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Plant Molecular Biology    [10 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2187 journals]   [SJR: 1.769]   [H-I: 112]
  • Are rice (Oryza sativa
           L.) phosphate transporters regulated similarly by phosphate and
           arsenate' A comprehensive study
    • Abstract: Abstract Rice is one of the most important staple foods worldwide, but it often contains inorganic arsenic, which is toxic and gives rise to severe health problems. Rice plants take up arsenate As(V) via the phosphate transport pathways, though it is not known how As(V), as compared to phosphate, modifies the expression of phosphate transporters (PTs). Therefore, the impact of As(V) or phosphate (Pi) on the gene expression of PTs and several Pi signaling regulators was investigated. Rice plants were grown on medium containing different As(V) or Pi concentrations. Growth was evaluated and the expression of tested genes was quantified at different time points, using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). The As and P content in plants was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As(V) elicited diverse and opposite responses of different PTs in roots and shoots, while Pi triggered a more shallow and uniform transcriptional response in several tested genes. Only a restricted set of genes, including PT2, PT3, PT5 and PT13 and two SPX-MFS family members, was particularly responsive to As(V). Despite some common reactions, the responses of the analyzed genes were predominantly ion-specific. The possible reasons and consequences are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-04-12
       
  • Functions of the CCCH type zinc finger protein OsGZF1 in regulation of the
           seed storage protein        class="a-plus-plus">GluB-       class="a-plus-plus">1 from rice
    • Abstract: Abstract Glutelins are the most abundant storage proteins in rice grain and can make up to 80 % of total protein content. The promoter region of GluB-1, one of the glutelin genes in rice, has been intensively used as a model to understand regulation of seed-storage protein accumulation. In this study, we describe a zinc finger gene of the Cys3His1 (CCCH or C3H) class, named OsGZF1, which was identified in a yeast one-hybrid screening using the core promoter region of GluB-1 as bait and cDNA expression libraries prepared from developing rice panicles and grains as prey. The OsGZF1 protein binds specifically to the bait sequence in yeast and this interaction was confirmed in vitro. OsGZF1 is predominantly expressed in a confined domain surrounding the scutellum of the developing embryo and is localised in the nucleus. Transient expression experiments demonstrated that OsGZF1 can down-regulate a GluB-1-GUS (β-glucuronidase) reporter and OsGZF1 was also able to significantly reduce activation conferred by RISBZ1 which is a known strong GluB-1 activator. Furthermore, down-regulation of OsGZF1 by an RNAi approach increased grain nitrogen concentration. We propose that OsGZF1 has a function in regulating the GluB-1 promoter and controls accumulation of glutelins during grain development.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • Increase in transcript accumulation of        class="a-plus-plus">Psy1 and        class="a-plus-plus">e-       class="a-plus-plus">Lcy genes in grain development
           is associated with differences in seed carotenoid content between durum
           wheat and tritordeum
    • Abstract: Abstract Carotenoid rich diets have been associated with lower risk of certain diseases. The great importance of cereals in human diet has directed breeding programs towards carotenoid enhancement to alleviate these deficiencies in developing countries and to offer new functional foods in the developed ones. The new cereal tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebener) derived from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and the wild barley Hordeum chilense, naturally presents carotenoid levels 5–8 times higher than those of durum wheat. The improvement of tritordeum properties as a new functional food requires the elucidation of biosynthetic steps for carotenoid accumulation in seeds that differ from durum wheat. In this work expression patterns of nine genes from the isoprenoid and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were monitored during grain development in durum wheat and tritordeum. Additionally, a fine identification and quantification of pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) during grain development and in mature seeds has been addressed. Transcript levels of Psy1, Psy2, Zds, e-Lcy and b-Lcy were found to correlate to carotenoid content in mature grains. The specific activation of the homeologous genes Psy1, e-Lcy from H. chilense and the high lutein esterification found in tritordeum may serve to explain the differences with durum wheat in carotenoid accumulation.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • Cloning and characterization of a novel dehydrin gene,        class="a-plus-plus">SiDhn2, from        class="a-plus-plus">Saussurea involucrata Kar. et
           Kir.
    • Abstract: Abstract Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir. is a hardy dicotyledonous plant capable of tolerating severe abiotic stress conditions. In a previous study, we created a cDNA library to determine what factors are associated with the cold acclimation response in S. involucrata. From this, a full-length cDNA of a dehydrin-like gene (SiDhn2) was obtained by RT-PCR. The SiDhn2 gene was characterized in this study. The full-length SiDhn2 cDNA comprised 693 bp containing an open reading frame of 345 bp specifying a protein of 115 amino acids. An alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that SiDhn2 shared 55 % identity with two Brassica dehydrins. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to transform RD29A:SiDhn2 and 35S:SiDhn2 constructs into tobacco to investigate the germination and resistance to freezing and drought stress of transgenic plants. The RD29A:SiDhn2 transgenic plants showed greater resistance to freezing and drought stress than 35S:SiDhn2 transgenic plants or the wild-type. This study demonstrates that SiDhn2 confers cold hardiness and drought resistance, and may be a candidate resistance gene for genetic improvement of crops to increase stress resistance.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • Ex vivo processing for maturation of        class="a-plus-plus">Arabidopsis KDEL-tailed
           cysteine endopeptidase 2 (AtCEP2) pro-enzyme and its storage in
           endoplasmic reticulum derived organelles
    • Abstract: Abstract Ricinosomes are specialized ER-derived organelles that store the inactive pro-forms of KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidases (KDEL-CysEP) associated with programmed cell death (PCD). The Arabidopsis genome encodes three KDEL-CysEP (AtCEP1, AtCEP2, and AtCEP3) that are differentially expressed in vegetative and generative tissues undergoing PCD. These Arabidopsis proteases have not been characterized at a biochemical level, nor have they been localized intracellularly. In this study, we characterized AtCEP2. A 3xHA-mCherry-AtCEP2 gene fusion including pro-peptide and KDEL targeting sequences expressed under control of the endogenous promoter enabled us to isolate AtCEP2 “ex vivo”. The purified protein was shown to be activated in a pH-dependent manner. After activation, however, protease activity was pH-independent. Analysis of substrate specificity showed that AtCEP2 accepts proline near the cleavage site, which is a rare feature specific for KDEL-CysEPs. mCherry-AtCEP2 was detected in the epidermal layers of leaves, hypocotyls and roots; in the root, it was predominantly found in the elongation zone and root cap. Co-localization with an ER membrane marker showed that mCherry-AtCEP2 was stored in two different types of ER-derived organelles: 10 μm long spindle shaped organelles as well as round vesicles with a diameter of approximately 1 μm. The long organelles appear to be ER bodies, which are found specifically in Brassicacae. The round vesicles strongly resemble the ricinosomes first described in castor bean. This study provides a first evidence for the existence of ricinosomes in Arabidopsis, and may open up new avenues of research in the field of PCD and developmental tissue remodeling.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • A novel chloroplast localized Rab GTPase protein CPRabA5e is involved in
