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AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GLQ : A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Transgenderism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription  
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sexual Medicine     Open Access  
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
TSQ : Transgender Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Cover Sex Roles
  [SJR: 1.202]   [H-I: 61]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2762 - ISSN (Online) 0360-0025
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2334 journals]
  • Why Do Women Still Not Make It to the Top? Dominant Organizational
           Ideologies and Biases by Promotion Committees Limit Opportunities to
           Destination Positions
    • Authors: Ellen R. Auster; Ajnesh Prasad
      Pages: 177 - 196
      Abstract: Prior studies have made important strides in understanding the drivers of gender bias facing women at the top. Yet, relatively little is known about the intra-organizational power dynamics of how and why these patterns still persist despite a plethora of initiatives to redress the phenomenon over the last several decades. This paper develops an intra-organizational power perspective on the dynamics of promotion bias to destination positions. We propose that social dominance emerges as social categorization based on a candidate’s visible and invisible markers leads to distorted perceptions and stereotyping which, when combined with group favoritism and conformity pressures within committee practices, engender the perceived degree of ideological asymmetry between the candidate and the organization. It is the magnitude of the perceived degree of ideological asymmetry that drives promotion bias. This bias has potent effects on the institutionalization of power over time. Our perspective ultimately offers new insights into the role of dominant organizational ideology and dynamics of biases that continue to limit promotion opportunities of women to destination positions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0607-0
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • “Boys Don’t Cry”—or Do They? Adult Attitudes
           Toward and Beliefs About Transgender Youth
    • Authors: Holger B. Elischberger; Jessica J. Glazier; Eric D. Hill; Lynn Verduzco-Baker
      Pages: 197 - 214
      Abstract: The present survey study examined the attitudes of U.S. adults toward transgender children and adolescents, as well as their behavioral intentions, in two hypothetical scenarios involving gender variant youth. Participants recruited online (N = 281) reported generally favorable attitudes toward transgender minors, but expressed some hesitation to allow a transgender child to use the restroom aligned with their gender as opposed to their birth sex or to share a room with same gender peers on a school trip, possibly due to conflating gender identity with sexual orientation in these situations. Attitudes were less positive in respondents who reported a religious affiliation, conservative social political views, and stronger conformity to certain traditional gender norms—particularly in men. Even after controlling for these factors, stronger belief in environmental versus biological causes of transgender identity was linked to more negative attitudes. Participants’ behavioral intentions were driven partly by their attitudes and causal attributions, but also by their age and, at least for women, personal connections to the transgender community. We discuss implications for the discourse surrounding transgender youth and the need for educating the public on the development of gender identity as well as the difference between gender identity and sexual orientation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0609-y
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • “There I am”: A Grounded Theory Study of Young Adults
           Navigating a Transgender or Gender Nonconforming Identity within a Context
           of Oppression and Invisibility
    • Authors: Ashley Austin
      Pages: 215 - 230
      Abstract: The primary aim of the present study is to extend discussions of navigating an emerging transgender or gender nonconforming (TGNC) identity during youth and young adulthood in a society in which TGNC identities remain invisible and marginalized. Participants include 13 racially/ethnically diverse TGNC young adults ages 18–29 in the United States. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used to collect, analyze, and interpret data. Navigating a TGNC Identity in the Dark emerged as a journey from initial recognition of an existing, but unidentifiable, difference toward awareness and acceptance of a TGNC identity. Analyses revealed six themes associated with navigating identity: Moving from Uncertainty to Knowing, Recognizing Self in Others, Finding Me, Explaining Work, Struggling for Authenticity, and Evolving Self-Acceptance. Narratives highlighted the complex journeys toward authenticity that included pervasive oppression. Findings from my study can be used to inform clinical work aimed at supporting TGNC individuals as they recognize and make meaning of their TGNC identities. Moreover, findings underscore the importance of increasing the level of visibility and affirmation of a range of TGNC identities and experiences in dominant institutions (e.g., media, schools, health care) in the lives of youth as a way to facilitate self-understanding and acceptance at earlier ages and with fewer obstacles.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0600-7
