects and corroborate prior observations that sexual media primes yield sexualized evaluations. Findings also suggest a need to measure initial affective responses to media primes, as different sexual depictions might trigger sexual thoughts with either a positive or negative connotation.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • “My Family Would Crucify Me!”: The Perceived Influence of
           Social Pressure on Cross-Cultural and Interfaith Dating and Marriage
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study examined the perceived influence of parental and social pressure on individuals’ perceptions regarding cross-cultural and interfaith dating and marriage. The questions of interest were: (1) What is the influence of parental attitudes towards interfaith and cross-cultural relationships? (2) How do the participants feel it impacts upon them? And lastly, (3) How do the participants predict they will respond to their children’s choice of such relationships? Fifty-five university students with diverse backgrounds participated in this study. The findings indicate that the majority of the participants were influenced by the social pressure put upon them. Moreover, the participants perceived the previous generation as “racist”. However, interestingly there are signs of a generational attitude shift. Finally, the findings show that over 80 % of the participants did not want to interfere in their children’s partner selection. The remaining 20 % were against interfaith and cross-cultural dating and marriages.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • “500 Tokens to Go Private”: Camgirls, Cybersex and Feminist
    • Abstract: Abstract The adult entertainment industry has often been seen by feminist groups as antithetical to the women’s liberation movement, with the commercialisation of misogyny taking place under a patriarchal business model. The advent of live streaming video and webcam technology has forced a considerable paradigm shift in the power relationships involved in pornography; the burgeoning ‘camgirl’ genre—in which young women independently broadcast explicit material at the behest of an audience—essentially serves to return control over adult entertainment to the female participants that are involved in its creation. The interactive nature of the camgirl genre has resulted in the development of a unique transactional relationship between performer and consumer that transcends that which currently exists within the industry. The rise of the camgirl has significant implications for both the adult entertainment industry and internet culture on the whole, presenting innovative business opportunities for young performers to engage in entrepreneurial behaviour.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Outness and Identity in Context: Negotiating Sexual Disclosure in LGBT
    • Abstract: Abstract With Tammy Baldwin’s historic election to the US Senate, the future of LGBT politics appears increasingly optimistic; however, despite electoral progress, feminist and political science research on LGBT campaigns retains antiquated conceptions of outness. My article studies the impact of identity and outness on LGBT campaigns from a non-binary, multi-dimensional perspective. Beyond mere sexual disclosure itself, I find that where, when, and how a candidate reveals her/his sexual orientation bears predominant impact on LGBT campaigns. Through a holistic framework, I present innovative questions and perspective for researchers studying the effects of LGBT identity and outness in US electoral politics.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Representation of Homoerotism by the People’s Daily Since 1949
    • Abstract: Abstract This is the second installment of a media representation series dedicated to uncovering the history of sexuality in the “new China period”. The first installment “Transgender Representation” witnessed the official construction of Occidentalism where sexuality served as a tool for the government apparatus to construct socialist superiority and capitalist inferiority, which has significantly contributed to shaping the official attitude and media representation of queer sexualities in mainland China. This new installment continues to explore the sex culture of “new China” with a discussion of the influences of socialist ideologies. While the overall trend of same-sex culture can be roughly depicted as a fall and a subsequent revival during “new China”, this article examines in what situation homoerotism fell and revived, and how the “notion of gay” came into circulation anew in a land with profound same-sex tradition.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Adversarial Sexual Attitudes Toward Women: The Relationships with Gender
           and Traditionalism
    • Abstract: Abstract This investigation examines gender differences in adversarial attitudes toward women and their relationships with traditionalism and age. The sample participated in an online survey, collected at a large university in the west. The sample consisted of 777 individuals, 342 men and 375 women, with a mean age 22.22. Findings indicate that men significantly endorse rape myth acceptance, adversarial sexual beliefs and acceptance of interpersonal violence more than women. In addition, men are significantly more traditional in their gender role beliefs than women and age is significantly related to rape myth acceptance and acceptance of interpersonal violence. Within gender, men’s acceptance of all criterion variables increased with age whereas women’s acceptance of interpersonal violence increased with age. Findings also indicate more disparate incomes between the genders in lower income brackets, but more alignment in higher brackets. Implications are discussed in the context of theoretical considerations.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Partnerships Between Black Women and Behaviorally Bisexual Men:
           Implications for HIV Risk and Prevention
