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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1338 journals)
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SEXUALITY (51 journals)

Showing 1 - 51 of 51 Journals sorted alphabetically
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bagoas - Estudos gays: gêneros e sexualidades     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
GLQ : A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Transgenderism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Sexual & Reproductive Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mandrágora     Open Access  
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription  
Raheema     Open Access  
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Screen Bodies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Experience, Perception, and Display     Full-text available via subscription  
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sexual Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sexualization, Media, & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SQS - Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran lehti     Open Access  
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
TSQ : Transgender Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Cover Sex Roles
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 75]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2762 - ISSN (Online) 0360-0025
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Intersectional Masculinities and Gendered Political Consciousness: How Do
           Race, Ethnicity and Sexuality Shape Men’s Awareness of Gender Inequality
           and Support for Gender Activism'
    • Authors: Catherine E. Harnois
      Pages: 141 - 154
      Abstract: Abstract Gendered political consciousness refers to having an awareness of gender inequality, viewing this inequality as illegitimate, and supporting collective efforts to bring about greater gender equality. The present study draws from social psychology, theories of masculinities, and intersectionality to assess the factors associated with men’s political consciousness of gender. Multivariate regression analyses of data from the U.S.-based 2012 Evaluations of Government and Society Study (N = 598) (American National Election American National Election Study 2012) highlights how social statuses of race/ethnicity and sexuality—along with beliefs about racial/ethnic and sexuality-based inequalities—correlate with men’s awareness of gender inequality and support for women fighting for greater gender equality. Results show that Non-Hispanic Black men and married men are significantly more likely than are non-Hispanic White men and unmarried men to see high levels of gender inequality. Men who see high levels of racial/ethnic and sexuality-based inequalities are also significantly more likely to perceive high levels of gender inequality. Bivariate analyses show that Non-Hispanic Black men, as well as men who see high levels of other inequalities, are also more likely than are other men to support women fighting for greater gender equality, but in multivariate regression models these effects are eclipsed by political ideology—the single best predictor of men’s support for women fighting for gender equality. Results underscore the need to differentiate awareness of gender inequality and support for efforts to challenge gender inequality, and they highlight the potential of intersectionality for conceptualizing men’s gendered political consciousness.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0702-2
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • The Patriarchal Bargain in a Context of Rapid Changes to Normative Gender
           Roles: Young Arab Women’s Role Conflict in Qatar
    • Authors: Laurie James-Hawkins; Yara Qutteina; Kathryn M. Yount
      Pages: 155 - 168
      Abstract: Abstract Social norms in patriarchal countries in the Middle East are changing at differing rates. In Qatar, expectations about education have shifted, and women’s participation in higher education is normative. However, women’s participation in the workforce remains relatively low, and women still are expected to perform all household and child-rearing activities. Interviews with 27 18–25 year-old Qatari women enrolled in college in Qatar are used to illustrate the conflict between norms about education, workforce, and family. Many young women resolve this normative conflict by giving preference to family over work and education. Other women hold conflicting norms and goals for their future without acknowledging the normative conflict. Overall, young women in this sample feared divorce, were uncertain about customary family safety nets, and thus desired financial independence so they would be able to support themselves if they were left alone later in life due to divorce, or the death of their husband. The Qatari government should revisit the appropriateness of continuing to emphasize the patriarchal family structure and socially conservative family norms, if they desire to advance women in their society.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0708-9
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Gender Roles in the Arab World: Development and Psychometric Properties of
           the Arab Adolescents Gender Roles Attitude Scale
    • Authors: Kaltham A. Al-Ghanim; Abdallah M. Badahdah
      Pages: 169 - 177
