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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1423 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
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SEXUALITY (51 journals)

Showing 1 - 51 of 51 Journals sorted alphabetically
AIDS and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bagoas - Estudos gays: gêneros e sexualidades     Open Access  
Cadernos de Gênero e Diversidade     Open Access  
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Transgenderism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Black Sexuality and Relationships     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sexual & Reproductive Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mandrágora     Open Access  
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription  
Raheema     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Revista Periódicus     Open Access  
Screen Bodies : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Experience, Perception, and Display     Full-text available via subscription  
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexes     Open Access  
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sexual Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sexualization, Media, & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SQS - Suomen Queer-tutkimuksen Seuran lehti     Open Access  
Theology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Cover Sex Roles
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 75]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2762 - ISSN (Online) 0360-0025
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • When Sexism Leads to Racism: Threat, Protecting Women, and Racial Bias
    • Authors: Jean M. McMahon; Kimberly Barsamian Kahn
      Pages: 591 - 605
      Abstract: The stated goal of protecting White women from harm has been used, historically and contemporarily, as a pretext for racial violence. Two studies explored the relationship between protective paternalism (the belief that men should protect and care for women—part of benevolent sexism; Glick and Fiske 1996) and anti-minority racial attitudes. In Study 1 (n = 474, 61% women, 61% White), survey data found that protective paternalism was related to anti-Black bias, but only for White respondents. Study 2 (n = 242, 52% women, 74% White) experimentally manipulated feelings of threat to test for increases in protective paternalism and its corresponding effect on three anti-minority racial attitudes. For male participants only, threat (i.e., reading about recent increases in violent crime) increased endorsement of protective paternalism, which was in turn associated with a more negative view of immigration, and, for White men only, less support for policies that benefit racial minority groups and greater denial of racial bias in policing. Threat did not increase protective paternalism in female participants. For White men in particular, news of crime and danger increases racial bias by first increasing the desire to protect women. Policymakers should be aware that framing policies around safety concerns or appealing to the protection of women might unintentionally bolster anti-minority racial prejudices.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0828-x
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • Too Many Boxes, or Not Enough' Preferences for How We Ask About Gender
           in Cisgender, LGB, and Gender-Diverse Samples
    • Authors: Kristin A. Broussard; Ruth H. Warner; Anna R. D. Pope
      Pages: 606 - 624
      Abstract: As U.S. society has become more aware of gender identity issues, there has been a push for more inclusive demographic categories that go beyond the traditional gender binary of male/female. In three studies, we assessed the attitudes of U.S. cisgender men and women across sexual orientations (Study 1), heterosexual cisgender men and women (Study 2), cisgender LGB men and women (Study 3), and transgender and gender non-binary individuals across sexual orientations (Study 3) regarding different formats of gender questionnaires. Studies 2 and 3 showed a strong overall preference for the non-binary formats. Across all three studies, preferences for the binary format and objections to the non-binary formats were related to gender-binary beliefs, distinctiveness threat, cisgender and mostly heterosexual male participants, conservative political orientation, and religiosity. These findings suggest that general opposition to utilizing non-binary formats may be influenced by institutionalized binary gender norms and heteronormativity. Across both cisgender and gender-diverse samples, most participants preferred a non-binary gender question format, and gender-diverse individuals overwhelmingly preferred the expanded format. We suggest that those who collect gender data use the expanded format in order to be more inclusive and allow gender-diverse individuals to identify themselves if they choose to do so.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0823-2
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and
           Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts
    • Authors: Jan Kornelis Dijkstra; Christian Berger
      Pages: 625 - 636
      Abstract: The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms (n = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms (n = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms (n = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 (M age = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0818-z
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • “One Doesn’t Slap a Girl but…” Social Representations and