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • Same-Gender Peer Interaction and Preschoolers’ Gender-Typed
           Emotional Expressiveness
    • Authors: Eric W. Lindsey
      Pages: 231 - 242
      Abstract: The present study was guided by hypotheses derived from peer-socialization models of gender development that suggest preschool children’s time spent interacting with same-gender peers would be linked to gender-typed emotional expressiveness. Specifically, I predicted that girls who engaged in high levels of same-gender peer interaction would express more happiness, sadness, and fear, whereas boys who engaged in more same-gender peer interaction would express more anger. To address these hypotheses, a longitudinal study was conducted in which video recordings were made of 122 preschool children (57 boys, 65 girls; 86 European American, 9 African American, 17 Hispanic, and 10 other ethnicity) attending a University sponsored preschool program in the U.S. Southwest over a period of 2 years. Video recordings of children’s peer interactions in Years 1 and 2 were coded for involvement with same-gender peers and emotional expressiveness. Results of analyses revealed that both girls and boys who spent more time interacting with same-gender peers in Year 1 expressed more happiness in Year 2. Boys who spent more time interacting with same-gender peers in Year 1 displayed higher levels of anger in Year 2. Girls who spent more time interacting with same-gender peers in Year 1 displayed higher levels of sadness in Year 2. The findings support arguments made by the peer-socialization model of gender development that gender-segregated peer interaction contributes to patterns of gender-typed expression of emotions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0601-6
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • Developmental Changes in the Link Between Gender Typicality and Peer
           Victimization and Exclusion
    • Authors: Kristina M. Zosuls; Naomi C. Z. Andrews; Carol Lynn Martin; Dawn E. England; Ryan D. Field
      Pages: 243 - 256
      Abstract: The present study takes a broad and nuanced view of gender typicality in normative populations and suggests that this aspect of children’s gender identity might be a fundamental aspect of vulnerability to peer maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional sample from the Southwestern United States, developmental differences were examined in the relations between kindergarten (n = 210, M age = 5.81, 52 % female), second (n = 205, M age = 7.62, 50 % female), and fourth (n = 205, M age = 9.56, 44 % female) grade students’ self-reported similarity to own- and other-gender peers and teacher-reported peer victimization and exclusion. Parents’ reports of children’s own- and other-gender friendships were also examined to test whether friendships would attenuate this relation. We hypothesized (a) lower gender typicality would be associated with higher victimization/exclusion for 2nd and 4th grade children and (b) friendships with own- and other-gender peers, but especially own-gender peers, would moderate the typicality and victimization/exclusion relation, acting as a buffer against victimization/exclusion. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated developmental differences in the link between gender typicality and victimization/exclusion with a more consistent relation in 2nd and 4th grades. For girls, having other-gender friends moderated the negative relation of other-gender similarity and victimization/exclusion. Own-gender friendships were protective overall for both genders, and other-gender friendships were protective for 4th graders. Our study suggests that gender-related intolerance is a central issue to peer maltreatment and affects more than just those who exhibit the most extreme cases of gender nonconformity and that friendships can provide a buffer against victimization/exclusion.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0608-z
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • How Public Displays of Heterosexual Identity Reflect and Reinforce Gender
           Stereotypes, Gender Differences, and Gender Inequality
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Morgan; Laurel R. Davis-Delano
      Pages: 257 - 271
      Abstract: Heterosexual marking occurs when people behave in ways that are interpreted by others as evidence of heterosexuality. In an exploratory comprehensive study of this phenomenon, we conducted 12 focus groups with 57 individuals: four groups composed of heterosexual women, four composed of heterosexual men, and four composed of mixed-gender sexual minorities. In this article, we present our findings on participant conceptions of heterosexual marking that are related to gender stereotypes, gender differences, and gender inequality. Much of the heterosexual marking described by our participants reflects and reinforces stereotypes that equate gender conformity and heterosexuality. Our data suggest that heterosexual marking by men/boys and women/girls differs in several ways, including gender conformity, sexual prejudice, extent of marking, and types of marking. Furthermore, some aspects and types of heterosexual marking described by our participants reflect and reinforce gender inequality. As a result, our discussion notes some problematic implications of the heterosexual marking we describe, including rendering gender non-conformity among heterosexuals invisible and unacceptable, supporting discrimination against gender non-conformity, and more directly reinforcing gender inequality.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0613-2