      Abstract: Abstract Scant research has been conducted on gender in the Arab world; one explanation is due to a lack of Arabic measures on gender-related issues. To advance scientific work on gender in the Arab world, we developed the Arab Adolescents Gender Roles Attitude Scale (AAGRAS), the first known reliable and valid Arabic measure of gender-role attitudes. To develop this measure, we conducted two studies based on data collected from 776 high school students 15–19 years-old from the state of Qatar. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis produced 12 items divided equally into two subscales. One subscale assesses traditional gender-role attitudes, whereas the other measures egalitarian gender-role attitudes. Our findings indicate that young men are more likely to resist gender equality than young women are. Moreover, those who hold traditional attitudes are more likely to disapprove of women occupying positions of authority. The AAGRAS is a useful assessment tool that policymakers, researchers, practitioners, and educators can use to study gender-role attitudes in the Arab world and to develop educational and intervention programs that encourage adolescents to identify, confront, and avoid prejudice and discrimination against women and ultimately adopt more egalitarian gender roles.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0722-y
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Initial Development of a Gendered-Racial Socialization Scale for African
           American College Women
    • Authors: Danice L. Brown; Sha’Kema Blackmon; Christopher B. Rosnick; Felicia D. Griffin-Fennell; Rhonda L. White-Johnson
      Pages: 178 - 193
      Abstract: Abstract As research exploring the racial-ethnic socialization practices of African American families continues to expand, scholars have argued for a more multidimensional approach in the measurement of racial-ethnic socialization that focuses on the influence that youths’ gender may have on the messages families provide. Although studies have used current racial-ethnic socialization measures to examine gender differences in the messages youth receive, these studies are limited in investigating intersectional messages that African American girls and women receive regarding racial and gender identities. The present preliminary study sought to address this inadequacy by developing the Gendered Racial-Ethnic Socialization Scale for Black Women (GRESS-BW), a scale that accounts for the unique messages African American young women receive regarding their intersectional identities. Utilizing a sample of 174 African American college women, Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated that the GRESS-BW consisted of 63 items with a 9-factor solution. There was strong internal consistency for the GRESS-BW factors and the total scale. GRESS-BW construct validity assessment revealed that several of the factors were significantly positively related to a racial-ethnic socialization scale. However, only two components were significantly related to a gender-role socialization measure. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0707-x
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Gender, Sacrifices, and Variability in Commitment: A Daily Diary Study of
           Pregnant Heterosexual Cohabitors and their Partners
    • Authors: Nazlı Büşra Akçabozan; Brandon T. McDaniel; Shannon A. Corkery; Melissa A. Curran
      Pages: 194 - 208
      Abstract: Abstract We use interdependence theory and the inertia model to examine how gender and daily relational sacrifices predict daily variability in relationship commitment across a week in 43 U.S. couples who are unmarried cohabitors expecting their first child together (total of 455 days of data). We examined three variants of daily relational sacrifices: frequency, ease, and awareness for both individuals and partners, and we tested for gender differences. Using an Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), we found that both women and men reported lower variability in commitment when men were perceived as highly aware of the sacrifices made for them. Additionally, women experienced lower variability in commitment when their male partners reported engaging in easier sacrifices. In contrast, women reported higher variability in commitment when they reported greater frequency of sacrifices for their partner. The results can be of practical use for practitioners working with expectant cohabitors and their partners given the unique role gender plays relative to how sacrifices shape variability in daily commitment.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0716-9
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Social Support and Postpartum Depression Revisited: The Traditional Female
           Role as Moderator among Mexican Women
    • Authors: Analia F. Albuja; M. Asunción Lara; Laura Navarrete; Lourdes Nieto
      Pages: 209 - 220