           stress, development, thylakoid biogenesis and vesicle transport in
           Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract A novel Rab GTPase protein in Arabidopsis thaliana, CPRabA5e (CP = chloroplast localized) is located in chloroplasts and has a role in transport. Transient expression of CPRabA5e:EGFP fusion protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves, and immunoblotting using Arabidopsis showed localization of CPRabA5e in chloroplasts (stroma and thylakoids). Ypt31/32 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in regulating vesicle transport, and CPRabA5e a close homolog of Ypt31/32, restores the growth of the ypt31Δ ypt32 ts mutant at 37 °C in yeast complementation. Knockout mutants of CPRabA5e displayed delayed seed germination and growth arrest during oxidative stress. Ultrastructural studies revealed that after preincubation at 4 °C mutant chloroplasts contained larger plastoglobules, lower grana, and more vesicles close to the envelopes compared to wild type, and vesicle formation being enhanced under oxidative stress. This indicated altered thylakoid development and organization of the mutants. A yeast-two-hybrid screen with CPRabA5e as bait revealed 13 interacting partner proteins, mainly located in thylakoids and plastoglobules. These proteins are known or predicted to be involved in development, stress responses, and photosynthesis related processes, consistent with the stress phenotypes observed. The results observed suggest a role of CPRabA5e in transport to and from thylakoids, similar to cytosolic Rab proteins involved in vesicle transport.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • Characterization and RNA-seq analysis of        class="a-plus-plus">underperformer, an
           activation-tagged potato mutant
    • Abstract: Abstract The potato cv. Bintje and a Bintje activation-tagged mutant, underperformer (up) were compared. Mutant up plants grown in vitro were dwarf, with abundant axillary shoot growth, greater tuber yield, altered tuber traits and early senescence compared to wild type. Under in vivo conditions, the dwarf and early senescence phenotypes of the mutant remained, but the up plants exhibited a lower tuber yield and fewer axillary shoots compared to wild type. Southern blot analyses indicated a single T-DNA insertion in the mutant, located on chromosome 10. Initial PCR-based gene expression studies indicated transcriptional activation/repression of several genes in the mutant flanking the insertion. The gene immediately flanking the right border of the T-DNA insertion, which encoded an uncharacterized Broad complex, Tramtrac, Bric-a-brac; also known as Pox virus and Zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domain-containing protein (StBTB/POZ1) containing an Armadillo repeat region, was up-regulated in the mutant. Global gene expression comparisons between Bintje and up using RNA-seq on leaves from 60 day-old plants revealed a dataset of over 1,600 differentially expressed genes. Gene expression analyses suggested a variety of biological processes and pathways were modified in the mutant, including carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell division and cell cycle activity, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and proteolysis.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • A special member of the rice SRO family, OsSRO1c, mediates responses to
           multiple abiotic stresses through interaction with various transcription
           factors
    • Abstract: Abstract SIMILAR TO RCD ONE (SRO) is a plant-specific gene family involved in development and abiotic stress responses. SRO proteins are characterized by containing poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase catalytic (PARP) and C-terminal RCD1-SRO-TAF4 domains, and can be classified into two groups and five subgroups on the basis of their PARP domain. Expression analysis of rice SRO genes in response to various abiotic stresses showed that OsSRO1c, a rice SRO gene which functions downstream of the stress-responsive transcription factor SNAC1, is the major stress-responsive gene in the rice SRO family. The ossro1c-1 mutant showed resistance not only to chloroplastic oxidative stress, but also to apoplastic oxidative stress. However, the ossro1c-1 mutant and artificial microRNA-OsSRO1c transgenic rice were significantly impaired in cold tolerance. When compared with the well-characterized Arabidopsis SRO protein radical-induced cell death 1 (RCD1), OsSRO1c has considerable variation in the protein sequence, and the two genes exhibit different expression profiles under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, ossro1c-1 and rcd1 showed different responses to multiple abiotic stresses. By screening an Arabidopsis transcription factor library, 29 transcription factors interacted with OsSRO1c in yeast, but only two of these transcription factors were reported to interact with RCD1, which may partly explain the different responses of the two mutants under various stresses. The data presented in this report provide important clues for further elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of OsSRO1c in mediating responses to multiple abiotic stresses.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • A single CMT methyltransferase homolog is involved in CHG DNA methylation
           and development of Physcomitrella
           patens
    • Abstract: Abstract C-5 DNA methylation is an essential mechanism controlling gene expression and developmental programs in a variety of organisms. Though the role of DNA methylation has been intensively studied in mammals and Arabidopsis, little is known about the evolution of this mechanism. The chromomethylase (CMT) methyltransferase family is unique to plants and was found to be involved in DNA methylation in Arabidopsis, maize and tobacco. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a model for early terrestrial plants, harbors a single homolog of the CMT protein family designated as PpCMT. Our phylogenetic analysis suggested that the CMT family is unique to embryophytes and its earliest known member PpCMT belongs to the CMT3 subfamily. Thus, P. patens may serve as a model to study the ancient functions of the CMT3 family. We have generated a ΔPpcmt deletion mutant which demonstrated that PpCMT is essential for P. patens protonema and gametophore development and is involved in CHG methylation as demonstrated at four distinct genomic loci. PpCMT protein accumulation pattern correlated with proliferating cells and was sub-localized to the nucleus as predicted from its function. Taken together, our results suggested that CHG DNA methylation mediated by CMT has been employed early in land plant evolution to control developmental programs during both the vegetative and reproductive haploid phases along the plant life cycle.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • Duckweed in bloom: the 2nd International Conference on Duckweed Research
           and Applications heralds the return of a plant model for plant biology
    • Abstract: Abstract More than 50 participants from around the world congregated at Rutgers University for 4 days to discuss the latest advances in duckweed research and applications. Among other developments in the field, exciting new information related to duckweed including genome sequencing, improved genetic transformation, and the identification of a novel plant growth promoting substance from bacteria were reported.
      PubDate: 2014-04-01
       