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • What Did He Mean by that? Humor Decreases Attributions of Sexism and
           Confrontation of Sexist Jokes
    • Authors: Robyn K. Mallett; Thomas E. Ford; Julie A. Woodzicka
      Pages: 272 - 284
      Abstract: Sexist humor may be more difficult to confront than serious expressions of sexism because humor disguises the biased nature of the remark. The present research investigated whether delivering a sexist remark as a joke, compared to a serious statement, tempered perceptions that the speaker was sexist which, in turn, made women less likely to confront. Using a computer-mediated instant messaging paradigm, women were randomly assigned to receive the same sexist remark phrased either in a serious manner or as a joke. We recorded how women actually responded to the sexist remark and coded for confrontation. In Experiments 1 (195 women) and 2 (134 women) we found that humor decreased perceptions that the speaker was sexist. Furthermore, as perceptions that the perpetrator was sexist decreased, women’s confronting also decreased. Experiment 2 demonstrated an additional consequence of reducing the perceived sexism of the perpetrator—it increased tolerance of sexist behavior perpetrated against an individual woman and sexual harassment more generally. Interestingly, the indirect effects only appeared when women at least moderately endorsed hostile sexism. For hostile sexists, failure to identify sexism reduced confrontation and increased tolerance for sexual harassment and sexist behavior. Contrary to popular belief, humor can actually make sexist messages more dangerous and difficult to confront than serious remarks.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0605-2
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • Getting to the Core of Curriculum—and the Community
    • Authors: Sian E. Jones
      Pages: 285 - 286
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0643-9
      Issue No: Vol. 75, No. 5-6 (2016)
  • Materialism Predicts Young Chinese Women’s Self-Objectification and
           Body Surveillance
    • Authors: Fei Teng; Jin You; Kai-Tak Poon; Ye Yang; Jianing You; Yongqiang Jiang
      Abstract: Previous research on antecedents of women’s self-objectification mainly focuses on situational factors whereas our study examined whether women’s values on materialism would predict their self-objectification and body surveillance in a sample of 218 undergraduate women in south China. Specifically, we proposed that materialism would increase women’s tendency to regard sexual attractiveness as capital for them to gain positive life outcomes (i.e., capitalization of sexual attractiveness, CSA), and the tendency to have appearance-contingent self-worth (i.e., appearance CSW), which would in turn predict their self-objectification and body surveillance. Results provided support for the proposed theoretical model. Specifically, CSA and appearance CSW mediated the relationship between materialism and women’s self-objectification, whereas appearance CSW mediated the relationship between materialism and women’s body surveillance. These results expand the scope of investigation by incorporating Chinese samples and suggest that in addition to socio-cultural and interpersonal predictors, women’s values can contribute to the development of an objectifying perspective on themselves. Therefore, interventions on women’s values combined with attempts to change sexually-objectifying environments are both critical in reducing self-objectification and body surveillance in women.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0671-5
  • Predicting Attitudes toward the Masculine Structure of the Military with
           Turkish Identification and Ambivalent Sexism
    • Authors: Nuray Sakallı Uğurlu; Fatih Özdemir
      Abstract: Why do people support the masculine structure of the Turkish military? Why do women hold inferior positions in the military? How are sexism and Turkish identification relevant to attitudes toward the masculine structure of the military? Focusing on these questions, the current study explored the associations among Turkish identification, ambivalent sexism (including hostile and benevolent sexism), and attitudes toward the masculine structure of the military in Turkey after controlling for gender, political views, and military affiliation. University students (316 women; 262 men; M age = 22.02, SD = 2.20) completed the Attitude toward The Masculine Structure of the Military, Turkish Identification, Ambivalent Sexism scales and provided information about age, gender, political view, and military affiliation. The results showed that Turkish identification, hostile sexism, and benevolent sexism predicted attitudes toward the masculine structure of the military after controlling for gender, political view, and military affiliation. Participants who scored higher on Turkish identification and hostile and benevolent sexism supported the masculine structure of the military. The findings may be useful for researchers who aim to better understand why Turkish military personnel is primarily male, how some improvement can be provided for the process of recruitment and retention of military personnel, and how to improve the positions of women in the military or women who would like to join military.
