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Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bridges : A Jewish Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GLQ : A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Transgenderism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription  
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Theology and Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
TSQ : Transgender Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Cover   Sex Roles
  [SJR: 0.836]   [H-I: 53]   [10 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2762 - ISSN (Online) 0360-0025
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2300 journals]
  • Perceptions of Dating Behavior: The Role of Ambivalent Sexism
    • Abstract: Abstract This research investigates whether ambivalent sexism impacts individuals’ perceptions of what is appropriate and valued dating behavior, as these perceptions may contribute to the perpetuation of traditional dating scripts. Two hundred seventeen undergraduate students from the Midwestern United States read a gender-stereotypic, gender-counter stereotypic, or egalitarian heterosexual dating vignette. Participants made judgments of appropriateness, warmth, and competence separately for the man and woman on the date. Overall, gender stereotypic dates were evaluated most positively, consistent with previous work suggesting that dating behaviors remain gendered. Evidence of the restrictive nature of the masculine gender role was obtained. Men in egalitarian and counter-stereotypic dating scenarios were evaluated negatively in terms of warmth, competence, and appropriateness, thus potentially experiencing backlash effects. Indeed, the man in the gender counter-stereotypic condition was rated as less competent, warm, and appropriate than the women, but the man in the gender stereotypic condition was rated as more competent, warm, and appropriate than the woman. Consistent with predictions, those high in ambivalent sexism had more negative reactions to gender counter-stereotypic dating scenarios than those low in ambivalent sexism. However, ambivalent sexism did not predict different reactions towards gender stereotypic and egalitarian dating scenarios, and egalitarian dates were rated as most typical regardless of participants’ ambivalent sexism. Thus, greater acceptance of gender counter-stereotypic dates was observed among those low in ambivalent sexism, and even those high in ambivalent sexism were accepting of egalitarian dating practices.
      PubDate: 2015-02-28
  • How Women of Color Detect and Respond to Multiple Forms of Prejudice
    • Abstract: Abstract The processes by which women of color and White women living in the United States detect and respond to prejudice may differ because women of color experience racism, sexism and intersectional bias. This review builds on past research by articulating how existing process models of stigmatization, when applied to the stigmatization of women of color, leave important research questions unanswered. Stigmatized individuals’ interpretations of and responses to others’ behaviors are continuously shaped by the possibility that they will be targeted by prejudice. In each interaction in which prejudice is plausible, targets first determine whether they have experienced prejudice and, if so, they cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of prejudiced treatment. Current theories of stigmatization best account for the experiences of people who face only one form of prejudice. In contrast, we consider how women of color, who possess multiple stigmatized identities, respond to the multiple forms of prejudice they face. First, we identify barriers to including women of color in stigma research. Second, we describe research examining how targets with one stigmatized identity detect, respond to and cope with prejudice. Third, we draw on related research on multiple identities in areas outside of the stigma literature (e.g., intergroup bias, cognition) to raise questions that are important to address in future stigma research. Our analysis is supported primarily by research conducted in the U. S. Addressing the research questions raised in this review will position the stigma literature to more readily capture the stigmatizing experiences of women of color.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
  • Reciprocal Relationships Between Music Television Exposure and
           Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviors: The Role of Perceived Peer Norms
    • Abstract: Abstract A three-wave panel study (2010–2011) was conducted among 515 adolescents in Belgium (Flanders) (mean age = 14.07) to examine the role of perceived male and female peer norms in the reciprocal relationship between music television exposure and sexual behavior. Structural equation models revealed several unexpected findings. First, the previously reported reciprocal relationships between sexual behavior and sexual media use appears to be dependent on the gender of the adolescent. It was found that music television exposure directly affected sexual behavior in boys, while, the reverse effect, the direct influence of sexual behavior on music television exposure, was found among girls. Second, results showed an indirect impact of sexual behavior on boys’ and girls’ music television exposure through perceptions of male peers’ sexual behavior. More specifically, sexually active boys and girls were demonstrated to believe that many of their male and female peers were also sexually active; however, among boys, the perceptions of the sexual activities of same-gender peers resulted in increased music television exposure, whereas among girls, the perceptions of the sexual activities of male peers resulted in decreased music television exposure. The discussion focuses on the explanation and understanding of these (unexpected) findings in the context of gender differences in sexual socialization.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
