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  Subjects -> SOCIAL SCIENCES (Total: 1307 journals)
    - BIRTH CONTROL (20 journals)
    - CHILDREN AND YOUTH (251 journals)
    - FOLKLORE (32 journals)
    - HOMOSEXUALITY (39 journals)
    - MATRIMONY (16 journals)
    - MEN'S INTERESTS (18 journals)
    - MEN'S STUDIES (149 journals)
    - SOCIAL SCIENCES (541 journals)
    - WOMEN'S INTERESTS (39 journals)
    - WOMEN'S STUDIES (202 journals)

HOMOSEXUALITY (39 journals)

Archives of Sexual Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bridges : A Jewish Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cadernos Pagu     Open Access  
Cuadernos Kóre     Open Access  
Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Gay and Lesbian Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Genre, sexualité & société     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GLQ : A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Human Reproduction Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Transgenderism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bisexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of GLBT Family Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Homosexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Lesbian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of LGBT Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of LGBT Youth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sex Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Psychology & Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
QED : A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking     Full-text available via subscription  
Religion and Gender     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Seksuologia Polska     Full-text available via subscription  
Sex Roles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sexual and Relationship Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sexualities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Sexuality & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Sexuality and Disability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sexuality Research and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Theology and Sexuality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
TSQ : Transgender Studies Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Cover   Sex Roles
  [SJR: 1.202]   [H-I: 61]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-2762 - ISSN (Online) 0360-0025
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Gender and Bullying: Application of a Three-Factor Model of Gender
           Stereotyping
    • Abstract: Abstract The Three-Factor Model (Choi, Fuqua & Newman, 2008, 2009), which consists of a feminine factor and two masculine ones, seems especially appropriate for explaining the influence of gender-stereotypic traits on bullying, since it specifically differentiates between “social masculinity”, the first masculine factor, dealing with behaviors toward others, and “personal masculinity”, the second masculine factor, tapping the personal dimension. Our study aims at examining the relation between social masculinity and bullying, the prediction being that bullying will be more strongly related to social masculinity traits of power and social dominance. The Personality Traits Questionnaire (López-Sáez, Morales & Lisbona, 2008) was administered, together with the Instrument to assess the Incidence of Involvement in Bullying/Victim Interactions at School (CAME, Rigby & Bagshaw, 2003), to 2560 native Spanish High School students from Castilla-La Mancha and Castilla-León. The appropriateness of the Three-Factor Model for the explanation of bullying was tested via regression computed separately for the boys and the girls to see which factors most predict bullying. It was found that bullies, boys as well as girls, were higher in social masculinity traits. No differences appeared in femininity between students involved in bullying and those not involved. Regarding the Three-Factor Model, the social masculinity factor did explain aggression both for boys and girls, while femininity was significant only for girls. In the final discussion some implications for educational practice are suggested.
      PubDate: 2015-03-14
       
  • Male-Male Advising Relationships in Graduate Psychology: A Diminishing
           Dyad
    • Abstract: Abstract In this article, we seek to advance the study of vocational gender dynamics by exploring a profession in the midst of a marked shift in gender composition – applied professional psychology. Although this field has historically been dominated by men, the ratio of men to women has drastically shifted (Levant 2011; Willyard 2011). It is within this vocational context that we examine the interplay between masculinity and applied psychological training; specifically, within the student-professional relationships formed by males in U.S. graduate psychology programs. Towards this larger goal, we present a review of existing literature. All studies included in this review are based on U.S. samples unless otherwise noted. We begin with a review of established masculine constructs, and highlight research that has examined these among men working or training within the field of mental health. Next, we present research on student-professional relationships, paying specific attention to studies on advising within applied psychology programs. With this literature review in tow, we discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of the all-male advisory dyad; these considerations are inclusive to dual theoretical conceptualizations of masculine identity (i.e., deficit model, positivistic model). We also addresses issues that may be raised by multiple cultural identities within these relationships (e.g., race, sexual orientation) with the support of research related to intersectionality. Finally, implications for training, as well as suggestions for future research are offered. Among other conclusions, we assert that applied psychology advisors, and their graduate programs more broadly, attend to aspects of masculinity during training.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
       
