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Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bridges : A Jewish Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GLQ : A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Transgenderism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
TSQ : Transgender Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Cover   Sex Roles
  [SJR: 1.202]   [H-I: 61]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2762 - ISSN (Online) 0360-0025
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2276 journals]
  • On the Cognitive (In)Efficiency of Social Comparisons with Media Images
    • Abstract: Abstract When female viewers make upward social comparisons to the appearance of women in thin-ideal media images, the typical results are decreases in self-evaluations of appearance and increases in negative mood. Here we investigated whether such comparisons are efficient mental processes, requiring few cognitive resources, or if they are more cognitively effortful. If social comparisons to media images are efficient, we should find evidence that they occur even when participants are engaged in a separate, simultaneous, cognitive task (i.e. when made cognitively busy) during exposure to the images. In two studies (N = 116) and (N = 177), Canadian female undergraduates from Southern Ontario viewed media images. Cognitive Busyness was induced in one group of participants by asking them to remember a complex 8-digit number (e.g. 78639946) while viewing the images. A second group of participants memorized only a very simple 8-digit number (11111111) and so were not cognitively busy. Self-evaluations of appearance and levels of negative mood were measured via visual-analogue scales both before and after exposure to the images. Despite the images having detrimental effects on the self-evaluations and mood of participants who were not cognitively busy, the images had no such effects on participants who were cognitively busy. In Study 2 even participants who scored highly on a measure of thin-ideal internalization did not seem to be affected by exposure to the images when cognitively busy. Thus, we found no evidence that social comparisons are efficient mental processes and instead suggest that social comparisons may require effortful processing.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Two Traditions of Research on Gender Identity
    • Abstract: Abstract Gender identity reflects people’s understanding of themselves in terms of cultural definitions of female and male. In this article, we identify two traditions of research on gender identity that capture different aspects of masculine and feminine gender roles. The classic personality approach to gender identity differentiates communal from agentic traits and interests. The gender self-categorization approach comprises identification with the social category of women or men. Based on the compatibility principle, each approach should predict behaviors within the relevant content domain. Thus, personality measures likely predict communal and agentic behaviors, whereas gender self-categorization measures likely predict group-level reactions such as ingroup favoritism and outgroup derogation. Researchers have the option of using one or the other conception of gender identity, depending on their particular question of interest. Relying primarily on research conducted in the U.S., we show that both traditions provide insight into the ways that gendered self concepts link the social roles of women and men with their individual cognitions, emotions, and behaviors.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Untangling Life Goals and Occupational Stereotypes in Men’s and
           Women’s Career Interest
    • Abstract: Abstract Gender Role Congruity Theory predicts that women would be more attracted to masculine-stereotyped occupations and men would be more attracted to feminine-stereotyped occupations if the occupations were perceived as affording goals that aligned with their gender roles. This study of college STEM (science technology engineering, and mathematics) students systematically examined the impact of occupation stereotypes and life goals related to career status, family, and helping others on career interest. Participants, drawn from introductory STEM classes (N = 186, 88 female) at a public university in the Southeastern U.S., indicated their preferences between pairs of occupations that differed in their gender stereotype. Within each occupation pair, one occupation was described as compatible with one of three goals (high salary, family-friendly, and helping others). A 1 year follow-up was conducted on 148 of the original and an additional 52 new participants (N = 200, 103 female). Results indicated that men showed greater interest in masculine occupations, regardless of the goal affordance of the alternative feminine occupation. For women, occupations with higher salaries received greater interest ratings than occupations associated with helping others (masculine or feminine stereotyped) and family friendly work hours (masculine stereotyped only). For women, family-friendly occupations were rated similarly to higher salary occupations, only in the feminine-stereotyped conditions. Findings were generally replicated at the second time point. These counterintuitive findings suggest the need for research to examine how gender differences in life goals change over the early adult years for women and men in STEM and other fields.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Engendering Identity: Toward a Clearer Conceptualization of Gender as a