      Abstract: Abstract Women who lack social support tend to have a higher risk of postpartum depression. The present study examined the traditional female role, understood here as the adoption of passive and submissive traits specific to Mexican women, as another risk factor for postpartum depressive symptomatology that interacts with social support. Using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of 210 adult Mexican women (20–44 years-old, M age = 29.50 years, SD = 6.34), we found that lacking social support during the third trimester of their pregnancy was associated with greater depressive symptoms at 6 months in the postpartum, although this relationship depended on the level of endorsement of the traditional female role during pregnancy. Lower social support during pregnancy predicted greater postpartum depressive symptoms for women with higher endorsement of the traditional female role, even when accounting for prenatal depressive symptoms. These results suggest that Mexican women’s experience of social support may depend on their individual adherence to gender roles. Understanding the association between women’s traditional roles and social support in the risk for postpartum depression can improve prevention and educational programs for women at risk.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0705-z
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Minority Stress and the Risk of Unwanted Sexual Experiences in LGBQ
    • Authors: Gabriel R. Murchison; Melanie A. Boyd; John E. Pachankis
      Pages: 221 - 238
      Abstract: Abstract Sexual assault is prevalent among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) college students, but its relationship to anti-LGBQ stigma has not been established. The goal of the present study was to determine whether minority stress, specifically internalized homophobia, predicted unwanted sexual experiences among LGBQ undergraduates (N = 763), whether routine behaviors (number of consensual sexual partners and alcohol use) mediated this relationship, and whether sense of LGBTQ community was a protective factor. Significant proportions of sexual minority men (10 %), women (18 %), and non-binary or transitioning students (19 %) reported an unwanted sexual experience since entering college. Internalized homophobia was associated with greater risk of unwanted sexual experiences. It also had a negative indirect effect on unwanted sexual experience risk through a negative association with number of sexual partners. Alcohol use did not mediate the relationship between internalized homophobia and unwanted sexual experiences. Sense of LGBTQ community was associated with lower risk, mediated by lower levels of internalized homophobia. The relationships between internalized homophobia and unwanted sexual experience risk were similar for women and men. These findings demonstrate that minority stress increases LGBQ students’ risk of sexual victimization and that in-group social relationships can mitigate this risk. We argue that minority stress is an important risk factor for sexual violence. Violence prevention interventions should attempt to reduce internalized homophobia, and colleges and high schools should establish LGBQ-affirming social climates and provide resources for LGBQ students, including targeted violence prevention efforts and programs that foster a sense of supportive community.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0710-2
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Hispanic College Men's Perceptions of Appropriate Strategies for
           Initiating Sexual Intercourse with Women
    • Authors: Dionne P. Stephens; Asia A. Eaton; Brittany Boyd
      Pages: 239 - 253
      Abstract: Abstract Research on heterosexual college students’ sexual activity finds that men are typically the initiators of sexual intercourse. However, few studies examining college students’ sexual experiences have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations. The present study uses sexual scripting frameworks and qualitative methods to provide an in-depth examination of the sexual initiation perceptions of 45 Hispanic college men who have sex with women. Two broad themes were uncovered: (a) men’s perceptions about when sexual intercourse should first be initiated and (b) the kinds of behaviors men saw as appropriate for initiating sexual intimacy. Hispanic college men reported that the status of the relationship and partners’ mutual desire most strongly influenced their decisions about when to initiate sex. Few men ascribed to a normative time frame for initiating sexual intercourse. The most commonly reported approach used to initiate sex was non-verbal communication, followed by indirect verbal communication, direct verbal communication, and waiting for the woman to initiate. Although machismo beliefs were acknowledged as part of men’s cultural reference for masculinity, they felt they were not central to their own sexual initiation experiences or beliefs. Our findings advance our knowledge of the processes contributing to college men’s personal desires and beliefs about engaging in sexual activity, which has important implications for developing effective campus-based efforts addressing the communication of sexual consent.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0709-8
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Mathematics—a Critical Filter for STEM-Related Career Choices' A
           Longitudinal Examination among Australian and U.S. Adolescents
    • Authors: Helen M. G. Watt; Janet S. Hyde; Jennifer Petersen; Zoe A. Morris; Christopher S. Rozek; Judith M. Harackiewicz
      Pages: 254 - 271