      PubDate: 2016-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0676-0
  • The Effect of Occupational Gender Stereotypes on Men’s Interest in
           Female-Dominated Occupations
    • Authors: J. Andrew Forsman; Joan M. Barth
      Abstract: A great deal of research has sought to explain women’s lower interest in male-dominated occupations, but relatively little attention has been given to explaining men’s disinterest in female-dominated occupations. Examining factors that affect men’s interest in female-dominated occupations has both theoretical and practical implications. Two factors hypothesized to alter the gender-stereotype salience of an occupation were examined: occupation titles and gender-stereotyped occupation descriptions. We hypothesized that men who reported higher levels of stereotypical feminine attributes would be more interested in feminine-stereotyped occupations. College-aged participants (N = 1001, 791 male) enrolled in an engineering, computer science, or physics course recorded their interest in occupations with or without a feminine title and described with either feminine or masculine stereotyped skills and attributes. Participants also reported the degree to which they held stereotypical feminine attributes. Results indicated that men showed greater interest in no-title occupations, especially when masculine characteristics were used in the description. For men, self-reported levels of feminine attributes were associated with interest in occupations with feminine descriptions, primarily in the no-title condition. Women expressed more interested than did men in the occupations, but unlike men, women were equally interested in occupations with feminine and masculine descriptions. Findings are consistent with the theories of precluded interest (Cheryan 2010) and circumscription and compromise (Gottfredson 1981). It is concluded that a key for attracting men to female-dominated vocations may be to provide opportunities for men to consider an occupation in ways that prevent or disrupt comparison to traditional stereotypic archetypes.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0673-3
  • Girl in a Country Song: Gender Roles and Objectification of Women in
           Popular Country Music across 1990 to 2014
    • Authors: Eric E. Rasmussen; Rebecca L. Densley
      Abstract: Although content analyses have examined the portrayal of women in objectifying and demeaning ways in many forms of media, including several genres of music, little research has explored the portrayal of women in country music. The current study content analyzed the lyrics of 750 country songs popular in the United States across almost three decades (1990–2014) for their portrayal of female gender roles and objectification of women. Findings revealed that country songs from 2010 to 2014 were less likely to portray women in traditional roles, non-traditional roles, family roles, and as empowered than songs that were popular in the first half of one or both prior decades. Songs from 2010 to 2014 were also more likely to refer to a woman’s appearance, to women in tight or revealing clothing, to women as objects, and to women via slang than songs in one or both prior decades. Furthermore, results indicate that the changes in the portrayal of women appear to be driven by changes in lyrics in songs sung by male artists, but not by those in songs sung by female artists. The present research helps to lay a foundation for future work exploring the relations between exposure to country music, female gender role stereotypes, and attitudes and behaviors related to objectification of women.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0670-6
  • Sandra Bem: Naming the Impact of Gendered Categories and Identities
    • Authors: Hilary M. Lips
      Abstract: As revealed through the papers in the current issue, the impact of Sandra Bem’s interrogation and analysis of the process and impact of gender categorization is discussed. An important consequence of Bem’s work has been to bring invisible but pervasive processes of gender categorization into focus, and then to use that new visibility to drive social change. Themes that emerge in these papers building on Bem’s work include more nuanced approaches to identity, investigation of the role of immediate social context in the performance of gender, attention to gender development, and exploration of measurement issues. The papers raise a number of new questions for future research on gender categories and gendered identities. It is noted that the widespread use of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) over more than 40 years provides a window on changing attitudes with respect to femininity, masculinity, and androgyny.