           Social Identity
    • Abstract: Abstract Wood and Eagly (2015) make a valuable contribution to the understanding of gender psychology by reviewing how gender identity has been conceptualized in different literatures. But beyond comparing and contrasting these two traditions in North American and Western European samples, we advocate for more clarity in how gender identity is defined and theorized to relate to personality traits. In this commentary, we favor reserving the term gender identity for one’s gender-relevant self-categorization and outline three main reasons why traits such as agency and communion should not be conflated with gender identity: (a) They are universal dimensions of human behavior that (b) can be decoupled from gender, and (c) when linked to gender exacerbate gender differences in these traits. Broader theoretical models, such as balanced identity theory, can improve understanding of when and why gender identity becomes associated with certain traits to inform self-definition. Although the process by which gender identity becomes linked to certain traits is assumed to be universal, the content of these linkages can be culturally and temporally specific. We suggest that traits become conflated with gender identity when they are endorsed by a gender group and differentiate one gender from the other. This process can lead to active avoidance of a trait by those who feel their gender identity is incompatible with that trait. In sum, we believe there is value in drawing on broader theories of self, identity, and social groups to best understand how people come to define themselves and are defined by gender.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • The Complexity of Gender: It Is All That and More….In sum, It Is
    • Abstract: Abstract This commentary responds to “Two Traditions of Research on Gender Identity,” where Wood and Eagly (2015) discussed two traditions of research on gender identity: gender self-categorization and gender-typed traits. This commentary replies, with a focus on research and theory from the U.S., by noting the importance of each approach, but more importantly, by noting the areas of gender identity not addressed by Wood and Eagly. Issues of complexity discussed include the multidimensional nature of gender, the limitations of the gender binary system, intersectionality, and the developmental context. Also, this commentary provides advice for incorporating the developmental context in research on gender identity. The commentary concludes by discussing the usefulness of qualitative research methodologies for incorporating other complexities in research, but also notes the need for innovation in methodology to better reflect the complex nature of gender in research.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Gender in Context: Considering Variability in Wood and Eagly’s
           Traditions of Gender Identity
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper was written in response to Wood and Eagly’s (2015) feminist forum paper that proposes two traditions for gender identity research, a tradition based on gender-typed attributes and a tradition based on gender self-conceptualization. The present paper expands on Wood and Eagly’s (2015) framework by proposing, in line with social constructivist models, that both traditions of gender identity may be variable and context dependent. Specifically, the present paper reviews research conducted in the U.S.A. that suggests that gender-typed attributes and components of gender self-conceptualization may change based on contextual factors such as the gender of people in a person’s immediate context and the salience of gender in a given situation. The paper also reviews ways in which variation in gender-typed attributes and components of gender self-conceptualization has been measured previously, and suggests the use of experience sampling methodology for future research. Finally, the paper encourages researchers to consider Wood and Eagly’s (2015) suggestion of using the principle of compatibility when selecting trait or state measures of gender identity, and proposes that beliefs in gender essentialism (that gender differences are due to innate traits) may be reduced by understanding how contextual factors influence gender identity.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Disrupted Transition to Parenthood: Gender Moderates the Association
           Between Miscarriage and Uncertainty About Conception
    • Abstract: Abstract Miscarriage is a devastating yet common experience shared by women and their partners. Doctors often recommend that couples attempt to conceive again after the experience of a miscarriage, yet little is known about the emotional toll of conception following miscarriage. In the current study, we addressed two primary research questions: (a) How does experiencing a miscarriage relate to recalled emotional experiences of uncertainty surrounding efforts to conceive again? and (b) does gender moderate the association between miscarriage and retrospective accounts of emotions surrounding efforts to conceive? An online sample of parents from across the U.S. (N = 429; 84.4 % married or cohabiting) reported their number of prior miscarriages and completed online questionnaires assessing recalled psychological adjustment (anxiety, rumination, positive and negative emotions) during their efforts to conceive their youngest child. In addition, they provided written responses regarding their experiences during this time. Participants’ responses were quantitatively analyzed for word use using LIWC, a text-analysis software program, to obtain an observational indicator of emotions. For women but not men, miscarriage was associated with recalled anxiety, rumination, and negative emotions surrounding efforts to conceive a child, as well as the use of more negative emotion, sadness, and anxiety words when describing efforts to conceive. Thus, miscarriage seemed to taint the emotional experience of trying to conceive again, and this consequence seemed particularly poignant for women.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26