  • Characterization of RNA binding protein RBP-P reveals a possible role in
           rice glutelin gene expression and RNA localization
    • Abstract: Abstract RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in mRNA metabolism including synthesis, maturation, transport, localization, and stability. In developing rice seeds, RNAs that code for the major storage proteins are transported to specific domains of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a regulated mechanism requiring RNA cis-localization elements, or zipcodes. Putative trans-acting RBPs that recognize prolamine RNA zipcodes required for restricted localization to protein body-ER have previously been identified. Here, we describe the identification of RBP-P using a Northwestern blot approach as an RBP that recognizes and binds to glutelin zipcode RNA, which is required for proper RNA localization to cisternal-ER. RBP-P protein expression coincides with that of glutelin during seed maturation and is localized to both the nucleus and cytosol. RNA-immunoprecipitation and subsequent RT-PCR analysis further demonstrated that RBP-P interacts with glutelin RNAs. In vitro RNA–protein UV-crosslinking assays showed that recombinant RBP-P binds strongly to glutelin mRNA, and in particular, 3′ UTR and zipcode RNA. RBP-P also exhibited strong binding activity to a glutelin intron sequence, suggesting that RBP-P might participate in mRNA splicing. Overall, these results support a multifunctional role for RBP-P in glutelin mRNA metabolism, perhaps in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing and cytosolic localization to the cisternal-ER.
      PubDate: 2014-03-30
       
