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Journal Cover Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.915]   [H-I: 137]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Association genetics of phenolic needle compounds in Norway spruce with
           variable susceptibility to needle bladder rust
    • Authors: Andrea Ganthaler; Wolfgang Stöggl; Stefan Mayr; Ilse Kranner; Silvio Schüler; Elisabeth Wischnitzki; Eva Maria Sehr; Silvia Fluch; Carlos Trujillo-Moya
      Pages: 229 - 251
      Abstract: Key message Accumulation of phenolic needle metabolites in Norway spruce is regulated by many genes with small and additive effects and is correlated with the susceptibility against fungal attack. Norway spruce accumulates high foliar concentrations of secondary phenolic metabolites, with important functions for pathogen defence responses. However, the molecular genetic basis underlying the quantitative variation of phenolic compounds and their role in enhanced resistance of spruce to infection by needle bladder rust are unknown. To address these questions, a set of 1035 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was associated to the quantitative variation of four simple phenylpropanoids, eight stilbenes, nine flavonoids, six related arithmetic parameters and the susceptibility to infection by Chrysomyxa rhododendri in an unstructured natural population of Norway spruce. Thirty-one significant genetic associations for the flavonoids gallocatechin, kaempferol 3-glucoside and quercetin 3-glucoside and the stilbenes resveratrol, piceatannol, astringin and isorhapontin were discovered, explaining 22–59% of phenotypic variation, and indicating a regulation of phenolic accumulation by many genes with small and additive effects. The phenolics profile differed between trees with high and low susceptibility to the fungus, underlining the importance of phenolic compounds in the defence mechanisms of Norway spruce to C. rhododendri. Results highlight the utility of association studies in non-model tree species and may enable marker-assisted selection of Norway spruce adapted to severe pathogen attack.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0589-5
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • In silico analysis of the sequence features responsible for alternatively
           spliced introns in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    • Authors: Praveen-Kumar Raj-Kumar; Olivier Vallon; Chun Liang
      Pages: 253 - 265
      Abstract: Alternatively spliced introns are the ones that are usually spliced but can be occasionally retained in a transcript isoform. They are the most frequently used alternative splice form in plants (~50% of alternative splicing events). Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular alga, is a good model to understand alternative splicing (AS) in plants from an evolutionary perspective as it diverged from land plants a billion years ago. Using over 7 million cDNA sequences from both pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, we found that a much higher percentage of genes (~20% of multi-exon genes) undergo AS than previously reported (3–5%). We found a full component of SR and SR-like proteins possibly involved in AS. The most prevalent type of AS event (40%) was retention of introns, most of which were supported by multiple cDNA evidence (72%) while only 20% of them have coding capacity. By comparing retained and constitutive introns, we identified sequence features potentially responsible for the retention of introns, in the framework of an “intron definition” model for splicing. We find that retained introns tend to have a weaker 5′ splice site, more Gs in their poly-pyrimidine tract and a lesser conservation of nucleotide ‘C’ at position −3 of the 3′ splice site. In addition, the sequence motifs found in the potential branch-point region differed between retained and constitutive introns. Furthermore, the enrichment of G-triplets and C-triplets among the first and last 50 nt of the introns significantly differ between constitutive and retained introns. These could serve as intronic splicing enhancers. All the alternative splice forms can be accessed at http://bioinfolab.miamioh.edu/cgi-bin/PASA_r20140417/cgi-bin/status_report.cgi?db=Chre_AS.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0605-9
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Boron-bridged RG-II and calcium are required to maintain the pectin
           network of the Arabidopsis seed mucilage ultrastructure
    • Authors: Da-chuan Shi; Juan Wang; Rui-bo Hu; Gong-ke Zhou; Malcolm A. O’Neill; Ying-zhen Kong
      Pages: 267 - 280
      Abstract: The structure of a pectin network requires both calcium (Ca2+) and boron (B). Ca2+ is involved in crosslinking pectic polysaccharides and arbitrarily induces the formation of an “egg-box” structure among pectin molecules, while B crosslinks rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) side chain A apiosyl residues in primary cell walls to generate a borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan II (dRG-II-B) complex through a boron-bridge bond, leading to the formation of a pectin network. Based on recent studies of dRG-II-B structures, a hypothesis has been proposed suggesting that Ca2+is a common component of the dRG-II-B complex. However, no in vivo evidence has addressed whether B affects the stability of Ca2+ crosslinks. Here, we investigated the L-fucose-deficient dwarf mutant mur1, which was previously shown to require exogenous B treatment for phenotypic reversion. Imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds release hydrated polysaccharides to form a halo of seed mucilage covering the seed surface, which consists of a water-soluble outer layer and an adherent inner layer. Our study of mur1 seed mucilage has revealed that the pectin in the outer layer of mucilage was relocated to the inner layer. Nevertheless, the mur1 inner mucilage was more vulnerable to rough shaking or ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction than that of the wild type. Immunolabeling analysis suggested that dRG-II-B was severely decreased in mur1 inner mucilage. Moreover, non-methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG) exhibited obvious reassembly in the mur1 inner layer compared with the wild type, which may imply a possible connection between dRG-II-B deficiency and pectin network transformation in the seed mucilage. As expected, the concentration of B in the mur1 inner mucilage was reduced, whereas the distribution and concentration of Ca2+in the inner mucilage increased significantly, which could be the reason why pectin relocates from the outer mucilage to the inner mucilage. Consequently, the disruption of B bridges appears to result in the extreme sensitivity of the mur1 mucilage pectin complex to EDTA extraction, despite the reinforcement of the pectin network by excessive Ca2+. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that B, in the form of dRG-II-B, works together with Ca2+to maintain pectin network crosslinks and ultimately the mucilage ultrastructure in seed mucilage. This work may serve to complement our current understanding of mucilage configuration.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0606-8
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of phytohormone levels and transcript profiles during seasonal