           Conditional Logics in Legitimization of Intimate Partner Violence
    • Authors: Solveig Lelaurain; David Fonte; Marie-Anastasie Aim; Nicolas Khatmi; Thibaut Decarsin; Grégory Lo Monaco; Thémis Apostolidis
      Pages: 637 - 652
      Abstract: The present research, which fits into the conceptual framework of social representations, aims to analyze the impact of gender and legitimizing ideologies on the evaluation of intimate partner violence (IPV). Using an inductive mixed methods approach, two studies were conducted in a French context. In Study 1, 24 participants were asked to express their views about a vignette describing an IPV case during semi-structured interviews. In Study 2, 123 participants completed a questionnaire which was based on the results of Study 1. They were asked to evaluate the severity and justification for this same IPV case in relation to several situations identified in interviews. They also completed two scales measuring adherence to ideologies legitimizing male dominance: the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and the Domestic Violence Myth Acceptance Scale. Results show expressed ambivalence by participants between condemnation of IPV and the use of conditional logics in order to minimize or justify it. The expression of this reasoning was determined by social regulations such as the situations in which the violence occurred and adherence to legitimizing ideologies. Our results are relevant for campaigns raising awareness and educational programs that take into account social representations underlying IPV legitimization.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0821-4
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • “The Heart Desires but the Body Refuses”: Sexual Scripts, Older
           Men’s Perceptions of Sexuality, and Implications for Their Mental and
           Sexual Health
    • Authors: Sylivia Karen Rutagumirwa; Ajay Bailey
      Pages: 653 - 668
      Abstract: We use sexual scripting theory in the present paper to gain a better understanding of older men’s perceptions of their sexuality in relation to dominant Tanzanian cultural norms of masculinity. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 older men, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with 60 men aged 60–82. Participants’ recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies. Consistent with the principles of grounded theory, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Our findings indicate that Jando (male initiation rites) serves as a script for male sexuality that outlines the expectations and rewards of male sexuality. Adhering to masculine sexual script affects older men’s perceptions of their sexuality in later life and has detrimental effects on their well-being. Older men were concerned with changes in their sexual life, such as the decline in their sexual performance. The majority of the participants said they felt emotionally distressed about the age-related decline in their body and in their sexuality, and they reported that their inability to conform to male sexual scripts undermined their sense of masculinity. Several of the participants reported that in an effort to regain their previous sexual performance, they had turned to remedies and strategies of questionable appropriateness and effectiveness. Our study suggests that older men may benefit from age-related interventions tailored to their cultural background. These interventions may require trained health care providers on mental health issues to bridge the gap between the internalized scripts of ideal male sexuality and the reality of aging.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0822-3
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • Parental Gender Expectations by Socioeconomic Status and Nativity:
           Implications for Contraceptive Use
    • Authors: Goleen Samari; Kate Coleman-Minahan
      Pages: 669 - 684
      Abstract: Parental gender expectations, which may be egalitarian or not, could vary by nativity and socioeconomic status. Parental gender expectations provide a model for children’s gender role attitudes and could also have effects on reproductive health over the life course, including women’s contraceptive choices. Yet, parental gender expectations are not often studied quantitatively. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine how parental gender expectations in the United States vary by immigrant generation and socioeconomic status, whether parental gender expectations in adolescence are associated with young women’s contraceptive use, and if nativity moderates that relationship. Results show that parental gender expectations vary significantly by immigrant generation and parental socioeconomic status. Both first and second generation women are significantly less likely to have lived in households with equal gender expectations compared to the third generation. Higher socioeconomic status is associated with equal gender expectations. Among participants from households with equal gender expectations, the second generation is more likely than the third generation is to use a male-controlled contraceptive method versus no method. Using a nationally representative sample, our study demonstrates that parental gender expectations vary by nativity and by the socioeconomic context of the family in which they are embedded as well as have a unique effect on the contraceptive behavior of second generation women.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0820-5
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • Menstrual Knowledge and Taboo TV Commercials: Effects on
           Self-Objectification among Italian and Swedish Women