      Abstract: Abstract Although women have made progress in entering scientific careers in biology, they remain underrepresented in mathematically intensive fields such as physics. We investigated whether gender differences in mathematics motivation and socialisers’ perceptions impacted choices for diverse STEM careers of varying mathematical intensity. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, we tested structural equation models in which adolescents’ preferred careers related to each of physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics were predicted by prior mathematical performance, motivations, and mothers’ perceptions. We explored potential differences in gendered processes of influence using multigroup models. Samples were 331 Australian adolescents followed from 9th to 11th grade in 1998 and 277 U.S. adolescents from 9th to 12th grade in 2009–10. In both samples female adolescents preferred biological careers more than males did; male adolescents preferred physics-related careers and also mathematical careers in the Australian sample. Mothers’ perceptions were important to female and male adolescents’ mathematics motivations; gendered motivations were more evident in the Australian sample. Mathematics interest played the strongest role in male adolescents’ preferred careers, whereas actual or perceived mathematical achievements were most important for females, demonstrating the impacts of mathematical motivations on preferences for diverse STEM careers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0711-1
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Of Tooth and Claw: Predator Self-Identifications Mediate Gender
           Differences in Interpersonal Arrogance
    • Authors: Michael D. Robinson; Jessica L. Bair; Tianwei Liu; Matthew J. Scott; Ian B. Penzel
      Pages: 272 - 286
      Abstract: Abstract Men often score higher than women do on traits or tendencies marked by hostile dominance. The purpose of the present research was to contribute to an understanding of these gender differences. Four studies (total N = 494 U.S. undergraduates) administered a modified animal preference test in which participants could choose to be predator or prey animals, but not labeled as such. Men were consistently more interested in being predator animals than women were, displaying a sort of hostile dominance in their projective preferences. Predator self-identifications, in turn, mediated gender differences in outcomes related to hostile dominance. Studies 1 and 2 provided initial evidence for this model in the context of variations in interpersonal arrogance, and Studies 3 and 4 extended the model to nonverbal displays and daily life prosociality, respectively. The findings indicate that gender differences in hostile dominance are paralleled by gender differences in preferring to think about the self in predator-like terms. Accordingly, the findings provide new insights into aggressive forms of masculine behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-016-0706-y
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • Returning to Matter
    • Authors: Bethany Morris
      Pages: 287 - 289
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0748-9
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • New Academic Scientists Want Work-Family Balance: Are Universities Keeping
    • Authors: Amy M. Brausch
      Pages: 290 - 291
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0753-z
      Issue No: Vol. 77, No. 3-4 (2017)
  • More than a Media Moment: The Influence of Televised Storylines on
           Viewers’ Attitudes toward Transgender People and Policies
    • Authors: Traci K. Gillig; Erica L. Rosenthal; Sheila T. Murphy; Kate Langrall Folb
      Abstract: Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated the power of entertainment narratives to influence attitudes and behaviors; fewer have examined the effects of TV portrayals on attitudes toward marginalized groups. The present study is among the first to explore how entertainment narratives depicting transgender individuals influence viewers’ attitudes toward transgender people and related policies. The study examines the impact of exposure to a TV storyline on Royal Pains (USA Network) and cumulative effects of viewing other TV series featuring transgender individuals. An online survey of 488 U.S. viewers of Royal Pains was conducted (391 had seen the relevant episode). ANCOVAs revealed exposure to both the Royal Pains’ storyline and other storylines portraying transgender individuals were associated with more supportive attitudes toward transgender people and policies. Mediation models revealed that for viewers of the Royal Pains’ storyline, the relationships between political ideology and attitudes toward transgender people and policies were mediated by identification with the main characters and the emotion of hope. Disgust mediated viewers’ attitudes toward transgender people, but not policies. Post hoc analyses revealed that exposure to transgender narratives reduced the influence of viewers’ political ideology on their attitudes. The attitudes of more conservative viewers became increasingly positive as they saw more media portrayals of transgender individuals. These findings highlight the potential for entertainment narratives to influence attitudes toward marginalized groups, and they demonstrate the importance of emotion in the context of divisive topics. Social, political, and public health implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0816-1
  • Effects of Principal-Teacher Gender Similarity on Teacher’s Trust and
           Organizational Commitment
    • Authors: Izhak Berkovich