           dormancy transitions in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge
    • Authors: Wun S. Chao; Münevver Doğramacı; David P. Horvath; James V. Anderson; Michael E. Foley
      Pages: 281 - 302
      Abstract: Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that maintains its perennial growth habit through generation of underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. These UABs undergo seasonal phases of dormancy under natural conditions, namely para-, endo-, and ecodormancy in summer, fall, and winter, respectively. These dormancy phases can also be induced in growth chambers by manipulating photoperiod and temperature. In this study, UABs induced into the three phases of dormancy under controlled conditions were used to compare changes in phytohormone and transcriptome profiles. Results indicated that relatively high levels of ABA, the ABA metabolite PA, and IAA were found in paradormant buds. When UABs transitioned from para- to endodormancy, ABA and PA levels decreased, whereas IAA levels were maintained. Additionally, transcript profiles associated with regulation of soluble sugars and ethylene activities were also increased during para- to endodormancy transition, which may play some role in maintaining endodormancy status. When crown buds transitioned from endo- to ecodormancy, the ABA metabolites PA and DPA decreased significantly along with the down-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, ABA2 and NCED3. IAA levels were also significantly lower in ecodormant buds than that of endodormant buds. We hypothesize that extended cold treatment may trigger physiological stress in endodormant buds, and that these stress-associated signals induced the endo- to ecodormancy transition and growth competence. The up-regulation of NAD/NADH phosphorylation and dephosphorylation pathway, and MAF3-like and GRFs genes, may be considered as markers of growth competency.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0607-7
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Transcriptomic analysis of molecular responses in Malus domestica
           ‘M26’ roots affected by apple replant disease
    • Authors: Stefan Weiß; Melanie Bartsch; Traud Winkelmann
      Pages: 303 - 318
      Abstract: Key message Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet. Hence, it is pivotal to gain a better understanding of the molecular and physiological reactions of the plant when affected by ARD and later to overcome the disease, for example by developing tolerant rootstocks. For the first time, gene expression was investigated in roots of ARD affected plants employing massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE) and RT-qPCR. In reaction to ARD, genes in secondary metabolite production as well as plant defense, regulatory and signaling genes were upregulated whereas for several genes involved in primary metabolism lower expression was detected. For internal verification of MACE data, candidate genes were tested via RT-qPCR and a strong positive correlation between both datasets was observed. Comparison of apple ‘M26’ roots cultivated in ARD soil or γ-irradiated ARD soil suggests that typical defense reactions towards biotic stress take place in ARD affected plants but they did not allow responding to the biotic stressors attack adequately, leading to the observed growth depressions in ARD variants.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0608-6
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Genomic and functional characterization of coleopteran insect-specific
           α-amylase inhibitor gene from Amaranthus species
    • Authors: Amey J. Bhide; Sonal M. Channale; Yashpal Yadav; Kabita Bhattacharjee; Pankaj K. Pawar; V. L. Maheshwari; Vidya S. Gupta; Sureshkumar Ramasamy; Ashok P. Giri
      Pages: 319 - 332
      Abstract: The smallest 32 amino acid α-amylase inhibitor from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AAI) is reported. The complete gene of pre-protein (AhAI) encoding a 26 amino acid (aa) signal peptide followed by the 43 aa region and the previously identified 32 aa peptide was cloned successfully. Three cysteine residues and one disulfide bond conserved within known α-amylase inhibitors were present in AhAI. Identical genomic and open reading frame was found to be present in close relatives of A. hypochondriacus namely Amaranthus paniculatus, Achyranthes aspera and Celosia argentea. Interestingly, the 3′UTR of AhAI varied in these species. The highest expression of AhAI was observed in A. hypochondriacus inflorescence; however, it was not detected in the seed. We hypothesized that the inhibitor expressed in leaves and inflorescence might be transported to the seeds. Sub-cellular localization studies clearly indicated the involvement of AhAI signal peptide in extracellular secretion. Full length rAhAI showed differential inhibition against α-amylases from human, insects, fungi and bacteria. Particularly, α-amylases from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera) were not inhibited by AhAI while Tribolium castaneum and Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera) α-amylases were completely inhibited. Molecular docking of AhAI revealed tighter interactions with active site residues of T. castaneum α-amylase compared to C. chinensis α-amylase, which could be the rationale behind the disparity in their IC50. Normal growth, development and adult emergence of C. chinensis were hampered after feeding on rAhAI. Altogether, the ability of AhAI to affect the growth of C. chinensis demonstrated its potential as an efficient bio-control agent, especially against stored grain pests.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0609-5
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Identification of the ligand of Pru p 3, a peach LTP
    • Authors: Nuria Cubells-Baeza; Cristina Gómez-Casado; Leticia Tordesillas; Carmen Ramírez-Castillejo; María Garrido-Arandia; Pablo González-Melendi; María Herrero; Luis F. Pacios; Araceli Díaz-Perales
      Pages: 33 - 44
      Abstract: Key message Pru p 3, a peach LTP, is located in pollinated flower styles and secreting downy hairs, transporting a derivative of camptothecin bound to phytosphingosine. Pru p 3 may inhibit a second pollination and may keep away herbivores until seed maturation. The allergen Pru p 3, a peach lipid transfer protein, has been well studied. However, its physiological function remains to be elucidated. Our results showed that Pru p 3 usually carries a lipid ligand that play an essential role in its function in plants. Using ESI-qToF, we observed that the ligand was a derivative of camptothecin binding to phytosphingosine, wich that is inserted into the hydrophobic tunnel of the protein. In addition, the described ligand displayed topoisomerase I activity inhibition and self-fluorescence, both recognized as camptothecin properties. During flower development, the highest expression of Pru p 3 was detected in the styles of pollinated flowers, in contrast to its non-expression in unpollinated pistils, where expression decreased after anthesis. During ripening, the expression of Pru p 3 were observed mainly in peel but not in pulp. In this sense, Pru p 3 protein was also localized in trichomes covering the fruit epidermis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0590-z
      Issue No: Vol. 94, No. 1-2 (2017)
       
