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Journal Cover Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.842]   [H-I: 121]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of CAD isoforms
           specific for podophyllotoxin biosynthesis from Podophyllum hexandrum
    • Authors: Dipto Bhattacharyya; Saptarshi Hazra; Anindyajit Banerjee; Riddhi Datta; Deepak Kumar; Saikat Chakrabarti; Sharmila Chattopadhyay
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: Abstract Podophyllotoxin (ptox) is a therapeutically important lignan derived from Podophyllum hexandrum and is used as a precursor for the synthesis of anticancer drugs etoposide, teniposide and etopophose. In spite of its enormous economic significance, genomic information on this endangered medicinal herb is scarce. We have performed de novo transcriptome analysis of methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated P. hexandrum cell cultures exhibiting enhanced ptox accumulation. The results revealed the maximum up-regulation of several isoforms of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). CAD catalyzes the synthesis of coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol from coniferaldehyde (CAld) and sinapaldehyde respectively. Coniferyl alcohol can produce both lignin and lignan while sinapyl alcohol produces only lignin. To isolate the CAD isoforms favoring ptox, we deduced full length cDNA sequences of four CAD isoforms: PhCAD1, PhCAD2, PhCAD3 and PhCAD4 from the contigs of the transcriptome data. In vitro enzyme assays indicated a higher affinity for CAld over sinapaldehyde for each isoform. In silico molecular docking analyses also suggested that PhCAD3 has a higher binding preference with CAld over sinapaldehyde, followed by PhCAD4, PhCAD2, and PhCAD1, respectively. The transgenic cell cultures overexpressing these isoforms independently revealed that PhCAD3 favored the maximum accumulation of ptox as compared to lignin followed by PhCAD4 and PhCAD2, whereas, PhCAD1 favored both equally. Together, our study reveals transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of ptox specific CAD isoforms from P. hexandrum. It provides a useful resource for future research not only on the ptox biosynthetic pathway but on overall P. hexandrum, an endangered medicinal herb with immense therapeutic importance.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0492-5
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Irregular xylem 7 (IRX7) is required for anchoring seed coat mucilage in
           Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Ruibo Hu; Junling Li; Xuanwen Yang; Xun Zhao; Xiaoyu Wang; Qi Tang; Guo He; Gongke Zhou; Yingzhen Kong
      Pages: 25 - 38
      Abstract: Abstract Large quantities of mucilage are synthesized in seed coat epidermis cells during seed coat differentiation. This process is an ideal model system for the study of plant cell wall biosynthesis and modifications. In this study, we show that mutation in Irregular Xylem 7 (IRX7) results in a defect in mucilage adherence due to reduced xylan biosynthesis. IRX7 was expressed in the seeds from 4 days post-anthesis (DPA) to 13 DPA, with the peak of expression at 13 DPA. The seed coat epidermis cells of irx7 displayed no aberrant morphology during differentiation, and these cells synthesized and deposited the same amount of mucilage as did wild type (WT) cells. However, the distribution of the water-soluble vs. adherent mucilage layers was significantly altered in irx7 compared to the WT. Both the amount of xylose and the extent of glycosyl linkages of xylan was dramatically decreased in irx7 water-soluble and adherent mucilage compared to the WT. The polymeric structure of water-soluble mucilage was altered in irx7, with a total loss of the higher molecular weight polymer components present in the WT. Correspondingly, whole-seed immunolabeling assays and dot-immunoassays of extracted mucilage indicated dramatic changes in rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I) and xylan epitopes in irx7 mucilage. Furthermore, the crystalline cellulose content was significantly reduced in irx7 mucilage. Taken together, these results indicate that xylan synthesized by IRX7 plays an essential role in maintaining the adhesive property of seed coat mucilage, and its structural role is potentially implemented through its interaction with cellulose.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0493-4
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Tight regulation of the interaction between Brassica napus and Sclerotinia
           sclerotiorum at the microRNA level
    • Authors: Jia-Yi Cao; You-Ping Xu; Li Zhao; Shuang-Sheng Li; Xin-Zhong Cai
      Pages: 39 - 55