      Abstract: Abstract In many Western public primary school systems, the gender composition of the principals is more heterogenic than that of the teachers, but research on the effect of gender on social psychological processes related to school leadership is scarce. The present work aims to address this lacuna by exploring the effects of principal-teacher gender similarity in the Israeli public primary school system, where most teachers are women, on teachers’ trust in their principals and on organizational commitment. Data from 594 female public primary teachers working with male and female principals were analyzed. The results show that when the principal and teacher are of the same gender, both affective and cognitive trust in the principal are higher. Moderation analysis indicated that female teachers’ affective trust in male principals increases with relational duration. A second moderation effect that was found indicated that gender similarity and cognitive trust in principal have a negative interactive effect on teachers’ continued commitment to school, countering the positive effect of gender similarity on commitment. The results and their implications are discussed, and future research is recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0814-3
  • Gender, Emotions Management, and Power in Organizations: The Case of
           Israeli Women Junior Military Officers
    • Authors: Tair Karazi-Presler; Orna Sasson-Levy; Edna Lomsky-Feder
      Abstract: Abstract Through in-depth retrospective interviews with 25 women officers in the Israeli military, we discovered that their experiences with power are central to their military experience even years after their discharge. The interviewees conveyed a dialectical emotional experience of power, interpreting it as a source of pleasure and empowerment and a source of shame at the same time. The women are made to feel ashamed because, according to accepted gendered beliefs, they crossed gender boundaries and used military power preserved exclusively for masculine use. Shame is a disciplinary mechanism through which women learn to obey normative gender arrangements and thus should be understood as an invisible block preventing women’s promotion and mobility. These dual perceptions show the inherent gendered boundaries of military power and women's place in the military power hierarchy. The politics of emotion, in this case, should be analyzed as an intersubjective surveillance and self-regulatory mechanism, which could illuminate hidden corners of organizations wherein masculine authority is preserved and reproduced through indirect and murky methods. Hence, women's perceptions of power are a key tool for understanding gender dynamics and may contribute to identifying and deciphering unspoken practices as well as helping to change them.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0810-7
  • Rape Myths and Hookup Culture: An Exploratory Study of U.S. College
           Students' Perceptions
    • Authors: Timothy T. Reling; Michael S. Barton; Sarah Becker; Matthew A. Valasik
      Abstract: Abstract The present study provides the first known systematic examination of the association of hookup culture endorsement and rape myth acceptance. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the primary hypothesis that hookup culture endorsement would be the primary predictor of rape myth acceptance levels among a sample of 422 U.S. college students. Findings indicated the existence of a complex relationship in which rape myth acceptance increases or decreases based upon the form of hookup culture endorsement examined. Beliefs that hookups are harmless and elevate social status increased rape myth acceptance, whereas beliefs that hookups express sexual freedom decreased rape myth acceptance. Furthermore, results supported the hypothesis that hookup culture endorsement was the largest predictor of rape myth acceptance. Consistent with previous studies, the predictive power of gender and religiosity in determining levels of rape myth acceptance were shown to be significant. When controlling for levels of hookup culture endorsement, the explanatory power of these variables decreased, and hookup culture endorsement had the largest effect upon rape myth acceptance levels.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0813-4
  • Building a Pink Dinosaur: the Effects of Gendered Construction Toys on
           Girls’ and Boys’ Play
    • Authors: Megan Fulcher; Amy Roberson Hayes
      Abstract: Abstract Play with building toys such as LEGO® sets promotes spatial learning in children. The present study examined the effects of the color of the bricks (either pink or blue) and the femininity/masculinity of the object built on boys’ and girls’ play with LEGO® sets. Children (n = 116, M age  = 7.27 range = 5–10) were given the opportunity to build with LEGO® brick sets, both instructed and free play tasks. For the instructed task, the type of object (feminine: cat; masculine: dinosaur) and color of the bricks (pink, blue) were counterbalanced across participants. Their play was coded for accuracy of following the instructions and time to complete the task. In the free play task, brick color (pink, blue) was counterbalanced across participants, and structures were coded for femininity/masculinity and the number of bricks used. Overall, children took longer to build a feminine object with blue bricks than with pink bricks. In the free-play task, boys built more masculine objects than girls did, regardless of the color of bricks they were given. Results showed that boys completed the LEGO® tasks faster than did girls, controlling for interest in and experience with LEGO® play. These findings suggest that toy color and type can impact how children interact and play with toys.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0806-3
  • A Critical Examination of the Reliability and Validity of a Gender Role