  • Integration of transcriptomic and metabolic data reveals hub transcription
           factors involved in drought stress response in sunflower ( Helianthus
           annuus L .)
    • Abstract: Key message By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach. Our results showed a delay in plant senescence with an increase in the expression level of photosynthesis related genes as well as higher levels of sugars, osmoprotectant amino acids and ionic nutrients under drought conditions. In addition, we identified transcription factors that were upregulated during drought conditions and that may act as hubs in the transcriptional network. Many of these transcription factors belong to families implicated in the drought response in model species. The integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data in this study, together with physiological measurements, has improved our understanding of the biological responses during droughts and contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved under this environmental condition. These findings will provide useful biotechnological tools to improve stress tolerance while maintaining crop yield under restricted water availability.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0625-5
       
  • Dynamics of tobacco DNA topoisomerases II in cell cycle regulation: to
           manage topological constrains during replication, transcription and
           mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation
    • Authors: Badri Nath Singh; V. Mohan Murali Achary; Varakumar Panditi; Sudhir K. Sopory; Malireddy K. Reddy
      Abstract: Key message The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle. Topoisomerase II transcript accumulation was observed during the S- and G2/M- phase of cell cycle. This biphasic expression pattern indicates the active requirement of topoisomerase II during these stages of the cell cycle. Through immuno-localization of topoisomerase II was observed diffusely throughout the nucleoplasm in interphase nuclei, whereas, the nucleolus region exhibited a more prominent immuno-positive staining that correlated with rRNA transcription, as shown by propidium iodide staining and BrUTP incorporation. The immuno-staining analysis also showed that topoisomerase II is the major component of mitotic chromosomes and remain attached to the chromosomes during cell division. The inhibition of topoisomerase II activity using specific inhibitors revealed quite dramatic effect on condensation of chromatin and chromosome individualization from prophase to metaphase transition. Partially condensed chromosomes were not arranged on metaphase plate and chromosomal perturbations were observed when advance to anaphase, suggesting the importance of topoisomerase II activity for proper chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. Contrary, topoisomerase II is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, even though mitosis and meiosis share many processes, including the DNA replication, chromosome condensation and precisely regulated partitioning of chromosomes into daughter cells. Even if topoisomerase II is required for individualization and condensation of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0626-4
       