      Abstract: Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are multifunctional non-coding short nucleotide molecules. Nevertheless, the role of miRNAs in the interactions between plants and necrotrophic pathogens is largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of the miRNA repertoire of the economically important oil crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and those involved in interacting with its most devastating necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We identified 280 B. napus miRNA candidates, including 53 novel candidates and 227 canonical members or variants of known miRNA families, by high-throughput deep sequencing of small RNAs from both normal and S. sclerotiorum-inoculated leaves. Target genes of 15 novel candidates and 222 known miRNAs were further identified by sequencing of degradomes from the two types of samples. MiRNA microarray analysis revealed that 68 miRNAs were differentially expressed between S. sclerotiorum-inoculated and uninoculated leaves. A set of these miRNAs target genes involved in plant defense to S. sclerotiorum and/or other pathogens such as nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) R genes and nitric oxygen and reactive oxygen species related genes. Additionally, three miRNAs target AGO1 and AGO2, key components of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Expression of several viral PTGS suppressors reduced resistance to S. sclerotiorum. Arabidopsis mutants of AGO1 and AGO2 exhibited reduced resistance while transgenic lines over-expressing AGO1 displayed increased resistance to S. sclerotiorum in an AGO1 expression level-dependent manner. Moreover, transient over-expression of miRNAs targeting AGO1 and AGO2 decreased resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that the interactions between B. napus and S. sclerotiorum are tightly regulated at miRNA level and probably involve PTGS.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0494-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Multiplicity and specificity of siderophore uptake in the cyanobacterium
           Anabaena sp. PCC 7120
    • Authors: Mareike Rudolf; Mara Stevanovic; Chana Kranzler; Rafael Pernil; Nir Keren; Enrico Schleiff
      Pages: 57 - 69
      Abstract: Abstract Many cyanobacteria secrete siderophores to sequester iron. Alternatively, mechanisms to utilize xenosiderophores have evolved. The overall uptake systems are comparable to that of other bacteria involving outer membrane transporters energized by TonB as well as plasma membrane-localized transporters. However, the function of the bioinformatically-inferred components is largely not established and recent studies showed a high diversity of the complexity of the uptake systems in different cyanobacteria. Thus, we approached the systems of the filamentous Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 as a model of a siderophore-secreting cyanobacterium. Anabaena sp. produces schizokinen and uptake of Fe-schizokinen involves the TonB-dependent transporter, schizokinen transporter (SchT), and the ABC-type transport system FhuBCD. We confirm that this system is also relevant for the uptake of structurally similar Fe-siderophore complexes like Fe-aerobactin. Moreover, we demonstrate a function of the TonB-dependent transporter IutA2 in Fe-schizokinen uptake in addition to SchT. The iutA2 mutant shows growth defects upon iron limitation, alterations in Fe-schizokinen uptake and in the transcription profile of the Fe-schizokinen uptake system. The physiological properties of the mutant confirm the importance of iron uptake for cellular function, e.g. for the Krebs cycle. Based on the relative relation of expression of schT and iutA2 as well as of the iron uptake rate to the degree of starvation, a model for the need of the co-existence of two different outer membrane transporters for the same substrate is discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0495-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially
           expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage
    • Authors: Tien Dung Nguyen; Sunok Moon; Van Ngoc Tuyet Nguyen; Yunsil Gho; Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran; Moon-Soo Soh; Jong Tae Song; Gynheung An; Sung Aeong Oh; Soon Ki Park; Ki-Hong Jung
      Pages: 71 - 88
      Abstract: Abstract Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0496-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Functional characterization of NAC55 transcription factor from oilseed
           rape ( Brassica napus L.) as a novel transcriptional activator modulating
           reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death
    • Authors: Fangfang Niu; Chen Wang; Jingli Yan; Xiaohua Guo; Feifei Wu; Bo Yang; Michael K. Deyholos; Yuan-Qing Jiang
      Pages: 89 - 104