  • Sex and the Single (Neoliberal) Girl: Perspectives on Being Single Among
           Socioeconomically Diverse Young Women
    • Abstract: Abstract Young women’s orientation toward romantic relationships and being single is shaped not only by heteronormative gender expectations but also by their socioeconomic status (SES). The intersection of gender and class is itself situated in the midst of prevailing norms, including those stemming from neoliberal ideology. To learn how these normative conditions affect young women’s perceptions of being single, we analyzed open-ended survey responses from 274 single women in the U.S. who were between the ages of 18 and 22 and who occupied three distinct social locations: affluent undergraduates at a private mid-Atlantic university; low-SES undergraduates across New York State; and low-SES women in Western New York who were not in college. We identified eight themes that captured participants’ feelings about being single and assessed if and how the participants’ perceptions differed by social location. In the Discussion, we reflect on and summarize the thematic patterns found in participants’ responses, with affluent undergraduates seeming to characterize being single as positive and self-enhancing, the low-SES undergraduates seeing it as a strategy for self-advancement, and the low-SES non-students framing it in defensive, self-protective terms. Despite these differences, all participants seemed to draw on common neoliberal tenets. We argue that participants’ predominantly positive perspectives on being single may be at least partially attributed to commercialized feminism and an agency imperative that requires young women to cast all circumstances and conditions in light of individual choice, will, and responsibility.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26
  • Bodies After Babies: The Impact of Depictions of Recently Post-Partum
           Celebrities on Non-Pregnant Women’s Body Image
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study investigated the notion that the scrutiny of post-partum celebrity bodies by gossip media reinforces the message to all women that their bodies are vulnerable to close, critical scrutiny and that their value is contingent upon their appearance (e.g., Gentile 2011). Using objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997) and the media priming framework (Roskos-Ewoldsen and Roskos-Ewoldsen 2009), the present study examined the impact of depictions of post-partum celebrities on never-pregnant young women. College women (N = 127) were randomly assigned to view full-body images and accompanying photo captions depicting recently post-partum celebrities, headshot-only images and captions depicting the same recently post-partum celebrities, or control images and captions featuring home décor and travel destinations. Results revealed that assignment to both the full-body and headshot conditions resulted in higher state self-objectification compared to the control condition. However, those in the headshot condition reported higher body surveillance scores than those in the full-body condition. Results are discussed in light of objectification theory.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
  • School Gender Culture and Student Subjective Well-Being
    • Abstract: Abstract This study explores the impact of school gender culture in the United States on boys’ and girls’ attachment to school and symptoms of depression. We consider multiple dimensions of school gender culture and hypothesize that student subjective well-being is lower in schools with a lower percentage of females, stronger orientations toward marriage, more prevalent contact sports, and a student body that engages more often in fighting and drinking. xThe hypotheses are derived from theories of gendered organizations, heteronormativity, and hypermasculinity. Analyses of a national sample of middle and high school students in the U.S. (5,847 girls, 5,347 boys) from the 1994–95 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health show considerable variation in school gender cultures, and regression analyses yield some support for the hypotheses. A higher proportion of female students is associated with fewer depressive symptoms among girls as predicted, but weaker school attachment for boys. The results more consistently supported the hypotheses that student well-being suffers in schools where more classmates get into fights or get drunk. Finally, we find no evidence that student subjective well-being is affected by contexts in which marital plans are more prevalent or greater proportions of students play collision contact sports. We find some evidence that school gender composition and school contexts of fighting and drinking are consequential for student subjective well-being. We reject the hypothesis that school levels of marriage orientations and contact sports participation undermine student well-being. Overall, more work is needed in the conceptualization and measurement of school gender cultures.