  • The function of OsbHLH068 is partially redundant with its homolog,
           AtbHLH112 , in the regulation of the salt stress response but has opposite
           functions to control flowering in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Hung-Chi Chen; Vicki Hsieh-Feng; Pei-Chun Liao; Wan-Hsing Cheng; Li-Yu Liu; Yun-Wei Yang; Ming-Hsin Lai; Men-Chi Chang
      Abstract: Key message The homologous genes OsbHLH068 and AtbHLH112 have partially redundant functions in the regulation of the salt stress response but opposite functions to control flowering in Arabidopsis. The transcription factor (TF) basic/Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) is important for plant growth, development, and stress responses. OsbHLH068, which is a homologous gene of AtbHLH112 that is up-regulated under drought and salt stresses, as indicated by previous microarray data analysis. However, the intrinsic function of OsbHLH068 remains unknown. In the present study, we characterized the function and compared the role of OsbHLH068 with that of its homolog, AtbHLH112. Histochemical GUS staining indicated that OsbHLH068 and AtbHLH112 share a similar expression pattern in transgenic Arabidopsis during the juvenile-to-adult phase transition. Heterologous overexpression of OsbHLH068 in Arabidopsis delays seed germination, decreases salt-induced H2O2 accumulation, and promotes root elongation, whereas AtbHLH112 knock-out mutant displays an opposite phenotype. Both OsbHLH068-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and the Atbhlh112 mutant display a late-flowering phenotype. Moreover, the expression of OsbHLH068-GFP driven by an AtbHLH112 promoter can compensate for the germination deficiency in the Atbhlh112 mutant, but the delayed-flowering phenotype tends to be more severe. Further analysis by microarray and qPCR indicated that the expression of FT is down-regulated in both OsbHLH068-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants and Atbhlh112 mutant plants, whereas SOC1 but not FT is highly expressed in AtbHLH112-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. A comparative transcriptomic analysis also showed that several stress-responsive genes, such as AtERF15 and AtPUB23, were affected in both OsbHLH068- and AtbHLH112-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Thus, we propose that OsbHLH068 and AtbHLH112 share partially redundant functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses but have opposite functions to control flowering in Arabidopsis, presumably due to the evolutionary functional divergence of homolog-encoded proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0624-6
       
  • Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1
           alter iron homeostasis in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)
    • Authors: Amparo Andrés-Bordería; Fernando Andrés; Antoni Garcia-Molina; Ana Perea-García; Concha Domingo; Sergi Puig; Lola Peñarrubia
      Abstract: Key message Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0622-8
       
  • Suppression of cucumber stachyose synthase gene ( CsSTS ) inhibits phloem
           loading and reduces low temperature stress tolerance
    • Authors: Jianguo Lü; Xiaolei Sui; Si Ma; Xin Li; Huan Liu; Zhenxian Zhang
      Abstract: Stachyose is the main transporting sugar in phloem of Raffinose family oligosaccharides-transporting species. Stachyose synthase (STS) is a key enzyme for stachyose biosynthesis, but the gene encoding STS is poorly characterized in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is a model plant for studying stachyose metabolism and phloem function. In this research, stachyose synthase gene (CsSTS) from cucumber was isolated and its physiological functions were analyzed. CsSTS expressed mainly in the phloem of the minor veins in mature leaves and localized to companion cells. Reverse genetics with CsSTS RNAi lines revealed obviously reductions in STS activity and stachyose content along with a small amount of starch accumulation in leaves, suggesting that CsSTS is involved in phloem loading of cucumber leaves. After 6 °C low temperature stress, malondialdehyde content and electrical conductivity increased, especially in CsSTS-RNAi plants. But CsSTS expression was up-regulated, STS activity and stachyose level increased, the activities of reactive-oxygen-scavenging enzyme in cucumber seedlings improved significantly and starch accumulation reduced, especially in CsSTS-OE lines. These results demonstrate clearly that CsSTS is involved in phloem loading, carbohydrate distribution and tolerance of cucumber seedlings to low temperature stress.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0621-9
       
