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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1261 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (19 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (235 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (28 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (17 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (85 journals)
    - SEXUALITY (46 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (629 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (38 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (148 journals)

SEXUALITY (46 journals)

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AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GLQ : A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Transgenderism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Sexual & Reproductive Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription  
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sexual Medicine     Open Access  
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
SQS - Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran lehti     Open Access  
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
TSQ : Transgender Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Cover Sex Roles
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 75]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2762 - ISSN (Online) 0360-0025
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Mars, Venus, or Earth? Sexism and the Exaggeration of Psychological
           Gender Differences
    • Authors: Ethan Zell; Jason E. Strickhouser; Tyler N. Lane; Sabrina R. Teeter
      Pages: 287 - 300
      Abstract: Abstract Few studies have examined how people perceive psychological gender differences despite the practical importance of these perceptions for everyday life. In three studies, we examined whether there is a positive association between sexism and the tendency to exaggerate psychological gender differences. Study 1 demonstrated that the more strongly men endorsed hostile sexism and the more strongly women endorsed hostile or benevolent sexism, the larger they perceived gender differences to be across a broad range of psychological traits. Study 2 documented that the more strongly people endorsed hostile or benevolent sexism, the more likely they were to exaggerate the size of gender differences. In Studies 1 and 2, women perceived gender differences to be larger than did men, after accounting for sexism. Finally, Study 3 showed that increasing (decreasing) the perceived size of gender differences predicts corresponding increases (decreases) in sexism. These results support relevant theory, which argues that differentiation between genders underlies sexist ideologies, and they may inform future intervention studies that aim to reduce sexism by targeting exaggerated gender beliefs. Discussion highlights the proposed connection between sexism and the belief that “men are from Mars and women are from Venus”.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0622-1
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • The Cognitive Construction of Gender Stereotypes: Evidence for the Dual
           Pathways Model of Gender Differentiation
    • Authors: Erica S. Weisgram
      Pages: 301 - 313
      Abstract: Abstract The dual pathways model of gender differentiation suggests two possible pathways that examine the relationships between gender-typed interests and gender stereotypes: (a) an attitudinal pathway model, which suggests that stereotypes may shape interests for gender-schematic children, and (b) a personal pathway model, which suggests that personal interests may lead to the construction of stereotypes that are in line with one’s interests (Liben and Bigler 2002). In Study 1, the personal pathway model was tested by presenting children in the United States (N = 51, M age  = 3.99 years-old) with novel toys and assessing the congruence between interests and stereotypes. Results indicated a significant relationship between personal interests and stereotypes such that higher levels of personal interest in toys were associated with more congruent gender stereotypes—stereotypes in which the children endorsed the belief that the toy was only for same-gender children or for both genders. In Study 2, the attitudinal pathway was tested by presenting children in the United States (N = 57, M age  = 4.03 years-old) with novel toys that were labeled as “for boys” or “for girls.” Results indicated that gender-schematic children (those who endorsed higher levels of cultural gender stereotypes), but not gender-aschematic children (those who endorsed lower levels of cultural gender stereotypes) were more interested in toys labeled as for their gender than toys labeled as for the other gender. Thus, the results demonstrate that the pathways between these two constructs may be dependent on environmental information, individual differences in personal interest, and gender schematicity as predicted by the dual pathways model.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0624-z
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe
    • Authors: Jörg Matthes; Michael Prieler; Karoline Adam
      Pages: 314 - 327
      Abstract: Abstract Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country’s gender indices, including Hofstede’s Masculinity Index, GLOBE’s Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0617-y
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • Sexually Objectifying Restaurants and Waitresses’ Burnout and Intentions
           to Leave: The Roles of Power and Support
    • Authors: Dawn M. Szymanski; Renee Mikorski
      Pages: 328 - 338
      Abstract: Abstract The present study examined the relationships between experiences of working in sexually objectifying restaurants and job-related outcomes in a sample of 313 waitresses working in restaurants located in the United States. In addition, we investigated the potential mediating roles of unwanted sexual advances, power, and support in these links. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated that sexually objectifying restaurants were positively correlated with waitresses’ feelings of burnout and intentions to leave their job. Our findings also supported a theorized multiple mediation model in which higher levels of sexually objectifying restaurants were related to more unwanted sexual advances, lower levels of personal power and control in the work environment, less organizational support, and lower levels of coworker support, which in turn were related to more feelings of burnout. Contrary to our hypotheses, gendered structural/organizational power did not mediate the sexually objectifying restaurants → burnout link. In addition, our findings also revealed that personal power and control, organizational support, and coworker support (but not unwanted sexual advances or structural/organizational power) mediated the link between sexually objectifying restaurants and intention to leave.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0621-2
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • Physical Appearance and Sexual Activity Mediate the Link Between Early
           Puberty and Sexual Harassment Victimization in Male Adolescents