    • Authors: Giuliana Spadaro; Sara R. G. d’Elia; Cristina O. Mosso
      Pages: 685 - 696
      Abstract: Despite menstruation being a physiological phenomenon in women’s life, social research has highlighted that there are still many taboos, also conveyed by advertising, which prevent an open discourse on the topic and can have negative impacts on women’s well-being. The present study examined the influence of the exposure to existing TV advertisements for sanitary napkins depicting menstruation as a taboo on self-objectification in women from Italy (n = 160) and Sweden (n = 159). To do so, we also investigated the moderating role of menstrual knowledge in this relationship. Our findings showed that in the Italian sample, exposure to the taboo TV commercial led to more self-objectification especially for participants with lower knowledge of menstruation. These effects did not occur for their Swedish counterparts, showing no differences in self-objectification when women were exposed to the taboo advertisement. The present results are discussed in light of cultural differences in sexual and menstrual education between the two countries. Theoretical and practical implications are drawn.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0825-0
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • “Clean and Fresh”: Understanding Women’s use of Vaginal
           Hygiene Products
    • Authors: Amanda L. Jenkins; Sara E. Crann; Deborah M. Money; Kieran C. O’Doherty
      Pages: 697 - 709
      Abstract: We explore Canadian women’s use of vaginal hygiene products including feminine washes, douches, sprays, deodorants, wipes, and powders. Vaginal hygiene products in North America are part of a two billion dollar industry, which focuses on cleanliness and freshness in their advertising toward women. In interviewing women who were currently using or had previously used vaginal hygiene products, we found that vaginal cleanliness and freshness were also frequently brought up as reasons for using these products. Using an inductive thematic analysis informed by Braun and Clarke (2013) we explore how attaining a clean-and-fresh vagina has become a subjective physical need for the participants in our study. In a society where female genitalia are constructed as unclean, we argue the marketing of vaginal hygiene products contributes to the problematization of women’s genitalia by suggesting women need to use these products to attain an ideal (i.e., clean and fresh) vagina. The reliance on vaginal hygiene products reported by participants in attaining sensations of vaginal cleanliness and freshness raises concerns in the context of medical literature suggesting adverse health risks that may result from using some of these products. Potential risks include bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and a higher susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, among others. We believe that companies that advertise these products as beneficial for vaginal health and hygiene can be perceived as not just misinforming women but also profiting from products that are harmful.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0824-1
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • “Hasn’t Anything Changed'” Resilience, Creativity, and Privilege
           in Women’s Lives in the Academy
    • Authors: Eileen L. Zurbriggen
      Pages: 710 - 712
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0867-3
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • Shedding Light on the Reality of Smart Girls
    • Authors: Brooke Palmer; Heather Brown
      Pages: 713 - 714
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0843-y
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 9-10 (2018)
  • How Masculinity Impacts Workplace Experiences
    • Authors: Theresa J. Brown
      Pages: 587 - 588
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0899-3
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 7-8 (2018)
  • Balancing the Books: Working Toward Equality in Schools
    • Authors: Lisa H. Rosen; Erica Weisgram
      Pages: 589 - 590
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-017-0891-3
      Issue No: Vol. 78, No. 7-8 (2018)
  • A Short-Term Longitudinal Exploration of the Impact of TV Exposure on
           Objectifying Attitudes Toward Women in Early Adolescent Boys
    • Authors: Ann Rousseau; Rachel F. Rodgers; Steven Eggermont
      Abstract: The present study aimed to examine the relationships over time between television viewing (music and tween TV) and boys’ endorsement of sexualized gender roles, that is, views of women as sex objects and men as sexually dominant, as well as a tendency to objectify women’s bodies. As an additional question, we were interested in how parental socialization to gender roles related to these pathways. A sample of 496 Belgian boys aged 11.18 years (SD = 1.06, range = 9–13), participated in a longitudinal study and completed measures three times at 6-month intervals. Findings revealed that music TV was associated with increases in views of men as sexually dominant. Tween TV was associated with increases in views of women as sex objects, which in turn was associated with increased objectification of women’s bodies among adolescents who experienced high levels of gender-typical socialization from their parents. These findings suggest that media exposure among early adolescent boys may contribute to the development of sexually objectifying attitudes toward women. In addition, they highlight the critical role of parents in modulating the effect of media exposure and suggest the usefulness of engaging parents in interventions aiming to decrease these deleterious effects.