  • Types of Combined Family-to-Work Conflict and Enrichment and Subjective
           Health in Spain: A Gender Perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract Family-to-work conflict and enrichment indicate how participation in the family can influence negatively or positively participation at work, respectively. These experiences have been proved to co-occur within individuals at different levels and explain their well-being in a more nuanced way than conflict and enrichment in isolation. This study examines how Spanish women and men experience conflict and enrichment concurrently in different types and the consequences to their subjective health. First, in line with social role theory and the gendered division of household labor, we hypothesized on gender differences in the types of combined conflict and enrichment experiences. Second, incorporating theory on conservation of resources and identity, we hypothesized on the consequences of the specific types of combined conflict and enrichment to subjective health from a gender perspective. Using chi-square test on a sample of 236 women and 165 men, we confirmed that women and men differed in their types of combined conflict and enrichment experience: the beneficial (higher enrichment than conflict) and active types (similar higher conflict and enrichment) were mainly composed of women whereas the passive type (similar lower conflict and enrichment) was mainly composed of men. Using a MANOVA, we confirmed that the types of combined conflict and enrichment explained significant differences in subjective health in a similar way for women and men. Overall the findings debunk the belief that higher participation in family roles interferes with work more negatively among women, or that higher participation in family roles affect their health more negatively than men. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
       
  • How Healthy are Health Magazines? A Comparative Content Analysis of
           Cover Captions and Images of Women ’ s and Men ’ s Health
           Magazine
    • Abstract: Abstract The current study investigated how “health” messages are marketed to men and women on the newsstand covers of two magazines published under the same brand name and by the same company in the United States (Rodale, Incorporated). Fifty-four covers of Men’s Health and Women’s Health magazine, published between 2006 and 2011, were content analyzed. All captions were coded for message theme, and prominent captions (the caption that covered the greatest amount of surface area on the page) were categorized for type of frame used. The number of objectifying phrases (phrases emphasizing the human body as an object for observation rather than a body with capabilities) used within prominent captions on covers was quantified. Cover portrait images were also assessed for whether models were partially or fully clothed. Findings demonstrated that Men’s and Women’s Health were equally likely to display objectifying statements on their covers, but Women’s Health covers promoted more feminine beauty/thin-ideal messages than Men’s Health covers; whereas Men’s Health covers promoted muscularity more than Women’s Health covers. None of the prominent captions were categorized as reflecting health-related frames for either magazine type. Overall, cover captions fit traditional gender-role stereotypes. Implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-12
       
  • Re-assessing the Role of Gender-Related Cognitions for Self-Esteem: The
           Importance of Gender Typicality for Cisgender Adults
    • Abstract: Abstract Gender-related cognitions have been central to accounts of well-being in children and adults in the United States. Yet, the child and adult literatures are currently not aligned in how they measure these experiences, creating an asymmetry in scientific understanding. The current investigation aligns these literatures by using the short-form of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem 1981) (adult literature) and a modified version of Egan and Perry’s (2001) Gender Typicality Scale (child literature) with cisgender (i.e., those whose current gender identity is the same label as their birth-assigned category) adult participants. These measures were used to determine the relative contributions of each to self-esteem using nonprobability samples of heterosexual and queer (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual, and asexual) women and men in the United States. The analyzed groups consisted of cisgender individuals: heterosexual women (N = 97), heterosexual men (N = 90), queer women (N = 83), and queer men (N = 51). All groups showed significant contributions of adult gender typicality to self-esteem, over and above the BSRI dimensions. Thus, both self-reported gender typicality and self-reported endorsement of certain BSRI dimensions are important indicators of well-being in cisgender adults in the United States.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
       
  • Defiantly Fat, Gay, and Sexual: Negotiating Shame of Size and Sexuality
    • PubDate: 2015-03-11
       
  • The Empowering (Super) Heroine? The Effects of Sexualized Female
           Characters in Superhero Films on Women
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was conducted with female undergraduates in the Midwestern region of U.S. to examine the potential positive and negative influences of the gendered depictions of women in superhero films. This study utilized social cognitive and objectification theory frameworks to experimentally examine the short-term effects of exposure to sexualized female characters in superhero films on 83 female viewers’ gender role beliefs, body esteem, and self-objectification. Results show that exposure to the sexualized-victim images of women in superhero films decreased egalitarian gender role beliefs. Exposure to the sexualized-heroine images resulted in lower body esteem. Additionally, a positive effect emerged with a greater belief in the importance of body competence to the self-concept for women who were exposed to the superheroine characters. This study demonstrates short-term effects from viewing sexualized images of women in superhero films and provides a significant understanding of how sexualized female representations may impact gender related beliefs as well as perceptions of one’s self-esteem and body objectification.
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
       