    • Authors: Therése Skoog; Sevgi Bayram Özdemir
      Pages: 339 - 348
      Abstract: Abstract Contrary to common belief, research shows that male adolescents are frequent targets of sexual harassment. According to some prior studies, early puberty puts male adolescents at a particular risk for being sexually harassed. In this cross-sectional study, we tested two competing explanations of the link between male pubertal timing and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The explanations were based on evolutionary and feminist theories. The sample included 704 seventh-grade Swedish male adolescents (M age  = 13.37, SD = .59). We found that looking more mature and being sexually active significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and sexual harassment. The magnitude of the indirect effects did not differ significantly from each other. These findings largely replicate prior research for female adolescents, and they suggest that early pubertal timing is linked to victimizing sexual phenomena in early adolescence through young men’s normative sexually mature appearance and sexual activities. Tolerance and respect for differences should be central components of interventions aimed at reducing sexual harassment among young people of any gender.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0619-9
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • The Impact of Family Economic Structure on Dual-Earners’ Career and
           Family Satisfaction
    • Authors: Ronit Waismel-Manor; Asaf Levanon; Pamela S. Tolbert
      Pages: 349 - 362
      Abstract: Abstract The present study builds on the explanatory power of the “doing gender” perspective to understand the effects of family economic structure on the family and career satisfaction of husbands and wives. Using data from a two-panel, couple-level survey of full-time employed middle-class families in the Northeastern United States, we find that when wives’ earnings increase relative to their husbands’, their career satisfaction significantly increases whereas their husbands’ is significantly depressed. In contrast, family economic structure has little effect on women’ and men’s level of family satisfaction, although we find a significant reduction in family satisfaction among couples who have recently shifted towards a more equal-earner economic structure. Our findings underscore the importance of considering both husbands’ and wives’ attitudes towards work and career in understanding how “gender is done” in couples, and in addressing the resulting family and work relations and dynamics. Focusing on the disjuncture between longstanding gender norms and current employment and earning patterns, we highlight the potential impact of these findings for couples, counselors, and organizations.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0620-3
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • The Relationship Between Endorsement of the Sexual Double Standard and
           Sexual Cognitions and Emotions
    • Authors: Peggy M. J. Emmerink; Regina J. J. M. van den Eijnden; Ine Vanwesenbeeck; Tom F. M. ter Bogt
      Pages: 363 - 376
      Abstract: Abstract Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of continued gender-norm conformity. In the present study, we investigated whether and how gendered sexual attitudes are related to (positive and negative) sex-related emotions, via sexual cognitions (autonomy, body esteem, and approach/avoidance motives for sex). A survey was submitted to 293 heterosexually identified, sexually active, Dutch (central and southern regions) 18–25 year-olds. Results from a moderated mediation model (using structural equation modeling) revealed that women, but not men, who more strongly endorsed traditional gender-related sexual attitudes experienced significantly less positive and more negative emotions, as a result of decreased sexual autonomy and sexual body esteem as well as increased avoidance motives for sex. We conclude that, as a result of negative cognitions associated with the endorsement of traditional gender norms, women in particular are at risk of experiencing negative emotional outcomes in the sexual context. We argue that sexual cognitions and emotions deserve explicit attention in sex-positive and gender-transformative sexuality education, which has been proven to be a vital resource for achieving increased gender-equity in sexual and romantic relationships.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0616-z
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • The Double Standard at Sexual Debut: Gender, Sexual Behavior and
           Adolescent Peer Acceptance
    • Authors: Derek A. Kreager; Jeremy Staff; Robin Gauthier; Eva S. Lefkowitz; Mark E. Feinberg
      Pages: 377 - 392
      Abstract: Abstract A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents’ own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for “making out” showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both “heavy” and “light” sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0618-x
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • Heterosexual Dating Double Standards in Undergraduate Women and Men
    • Authors: Alexa Paynter; Campbell Leaper
      Pages: 393 - 406
      Abstract: Abstract Traditional heterosexual dating and courtship scripts (e.g., men pay for date, women take partner’s last name in marriage) reflect different standards of desirable behavior for women and men. Analogous to sexual double standards, dating double standards reflect the greater agency and power traditionally accorded to men in society. In the present study, we investigated factors related to young heterosexual adults’ endorsement of dating double standards. Participants were 330 female and male U.S. undergraduates at a California public university (57 % female, ages 18–25 years-old) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. In the Heterosexual Dating Double-Standards Scale, respondents rate the desirability of five dating and courtship behaviors (initiate date, hold door open, pay for date, propose marriage, take spouse’s last name) separately for women and men. Preliminary analyses revealed participants generally expressed double standards by rating the desirability of behaviors differently for female and male characters in the traditional direction (e.g., paying for a date rated more desirable for a man than for a woman). We predicted dating double standards would be positively related to factors previously found to predict traditional gender roles (viewing popular media, religious attendance) as well as attitudes that reflect traditional views (conservative political beliefs, benevolent and hostile sexism, disavowing a feminist identity). These hypotheses were generally supported. Among these correlations, dating double standards were strongly associated with benevolent sexism (among women and men) and with hostile sexism (among men). Implications for future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0628-8
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • Women Attorneys and the Changing Workplace: High Hopes, Mixed Outcomes
    • Authors: Carol Mastrangelo Bové
      Pages: 407 - 408
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0663-5
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 7-8 (2016)
       