  • Ready for Anything the World Gives Her? : A Critical Look at
           Sports-Based Positive Youth Development for Girls
    • Abstract: Abstract Girl-centered sport and physical activity programs that are grounded in a positive youth development approach have grown tremendously in the United States since the 1990s. While research on the efficacy of sports-based positive youth development is limited, recent studies conducted in the United States suggest these programs yield benefits. Our assessment of the literature and programming efforts however highlight a significant gap in the theoretical assumptions of girl-centered, sports-based positive youth development: an understanding of the complexity of sport and physical activity within a gendered context. Focusing on the U.S. context and using a feminist sociological lens, we articulate a paradox in these programs: sport participation and physical activity can improve girls’ lives along numerous psycho-social dimensions, yet in absence of attention to the social and political context of gender relations, girl-centered, sports-based positive youth development programs risk unwittingly maintaining the gender status quo. We review three specific critiques to illustrate this paradox: 1) the emphasis on the individual and the immediate context of girls’ lives masks larger systems of inequality and privilege; 2) the use of post feminist narratives, such as Girl Power, suggests girls live in a world beyond sexism; and 3) the focus on reducing the childhood “obesity epidemic” through fitness contributes to harmful fat phobic messages for girls. We offer recommendations that assist programs in leveraging their existing strengths to have a meaningful impact on girls’ lives, and that address cultural and structural factors as well as individual and interpersonal ones.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20
  • Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Teacher Autonomy Support
           and Amotivation in Physical Education
    • Abstract: Abstract Using the taxonomy of amotivation as theoretical framework, this study was designed to examine gender differences in the relationship between teacher autonomy support, amotivation and intention for future physical education participation. An amotivation model addressing the relationship was hypothesized and tested. Three hundred thirty four high school students (177 boys and 157 girls) from a major Midwest metropolitan area in the United States completed questionnaires assessing their relevant psychological and behavioral constructs. Path model analyses supported the model tenability but revealed several gender-specialized characteristics. Although girls demonstrated overall higher amotivation and were more likely to be influenced by inadequate teacher autonomy support, boys showed more strength than girls in the negative impact of amotivation on the intention. It is suggested that gender plays a significant role in amotivation development in physical education. The gender differences should be identified, appreciated, and instructionally addressed to enhance students’ participation in physical education.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12
  • Unbuttoned: The Interaction Between Provocativeness of Female Work Attire
           and Occupational Status
    • Abstract: Abstract Gender-biased standards in United Kingdom (UK) workplaces continue to exist. Women experience gender discrimination in judgements of competence, even by other women. Clothing cues can subtly influence professional perceptions of women. The aim of this study was to investigate how minor manipulations to female office clothing affect the judgements of competence of them by other UK females and to examine whether such effects differ with occupational status. One group of female university students (n = 54) and one group of employed females (n = 90), all from London and the East of England, rated images of faceless female targets, on a global competence measure derived from six competence ratings (of intelligence, confidence, trustworthiness, responsibility, authority, and organisation). The dress style was conservative but varied slightly by skirt length and the number of buttons unfastened on a blouse. The female targets were ascribed different occupational roles, varying by status (high – senior manager, or low - receptionist). Participants viewed the images for a maximum of 5 s before rating them. Overall participants rated the senior manager less favourably when her clothing was more provocative, but more favourably when dressed more conservatively (longer skirt, buttoned up blouse). This interaction between clothing and status was not present for the receptionist. Employed participants also rated females lower than did student participants. We conclude that even subtle changes to clothing style can contribute towards negative impressions of the competence of women who hold higher status positions in a UK cultural context.