  • Nonverbal and Verbal Expressions of Men’s Sexism in Mixed-Gender
           Interactions
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined the nonverbal and verbal expressions of hostile and benevolent sexism. Hostile sexism is sexist antipathy and benevolent sexism is a chivalrous belief that women are warm yet incompetent. We predicted that hostile sexist men would display less affiliative expressions but benevolent sexist men would display more affiliative expressions during mixed-gender interactions. Twenty-seven pairs of U.S. male and female undergraduates from a private university in New England participated in this study. These mixed-gender dyads participated in two social interactions: a structured trivia game followed by an unstructured conversation period. During the trivia game, men with more benevolent sexism were perceived to be more patient overall when waiting for the woman to answer the trivia questions. Furthermore, we examined the men’s nonverbal and verbal expressions during the unstructured interaction—naïve raters made impression ratings of the men’s nonverbal and verbal behavior, and trained coders counted the frequency of specific nonverbal cues (e.g., smiles). A word count software was used for verbal content analysis. As predicted, more hostile sexism was associated with less affiliative nonverbal and verbal expressions (e.g., less approachable, less friendly, and less smiling), but more benevolent sexism was associated with more affiliative nonverbal and verbal expressions (e.g., more approachable, more likely to smile, and more positive word usage). The effects held after controlling for men’s personality traits and partners’ nonverbal behavior. Differential behavioral expressions of benevolent and hostile sexism have theoretical importance as we can examine how sexism maintains the status quo at the interpersonal level.
      PubDate: 2015-03-07
       
  • Anything but Real: Body Idealization and Objectification of MTV Docusoap
           Characters
    • Abstract: Abstract Women and men featured in U.S. based MTV docusoaps were analyzed to explore body ideal and body exposure norms in a television genre highly popular among young people. Results from a quantitative content analysis of five popular docusoaps from 2004 to 2011 demonstrated that, although these shows were labeled as reality-based, the bodies displayed in them were highly idealized. Close to half of women’s bodies were coded as curvaceously thin and more than half of men’s bodies were coded as muscularly lean. Over two-thirds of women’s bodies and close to three-quarters of men’s bodies were coded as low fat, demonstrating that thinness was the most common body characteristic. In addition, cast members on the programs commonly exposed their bodies, including widespread partial nudity and some full nudity. Women, compared to men, exhibited a higher level of body exposure. However, men tended to expose their bodies to a higher degree than women. Close to half of all men were shown partially nude, compared to one-quarter of women. Characters with the idealized body types also exhibited a higher level of body exposure than others. These findings support previous research that investigated cultural expectations and media representations of women and men’s appearance in the U.S. The findings also demonstrate a growing focus on male body image and objectification. The potential psychological implications of self-objectification and modeling among adolescent audiences are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-06
       
  • The Agency Line: A Neoliberal Metric for Appraising Young Women’s
           Sexuality
    • Abstract: Abstract Young women’s sexuality traditionally has been marked along a gendered moralist continuum of sexual activity, ranging from virtuous (virgins) to licentious (sluts). However, this one-dimensional model cannot easily accommodate substantive changes in the norms that influence girls’ sexualities. Contemporary scholarship generated across the Anglophone West includes many signs that such a shift has occurred, ushered in by the cultural and ideological suffusion of neoliberalism. I enlist interdisciplinary and international evidence of neoliberalism’s influence on constructions of girls’ sexuality to argue that in the U.S., girls are now judged on their adherence not only to gendered moralist norms, but also to a neoliberal script of sexual agency. In addition to reviewing conceptual and empirical grounds for this claim, I consider the multidimensional normative field created by the intersection of this Agency Line with the long-standing Virgin-Slut Continuum. The primacy of agency within neoliberal discourse seems to legitimize women’s sexual autonomy and its subjective nature may permit them some control over their position above the Agency Line. But upon critical inspection it becomes clear that young women remain confined to a prescribed normative space that divides them from one another, compels self-blame, and predicates their worth on cultural appraisals of their sexuality.
      PubDate: 2015-03-05
       