  • Why Do Women Still Not Make It to the Top? Dominant Organizational
           Ideologies and Biases by Promotion Committees Limit Opportunities to
           Destination Positions
    • Authors: Ellen R. Auster; Ajnesh Prasad
      Pages: 177 - 196
      Abstract: Abstract Prior studies have made important strides in understanding the drivers of gender bias facing women at the top. Yet, relatively little is known about the intra-organizational power dynamics of how and why these patterns still persist despite a plethora of initiatives to redress the phenomenon over the last several decades. This paper develops an intra-organizational power perspective on the dynamics of promotion bias to destination positions. We propose that social dominance emerges as social categorization based on a candidate’s visible and invisible markers leads to distorted perceptions and stereotyping which, when combined with group favoritism and conformity pressures within committee practices, engender the perceived degree of ideological asymmetry between the candidate and the organization. It is the magnitude of the perceived degree of ideological asymmetry that drives promotion bias. This bias has potent effects on the institutionalization of power over time. Our perspective ultimately offers new insights into the role of dominant organizational ideology and dynamics of biases that continue to limit promotion opportunities of women to destination positions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0607-0
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
       
  • “Boys Don’t Cry”—or Do They? Adult Attitudes Toward and Beliefs
           About Transgender Youth
    • Authors: Holger B. Elischberger; Jessica J. Glazier; Eric D. Hill; Lynn Verduzco-Baker
      Pages: 197 - 214
      Abstract: Abstract The present survey study examined the attitudes of U.S. adults toward transgender children and adolescents, as well as their behavioral intentions, in two hypothetical scenarios involving gender variant youth. Participants recruited online (N = 281) reported generally favorable attitudes toward transgender minors, but expressed some hesitation to allow a transgender child to use the restroom aligned with their gender as opposed to their birth sex or to share a room with same gender peers on a school trip, possibly due to conflating gender identity with sexual orientation in these situations. Attitudes were less positive in respondents who reported a religious affiliation, conservative social political views, and stronger conformity to certain traditional gender norms—particularly in men. Even after controlling for these factors, stronger belief in environmental versus biological causes of transgender identity was linked to more negative attitudes. Participants’ behavioral intentions were driven partly by their attitudes and causal attributions, but also by their age and, at least for women, personal connections to the transgender community. We discuss implications for the discourse surrounding transgender youth and the need for educating the public on the development of gender identity as well as the difference between gender identity and sexual orientation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0609-y
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
       
  • Getting to the Core of Curriculum—and the Community
    • Authors: Sian E. Jones
      Pages: 285 - 286
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0643-9
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
       
  • Does Gender Matter? Testing the Influence of Presumed Media Influence on
           Young People’s Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study examined gender differences in young people’s attitudes toward cosmetic surgery as well as the joint effects of media and peers on their attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. A survey of 555 university students in Singapore showed that young people of both sexes generally held positive attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. We observed no significant gender disparities in their acceptance of cosmetic surgery or intention to undergo cosmetic surgery. We tested the influence of the presumed media influence model, and our findings supported direct and indirect models of media influence on young people’s attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. The indirect model was mediated by perceived influence of cosmetic surgery-related media on peers. We also found that men were more susceptible to the influence of presumed media influence than women were. Practice implications of our study for educators include open discussions regarding cosmetic surgery and the influence of media and peers among young people, as well as differentiating intervention programs for emerging adult women and men.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0680-4
       
  • The Birthing Paradox: Understanding the C-Section Epidemic in America
    • Authors: Julia Cartwright
      PubDate: 2016-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0681-3
       
  • Difficult Dialogues Made Easier: An Updated Look at the Future of
           Girl’s Studies
    • Authors: Diana Milillo
      PubDate: 2016-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0682-2
       