      PubDate: 2015-11-25
  • Crossover, Degendering, or…? A Multidimensional Approach to
           Life-Span Gender Development
    • Abstract: Abstract Inspired by Sandra Bem and subsequent theorists, we examine gender as a multidimensional construct that differs across adulthood to test claims made by two different theories of life-span gender development—that men and women cross over and become more like the other gender with age, and that aging involves degendering or viewing gender as a less central aspect of the self. Self-report survey data from a U.S. sample of men and women recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (25–89 years, M age = 47.38, SD = 14.05) were used to investigate the extent to which stereotypically masculine traits; stereotypically feminine traits; androgyny; gender identification (i.e., identifying with one’s gender group and viewing this as a positive part of the self); and gender typicality (i.e., viewing oneself as a typical member of one’s gender group) differ between younger (i.e., under age 40), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40–59), and older men and women (i.e., age 60 and older) and by marital status. Results indicate that gender differences in stereotypically masculine and feminine personality traits exist, and that marital status moderates age and gender differences in traits. Among older men, those who are married are more likely to endorse stereotypically masculine traits, but also have higher androgyny scores than unmarried men. With age, both men and women perceive themselves as more typical examples of their gender group. Results are discussed as providing limited support for crossover theory, but not degendering.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23
  • Housework as Non-Normative Gender Display Among Lesbians and Gay Men
    • Abstract: Abstract I develop a theoretical extension of gender display through housework by incorporating a predicted aversion toward stereotypical gender displays with a tendency toward egalitarianism among lesbians and gay men. I hypothesized that women who express higher levels of stereotypically masculine traits would take on a smaller share of housework than women who express lower levels of masculinity, and that men with higher levels of stereotypically feminine traits would contribute a greater share of housework relative to men with lower levels of these traits, illustrating the display of non-normative gender. Among a sample of U.S. women (n = 116) and men (n = 128) in same-sex, co-residential relationships, the effect of stereotypically masculine traits on routine housework was negative and significant for women, but not men; the effect of stereotypically feminine traits was positive and significant for men, but not women, supporting both hypotheses. The findings provide preliminary evidence that those in same-sex relationships use routine housework for gender display, but only when expressing stereotypical, gendered traits not normatively associated with their sex. Overall, lesbians and gay men eschewed the normative alignment of sex, gender, and routine housework.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23
  • Enjoyment of Sexualisation and Positive Body Image in Recreational Pole
           Dancers and University Students
    • Abstract: Abstract The study aimed to investigate the construct of enjoyment of sexualisation and how it relates to positive body image. In addition to undergraduate university students, a sample of recreational pole dancers was included to demonstrate how results might generalise to an activity identified as representing both the potentially negative and positive aspects of enjoying sexualisation. Participants were 162 heterosexual Australian women aged 17–30 years from Adelaide, South Australia. They comprised 71 recreational pole dancers recruited from local recreational pole dance schools, and a group of 91 undergraduate students who were not currently participating in pole dance. Participants completed measures of enjoyment of sexualisation, self-objectification, embodiment, and positive body image. For recreational pole dancers, enjoyment of sexualisation was positively correlated with both self-objectification and embodiment which were, in turn, respectively negatively and positively correlated with positive body image. For university students, enjoyment of sexualisation was positively correlated with embodiment which was positively correlated with positive body image. Recreational pole dancers scored higher on embodiment and positive body image than university women. It was concluded that enjoyment of sexualisation is a multifaceted construct with both positive and negative aspects. Further, the sexually expressive component of enjoyment of sexualisation, in the case of embodying exercise such as recreational pole dance, may be beneficial for women’s positive body image.