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0925-5
  • A Test of the Three-Component Model of Gender-Based Prejudices: Homophobia
           and Transphobia Are Affected by Raters’ and Targets’ Assigned Sex at
    • Authors: Craig T. Nagoshi; J. Raven Cloud; Louis M. Lindley; Julie L. Nagoshi; Lucas J. Lothamer
      Abstract: The present study tested a three-component model of homophobia and transphobia that differentiates between general and specifically gender-based social threats that motivate these prejudices. A sample of 187 female and 107 male heterosexual U.S. college undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete survey measures of homophobia and transphobia with either born-female (lesbian and female-to-male transgender, respectively) or born-male (gay man and male-to-female transgender, respectively) targets, as well as measures of religious fundamentalism, right wing authoritarianism, aggression, and ambivalent sexism. The participant by target-gender interaction for transphobia showed that transphobia was particularly high for male participants judging born-male transgender targets. Possibly reflecting a fear of any social non-conformity, religious fundamentalism and right wing authoritarianism were positively correlated with homophobia and transphobia regardless of participant or target gender. Possibly reflecting specific fears among men about threats to male privilege, physical aggression proneness was strongly positively correlated with homophobia and transphobia for men judging a male target. Aggression proneness was also positively correlated with homophobia for women judging a female target. Possibly reflecting specific fears among women about threats to female social roles, benevolent sexism was only positively correlated with transphobia for female but not for male participants, with no target-gender difference. Benevolent sexism was also correlated with homophobia for female participants judging a male target. These findings were largely supportive of the three-component model of gender-based prejudice.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0919-3
  • Her/His Ethics' Managerial Ethics in Moral Decision-Making from a
           Contextual, Gendered, and Relational Perspective
    • Authors: Yona Miller; Ronit Kark; Noam Zohar
      Abstract: For the last decades, the question of differences in the moral judgments of women and men and the role of an “ethics of care” versus an “ethics of justice” have been debated. The aim of the present study was to explore the gendered aspects of leaders’ moral judgments and how they interact with more communal (health/welfare services) versus agentic (banking) organizational contexts. Using qualitative-interpretative analysis, 50 men and women Israeli managers participated in in-depth interviews focused on the ways they construct, understand, and react to ethical work dilemmas. Results suggested that both gender and organizational context contributed to shaping the managers’ understandings and decisions regarding the ethical dilemmas in their work. Additionally, the relational target of the dilemma (i.e., clients, employees, supervisors) and situational variables (e.g., ambiguity) affected their moral judgments. Although feminist scholars often have claimed that the ethics of care is excluded from organizational discourse, our findings show that the ethics of care is a significant model for understanding managerial moral judgments. We discuss implications for managers and consultants regarding training of responsible leaders who can represent different moral orientations in their work with multiple stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0920-x
  • Responding to Sexual Objectification: The Role of Emotions in Influencing
           Willingness to Undertake Different Types of Action
    • Authors: Lee Shepherd
      Abstract: Women may respond to being sexual objectified in different ways, such as confronting the perpetrator, ignoring the action, blaming oneself or considering the action as flattering. However, there has been little research looking at what predicts each of these different responses. The present research assessed the role of emotions in promoting and deterring different anticipated responses to sexual objectification. In both Studies 1 (n = 189) and 2 (n = 187), female participants were asked to imagine themselves in a situation where they received an inappropriate sexual comment. Participants then rated the emotions they believed they would feel and how they thought they would act in the situation. I found that expecting feelings of anger resulted in women thinking they would confront the perpetrator (i.e., undertake an active response) and that expecting disgust negatively predicted the belief that they would view the action as flattering (i.e., anticipate a benign response). By contrast, expecting shame resulted in women believing they would blame themselves (i.e., undertake a self-blame response). Study 2 also found that expecting pride was positively associated with anticipating a benign response. These findings suggest that the emotions that women expect to feel influence their anticipated responses to sexual objectification. It is, therefore, important to consider the emotional reactions that women have to instances of sexual objectification.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0912-x
  • Empowering Mimicry: Female Leader Role Models Empower Women in Leadership
           Tasks Through Body Posture Mimicry
    • Authors: Ioana M. Latu; Marianne Schmid Mast; Dario Bombari; Joris Lammers; Crystal L. Hoyt