      PubDate: 2015-02-09
  • The Challenges of Israeli Adolescent Girls: Gender Differences in Observed
           Autonomy and Relatedness in Adolescent-Mother Interactions
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined gender differences in autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-mother interactions, to evaluate two competing notions. The first, based on social role theory, suggested that girls and their mothers would show lower autonomy and higher relatedness than boys and their mothers. The second, stemming from the psychodynamic perspective, suggested that girls would show higher autonomy than boys, and that girls and their mothers would show lower relatedness than boys and their mothers. Participants were 122 Jewish Israeli mothers and their 16.5 years old adolescents (58.19 % girls) from middle class families residing in northern and central cities in Israel. Dyads were observed during a family disagreement (i.e., a high-conflict condition) and while planning a vacation (i.e., a low-conflict condition). Autonomy and relatedness of each participant in each task were coded using the Individuality and Connectedness Q-sort (Bengston & Grotevant 1999). Our findings indicated that girls displayed higher autonomy than boys across the two conflict conditions. In addition, girls and their mothers showed lower relatedness than boys and their mothers, but only under the high-conflict condition. These results are in line with the notions offered by the psychodynamic perspective. They reveal the unique challenges which Jewish Israeli girls and their mothers may face with respect to autonomy and relatedness, and highlight the importance of assessing autonomy and relatedness under varied conflict conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06
  • Male Graduate Students at a “Women’s College”: Examining
           the Roles of Academic Motivation, Support, Connection, and Masculinity
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite recent statistics indicating that men lag behind women in higher education enrollment and degree attainment, little research has focused on male graduate students. The current study examined 110 male graduate students at a female-concentrated university located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. This study hypothesized that university connection, perceptions of academic supports, and academic motivation related to male graduate students’ intentions to stay at and graduate from the university. The study further hypothesized that masculinity ideology would moderate the relationship between university connection, perceptions of academic supports, and academic motivation and their intentions to stay at and graduate from the university. Data from multiple regression analysis found that academic motivation and university connection were significant predictors of intentions to stay at the university. Moderation analysis indicated that traditional masculinity ideology was a positive moderator between support and intentions to stay. Implications of the findings for future research and helping male graduate students succeed are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-01-26
  • Women’s Work? Predictors of Young Men’s Aspirations for
           Entering Traditionally Female-dominated Occupations
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to extend Gottfredson’s (1981) theory of circumscription and compromise by examining how gender role attitudes, peers, educational aspirations, family background, race/ethnicity, and labor market factors predict the degree to which young men aspired toward more (or less) female-dominated occupations. Two waves of data from male respondents to the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR), a nationally representative dataset of U.S. teens, were analyzed (N = 1,157). Most independent variables were obtained from the first wave of data, conducted in 2002 to 2003, when the young men were between the ages of 13 and 17. Occupational aspirations were obtained from the second wave, conducted in 2005, when the young men were ages 16 to 21. Two methodological approaches were utilized. A logistic regression predicted the odds of male respondents aspiring to a female-dominated occupation compared to a male-dominated occupation. An ordinary least squares regression predicted the percentage of current jobholders who were female in the respondents’ aspired occupations. Findings revealed that the proportion of one’s friends who were female, parental educational attainment, and the projected growth of an occupation were positively correlated with aspiring toward female-dominated occupations and the percent femaleness of those occupations. The median income of an occupation was negatively associated with aspiring toward female-dominated occupations and the percent femaleness of those occupations. Educational aspirations, holding conservative gender role attitudes, and being Black were associated with the percent of female job incumbents but not the likelihood of aspiring to a female-dominated occupation.
      PubDate: 2015-01-25
  • How Women’s Perceptions of Peer Weight Preferences Are Related to
           Drive for Thinness
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine how women’s perceptions of their peers’ weight preferences were related to drive for thinness. First, we examined the degree to which women were accurate in their perceptions of the female body sizes that their male and female peers preferred. Second, we examined the perceived weight preferences of women’s female peers, male peers, close peers, and distant peers to determine whether women perceived these peer groups as having different weight preferences for women’s body size. Finally, we investigated whether drive for thinness was related to the degree that women felt discrepant from their peers’ weight preferences. One hundred and thirty-three women from a small, liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States completed an online survey that included measures of actual and perceived weight preferences, drive for thinness, and demographic information. Information on actual weight preferences were also collected from 44 men to provide information about male peers’ weight preferences. Results indicated that women underestimated the body size that both women and men most preferred. Second, women perceived their female peers as preferring a thinner female size than their male peers, and their distant peers as preferring a thinner body size than their close peers. Finally, women who perceived their body size as being discrepant from the preferences of their close peers’ weight preferences, particularly close female peers, exhibited greater drive for thinness.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
  • Understanding the Relationships Among White and African American
           Women’s Sexual Objectification Experiences, Physical Safety Anxiety,
           and Psychological Distress
    • Abstract: Abstract Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) asserted that sexual objectification experiences are likely related to women’s physical safety anxiety; however, to date, very few studies have examined this relationship. Using a sample of 228 U.S. undergraduate women (n = 133 Black/African American; n = 95 White) from a Southeastern university, this study explored the relationships among sexual objectification experiences, physical safety concerns (i.e., perceived risk of crime, fear of crime, and fear of rape), and overall psychological distress. Findings revealed that Black/African American women reported more sexual objectification experiences and fear of crime than White women. Results of a measured variable path analysis suggested that perceived risk of crime fully mediated the relationships between sexual objectification experiences and fear of crime for both groups of women. Moreover, perceived risk of crime fully mediated the relationship between sexual objectification experiences and psychological distress for Black/African American women, but not White women. For White women only, fear of rape partially mediated the relationship between perceived risk of crime and fear of crime, and perceived risk of crime fully mediated the relationship between sexual objectification experiences and fear of rape. Taken together, the results suggest that a sociocultural context that objectifies women and their bodies is related to their sense of safety and security in the world.