      PubDate: 2016-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0664-4
  • Not Feeling Good in STEM: Effects of Stereotype Activation and Anticipated
           Affect on Women’s Career Aspirations
    • Authors: Carolin Schuster; Sarah E. Martiny
      Abstract: Despite great efforts to increase women’s participation in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), relatively few women choose careers in these fields. We argue that women might expect to feel less good in contexts where unfavorable gender stereotypes are activated in their minds (e.g., by strong underrepresentation) and, consequently, are less likely to aspire to STEM careers. In two pilot studies (Ns = 28/61), we confirmed that undergraduate women expect more negative and less positive affect (i.e., generally (un)pleasant emotions) and a heightened sense of threat in a stereotype-activating, compared to a not stereotype-activating, test scenario. In Study 1 (N = 102), the scenario indirectly lowered college women’s STEM career aspiration (adjusted for preliminary domain identification) due to lower anticipated positive affect, but not to higher negative affect, in the stereotype-activating scenario. The scenario had no detrimental effect on college men’s anticipated affect or their career aspirations. In Study 2, 91 high school students reported anticipated affect and self-efficacy in different university majors and their intentions to choose the subject as a major. The more stereotypically male (in terms of gender distribution) the subject, the more negative and the less positive was young women’s, but not young men’s, anticipated affect. Only lower positive, but not higher negative, affect predicted low study intentions over and above self-efficacy. To increase women’s aspirations, their expected feelings in STEM deserve attention. One approach to foster positive affect might be to create less stereotypical STEM contexts.
      PubDate: 2016-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0665-3
  • The Frequency and Perceived Impact of Engaging in In-Person and Cyber
           Unwanted Pursuit after Relationship Break-Up among College Men and Women
    • Authors: Christina M. Dardis; Christine A. Gidycz
      Abstract: The present study examined the extent of cyber and in-person unwanted pursuit behaviors (UPBs) reported by undergraduate men and women who pursued former partners and the pursuer’s perceptions of the impact of their pursuit on their targets. Among a sample of 1167 undergraduates (66.8 % women; 95.4 % heterosexual) approximately 80 % of men and women reported engaging in UPBs toward former partners, with cyber pursuit endorsed by a subset of those who engaged in in-person UPBs. Despite few gender differences in overall pursuit, men endorsed engaging in a number of specific behaviors more than did women. Most UPBs did receive responses from targets, and pursuers generally did not perceive their behaviors as annoying, threatening, or frightening. Women perceived that targets had more negative responses to UPBs, particularly to threatening or violent pursuit, and men perceived more positive or neutral responses overall. Minor UPBs were associated with relationship reconciliation among women and men, whereas severe UPBs were associated with reconciliation among men only. Results suggest that pursuers likely underestimate the impact of their behaviors on targets and that pursuers’ efforts, even severe and threatening, are often reinforced, particularly for men who pursue. Universities must be aware of UPBs and provide prevention programs specific to healthy relationship dissolution and pursuit. Provision of corrective information regarding the impact of severe and threatening pursuit may assist in reducing these behaviors.
      PubDate: 2016-08-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0667-1
  • Retrospective Accounts of Sexual Peer Victimization in Adolescence: Do
           Social Status and Gender-Conformity Play a Role?
    • Authors: Carie M. Buchanan; Patti McDougall
      Abstract: In popular media, the degree to which adolescents possess social power and conform to gender norms appears to dictate experiences and perpetrations of peer victimization that are sexual in nature. Therefore, the hypothesis that high-status gender conforming adolescents sexually victimize low-status gender nonconforming peers was examined using retrospective accounts of social status, gender-conformity, and sexual and nonsexual forms of peer victimization in high school as reported by 209 participants, ages 18–23 years old. Although these hypotheses were not fully supported, popularity and gender-conformity were found to be associated with different forms of peer victimization as they occur in adolescence. Self-reported popularity was implicated more commonly in experiencing nonsexual forms of peer victimization and perpetrating sexual peer victimization. However, gender-conformity was found to be a stronger predictor in explaining experiences of social and sexual peer victimization and perpetrating verbal and social peer victimization. The findings suggest that there is a level of complexity to sexual and nonsexual peer victimization that requires more refined examination of gender-conformity and social hierarchy alongside the identification of additional mechanisms. To effectively prevent different forms of peer victimization (sexual and nonsexual) during adolescence, it is important to continue examining the role of developmental mechanisms specific to adolescence.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0672-4
  • The Dark Side of Heterosexual Romance: Endorsement of Romantic Beliefs
           Relates to Intimate Partner Violence
    • Authors: Leanna J. Papp; Miriam Liss; Mindy J. Erchull; Hester Godfrey; Lauren Waaland-Kreutzer
      Abstract: Romance and control are often conflated by the media, and individuals may believe that certain controlling or jealous behaviors by men toward women are romantic and can be a sign of love and commitment in heterosexual relationships. The current study explored three types of romantic beliefs among women: endorsement of the ideology of romanticism, highly valuing romantic relationships, and the belief that jealousy is good. The goal was to determine whether these beliefs would be related to finding controlling behaviors romantic as well as to reported experiences of both physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV). We surveyed 275 heterosexual-identified women, aged 18 to 50, and measured their endorsement of romantic beliefs, the extent to which they romanticized controlling behavior, and experiences of physical and psychological abuse within their current or most recent romantic relationship. Romantic beliefs were related to romanticizing controlling behaviors, which, in turn, was related to experiences of IPV. There was also a significant indirect relationship between romantic beliefs and experiences of IPV. The data indicate that seemingly positive romantic ideologies can have insidious negative effects. Findings may be useful for clinicians and those who advocate for prevention of IPV as they illustrate a need to refocus traditional ideas of healthy relationships at the societal level.