  • What is a True Gamer? The Male Gamer Stereotype and the Marginalization of
           Women in Video Game Culture
    • Authors: Benjamin Paaßen; Thekla Morgenroth; Michelle Stratemeyer
      Abstract: Abstract Women and men play video games in approximately equal numbers. Despite this similarity, video gaming is still strongly associated with men. A common justification for this stereotype is that, although women might play games, they should not be considered “true” or “hard-core” gamers because they play more casually and less skillfully compared to their male counterparts. In this contribution, we review the existing literature on gender and gaming to investigate the male gamer stereotype in terms of its accuracy, persistence, effects, and future perspective. We conclude that the stereotype varies in accuracy depending on the definition of “gamer.” We further argue that the persistence of this stereotype can be explained by the fact that almost all professional and highly visible figures in gaming culture are male. On the other hand, female players who achieve a moderate level of competence are rendered invisible or are actively marginalized. We argue that the effects of the male gamer stereotype can be harmful to women, precluding them from the positive outcomes of video game play such as enhanced access to fields of science, technology, and engineering.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0678-y
       
  • The Personal, Political, and Professional Life of Sandra Bem
    • Authors: Carla R. Golden; Maureen C. McHugh
      Abstract: Abstract The contributions of Sandra Bem, a pioneer in feminist psychology, are reviewed in the context of her life. From childhood and her early years as a second wave feminist activist in Pittsburgh, Bem challenged established gender conventions including dress codes, segregated employment ads, workplace discrimination, and marital roles. We follow the trajectory of Bem’s education and academic career, highlighting her three main contributions to feminist psychology: (a) psychological androgyny and the BSRI, (b) gender schema theory, and (c) the reproduction of sexual inequality via the lenses of gender. We also review her late life developments, such as her retraining in clinical psychology and her decision to end her own life after a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Placing Bem’s activist and academic work in the context of her personal struggle against gender expectations, we include her own voice to illustrate how she integrated the personal, political, and professional from the beginning of her life until her last days. We show that over the last four decades, Sandra Bem’s contributions to theory and research transformed the study of the psychology of women in the United States and had an international reach—adding immensely to our understanding of gender roles, stereotypes, nonconscious gender ideologies, psychological androgyny, gender schemas, and gender-aschematic parenting, as well as how androcentrism, gender polarization, and biological essentialism work systemically and psychologically to reproduce gender inequality.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0674-2
       
  • The Construction of Physics as a Quintessentially Masculine Subject: Young
           People’s Perceptions of Gender Issues in Access to Physics
    • Authors: Becky Francis; Louise Archer; Julie Moote; Jen DeWitt; Emily MacLeod; Lucy Yeomans
      Abstract: Abstract The present article investigates explanations for gendered trends in Physics and Engineering access, reporting findings from a large-scale study funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council and drawing primarily on data from interviews with 132 15–16 year-old adolescents and their parents. Survey results in our study and elsewhere show strong gender disparities in anticipated pursuit of Physics after completion of compulsory education. In order to explore the constructions of gender and Physics underlying these trends, we focus on qualitative interview data, applying Foucaultian analysis of discourse to investigate gendered narratives underpinning adolescents’ and their parents’ articulations. This analysis reveals three key discourses at work on the topic of women’s access to Physics: (a) equality of opportunity, (b) continued gender discrimination in and around Physics, and (c) Physics as quintessentially masculine. We additionally identify five distinct narratives supporting the discourse of physics as masculine. These various discourses and narratives are interrogated, and their implications explored. We conclude that it is only by disrupting prevalent constructions of the Physical sciences as a masculine and “hard” domain will we increase the presence of women in the sector. Working with young people to analyse and deconstruct the discursive assumptions made in relation to gender and Physics, as well as further work to increase accessibility and broaden representation in Physics, may be fruitful ways to challenge these longstanding associations between Physics and masculinity.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0669-z
       
  • Promoting Theory-Based Perspectives in Sexual Double Standard Research
    • Authors: Yuliana Zaikman; Michael J. Marks
      Abstract: Abstract The sexual double standard (SDS) has been a focus of research for several decades. Numerous anecdotal accounts of the double standard exist, detailing its consequences and impact on women’s, as well as men’s, sexual behavior and identities. Empirical research, however, has yet to completely corroborate the degree to which the double standard pervades everyday life. The disparity between anecdotal accounts and empirical evidence related to the SDS may be the result of the partially atheoretical approach with which the SDS has traditionally been examined. The goal of the present paper is to encourage researchers to take a more theory-oriented approach to understanding the double standard. Our goal is not to provide another comprehensive literature review or an argument for the “best” theory, but rather to promote theory-based perspectives in future SDS research. In the current paper, three theoretical perspectives—evolutionary theory, social role theory, and cognitive social learning theory—and their relevance to the SDS are discussed. We discuss four hypotheses, one related to the core tenet of the SDS itself, and three related to moderating factors, including characteristics of evaluators (i.e., gender, gender roles beliefs, and sexual history), characteristics of targets (i.e., relationship type engaged in, sexual activities participated in, and power status), and social factors (i.e., cultural background, historical era, and socialization agents). Existing research is also interpreted in light of one or more of the theoretical perspectives in the hopes of guiding future research.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0677-z
       
 
 
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