           Attitude Scale in Flanders (Belgium): What Lessons Can be Learned'
    • Authors: Myriam Halimi; Els Consuegra; Katrien Struyven; Nadine Engels
      Abstract: Abstract Western societies have shifted toward more egalitarian gender role attitudes (GRA). Quantitative research on GRA has been critiqued for not having kept up with societal changes in GRA. GRA scales are claimed to lack discriminative power and not fully capture the diversity within non-traditional attitudes. The present study gives an overview of the theoretical critiques with regard to GRA scales and empirically assesses these critiques. A typical example of a GRA scale measuring adolescents’ GRA in Flanders (Belgium) is used to test the scale’s quality across three waves of surveys completed by 4063 early secondary school students. Our analysis identifies the drawbacks of this particular scale. First, a ceiling effect was found, with most respondents being egalitarian. Second, the representativeness of roles inquired about is restricted; relevant societal domains are not questioned and most roles are only questioned for one gender. Third, a gender-binary approach is dominant. Finally, our results confirm that adolescents demonstrate ambivalent feelings toward balancing female employment and motherhood; although paid employment is encouraged, childcare is prioritized. We recommend that other researchers critically examine the usability and quality of GRA scales in today’s society. Using outdated GRA scales might conceal the ambivalence that adolescents feel due to new gender inequities. Also, investing in structures and regulations supporting the work-family balance is key in further promoting gender equity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0807-2
  • Shades of Sexualization: When Sexualization Becomes Sexual Objectification
    • Authors: Fabio Fasoli; Federica Durante; Silvia Mari; Cristina Zogmaister; Chiara Volpato
      Abstract: Abstract Sexualization in mass media is a widespread phenomenon. Although sexualization and sexual objectification are often used as synonymous, they are two different concepts. Across two studies, we investigated how sexualization affects perceptions of women (Study 1) and men (Study 2) as sexual objects. Participants were asked to judge sexual objectification, competence, and sexiness of female and male models portrayed with different degrees of sexualization, namely, as Non-Revealing (dressed), merely Revealing (undressed), and Sexualized Revealing (undressed and provocative). The results of both studies showed that as the level of sexualization increased so did participants’ perceptions of the targets as sexual objects. However, the level of sexualization affected perceived competence and sexiness differently depending on the target’s gender. Male models’ competence decreased as the level of sexualization increased, whereas female models portrayed as merely Revealing and as Sexualized Revealing were judged as equally incompetent. Male targets’ sexiness was not affected by the level of portrayals’ sexualization, whereas Sexualized Revealing portrayals enhanced the perceived sexiness of female targets. Finally, in Study 2, the results showed that male targets in Sexualized Revealing portrayals were judged as less masculine. Our findings suggest that sexualization contributes similarly to the perception of both women and men as sexual objects but affects other variables depending on the target’s gender. Our work extends previous literature and informs us about the consequences that sexualization of men and women have on others’ judgments.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0808-1
  • Individual, Interpersonal, and Sociostructural Factors Influencing Partner
           Nonmonogamy Acceptance among Young African American Women
    • Authors: Ashley C. Lima; Teaniese Latham Davis; Karen Hilyard; Kathleen deMarrais; William L. Jeffries; Jessica Legge Muilenburg
      Abstract: Abstract In 2015 in the United States, the HIV diagnosis rate among African American women was 16 times that of White women, and HIV especially affected young African American women. African American women’s partnerships with nonmonogamous men may be one factor contributing to this disparity. Previous research has not adequately described factors influencing acceptance of partner nonmonogamy among African American women. To better understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 11 African American women aged 18–24 years-old who reported having sex in the past 3 months and reported knowing or suspecting a partner to have another female partner in the past 12 months. We employed a semi-structured interview guide designed to elicit in-depth, narrative responses from women about their partnerships. We used narrative analysis to interpret findings. Participants described factors that encouraged acceptance of partner nonmonogamy. These factors were social (i.e., limited partner availability, gender norms, and cultural norms), interpersonal (i.e., partner-specific comfort, sexual connection and emotional attachment, and casual partnership type), and intrapersonal (i.e., low self-esteem, loneliness, and fatalistic attitudes about nonmonogamy) in nature. The sociocultural context in which young African American women develop sexual partnerships may influence their attitudes, expectations, and behaviors within these partnerships and place them at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0811-6
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