      Abstract: Abstract NAC transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific and play important roles in development, responses to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. So far, only a few NAC genes have been reported to regulate cell death. In this study, we identified and characterized a NAC55 gene isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). BnaNAC55 responds to multiple stresses, including cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. BnaNAC55 has transactivation activity and is located in the nucleus. BnaNAC55 is able to form homodimers in planta. Unlike ANAC055, full-length BnaNAC55, but not either the N-terminal NAC domain or C-terminal regulatory domain, induces ROS accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when expressed both in oilseed rape protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, BnaNAC55 expression causes obvious nuclear DNA fragmentation. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating ROS production and scavenging, defense response as well as senescence are significantly induced. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we further confirm that BnaNAC55 could activate the expression of a few ROS and defense-related gene expression. Taken together, our work has identified a novel NAC TF from oilseed rape that modulates ROS accumulation and cell death.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0502-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • AraPPISite: a database of fine-grained protein–protein interaction site
           annotations for Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Hong Li; Shiping Yang; Chuan Wang; Yuan Zhou; Ziding Zhang
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: Abstract Knowledge about protein interaction sites provides detailed information of protein–protein interactions (PPIs). To date, nearly 20,000 of PPIs from Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified. Nevertheless, the interaction site information has been largely missed by previously published PPI databases. Here, AraPPISite, a database that presents fine-grained interaction details for A. thaliana PPIs is established. First, the experimentally determined 3D structures of 27 A. thaliana PPIs are collected from the Protein Data Bank database and the predicted 3D structures of 3023 A. thaliana PPIs are modeled by using two well-established template-based docking methods. For each experimental/predicted complex structure, AraPPISite not only provides an interactive user interface for browsing interaction sites, but also lists detailed evolutionary and physicochemical properties of these sites. Second, AraPPISite assigns domain–domain interactions or domain–motif interactions to 4286 PPIs whose 3D structures cannot be modeled. In this case, users can easily query protein interaction regions at the sequence level. AraPPISite is a free and user-friendly database, which does not require user registration or any configuration on local machines. We anticipate AraPPISite can serve as a helpful database resource for the users with less experience in structural biology or protein bioinformatics to probe the details of PPIs, and thus accelerate the studies of plant genetics and functional genomics. AraPPISite is available at http://systbio.cau.edu.cn/arappisite/index.html.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0498-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives in tobacco plants by
           improving the metabolic flux of intermediates in the phenylpropanoid
           pathway
    • Authors: Yu Jeong Jeong; Chul Han An; Su Gyeong Woo; Ji Hye Park; Ki-Won Lee; Sang-Hoon Lee; Yeonggil Rim; Hyung Jae Jeong; Young Bae Ryu; Cha Young Kim
      Pages: 117 - 129
      Abstract: Abstract The biosynthesis of flavonoids such as anthocyanin and stilbenes has attracted increasing attention because of their potential health benefits. Anthocyanins and stilbenes share common phenylpropanoid precursor pathways. We previously reported that the overexpression of sweetpotato IbMYB1a induced anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In the present study, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants (STS-OX and ROST-OX) expressing the RpSTS gene encoding stilbene synthase from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L. cv. Jangyeop) and the RpSTS and VrROMT genes encoding resveratrol O-methyltransferase from frost grape (Vitis riparia) were generated under the control of 35S promoter. Phenotypic alterations in floral organs, such as a reduction in floral pigments and male sterility, were observed in STS-OX transgenic tobacco plants. However, we failed to obtain STS-OX and ROST-OX plants with high levels of resveratrol compounds. Therefore, to improve the production of resveratrol derivatives in plants, we