  • Identification of candidate genes for fusarium yellows resistance in
           Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F2 populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.
      PubDate: 2014-03-26
       
  • Positive regulation of rice RING E3 ligase OsHIR1 in arsenic and cadmium
           uptakes
    • Abstract: Abstract The metalloid arsenic (As) and the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) are ubiquitously found at low concentrations in the earth. High concentrations of these elements in the soil and crops are severely dangerous to human health. We attempted to retrieve the RING E3 ubiquitin ligase gene for regulating As and Cd uptakes via the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for a total of 47 Oryza sativa RING finger protein (OsRFP) genes to assess their expression patterns when exposed to As and Cd treatments. We identified one gene Oryza sativa heavy metal induced RING E3 ligase 1 (OsHIR1), which was significantly upregulated with both treatments. A yeast hybrid screen and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that OsHIR1 clearly interacts with 5 substrate proteins, including tonoplast intrinsic protein 4;1 (OsTIP4;1) in the plasma membrane. In addition, OsHIR1 strongly degraded the protein level of OsTIP4;1 via the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system. Heterogeneous overexpression of OsHIR1 in Arabidopsis exhibited As- and Cd-insensitive phenotypes and resulted in decreased As and Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots, relative to the control. Herein, we report the novel finding that the OsHIR1 E3 ligase positively regulates OsTIP4;1 related to As and Cd uptakes.
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
       
  • Changes in the transcriptomic profiles of maize roots in response to
           iron-deficiency stress
    • Abstract: Abstract Plants are often subjected to iron (Fe)-deficiency stress because of its low solubility. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies to solubilize and transport Fe to acclimate to this abiotic stress condition. Transcriptomic profiling analysis was performed using Illumina digital gene expression to understand the mechanism underlying resistance responses of roots to Fe starvation in maize, an important Strategy II plant. A total of 3,427, 4,069, 4,881, and 2,610 genes had significantly changed expression levels after Fe-deficiency treatments of 1, 2, 4 or 7 days, respectively. Genes involved in 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) synthesis, secretion, and Fe(III)–DMA uptake were significantly induced. Many genes related to plant hormones, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases responded to Fe-deficiency stress, suggesting their regulatory roles in response to the Fe-deficiency stress. Functional annotation clustering analysis, using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, revealed maize root responses to Fe starvation. This resulted in 38 functional annotation clusters: 25 for up-regulated genes, and 13 for down-regulated ones. These included genes encoding enzymes involved in the metabolism of carboxylic acids, isoprenoids and aromatic compounds, transporters, and stress response proteins. Our work provides integrated information for understanding maize response to Fe-deficiency stress.
      PubDate: 2014-03-20
       