  • Perceptions of Dating Behavior: The Role of Ambivalent Sexism
    • Abstract: Abstract This research investigates whether ambivalent sexism impacts individuals’ perceptions of what is appropriate and valued dating behavior, as these perceptions may contribute to the perpetuation of traditional dating scripts. Two hundred seventeen undergraduate students from the Midwestern United States read a gender-stereotypic, gender-counter stereotypic, or egalitarian heterosexual dating vignette. Participants made judgments of appropriateness, warmth, and competence separately for the man and woman on the date. Overall, gender stereotypic dates were evaluated most positively, consistent with previous work suggesting that dating behaviors remain gendered. Evidence of the restrictive nature of the masculine gender role was obtained. Men in egalitarian and counter-stereotypic dating scenarios were evaluated negatively in terms of warmth, competence, and appropriateness, thus potentially experiencing backlash effects. Indeed, the man in the gender counter-stereotypic condition was rated as less competent, warm, and appropriate than the women, but the man in the gender stereotypic condition was rated as more competent, warm, and appropriate than the woman. Consistent with predictions, those high in ambivalent sexism had more negative reactions to gender counter-stereotypic dating scenarios than those low in ambivalent sexism. However, ambivalent sexism did not predict different reactions towards gender stereotypic and egalitarian dating scenarios, and egalitarian dates were rated as most typical regardless of participants’ ambivalent sexism. Thus, greater acceptance of gender counter-stereotypic dates was observed among those low in ambivalent sexism, and even those high in ambivalent sexism were accepting of egalitarian dating practices.
      PubDate: 2015-02-28
       
  • How Women of Color Detect and Respond to Multiple Forms of Prejudice
    • Abstract: Abstract The processes by which women of color and White women living in the United States detect and respond to prejudice may differ because women of color experience racism, sexism and intersectional bias. This review builds on past research by articulating how existing process models of stigmatization, when applied to the stigmatization of women of color, leave important research questions unanswered. Stigmatized individuals’ interpretations of and responses to others’ behaviors are continuously shaped by the possibility that they will be targeted by prejudice. In each interaction in which prejudice is plausible, targets first determine whether they have experienced prejudice and, if so, they cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of prejudiced treatment. Current theories of stigmatization best account for the experiences of people who face only one form of prejudice. In contrast, we consider how women of color, who possess multiple stigmatized identities, respond to the multiple forms of prejudice they face. First, we identify barriers to including women of color in stigma research. Second, we describe research examining how targets with one stigmatized identity detect, respond to and cope with prejudice. Third, we draw on related research on multiple identities in areas outside of the stigma literature (e.g., intergroup bias, cognition) to raise questions that are important to address in future stigma research. Our analysis is supported primarily by research conducted in the U. S. Addressing the research questions raised in this review will position the stigma literature to more readily capture the stigmatizing experiences of women of color.
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
       
  • Reciprocal Relationships Between Music Television Exposure and
           Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviors: The Role of Perceived Peer Norms
    • Abstract: Abstract A three-wave panel study (2010–2011) was conducted among 515 adolescents in Belgium (Flanders) (mean age = 14.07) to examine the role of perceived male and female peer norms in the reciprocal relationship between music television exposure and sexual behavior. Structural equation models revealed several unexpected findings. First, the previously reported reciprocal relationships between sexual behavior and sexual media use appears to be dependent on the gender of the adolescent. It was found that music television exposure directly affected sexual behavior in boys, while, the reverse effect, the direct influence of sexual behavior on music television exposure, was found among girls. Second, results showed an indirect impact of sexual behavior on boys’ and girls’ music television exposure through perceptions of male peers’ sexual behavior. More specifically, sexually active boys and girls were demonstrated to believe that many of their male and female peers were also sexually active; however, among boys, the perceptions of the sexual activities of same-gender peers resulted in increased music television exposure, whereas among girls, the perceptions of the sexual activities of male peers resulted in decreased music television exposure. The discussion focuses on the explanation and understanding of these (unexpected) findings in the context of gender differences in sexual socialization.
      PubDate: 2015-02-24
       