      Abstract: In two studies we investigated the behavioral process through which visible female leader role models empower women in leadership tasks. We proposed that women tend to mimic the powerful (open) body postures of successful female role models, thus leading to more empowered behavior and better performance on a challenging leadership task, a process we called empowering mimicry. In Study 1, we experimentally manipulated the body posture of the male and female role models and showed that 86 Swiss college women mimicked the body posture of the female (ingroup) but not the male (outgroup) role model, thus leading to more empowered behavior and better performance on a public speaking task. In Study 2, we investigated the boundary conditions of this process and showed that empowering mimicry does not extend to exposures to non-famous female models among 50 Swiss college women. These findings suggest that nonverbal mimicry is one important mechanism through which female leader role models inspire women performing a challenging leadership task. From a practice perspective, our research underscores the importance of female leaders’ visibility because visibility can drive other women’s advancement in leadership by affording women the opportunity to mimic and be empowered by successful female role models.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0911-y
  • Narratives of Israeli Women in Retirement: Rewriting the Gender Contract
    • Authors: Nitza Berkovitch; Shlomit Manor
      Abstract: In the present study, we analyze how older Israeli women narrate, make sense of, and negotiate their lives after retirement. By center-staging women in their life periods of after-care work and paid work, we join emerging feminist research that aims at correcting the middle-age bias in gender studies and the gender bias in retirement studies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 20 Israeli Jewish heterosexual women of varied class backgrounds who retired in the last 10 years. Conceptualizing retirement as an embedded experience and using the concept of gender contract as an analytical tool, we highlight how retired women employed two contradictory discourses, familial and individualistic, both prominent in the Israeli context, to renegotiate and rewrite the gender contract. They did so by constituting themselves as autonomous and independent subjects whose past devotion to others alongside their arduous labor has granted them the right to space and time of their own. They also redefine their maternal role so they keep their motherly duties to help “as much as needed” but on their own terms. Our study shows that putting older women at the center requires rethinking existing concepts. It reveals that individualism as a meaning system is not relevant to all equally, rather it depends on the intersection of a person’s gender with stage in life, and that the gender contract varies not only by geographical and social location but also across the life-course.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0918-4
  • Examining the Roles of Self-Objectification and Appearance Expectations in
           Young Women’s Indoor Tanning Behavior
    • Authors: Sophia Choukas-Bradley; Jacqueline Nesi; Laura Widman; Seth M. Noar
      Abstract: Indoor tanning among U.S. young women is a major public health concern that increases risk for skin cancer. Many young women engage in indoor tanning despite the risks, and prior evidence suggests that appearance-related motivations for tanning may outweigh health concerns. The present study examined appearance expectations as a mediator of the association between young women’s self-objectification and indoor tanning behavior. Emerging adult college women (n = 332, 18–19-years-old; 66.9% White) provided reports of their self-objectification (operationalized as body surveillance), appearance-related tanning expectations, body esteem, and indoor tanning behavior. Results revealed that higher levels of self-objectification were indirectly associated with women’s higher likelihood of indoor tanning. This association was mediated by positive appearance expectations for tanning. These associations appeared to be robust: The mediational model was significant whether body esteem was included as a control variable or not; whether the behavioral outcome was lifetime or past-year indoor tanning; and whether the sample included only White participants or was ethnically heterogeneous. Results suggest that young women who more frequently engage in self-objectification are more likely to engage in indoor tanning and that this association is explained in part by young women’s positive appearance-related expectations for tanning. Furthermore, the findings point to indoor tanning as an important and understudied correlate of self-objectification. A deeper understanding of women’s appearance-related motivations to tan may in turn facilitate the development of more effective interventions for this high-risk behavior, which remains troublingly common among young women in the United States.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0913-9
  • Gender, Masculinity Threat, and Support for Transgender Rights: An
           Experimental Study
    • Authors: Brian F. Harrison; Melissa R. Michelson
      Abstract: We explore how gender, attitudes about traditional gender roles, and threats to masculinity and femininity affect U.S. participants’ support for transgender rights. First, we present analyses using data from the 2016 pilot survey of the American National Election Survey (ANES) showing how men and women differ in their attitudes toward transgender people as measured by thermometer ratings toward transgender people and questions about perceptions of whether they are victims of discrimination. Next, we describe our randomized laboratory experiment, testing three hypotheses/predictions: (a) that men are less supportive of transgender people and rights than women are, (2) that threatening a man’s masculinity increases opposition to transgender rights whereas threatening a woman’s femininity has no effect, and (3) that this effect will be stronger among men who report that their gender identity is very important to them. Consistent with existing scholarship, we find that women are more supportive of transgender rights compared to men. More importantly, we also find that threatened masculinity is an even better predictor of opposition to transgender rights than gender identity. In short, we find that attitudes toward transgender people and rights are closely linked with the way people think and feel about their own gender identity and expectations of gender performance.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11199-018-0916-6
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