      PubDate: 2016-08-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0668-0
  • Not a Woman, but a Soldier: Exploring Identity through Translocational
    • Authors: Alesha E. Doan; Shannon Portillo
      Abstract: Recent debate over integrating women into U.S. military combat units presents an opportunity to examine the gender identities and experiences of women in the military. Here, we examine the context-dependent prominence of intersecting identities including work role and gender ascribed to female soldiers in Special Operations. Using a mixed methods approach, based on 28 focus groups with 198 soldiers and a survey conducted with 1701 men and 214 women, we argue that female soldiers’ experiences refute their male colleagues’ assumptions regarding their ability to serve in combat units. The experience of identity in the workplace is different for men and women because women experience fluidity in their identity depending on with whom they are interacting and where interactions occur, whereas men experience and understand gender identity as a fixed, static trait. Although women experience the fluidity of their gender identity based on context, their male colleagues remain oblivious to the contextual nature of gender identity while also maintaining their authority in policing the boundaries of gender in the military context. Our research adds nuance to literature on identity, demonstrating the fluctuating nature of ascribed identity, which shines light on the socially constructed, artificial barriers to women’s ascension in the workplace.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0661-7
  • “Totally in Love”: Evidence of a Master Narrative for How New
           Mothers Should Feel About Their Babies
    • Authors: Madeleine R. Kerrick; Rachel L. Henry
      Abstract: Master narratives, or prevailing cultural storylines, of motherhood provide a framework for new mothers to make sense of their experiences and to develop a coherent maternal identity. The present mixed methods study developed a theory-driven methodology to systematically identify a master narrative and examined whether one is present in 32 U.S. first-time mothers’ accounts of developing feelings for, and connection to, their newborns. In coding these mothers’ 95 episodes, we found that just over half of the mothers exclusively described positive feelings/connection toward their babies that were present in pregnancy or at birth (“At First Sight”; AFS), whereas 31 % exclusively described feelings/connection that took time to develop, or were negative, questioned, and/or tentative (“It Took Time”; ITT). To identify the presence of a master narrative, we compared these groups’ accounts on several theoretical indicators; the episodes of mothers who exclusively described ITT experiences were longer, more often contained talk of expectations, and were more likely to have a mismatch between expectation and experience than those of mothers who exclusively described AFS experiences. This suggests that ITT experience accounts countered a master narrative that mothers should have overwhelming, positive, and immediate feelings for/connection to their babies (AFS). Using discursive analysis, we then examined how the master narrative was actually invoked in the accounts of two mothers, one who positioned her experiences as aligned with, and one who positioned her experiences as counter to, the master narrative. Implications for supporting mothers in making meaning of their experiences, whether by aligning with the master narrative or co-constructing an empowering counter-narrative, are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0666-2
  • Women Attorneys and the Changing Workplace: High Hopes, Mixed Outcomes
    • Authors: Carol Mastrangelo Bové
      PubDate: 2016-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0663-5
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