    • Abstract: Abstract Although an estimated 87 % of new HIV infections in Black/African American women are attributed to sex with men, many women are unaware of their male partners’ HIV risk factors. Research on women who are aware of a high-risk male partner may inform HIV prevention. We analyzed transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 20 Black women who reported sex with at least one man who had sex with men and women in the prior 5 years. We applied choice and sexual network theories to the interpretation. The majority described their partnerships as committed and involving emotional or instrumental support. Substance abuse was a common component of the relationships and very few involved consistent condom use. Although nearly all respondents described it as alarming to learn of their partners’ involvement with other men and several ended the relationships, many continued the relationships without protective changes in their sex behavior. These narratives indicate that although many leave, many other women remain in relationships after learning of a male partners’ high-risk activity. Substance abuse, financial instability, and a desire to remain in intimate partnerships may discourage preventive actions in these women.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Ongoing Cross-National Identity Transformation: Living on the Queer
           Japan-U.S. Transnational Borderland
    • Abstract: Abstract In this essay, I analyze my border performances of becoming and being as an embodied text to explicate, elucidate, and elaborate culturally hybrid practices of intercultural transition. I pay close attention to unpack the material realities of my hybridity as I continue to live within and beyond queer (or non-heteronormative) Japan–US transnational borderland. In so doing, I aim to illustrate (dis)connections between my identity negotiation processes and the multiple significances of queer Asian/American male identity construction to disrupt the heteronormative modes of thinking about intercultural transitions.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • The Object of One’s Desire: How Perceived Sexual Empowerment Through
           Objectification is Related to Sexual Outcomes
    • Abstract: Abstract There is a debate as to whether or not gaining a sense of sexual empowerment through being an object of sexual desire results in empowerment. This debate has been largely theoretical, but there are now operationalizations of self-sexualization, enjoying sexualization, and perceiving sex as a source of personal power which allow for the collection of data on this topic. The current study examined whether these constructs were related to attitudinal and behavioral indicators of sexual satisfaction and sexual agency. An online sample of young, heterosexual, sexually active women was recruited. Our constructs of interest were related to some positive sexual outcomes, including sexual esteem and sexual assertiveness. At the same time, these constructs were related to having faked orgasm, and both self-sexualization and the belief that sex can be a source of power were related to greater frequency of having faked an orgasm. Additionally, none of the variables was significantly related to sexual satisfaction or ease of orgasm. Thus, while there may be some positive sexual outcomes associated with these variables, there are other indicators that a sense of empowerment through objectified sexuality may interfere with true sexual subjectivity.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Ann Hibner Koblitz: Sex and Herbs and Birth Control
    • PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • How Gendered Attitudes Relate to Women’s and Men’s Sexual
           Behaviors and Beliefs
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examines associations between endorsement of a sexual double standard, gender role attitudes, and sexual behaviors and beliefs. First year university students in the northeastern United States (N = 434; 52 % female; 33 % Black, 29 % Latino, 39 % White; ages 17–19) participated during their first year of college. Endorsement of a sexual double standard was associated with more conventionally gender-stereotyped sexual behaviors and beliefs, specifically, more sexual partners and fewer perceived barriers to condom use for young men, and more perceived barriers to condom use for young women. Women who were more conventional about men’s roles in society tended to use condoms less, whereas women who were more conventional about women’s roles tended to use condoms more. Men who were more conventional about men’s roles tended to have fewer sexual partners. Findings suggest the importance of examining gender’s role in sexual behaviors and beliefs by assessing multiple gendered attitudes, rather than simply considering biological sex.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Paradox of Parental Involvement in Sexual Health and Induced Abortions
           Among In-school Female Adolescents in Southwest Nigeria
    • Abstract: Abstract Prevalent early sexual initiation and unprotected sex involvement with various partners create dilemmas for adolescents and their parents. This article explores parents' involvement in their adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health, particularly with respect to terminating unintended pregnancies. This was done to gain an understanding of the dynamics of parental involvement in resolving anxieties concerning unintended pregnancy and the reasons for seeking induced abortions. The study used a mixed method approach, and 460 female students aged 13–20 years completed the self-administered questionnaire. Thirty-three parents who had an adolescent daughter in school and 31 female adolescents participated in eight different focus group discussion sessions, respectively. A quarter of the respondents had been pregnant at least once. All the females who had ever become pregnant had tried to terminate the pregnancy. Few (9 %) had used contraception at their last sexual intercourse. Twenty nine percent of the respondents had discussed sexual matters with their parents and 82 % preferred discussing such matters with their mothers. In the qualitative findings, some of the parents reported not having been involved in or supportive of terminating their daughter's pregnancy, but confirmed that some mothers had reasons to support induced abortions. Major reasons for mothers' involvement in their daughters' induced abortions were to avoid the social stigma, disruption of schooling and financial stress associated with unintended pregnancy. Resolving conflicting parental interests and values concerning adolescent sexuality and induced abortions is essential for promoting adolescent sexual health in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Geographies of Tolerance: Human Development, Heteronormativity, and