      PubDate: 2015-01-15
  • Probability Values and Human Values in Evaluating Single-Sex Education
    • Abstract: Abstract Around the globe, educational opportunities and outcomes have long varied in relation to student gender. Within the United States, a particularly intense and growing controversy concerns whether education should be delivered in single-sex contexts. This paper offers a broad framework for approaching this controversy. I review arguments made by historical and contemporary proponents of gender-differentiated education, concluding that these reveal a foundational commitment to gender essentialism (rather than to gender constructivism more commonly embraced by critics of single-sex schooling). I suggest that different gender conceptualizations and different professional traditions affect the kind of data one collects, weighs, and reports. Gender conceptualizations also affect the valence assigned to the amplification or attenuation of gender differences in educational, career, or personal student outcomes. I then propose that other kinds of human values are also relevant to the controversy. Given that in justifying their position, advocates of single-sex public education have recently been focusing less on gendered brain differences and more on the expansion of educational choice, I focus especially on the value of choice. Using arguments paralleling those found in critiques of the U.S. charter-school movement, I suggest that decisions about school choice necessarily entail judgments about a range of goals and human priorities. I close by suggesting that a resolution of the controversy about single-sex education cannot be reached through empirical data alone, but will require discussions of gender conceptualizations, what constitutes evidence, ideal educational outcomes, and broader human values.
      PubDate: 2015-01-13
  • Choice of Retirement Funds in Chile: Are Chilean Women More Risk Averse
           than Men?
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined the investment decisions of women and men in Chile who were contributing to Chile’s mandatory defined contribution (DC) retirement plan, using a large survey of participants (2782 people) conducted in 2009 by Chile’s Subsecretariat of Social Protection. The basic research question was whether Chilean women were more risk averse in their retirement investment decisions than Chilean men. Chile’s retirement plan offers a default plan for those who do not want to manage their funds. For those wishing to manage their investments, it offers five funds varying in risk from an all bond fund to a fund that is primarily stocks. There was no significant difference in the percentage of men and women choosing the default funds. We used probit analysis to determine what demographic factors affected the choice of the default fund, and found that younger people and men with less education and less income were more likely to choose the default; only age was significant for women. We found no significant gender differences in the fund choices of active investors. We conducted linear regression analysis by gender, where the dependent variable was the fund, with fund 1 having the lowest risk and fund 5 having the highest risk. We found that that the risk taking decreased with age and increased with financial knowledge, psychological risk tolerance, income and unemployment. Chilean women and men seemed similar in their investment decisions.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06
  • An Interdisciplinary, Multi-level, Cross-Cultural Analysis of
           Globalization, Women’s Work, and So Much More
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • An Objective look at Early Sexualization and the Media
    • PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Bias-motivated Aggression against Men: Gender Expression and Sexual
           Orientation as Risk Factors for Victimization
    • Abstract: Abstract Bias-motivated aggression is an ongoing problem in the United States, and data show that men comprise the majority of both perpetrators and victims of these types of offenses. Although gay men appear to be at particular risk for victimization, theory suggests that aggression of this type may be understood as a way to preserve exclusive masculine identity and in-group status by punishing those men who step outside rigidly constructed gender boundaries, rather than as a reaction to target sexual orientation alone. As such, studies investigating gender non-conformity as it interacts with gay identity are needed to elucidate how both target gender expression and sexuality potentiate risk for victimization. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of men's sexual orientation and gender expression on the perpetration of bias-motivated aggression. One-hundred two undergraduate men in the Southeastern U.S. participated in a bogus reaction-time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible opponent as a measure of aggression. Participants were assigned to one of four opponent conditions (masculine, gay man; feminine, gay man; masculine, heterosexual man; feminine heterosexual man), as part of a 2x2 factorial design. It was predicted that the most aggression would occur toward a gay, feminine opponent. Contrarily, findings indicated that most aggression was evinced toward a feminine heterosexual opponent. Results are discussed in terms of heterosexual men’s nonconformity and the influence of in-group/out-group dynamics on bias-motivated aggression.