  • Ready for Anything the World Gives Her? : A Critical Look at
           Sports-Based Positive Youth Development for Girls
    • Abstract: Abstract Girl-centered sport and physical activity programs that are grounded in a positive youth development approach have grown tremendously in the United States since the 1990s. While research on the efficacy of sports-based positive youth development is limited, recent studies conducted in the United States suggest these programs yield benefits. Our assessment of the literature and programming efforts however highlight a significant gap in the theoretical assumptions of girl-centered, sports-based positive youth development: an understanding of the complexity of sport and physical activity within a gendered context. Focusing on the U.S. context and using a feminist sociological lens, we articulate a paradox in these programs: sport participation and physical activity can improve girls’ lives along numerous psycho-social dimensions, yet in absence of attention to the social and political context of gender relations, girl-centered, sports-based positive youth development programs risk unwittingly maintaining the gender status quo. We review three specific critiques to illustrate this paradox: 1) the emphasis on the individual and the immediate context of girls’ lives masks larger systems of inequality and privilege; 2) the use of post feminist narratives, such as Girl Power, suggests girls live in a world beyond sexism; and 3) the focus on reducing the childhood “obesity epidemic” through fitness contributes to harmful fat phobic messages for girls. We offer recommendations that assist programs in leveraging their existing strengths to have a meaningful impact on girls’ lives, and that address cultural and structural factors as well as individual and interpersonal ones.
      PubDate: 2015-02-20
       
  • Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Teacher Autonomy Support
           and Amotivation in Physical Education
    • Abstract: Abstract Using the taxonomy of amotivation as theoretical framework, this study was designed to examine gender differences in the relationship between teacher autonomy support, amotivation and intention for future physical education participation. An amotivation model addressing the relationship was hypothesized and tested. Three hundred thirty four high school students (177 boys and 157 girls) from a major Midwest metropolitan area in the United States completed questionnaires assessing their relevant psychological and behavioral constructs. Path model analyses supported the model tenability but revealed several gender-specialized characteristics. Although girls demonstrated overall higher amotivation and were more likely to be influenced by inadequate teacher autonomy support, boys showed more strength than girls in the negative impact of amotivation on the intention. It is suggested that gender plays a significant role in amotivation development in physical education. The gender differences should be identified, appreciated, and instructionally addressed to enhance students’ participation in physical education.
      PubDate: 2015-02-12
       
  • The Challenges of Israeli Adolescent Girls: Gender Differences in Observed
           Autonomy and Relatedness in Adolescent-Mother Interactions
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined gender differences in autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-mother interactions, to evaluate two competing notions. The first, based on social role theory, suggested that girls and their mothers would show lower autonomy and higher relatedness than boys and their mothers. The second, stemming from the psychodynamic perspective, suggested that girls would show higher autonomy than boys, and that girls and their mothers would show lower relatedness than boys and their mothers. Participants were 122 Jewish Israeli mothers and their 16.5 years old adolescents (58.19 % girls) from middle class families residing in northern and central cities in Israel. Dyads were observed during a family disagreement (i.e., a high-conflict condition) and while planning a vacation (i.e., a low-conflict condition). Autonomy and relatedness of each participant in each task were coded using the Individuality and Connectedness Q-sort (Bengston & Grotevant 1999). Our findings indicated that girls displayed higher autonomy than boys across the two conflict conditions. In addition, girls and their mothers showed lower relatedness than boys and their mothers, but only under the high-conflict condition. These results are in line with the notions offered by the psychodynamic perspective. They reveal the unique challenges which Jewish Israeli girls and their mothers may face with respect to autonomy and relatedness, and highlight the importance of assessing autonomy and relatedness under varied conflict conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06
       
  • How Women’s Perceptions of Peer Weight Preferences Are Related to
           Drive for Thinness
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine how women’s perceptions of their peers’ weight preferences were related to drive for thinness. First, we examined the degree to which women were accurate in their perceptions of the female body sizes that their male and female peers preferred. Second, we examined the perceived weight preferences of women’s female peers, male peers, close peers, and distant peers to determine whether women perceived these peer groups as having different weight preferences for women’s body size. Finally, we investigated whether drive for thinness was related to the degree that women felt discrepant from their peers’ weight preferences. One hundred and thirty-three women from a small, liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States completed an online survey that included measures of actual and perceived weight preferences, drive for thinness, and demographic information. Information on actual weight preferences were also collected from 44 men to provide information about male peers’ weight preferences. Results indicated that women underestimated the body size that both women and men most preferred. Second, women perceived their female peers as preferring a thinner female size than their male peers, and their distant peers as preferring a thinner body size than their close peers. Finally, women who perceived their body size as being discrepant from the preferences of their close peers’ weight preferences, particularly close female peers, exhibited greater drive for thinness.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22
       