    • Abstract: Abstract In their work on the human development sequence, Inglehart and Welzel (Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: the human development sequence. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005) argue that there is a “rising tide” of gender equality across various countries in the system. While the authors propose that the process that holds true for a rising tide in women’s rights is also true for other outgroups including minorities and homosexuals, they do not test their proposed relationship on feelings toward these groups. At the same time, studies on sexuality and tolerance suggest that religious beliefs and government institutions play a significant role in shaping societal attitudes about homosexuality, promulgating beliefs and policies that place homosexuality in a negative light. In the case of government institutions, sexuality may also be framed as a security issue, making homosexuality appear as a threat. The present work performs an empirical test of the mechanisms of the human development sequence on tolerance toward homosexuality, and compares this theory to rival hypotheses regarding the effects of religion and heteronormative policies. Empirical testing using hierarchical linear models shows mixed support for hypotheses drawn from work on the human development sequence, but indicates that religious belief and heteronormativity in government policies have a significant relationship to levels of tolerance.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Promotion of Sexual Health and Sexual Responsibility in Women’s
           Health and Men’s Health Magazines
    • Abstract: Abstract This study analyzed the promotion of sexual health and sexual responsibility in Women’s Health and Men’s Health magazines as characterized by the Surgeon General’s Call to Action along with sexual health objectives targeted by Healthy People 2020 and sexual healthy behavior outcomes established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This study also identified the most frequently addressed sexual health topics included in Women’s Health and Men’s Health. Two coders conducted a content analysis of a total of 599 articles from 64 issues (32 Women’s Health and 32 Men’s Health) published between January 2009 and November 2012. More than half of all articles addressing sexual health were found to promote sexual health (57 %). Promotion of sexual responsibility was rare with variables such as ensuring that pregnancy occurs only when desired, recognition and tolerance for diversity, limiting the number of sexual partners, and using birth control consistently each mentioned in <3 % of articles in this study sample. Among topics coded, improving sex life (29 %), what men like (19 %), and what women like (18 %) were the most common in Women’s Health while What women like (46 %), improving sex life (27 %), and other men’s sexual health (16 %) were the most frequent topics in Men’s Health. Among the least common topics mentioned were homosexuality (0.16 %) and HIV/AIDS (0.33 %). No articles addressed rape or dating violence.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Does Knowing Why Someone is Gay Influence Tolerance? Genetic,
           Environmental, Choice, and “Reparative” Explanations
    • Abstract: Abstract In the U.S., belief that sexual orientation is genetically based is tied to greater tolerance toward gay men and lesbians and a belief that they deserve rights equal to those of other citizens. This study explores whether evidence for a particular causal explanation of sexual orientation influences participants’ tolerance toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 224 heterosexual college students provided with scientific evidence that sexual orientation is genetically caused, environmentally caused, or a choice, who then answered questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward science, their tolerance toward gay men and lesbians, their selection of the best explanation for sexual orientation, and their assessments of statements about an imagined gay man (which, together, comprised their level of support for a “reparative” explanation of gay male sexuality viewed as the result of trauma, poor father–son relations, and immorality). Participants who were male, black, religious, or believed that the environmental or choice explanation of sexual orientation was the best, were less tolerant and more supportive of the reparative explanation than, respectively, participants who were female, white, nonreligious, or believed that the genetic explanation was the best. By contrast, participants were less tolerant when they read that scientific findings support a genetic explanation than when they read that scientific findings support choice as an explanation. Participants’ level of support for the reparative explanation correlated positively with their level of intolerance, suggesting that increasing tolerance toward gay men and lesbians may be more dependent on diminishing support for tenets of the reparative explanation than in convincing heterosexuals that sexual desires are under genetic control, which may influence some heterosexuals who believe otherwise to feel more intolerant.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Heterosexual Allies? Understanding Heterosexuals’ Alliance with
           the Gay Community