  • ThDof1.4 and ThZFP1 constitute a transcriptional regulatory cascade
           involved in salt or osmotic stress in Tamarix hispida
    • Authors: Dandan Zang; Lina Wang; Yiming Zhang; Huimin Zhao; Yucheng Wang
      Abstract: Identification of the upstream regulators of a gene is important to characterize the transcriptional pathway and the function of the gene. Previously, we found that a zinc finger protein (ThZFP1) is involved in abiotic stress tolerance of Tamarix hispida. In the present study, we further investigated the transcriptional pathway of ThZFP1. Dof motifs are abundant in the ThZFP1 promoter; therefore, we used them to screen for transcriptional regulators of ThZFP1. A Dof protein, ThDof1.4, binds to the Dof motif specifically, and was hypothesized as the upstream regulator of ThZFP1. Further study showed that overexpression of ThDof1.4 in T. hispida activated the expression of GUS controlled by the ThZFP1 promoter. In T. hispida, transient overexpression of ThDof1.4 increased the transcripts of ThZFP1; conversely, transient RNAi-silencing of ThDof1.4 reduced the expression of ThZFP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that ThDof1.4 binds to the ThZFP1 promoter. Additionally, ThDof1.4 and ThZFP1 share similar expression patterns in response to salt or drought stress. Furthermore, like ThZFP1, ThDof1.4 could increase the proline level and enhance ROS scavenging capability to improve salt and osmotic stress tolerance. Together, these results suggested that ThDof1.4 and ThZFP1 form a transcriptional regulatory cascade involved in abiotic stress resistance in T. hispida.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0620-x
       
  • MiR529a modulates panicle architecture through regulating SQUAMOSA
           PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE genes in rice ( Oryza sativa )
    • Authors: Erkui Yue; Chao Li; Yu Li; Zhen Liu; Jian-Hong Xu
      Abstract: Key message MiR529a affects rice panicle architecture by targeting OsSPL2,OsSPL14 and OsSPL17 genes that could regulate their downstream panicle related genes. The panicle architecture determines the grain yield and quality of rice, which could be regulated by many transcriptional factors. The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of panicle development, which are targeted by miR156 and miR529. The expression profile demonstrated that miR529a is preferentially expressed in the early panicle of rice and it might regulate panicle development in rice. However, the regulation mechanism of miR529-SPL is still not clear. In this study, we predicted five miR529a putative target genes, OsSPL2, OsSPL14, OsSPL16, OsSPL17 and OsSPL18, while only the expression of OsSPL2, OsSPL14, and OsSPL17 was regulated by miR529a in the rice panicle. Overexpression of miR529a dramatically affected panicle architecture, which was regulated by OsSPL2, OsSPL14, and OsSPL17. Furthermore, the 117, 35, and 25 pathway genes associated with OsSPL2, OsSPL14 and OsSPL17, respectively, were predicted, and they shared 20 putative pathway genes. Our results revealed that miR529a could play a vital role in the regulation of panicle architecture through regulating OsSPL2, OsSPL14, OsSPL17 and the complex networks formed by their pathway and downstream genes. These findings will provide new genetic resources for reshaping ideal plant architecture and breeding high yield rice varieties.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0618-4
       