  • CRISPR–Cas system: a powerful tool for genome engineering
    • Abstract: Abstract Targeted gene regulation on a genome-wide scale is a powerful strategy for interrogating, perturbing, and engineering cellular systems. Recent advances with the RNA-mediated Cas9 endonuclease derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems have dramatically transformed our ability to specifically modify intact genomes of diverse cells and organisms. The CRISPR–Cas system has been adapted as an efficient, facile, and robust gene-targeting technology with the potential for high-throughput and multiplexed genome engineering. Exciting breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms of the CRISPR–Cas system and its enormous potential for applications across basic science, agricultural and biotechnology.
      PubDate: 2014-03-18
       
  • Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of response to low temperature reveals
           candidate genes determining divergent cold-sensitivity of maize inbred
           lines
    • Abstract: Abstract Maize, despite being thermophyllic due to its tropical origin, demonstrates high intraspecific diversity in cold-tolerance. To search for molecular mechanisms of this diversity, transcriptomic response to cold was studied in two inbred lines of contrasting cold-tolerance. Microarray analysis was followed by extensive statistical elaboration of data, literature data mining, and gene ontology-based classification. The lines used had been bred earlier specifically for determination of QTLs for cold-performance of photosynthesis. This allowed direct comparison of present transcriptomic data with the earlier QTL mapping results. Cold-treated (14 h at 8/6 °C) maize seedlings of cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 and cold-sensitive ETH-DL3 lines at V3 stage showed strong, consistent response of the third leaf transcriptome: several thousand probes showed similar, statistically significant change in both lines, while only tens responded differently in the two lines. The most striking difference between the responses of the two lines to cold was the induction of expression of ca. twenty genes encoding membrane/cell wall proteins exclusively in the cold-tolerant ETH-DH7 line. The common response comprised mainly repression of numerous genes related to photosynthesis and induction of genes related to basic biological activity: transcription, regulation of gene expression, protein phosphorylation, cell wall organization. Among the genes showing differential response, several were close to the QTL regions identified in earlier studies with the same inbred lines and associated with biometrical, physiological or biochemical parameters. These transcripts, including two apparently non-protein-coding ones, are particularly attractive candidates for future studies on mechanisms determining divergent cold-tolerance of inbred maize lines.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13
       
  • Regulation of CCM genes in        class="a-plus-plus">Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
           during conditions of light–dark cycles in synchronous cultures
    • Abstract: Abstract We have investigated transcript level changes of CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) genes during light–dark (12 h:12 h) cycles in synchronized Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at air-level CO2. CCM gene transcript levels vary at various times of light–dark cycles, even at same air-level CO2. Transcripts of inorganic carbon transporter genes (HLA3, LCI1, CCP1, CCP2 and LCIA) and mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase genes (CAH4 and CAH5) are up regulated in light, following which their levels decline in dark. Contrastingly, transcripts of chloroplast carbonic anhydrases namely CAH6, CAH3 and LCIB are up regulated in dark. CAH3 and LCIB transcript levels reached maximum by the end of dark, followed by high expression into early light period. In contrast, CAH6 transcript level stayed high in dark, followed by high level even in light. Moreover, the up regulation of transcripts in dark was undone by high CO2, suggesting that the dark induced CCM transcripts were regulated by CO2 even in dark when CCM is absent. Thus while the CAH3 transcript level modulations appear not to positively correlate with that of CCM, the protein regulation matched with CCM status: in spite of high transcript levels in dark, CAH3 protein reached peak level only in light and localized entirely to pyrenoid, a site functionally relevant for CCM. Moreover, in dark, CAH3 protein level not only reduced but also the protein localized as a diffused pattern in chloroplast. We propose that transcription of most CCM genes, followed by protein level changes including their intracellular localization of a subset is subject to light–dark cycles.
      PubDate: 2014-03-04
       