      PubDate: 2015-11-23
  • Chivalry’s Double-edged Sword: How Girls’ and Boys’
           Paternalistic Attitudes Relate to Their Possible Family and Work Selves
    • Abstract: Abstract Paternalism refers to the ideology that women need men’s protection (Glick and Fiske 2001), which is associated with greater acceptance of the gender status quo (Jost and Kay 2005) and lower feelings of agency and competence among women (Dumont et al. 2010). To consider the potential impact of paternalistic attitudes during adolescence, we investigated girls’ and boys’ paternalistic attitudes in relation to their possible family and career selves. The sample comprised 201 U.S. adolescents from California high schools (M age  = 17.49 years; 46% girls) from ethnically diverse backgrounds (49% White, 26% Asian, 25% other). Participants completed survey measures of paternalistic attitudes, possible family and work selves, and other constructs. Possible work selves included occupations traditionally associated with men (computers, science, business/law, and action-oriented jobs [e.g., firefighter, mechanic]) or with women (elementary-school teacher and aesthetic-oriented jobs [e.g., fashion model, dancer]). There were significant average gender differences in paternalism (boys higher), future family hopes (girls higher), future careers associated with women (girls higher), and most future careers associated with men (boys higher); we found no significant gender difference in business/law career interest. Paternalistic attitudes significantly predicted several aspects of possible selves in hypothesized directions: future family hopes (positive association for girls and boys), future business/law and action-oriented careers (positive for boys), aesthetic-oriented careers (positive for girls), and science careers (negative careers). Other hypothesized patterns were not indicated. Findings are interpreted as reflecting the potential influences of paternalistic attitudes in the formation of adolescents’ possible family and work selves.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20
  • Boys Act and Girls Appear: A Content Analysis of Gender Stereotypes
           Associated with Characters in Children’s Popular Culture
    • Abstract: Abstract We conducted a content analysis of children’s products in U.S. popular culture that depict male and female characters to determine the extent to which gender stereotypes were portrayed. We examined popular Halloween costumes (90 female costumes and 90 male costumes) from popular retail websites, 79 popular dolls and 71 popular action figures from national store websites, and Valentines found at two national stores (portraying 54 female and 59 male characters). The coding system was adapted from several different studies. Female characters were far more likely than male characters to be depicted with traditional feminine stereotyped cues (e.g., decorative clothing) and sexually submissive, hyper-feminine cues (e.g., revealing clothing). Male characters were far more likely to be portrayed with traditional masculine characteristics like functional clothing and the body-in-motion, and they were often depicted with hyper-masculine accessories such as having a weapon. Implications for children’s gender-role development and the perpetuation of patriarchy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20
  • Final Editorial
    • PubDate: 2015-11-07
  • Authors’ Reply: Commentaries on Wood & Eagly’s (2015)
           “Two Traditions of Research on Gender Identity”
    • Abstract: Abstract We are pleased that the thoughtful commentaries on Wood and Eagly’s (2015) review accepted our distinction between gender identity research involving personality traits and research involving self-categorization into female or male groups. Although Schmader and Block (2015) argued that self-categorization is the clearer, more fundamental approach, we maintain instead that gender identities encompass both explicit categorization of self and the less explicit endorsement of gender-typical traits. In essence, the trait and categorization analyses are two sides of the same gender identity coin. We also largely agree with Keener’s (2015) and Mehta’s (2015) illustrations of the highly multidimensional and contextualized nature of gender identity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-02
  • Acknowledgments
    • PubDate: 2015-10-31
  • Guest Editor Acknowledgments: 2008–2016
    • PubDate: 2015-10-29
  • Feminine Role Norms Among Australian and Italian Women: a Cross-Cultural
    • Abstract: Abstract Australia and Italy are both nations where complex contradictions exist in the current social roles and expectations for women. The current study used the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI: Mahalik et al. 2005) to compare the endorsement of eight feminine norms (Nice in Relationships, Thinness, Care for Children, Modesty, Domestic, Romantic Relationships, Sexual Fidelity, Invest in Appearance) by samples of Australian and Italian women, and to demonstrate how any observed differences relate to social and historical differences between the two nations. Two hundred forty-six female undergraduate students from an inner-city university on the East coast of Australia and 187 female undergraduate students from two universities in North-East Italy completed the CFNI. Comparisons were made between the two samples on the eight norms that the inventory examines. Italian women endorsed the Domestic and Romantic Relationships norms to a greater degree than Australian women, whereas Australian women endorsed the Nice in Relationships, Modesty and Sexual Fidelity norms to a greater degree than Italian women. Both samples endorsed the Thinness, Care for Children and Invest in Appearance norms to a similar degree. The current results are discussed in terms of other relevant findings regarding women’s roles in the two nations. The results both highlight the need to avoid the assumption that Western cultures are uniform with their expectations of women, while emphasizing the central roles that physical appearance and child-rearing still play in women’s social roles.
      PubDate: 2015-10-13
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