  • Large-scale transcriptome analysis reveals arabidopsis metabolic pathways
           are frequently influenced by different pathogens
    • Authors: Zhenhong Jiang; Fei He; Ziding Zhang
      Abstract: Key message Through large-scale transcriptional data analyses, we highlighted the importance of plant metabolism in plant immunity and identified 26 metabolic pathways that were frequently influenced by the infection of 14 different pathogens. Reprogramming of plant metabolism is a common phenomenon in plant defense responses. Currently, a large number of transcriptional profiles of infected tissues in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been deposited in public databases, which provides a great opportunity to understand the expression patterns of metabolic pathways during plant defense responses at the systems level. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome analysis based on 135 previously published expression samples, including 14 different pathogens, to explore the expression pattern of Arabidopsis metabolic pathways. Overall, metabolic genes are significantly changed in expression during plant defense responses. Upregulated metabolic genes are enriched on defense responses, and downregulated genes are enriched on photosynthesis, fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identifies 26 frequently differentially expressed metabolic pathways (FreDE_Paths) that are differentially expressed in more than 60% of infected samples. These pathways are involved in the generation of energy, fatty acid and lipid metabolism as well as secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Clustering analysis based on the expression levels of these 26 metabolic pathways clearly distinguishes infected and control samples, further suggesting the importance of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. By comparing with FreDE_Paths from abiotic stresses, we find that the expression patterns of 26 FreDE_Paths from biotic stresses are more consistent across different infected samples. By investigating the expression correlation between transcriptional factors (TFs) and FreDE_Paths, we identify several notable relationships. Collectively, the current study will deepen our understanding of plant metabolism in plant immunity and provide new insights into disease-resistant crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0617-5
       
  • Identification of genes related to skin development in potato
    • Authors: Vijaya K. R. Vulavala; Edna Fogelman; Lior Rozental; Adi Faigenboim; Zachariah Tanami; Oded Shoseyov; Idit Ginzberg
      Abstract: Key message Newly identified genes that are preferentially expressed in potato skin include genes that are associated with the secondary cell wall and stress-related activities and contribute to the skin’s protective function. Microarrays were used to compare the skin and tuber-flesh transcriptomes of potato, to identify genes that contribute to the unique characteristics of the skin as a protective tissue. Functional gene analysis indicated that genes involved in developmental processes such as cell division, cell differentiation, morphogenesis and secondary cell wall formation (lignification and suberization), and stress-related activities, are more highly expressed in the skin than in the tuber flesh. Several genes that were differentially expressed in the skin (as verified by qPCR) and had not been previously identified in potato were selected for further analysis. These included the StKCS20-like, StFAR3, StCYP86A22 and StPOD72-like genes, whose sequences suggest that they may be closely related to known suberin-related genes; the StHAP3 transcription factor that directs meristem-specific expression; and the StCASP1B2-like and StCASP1-like genes, which are two orthologs of a protein family that mediates the formation of Casparian strips in the suberized endodermis of Arabidopsis roots. An examination of microtubers induced from transgenic plants carrying GUS reporter constructs of these genes indicated that these genes were expressed in the skin, with little to no expression in the tuber flesh. Some of the reporter constructs were preferentially expressed in the inner layers of the skin, the root endodermis, the vascular cambium and the epidermis of the stem. Cis-regulatory elements within the respective promoter sequences support this gene-expression pattern.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0619-3
       
  • Over-expression of tobacco UBC1 encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme
           increases cadmium tolerance by activating the 20S/26S proteasome and by
           decreasing Cd accumulation and oxidative stress in tobacco ( Nicotiana
           tabacum )
    • Authors: Ramin Bahmani; DongGwan Kim; Byoung Doo Lee; Seongbin Hwang
      Abstract: Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzyme (UBC, E2) receives Ub from Ub-activating enzyme (E1) and transfers it to target proteins, thereby playing a key role in Ub/26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis. UBC has been reported to be involved in tolerating abiotic stress in plants, including drought, salt, osmotic and water stresses. To isolate the genes involved in Cd tolerance, we transformed WT (wild-type) yeast Y800 with a tobacco cDNA expression library and isolated a tobacco cDNA, NtUBC1 (Ub-conjugating enzyme), that enhances cadmium tolerance. When NtUBC1 was over-expressed in tobacco, cadmium tolerance was enhanced, but the Cd level was decreased. Interestingly, 20S proteasome activity was increased and ubiquitinated protein levels were diminished in response to cadmium in NtUBC1 tobacco. By contrast, proteasome activity was decreased and ubiquitinated protein levels were slightly enhanced by Cd treatment in control tobacco, which is sensitive to Cd. Moreover, the oxidative stress level was induced to a lesser extent by Cd in NtUBC1 tobacco compared with control plants, which is ascribed to the higher activity of antioxidant enzymes in NtUBC1 tobacco. In addition, NtUBC1 tobacco displayed a reduced accumulation of Cd compared with the control, likely due to the higher expression of CAX3 (Ca2+/H+ exchanger) and the lower expression of IRT1 (iron-responsive transporter 1) and HMA-A and -B (heavy metal ATPase). In contrast, atubc1 and atubc1atubc2 Arabidopsis exhibited lower Cd tolerance and proteasome activity than WT. In conclusion, NtUBC1 expression promotes cadmium tolerance likely by removing cadmium-damaged proteins via Ub/26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis or the Ub-independent 20S proteasome and by diminishing oxidative stress through the activation of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing Cd accumulation due to higher CAX3 and lower IRT1 and HMA-A/B expression in response to 50 µM Cd challenge for 3 weeks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0616-6
       