    • Abstract: Abstract Prevailing wisdom is that increased visibility of gay men and lesbians reduces levels of sexual prejudice, but less is known about who is more likely to ally with the gay community and how interaction with the gay community influences attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Using data from 873 heterosexual college students in the US, we examine how alliance with the gay community, a typology which combines measures of personal contact and community contact, relates to attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. Membership in each alliance category differed by gender, race/ethnicity, size of place, traditional gender role and authoritarian attitudes, religiosity, and political conservatism. Approximately one-third of the sample are allies of the gay community with both personal contact and community contact and lower levels of sexual prejudice. By contrast, another 30 % of the sample has no contact (personal or community) and higher levels of sexual prejudice toward the gay community. We conclude that more complex models of heterosexual contact with gay community are more useful than dichotomous models for understanding differences in attitudes towards gay men and lesbians.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • “I’m not a lesbian; I’m just a freak”: A Pilot
           Study of the Experiences of Women in Assumed-Monogamous Other-Sex Unions
           Seeking Secret Same-Sex Encounters Online, their Negotiation of Sexual
           Desire, and Meaning-Making of Sexual Identity
    • Abstract: Abstract This pilot study looked to examine the experiences of women who are “undercover,” the meaning-making of their sexual identity, how they came to negotiate their same-sex sexual desires alongside their primary other-sex unions, and their experience of a secret, compartmentalized life. The study sought to understand their experiences as well as their meaning-making in the course of maintaining a public heterosexual persona while balancing their secret desire for sex with women. The thirty-four women in this study report lifelong incidence of attraction to and encounters with other women as well as men. They are not transitioning toward a lesbian identity nor experiencing fluidity; rather, clandestine encounters are part of an ongoing means to negotiate their opposite-sex marriages. For them, our culture’s limited notions of sexual identity are less than useful. It was important to their self-concept that their sexuality be understood in terms of its intensity and their desire for frequency and diversity of acts. They defined themselves on their own terms and by their sexual personalities and inclination toward what they considered “hypersexuality” or “freakiness.” Despite conventional ideas that women are emotionally driven in their extra-relational affairs and need to “fall in love” to participate in extra-relational sexual activity, all of the women were clear in their desire to limit their association with their same-sex partners to sexual encounters only.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Sexually Explicit Media and Sexual Risk Behavior in a Sample of Men Who
           Have Sex with Men in Norway
    • Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the association between the consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting condom and non-condom use and HIV/STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway. We also explored whether the association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men’s sexual self-esteem and/or condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional online survey study was carried out in Norway in 2012. The final sample comprised 529 MSM in Norway. There was a bivariate association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and less STI-related sexual risk behavior. Further, the association between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. The results offer important cross-cultural validation of recent comparative data from the US and may be used to promote HIV/STI prevention, in the sense that the actors in SEM may serve as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Stranger Danger: The Role of Perpetrator and Context in Moderating
           Reactions to Sexual Harassment
    • Abstract: Abstract The majority of research on sexual harassment focuses on achievement contexts where the perpetrator of the harassment is known to the victim. More recent work has begun to explore sexual harassment perpetrated by strangers in public places. The current work sought to bridge the gap between research on sexual harassment in achievement contexts and stranger harassment. In doing so, the current work manipulated factors related to three important distinctions between these topics: the relationship between the perpetrator and victim, the location, and the type of sexually harassing behavior. The current study provides evidence that stranger harassment elicits more negative reactions than harassment from a coworker. Additionally, harasser type interacted with harassment type, with situations involving strangers making physical contact eliciting the most negative reactions. Thus, the current work suggests a need for more research on stranger harassment, as well as on additional factors that may operate differently depending on harasser type.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Conflicting Paradigms on Gender and Sexuality in Rap Music: A Systematic
    • Abstract: Abstract Rap music has major social and cultural significance for American and global youth audiences and, along with other media, is believed to play a central role in shaping adolescents’ beliefs, attitudes and intentions related to sexuality. However few studies concerned with health issues have explored the content of lyrics regarding sex and gender, with most research in this area focused on the effects of media portrayals on sexual behavior and problems. Much of the scholarship analyzing sexuality and gender issues in the media comes from disciplines outside of health and the behavioral sciences, such as cultural studies. This paper compares literature related to sexuality and gender in rap music from a variety of perspectives such as feminism, cultural studies, and sociology as well as from health and behavioral research in order to deepen understanding of the lyrical content that may influence sexual attitudes and behavior. The review illustrates that conflicting paradigms, for example of sexual agency or misogyny, emerge in this literature and that few studies are both conceptually rich and empirically strong. Future research should address this challenge as well as explore changes over time in how sexual and gender relationships have been depicted in this musical genre.
      PubDate: 2014-11-21
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