cross-pollinated flowers of STS-OX or ROST-OX and IbMYB1a-OX transgenic lines (SM and RSM). Phenotypic changes in vegetative and reproductive development of SM and RSM plants were observed. Furthermore, by HPLC and LC-MS analyses, we found enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives such as piceid, piceid methyl ether, resveratrol methyl ether O-hexoside, and 5-methyl resveratrol-3,4′-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside in SM and RSM cross-pollinated lines. Here, total contents of trans- and cis-piceids ranged from approximately 104–240 µg/g fresh weight in SM (F2). Collectively, we suggest that coexpression of RpSTS and IbMYB1a via cross-pollination can induce enhanced production of resveratrol compounds in plants by increasing metabolic flux into stilbenoid biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0497-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • TALEN mediated targeted mutagenesis of the caffeic acid
           O-methyltransferase in highly polyploid sugarcane improves cell wall
           composition for production of bioethanol
    • Authors: Je Hyeong Jung; Fredy Altpeter
      Pages: 131 - 142
      Abstract: Abstract Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating in sugarcane stems as well as cell wall bound sugars for commercial ethanol production. Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional mutagenesis is not expected to confer reduction in lignin content in sugarcane due to its high polyploidy (x = 10–13) and functional redundancy among homo(eo)logs. Here we deploy transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to induce mutations in a highly conserved region of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) of sugarcane. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was validated by pyrosequencing as reliable and inexpensive high throughput method for identification and quantitative characterization of TALEN mediated mutations. Targeted COMT mutations were identified by CE in up to 74 % of the lines. In different events 8–99 % of the wild type COMT were converted to mutant COMT as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mutation frequencies among mutant lines were positively correlated to lignin reduction. Events with a mutation frequency of 99 % displayed a 29–32 % reduction of the lignin content compared to non-transgenic controls along with significantly reduced S subunit content and elevated hemicellulose content. CE analysis displayed similar peak patterns between primary COMT mutants and their vegetative progenies suggesting that TALEN mediated mutations were faithfully transmitted to vegetative progenies. This is the first report on genome editing in sugarcane. The findings demonstrate that targeted mutagenesis can improve cell wall characteristics for production of lignocellulosic ethanol in crops with highly complex genomes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0499-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • SUMO proteases ULP1c and ULP1d are required for development and osmotic
           stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Pedro Humberto Castro; Daniel Couto; Sara Freitas; Nuno Verde; Alberto P. Macho; Stéphanie Huguet; Miguel Angel Botella; Javier Ruiz-Albert; Rui Manuel Tavares; Eduardo Rodríguez Bejarano; Herlânder Azevedo
      Pages: 143 - 159
      Abstract: Abstract Sumoylation is an essential post-translational regulator of plant development and the response to environmental stimuli. SUMO conjugation occurs via an E1-E2-E3 cascade, and can be removed by SUMO proteases (ULPs). ULPs are numerous and likely to function as sources of specificity within the pathway, yet most ULPs remain functionally unresolved. In this report we used loss-of-function reverse genetics and transcriptomics to functionally characterize Arabidopsis thaliana ULP1c and ULP1d SUMO proteases. GUS reporter assays implicated ULP1c/d in various developmental stages, and subsequent defects in growth and germination were uncovered using loss-of-function mutants. Microarray analysis evidenced not only a deregulation of genes involved in development, but also in genes controlled by various drought-associated transcriptional regulators. We demonstrated that ulp1c ulp1d displayed diminished in vitro root growth under low water potential and higher stomatal aperture, yet leaf transpirational water loss and whole drought tolerance were not significantly altered. Generation of a triple siz1 ulp1c ulp1d mutant suggests that ULP1c/d and the SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 may display separate functions in development yet operate epistatically in response to water deficit. We provide experimental evidence that Arabidopsis ULP1c and ULP1d proteases act redundantly as positive regulators of growth, and operate mainly as isopeptidases downstream of SIZ1 in the control of water deficit responses.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0500-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Copy number variation at the HvCBF4–HvCBF2 genomic segment is a major