  • Characterization and expression patterns of small RNAs in synthesized
           Brassica hexaploids
    • Abstract: Abstract Polyploidy has played an important role in promoting plant evolution through genomic merging and doubling. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare miRNA expression profiles between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. A total of 613, 784 and 742 known miRNAs were identified in Brassica rapa, Brassica carinata, and Brassica hexaploid, respectively. We detected 618 miRNAs were differentially expressed (log2Ratio ≥ 1, P ≤ 0.05) between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, and 425 miRNAs were non-additively expressed in Brassica hexaploid, which suggest a trend of non-additive miRNA regulation following hybridization and polyploidization. Remarkably, majority of the non-additively expressed miRNAs in the Brassica hexaploid are repressed, and there was a bias toward repression of B. rapa miRNAs, which is consistent with the progenitor-biased gene repression in the synthetic allopolyploids. In addition, we identified 653 novel mature miRNAs in Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Finally, we found that almost all the non-additive accumulation of siRNA clusters exhibited a low-parent pattern in Brassica hexaploid. Non-additive small RNA regulation is involved in a range of biological pathways, probably providing a driving force for variation and adaptation in allopolyploids.
      PubDate: 2014-03-02
       
  • Acyl-lipid thioesterase1–4 from        class="a-plus-plus">Arabidopsis thaliana form a
           novel family of fatty acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterases with
           divergent expression patterns and substrate specificities
    • Abstract: Abstract Hydrolysis of fatty acyl thioester bonds by thioesterases to produce free fatty acids is important for dictating the diversity of lipid metabolites produced in plants. We have characterized a four-member family of fatty acyl thioesterases from Arabidopsis thaliana, which we have called acyl-lipid thioesterase1 (ALT1), ALT2, ALT3, and ALT4. The ALTs belong to the Hotdog fold superfamily of thioesterases. ALT-like genes are present in diverse plant taxa, including dicots, monocots, lycophytes, and microalgae. The four Arabidopsis ALT genes were found to have distinct gene expression profiles with respect to each other. ALT1 was expressed specifically in stem epidermal cells and flower petals. ALT2 was expressed specifically in root endodermal and peridermal cells as well as in stem lateral organ boundary cells. ALT3 was ubiquitously expressed in aerial and root tissues and at much higher levels than the other ALTs. ALT4 expression was restricted to anthers. All four proteins were localized in plastids via an N-terminal targeting sequence of about 48 amino acids. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the ALT proteins used endogenous fatty acyl–acyl carrier protein substrates to generate fatty acids that varied in chain length (C6–C18), degree of saturation (saturated and monounsaturated), and oxidation state (fully reduced and β-ketofatty acids). Despite their high amino acid sequence identities, each enzyme produced a different profile of lipids in E. coli. The biological roles of these proteins are unknown, but they potentially generate volatile lipid metabolites that have previously not been reported in Arabidopsis.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • The function of EHD2 in endocytosis and defense signaling is affected by
           SUMO
    • Abstract: Abstract Post-translational modification of target proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO) regulates many cellular processes. SUMOylation has been shown to regulate cellular localization and function of a variety of proteins, in some cases affecting nuclear import or export. We have previously characterized two EHDs (EH domain containing proteins) in Arabidospis and showed their involvement in plant endocytosis. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and the leucine rich repeat receptor like protein LeEix2, an effect that requires and intact coiled-coil domain. Inhibition of endocytosis of LeEix2 by EHD2 is effective in inhibiting defense responses mediated by the LeEix2 receptor in response to its ligand EIX. In the present work we demonstrate that SUMOylation of EHD2 appears to be required for EHD2-induced inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis. Indeed, we found that a mutant form of EHD2, possessing a defective SUMOylation site, has an increased nuclear abundance, can no longer be SUMOylated and is no longer effective in inhibiting LeEix2 endocytosis or defense signaling in response to EIX.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
 
 
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