  • Differences in specificity and compensatory functions among three major
           
    • Authors: Naoko Crofts; Kyohei Sugimoto; Naoko F. Oitome; Yasunori Nakamura; Naoko Fujita
      Abstract: The lengths of amylopectin-branched chains are precise and influence the physicochemical properties of starch, which determine starch functionality. Three major isozymes of starch synthases (SSs), SSI, SSII(a), and SSIII(a), are primarily responsible for amylopectin chain elongation in the storage tissues of plants. To date, the majority of reported rice mutants were generated using japonica cultivars, which have almost inactive SSIIa. Although three SSs share some overlapping chain length preferences, whether they complement each other remains unknown due to the absence of suitable genetic combinations of materials. In this study, rice ss1/SS2a/SS3a and SS1/SS2a/ss3a were newly generated, and the chain length distribution patterns of all the possible combinations of presence and absence of SSI, SSIIa, and SSIIIa activities were compared. This study demonstrated that SSIIa can complement most SSI functions that use glucan chains with DP 6–7 to generate DP 8–12 chains but cannot fully compensate for the elongation of DP 16–19 chains. This suggests that SSIIa preferentially elongates outer but not inner chains of amylopectin. In addition, the results revealed that neither SSI nor SSIIIa compensate for SSIIa. Neither SSI nor SSIIa compensate for elongation of DP >30 by SSIIIa. SSIIa could not resolve the pleiotropic increase of SSI caused by the absence of SSIIIa; instead, SSIIa further elongated those branches elongated by SSI. These results revealed compensatory differences among three major SS isozymes responsible for lengths of amylopectin branches.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0614-8
       
  • CBF2A – CBF4B genomic region copy numbers alongside the circadian clock
           play key regulatory mechanisms driving expression of FR-H2 CBF s
    • Authors: Taniya Dhillon; Kengo Morohashi; Eric J. Stockinger
      Abstract: The C-Repeat Binding Factors (CBFs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that were identified using Arabidopsis thaliana. In barley, Hordeum vulgare, a cluster of CBF genes reside at FROST RESISTANCE-H2, one of two loci having major effects on winter-hardiness. FR-H2 was revealed in a population derived from the winter barley ‘Nure’ and the spring barley ‘Trèmois’. ‘Nure’ harbors two to three copies of CBF2A and CBF4B as a consequence of tandem iteration of the genomic region encompassing these genes whereas ‘Trèmois’ harbors single copies, and these copy number differences are associated with their transcript level differences. Here we explore further the relationship between FR-H2 CBF gene copy number and transcript levels using ‘Admire’, a winter barley accumulating FR-H2 CBF gene transcripts to very high levels, and a group of lines related to ‘Admire’ through descent. DNA blot hybridization indicated the CBF2A–CBF4B genomic region is present in 7–8 copies in ‘Admire’ and is highly variable in copy number across the lines related to ‘Admire’. At normal growth temperatures transcript levels of CBF12, CBF14, and CBF16 were higher in lines having greater CBF2A–CBF4B genomic region copy numbers than in lines having fewer copy numbers at peak expression level time points controlled by the circadian clock. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated CBF2 was at the CBF12 and CBF16 promoters at normal growth temperatures. These data support a scenario in which CBF2A–CBF4B genomic region copy numbers affect expression of other FR–H2 CBFs through a mechansim in which these other FR-H2 CBFs are activated by those in the copy number variable unit.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0610-z
       
  • Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating
           CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination
    • Authors: Chao Bi; Yu Ma; Zhen Wu; Yong-Tao Yu; Shan Liang; Kai Lu; Xiao-Fang Wang
      Abstract: It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H2O2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0603-y
       
 
 
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