           component of frost resistance in barley
    • Authors: Enrico Francia; Caterina Morcia; Marianna Pasquariello; Valentina Mazzamurro; Justyna Anna Milc; Fulvia Rizza; Valeria Terzi; Nicola Pecchioni
      Pages: 161 - 175
      Abstract: Abstract A family of CBF transcription factors plays a major role in reconfiguring the plant transcriptome in response to low-freezing temperature in temperate cereals. In barley, more than 13 HvCBF genes map coincident with the major QTL FR-H2 suggesting them as candidates to explain the function of the locus. Variation in copy number (CNV) of specific HvCBFs was assayed in a panel of 41 barley genotypes using RT-qPCR. Taking advantage of an accurate phenotyping that combined Fv/Fm and field survival, resistance-associated variants within FR-H2 were identified. Genotypes with an increased copy number of HvCBF4 and HvCBF2 (at least ten and eight copies, respectively) showed greater frost resistance. A CAPS marker able to distinguish the CBF2A, CBF2B and CBF2A/B forms was developed and showed that all the higher-ranking genotypes in term of resistance harbour only CBF2A, while other resistant winter genotypes harbour also CBF2B, although at a lower CNV. In addition to the major involvement of the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment in the proximal cluster of CBF elements, a negative role of HvCBF3 in the distal cluster was identified. Multiple linear regression models taking into account allelic variation at FR-H1/VRN-H1 explained 0.434 and 0.550 (both at p < 0.001) of the phenotypic variation for Fv/Fm and field survival respectively, while no interaction effect between CNV at the HvCBFs and FR-H1/VRN-H1 was found. Altogether our data suggest a major involvement of the CBF genes located in the proximal cluster, with no apparent involvement of the central cluster contrary to what was reported for wheat.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0505-4
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Rice bifunctional phytocystatin is a dual modulator of legumain and
           papain-like proteases
    • Authors: Ana Paula Christoff; Gisele Passaia; Caroline Salvati; Márcio Alves-Ferreira; Marcia Margis-Pinheiro; Rogerio Margis
      Pages: 193 - 207
      Abstract: Abstract Phytocystatins are well-known inhibitors of C1A cysteine proteinases. However, previous research has revealed legumain (C13) protease inhibition via a carboxy-extended phytocystatin. Among the 12 phytocystatins genes in rice, OcXII is the only gene possessing this carboxy-terminal extension. The specific legumain inhibition activity was confirmed, in our work, using a recombinant OcXII harboring only the carboxy-terminal domain and this part did not exhibit any effect on papain-like activities. Meanwhile, rice plants silenced at the whole OcXII gene presented higher legumain and papain-like proteolytic activities, resulting in a faster initial seedling growth. However, when germinated under stressful alkaline conditions, OcXII-silenced plants exhibited impaired root formation and delayed shoot growth. Interestingly, the activity of OcXII promoter gene was detected in the rice seed scutellum region, and decreases with seedling growth. Seeds from these plants also exhibited slower growth at germination under ABA or alkaline conditions, while maintaining very high levels of OcXII transcriptional activation. This likely reinforces the proteolytic control necessary for seed germination and growth. In addition, increased legumain activity was detected in OcXII RNAi plants subjected to a fungal elicitor. Overall, the results of this study highlight the association of OcXII with not only plant development processes, but also with stress response pathways. The results of this study reinforce the bifunctional ability of carboxy-extended phytocystatins in regulating legumain proteases via its carboxy-extended domain and papain-like proteases by its amino-terminal domain.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0504-5
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • A CONSTANS-like transcriptional activator, OsCOL13 , functions as a
           negative regulator of flowering downstream of OsphyB and upstream of Ehd1
           in rice
    • Authors: Peike Sheng; Fuqing Wu; Junjie Tan; Huan Zhang; Weiwei Ma; Liping Chen; Jiachang Wang; Jie Wang; Shanshan Zhu; Xiuping Guo; Jiulin Wang; Xin Zhang; Zhijun Cheng; Yiqun Bao; Chuanyin Wu; Xuanming Liu; Jianmin Wan
      Pages: 209 - 222