      PubDate: 2014-12-23
  • The Effect of Functionality- and Aesthetic-Focused Images on Australian
           Women’s Body Satisfaction
    • Abstract: Abstract Negative effects of viewing images of thin and attractive models have been well documented. However, these models are typically presented in an objectified, passive form with a focus on the aesthetic qualities of the body. Little is known about women’s responses to models presented in an active form, with a focus on athleticism and performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test body conceptualization theory by exposing women to models presented with a focus on the body-as-object (BAO), the body-as-process (BAP), or images of scenery, and to examine whether a desire to achieve an athletic body interacted with these effects. A convenience sample of 160 women was recruited from the general public, gyms, and university in a regional Australian area. Participants completed pre- and post-test measures of state mood, fitness and body satisfaction as well as a trait measure of athletic internalization. Results showed that exposure to either BAP or BAO images produced similar negative outcomes compared to exposure to scenery. Thus, emphasis on performance cues still elicits negative self-evaluations. However, differences between women high and low on athletic internalization were primarily found in response to the BAO images. That is, women who desired an athletic physique reported greater depression, anger and feelings of fatness after viewing the posed models compared to women who expressed less desire for an athletic body shape. Further research is needed around the ways in which athletic images and athletic internalization can be used to foster a more positive body image.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18
  • Interpersonal Weight-Related Pressure and Disordered Eating in College
           Women: A Test of an Expanded Tripartite Influence Model
    • Abstract: Abstract Research has demonstrated that interpersonal weight-related pressures and criticisms are related to body dissatisfaction among college women. Further, research has suggested that romantic partners, in comparison to family and peers, play an increasingly important role in college women’s body dissatisfaction. However, research has been inconsistent on the roles that these sources of interpersonal weight-related pressure and criticism play in college women’s body dissatisfaction. The influence of romantic partners on college women’s body dissatisfaction is important to examine given that college women are developmentally at a time in their lives where issues related to romantic relationships become more salient. Even more, understanding of the influences on college women’s body dissatisfaction and resultant disordered eating is critical so that effective prevention and intervention efforts can be developed. Thus, this study examined the influence of family, peer, romantic partner, media weight-related pressures and criticisms on body dissatisfaction and resultant disordered eating (i.e., dieting and bulimic behaviors) among college women. Participants included undergraduate college women (N = 246) recruited from introductory psychology courses from a mid-sized U.S. Midwestern university. Women completed paper and pencil surveys for course credit. Path analytic results demonstrated that partner and media pressures were related to internalization of the thin ideal, and that family, peer, and media pressures along with internalization of the thin ideal were related to body dissatisfaction. Moreover, body dissatisfaction was related to maladaptive dieting and bulimic behaviors. Prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing the impact of various forms of weight-related pressure, especially the media, appear crucial.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09
  • Not the Sum of Its Parts: Decomposing Implicit Academic Stereotypes to
           Understand Sense of Fit in Math and English
    • Abstract: Abstract Stereotypes about gender differences in math and English ability are pervasive. The current research decomposes math and English stereotypes in order to examine the relationship between the four independent components of these stereotypes (i.e., the stereotypic men-math association, the counter stereotypic men-English association, the counter stereotypic women-math association, and the stereotypic women-English association) and students' sense of fit in math and English. 371 undergraduate men and women from a private university located in the Southern United States participated in the current study. Participants completed the Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT) to assess the independent stereotype components, followed by composite measures of sense of fit in math and English. For women, the women-math association and the women-English association (i.e., ingroup components of stereotypes), and not the men-math and men-English associations (i.e., outgroup components of stereotypes), predicted sense of fit in math and English. For men, only the men-math association predicted sense of fit in English. We discuss the implications of these findings for interventions aimed at improving students' sense of academic fit.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
  • Motives for Exercise in Undergraduate Muslim Women and Men in Oman and
           Pakistan Compared to the United States
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study we examined motives for exercise as well as the frequency and amount of time spent in exercising in female and male undergraduates in two Muslim countries [Oman, n = 104 and Pakistan, n = 134] as compared with those of U.S. undergraduates [n = 560]. As predicted, overall levels of exercise activity were found to be lower in undergraduates from Pakistan and Oman than in the U.S. sample, and higher in men than women across all three countries. Muslim women were least likely to exercise with the modal groups for both countries not exercising at all. Gender and country differences were more evident in reports of frequency and duration of exercise than in thinking about exercise. Thoughts about exercise predicted frequency and duration of exercise in all gender by country groups. Improving health was especially important as a reason for exercise for the Omani students, as predicted, although this motive was even higher in the Omani women than men. Pakistani women and men were motivated by wanting to relax (as predicted) and improve their appearance, an unexpected finding. For Spending Time with Others, Oman was highest, followed by Pakistan, and with the U.S. lowest, a result not predicted, although the more communal Muslim cultures may help explain this finding.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
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