  • Understanding the Relationships Among White and African American
           Women’s Sexual Objectification Experiences, Physical Safety Anxiety,
           and Psychological Distress
    • Abstract: Abstract Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) asserted that sexual objectification experiences are likely related to women’s physical safety anxiety; however, to date, very few studies have examined this relationship. Using a sample of 228 U.S. undergraduate women (n = 133 Black/African American; n = 95 White) from a Southeastern university, this study explored the relationships among sexual objectification experiences, physical safety concerns (i.e., perceived risk of crime, fear of crime, and fear of rape), and overall psychological distress. Findings revealed that Black/African American women reported more sexual objectification experiences and fear of crime than White women. Results of a measured variable path analysis suggested that perceived risk of crime fully mediated the relationships between sexual objectification experiences and fear of crime for both groups of women. Moreover, perceived risk of crime fully mediated the relationship between sexual objectification experiences and psychological distress for Black/African American women, but not White women. For White women only, fear of rape partially mediated the relationship between perceived risk of crime and fear of crime, and perceived risk of crime fully mediated the relationship between sexual objectification experiences and fear of rape. Taken together, the results suggest that a sociocultural context that objectifies women and their bodies is related to their sense of safety and security in the world.
      PubDate: 2015-01-15
       
  • Bias-motivated Aggression against Men: Gender Expression and Sexual
           Orientation as Risk Factors for Victimization
    • Abstract: Abstract Bias-motivated aggression is an ongoing problem in the United States, and data show that men comprise the majority of both perpetrators and victims of these types of offenses. Although gay men appear to be at particular risk for victimization, theory suggests that aggression of this type may be understood as a way to preserve exclusive masculine identity and in-group status by punishing those men who step outside rigidly constructed gender boundaries, rather than as a reaction to target sexual orientation alone. As such, studies investigating gender non-conformity as it interacts with gay identity are needed to elucidate how both target gender expression and sexuality potentiate risk for victimization. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of men's sexual orientation and gender expression on the perpetration of bias-motivated aggression. One-hundred two undergraduate men in the Southeastern U.S. participated in a bogus reaction-time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible opponent as a measure of aggression. Participants were assigned to one of four opponent conditions (masculine, gay man; feminine, gay man; masculine, heterosexual man; feminine heterosexual man), as part of a 2x2 factorial design. It was predicted that the most aggression would occur toward a gay, feminine opponent. Contrarily, findings indicated that most aggression was evinced toward a feminine heterosexual opponent. Results are discussed in terms of heterosexual men’s nonconformity and the influence of in-group/out-group dynamics on bias-motivated aggression.
      PubDate: 2014-12-23
       
  • The Effect of Functionality- and Aesthetic-Focused Images on Australian
           Women’s Body Satisfaction
    • Abstract: Abstract Negative effects of viewing images of thin and attractive models have been well documented. However, these models are typically presented in an objectified, passive form with a focus on the aesthetic qualities of the body. Little is known about women’s responses to models presented in an active form, with a focus on athleticism and performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test body conceptualization theory by exposing women to models presented with a focus on the body-as-object (BAO), the body-as-process (BAP), or images of scenery, and to examine whether a desire to achieve an athletic body interacted with these effects. A convenience sample of 160 women was recruited from the general public, gyms, and university in a regional Australian area. Participants completed pre- and post-test measures of state mood, fitness and body satisfaction as well as a trait measure of athletic internalization. Results showed that exposure to either BAP or BAO images produced similar negative outcomes compared to exposure to scenery. Thus, emphasis on performance cues still elicits negative self-evaluations. However, differences between women high and low on athletic internalization were primarily found in response to the BAO images. That is, women who desired an athletic physique reported greater depression, anger and feelings of fatness after viewing the posed models compared to women who expressed less desire for an athletic body shape. Further research is needed around the ways in which athletic images and athletic internalization can be used to foster a more positive body image.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18
       
 
 
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