      Abstract: Abstract Flowering time determines the adaptability of crop plants to different local environments, thus being one of the most important agronomic traits targeted in breeding programs. Photoperiod is one of the key factors that control flowering in plant. A number of genes that participate in the photoperiod pathway have been characterized in long-day plants such as Arabidopsis, as well as in short-day plants such as Oryza sativa. Of those, CONSTANS (CO) as a floral integrator promotes flowering in Arabidopsis under long day conditions. In rice, Heading date1 (Hd1), a homologue of CO, functions in an opposite way, which inhibits flowering under long day conditions and induces flowering under short day conditions. Here, we show that another CONSTANS-like (COL) gene, OsCOL13, negatively regulates flowering in rice under both long and short day conditions. Overexpression of OsCOL13 delays flowering regardless of day length. We also demonstrated that OsCOL13 has a constitutive and rhythmic expression pattern, and that OsCOL13 is localized to the nucleus. OsCOL13 displays transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assays and likely forms homodimers in vivo. OsCOL13 suppresses the florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1 by repressing Ehd1, but has no relationship with other known Ehd1 regulators as determined by using mutants or near isogenic lines. In addition, the transcriptional level of OsCOL13 significantly decreased in the osphyb mutant, but remained unchanged in the osphya and osphyc mutants. Thus, we conclude that OsCOL13 functions as a negative regulator downstream of OsphyB and upstream of Ehd1 in the photoperiodic flowering in rice.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0506-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Mutation of Rice Early Flowering3.1 ( OsELF3.1 ) delays leaf senescence in
           rice
    • Authors: Yasuhito Sakuraba; Su-Hyun Han; Hyun-Jung Yang; Weilan Piao; Nam-Chon Paek
      Pages: 223 - 234
      Abstract: Abstract In Arabidopsis, EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) has pivotal roles in controlling circadian rhythm and photoperiodic flowering. In addition, ELF3 negatively regulates leaf senescence by repressing the transcription of PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 (PIF5); elf3 mutants senesce earlier and ELF3-overexpressing (ELF3-OX) plants senesce later than wild type (WT). Here, we show that in contrast to Arabidopsis ELF3, which represses senescence, the rice homolog OsELF3.1 promotes leaf senescence; oself3.1 mutants showed delayed senescence and OsELF3.1-OX plants senesced earlier under both dark-induced and natural senescence conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that in the senescing leaves, a number of senescence-associated genes, phytohormone-related genes, and NAC and WRKY family genes (OsNAP, ONAC106, and OsWRKY42) were differentially expressed in oself3.1 mutants compared with WT. Interestingly, we found that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsELF3.1 show delayed leaf senescence, produce short petioles, and flower late in long days, just like Arabidopsis ELF3-OX plants. This demonstrates that the regulatory functions of ELF3 and OsELF3.1 are conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, but the downstream regulatory cascades have opposite effects.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0507-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Novel thidiazuron-derived inhibitors of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase
    • Authors: Jaroslav Nisler; David Kopečný; Radka Končitíková; Marek Zatloukal; Václav Bazgier; Karel Berka; David Zalabák; Pierre Briozzo; Miroslav Strnad; Lukáš Spíchal
      Pages: 235 - 248
      Abstract: Key message Two new TDZ derivatives (HETDZ and 3FMTDZ) are very potent inhibitors of CKX and are promising candidates for in vivo studies. Cytokinin hormones regulate a wide range of essential processes in plants. Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea, TDZ), formerly registered as a cotton defoliant, is a well known inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of cytokinins. TDZ thus increases the lifetime of cytokinins and their effects in plants. We used in silico modeling to design, synthesize and characterize twenty new TDZ derivatives with improved inhibitory properties. Two compounds, namely 1-[1,2,3]thiadiazol-5-yl-3-(3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)urea (3FMTDZ) and 1-[2-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (HETDZ), displayed up to 15-fold lower IC 50 values compared with TDZ for AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and ZmCKX1 and ZmCKX4a from Zea mays. Binding modes of 3FMTDZ and HETDZ were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Crystal structure complexes, solved at 2.0 Å resolution, revealed that HETDZ and 3FMTDZ bound differently in the active site of ZmCKX4a: the thiadiazolyl ring of 3FMTDZ was positioned over the isoalloxazine ring of FAD, whereas that of HETDZ had the opposite orientation, pointing toward the entrance of the active site. The compounds were further tested for cytokinin activity in several cytokinin bioassays. We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0509-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
       
  • Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera
           toxin B subunit fused to consensus dengue cEDIII antigen induces
           antibodies to all four dengue serotypes
    • Authors: Mi-Young Kim; Byeong-Young Kim; Sun-Mi Oh; Rajko Reljic; Yong-Suk Jang; Moon-Sik Yang
      Abstract: Abstract Dengue virus (DENV) infection is an emerging global health threat. DENV consists of four distinct serotypes, necessitating a tetravalent vaccine. In this study, expression of consensus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) fused to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in transgenic rice calli was improved using the luminal binding protein BiP at the N-terminus and the SEKDEL signal sequences at the C-terminus, targeting the recombinant protein to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found that the fusion protein showed higher levels of expression when compared to the fusion proteins using rice amylase 3D (RAmy3D) or CTB native signal sequence only. The CTB-cEDIII fusion protein was evaluated as an oral dengue vaccine candidate in mice. Serotype specific systemic IgG antibodies and specific IgA response in feces were detected and furthermore, T cell proliferation and high frequency antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the spleen. These results suggest the possible use of plant-based dengue tetravalent vaccine targeted to the mucosal immune system for induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to DENV infection.
      PubDate: 2016-08-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0517-0
       
  • D27E mutation of VTC1 impairs the interaction with CSN5B and enhances
           ascorbic acid biosynthesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Shenghui Li; Juan Wang; Yanwen Yu; Fengru Wang; Jingao Dong; Rongfeng Huang
      Abstract: Abstract Our previous investigation revealed that GDP-Man pyrophosphorylase (VTC1), a vital ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis enzyme, could be degraded through interaction with the photomorphogenic factor COP9 signalosome subunit 5B (CSN5B) in the darkness, demonstrating the posttranscriptional regulation of light signal in AsA production. Here, we further report that a point mutation in D27E of VTC1 disables the interaction with CSN5B, resulting in enhancement of AsA biosynthesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify the interaction sites with CSN5B, we first predicted the key amino acids in VTC1 via bioinformatics analysis. And then we biochemically and genetically demonstrated that the 27th Asp was the amino acid that influenced the interaction of VTC1 with CSN5B in plants. Moreover, transgenic lines overexpressing the site-specific mutagenesis from D27 (Asp) into E27 (Glu) in VTC1 showed enhanced AsA accumulation and reduced H2O2 content in Arabidopsis seedlings, compared with the lines overexpressing the mutation from D27 into N27 (Asn) in VTC1. In addition, this regulation of VTC1 D27E mutation promoted seedling growth. Together, our data reveal that the 27th amino acid of VTC1 confers a key regulation in the interaction with CSN5B and AsA biosynthesis, as well as in Arabidopsis seedling growth.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0525-0
       
  • Cloning and characterization of soybean gene Fg1 encoding flavonol 3- O
           -glucoside/galactoside (1→6) glucosyltransferase
    • Authors: Felipe Rojas Rodas; Shaokang Di; Yoshinori Murai; Tsukasa Iwashina; Satoko Sugawara; Tetsuya Mori; Ryo Nakabayashi; Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara; Kazuki Saito; Ryoji Takahashi
      Abstract: Key message Flavonoids are important secondary metabolites in plants. Sugar–sugar glycosyltransferases are involved in the final step of flavonoid biosynthesis and contribute to the structural diversity of flavonoids. This manuscript describes the first cloning of a sugar–sugar glucosyltransferase gene in the UGT family that attaches glucose to the 6″-position of sugar bound to a flavonol. The results provide a glimpse on the possible evolution of sugar–sugar glycosyltransferase genes and identify putative amino acids responsible for the recognition of the hydroxyl group of the sugar moiety and specification of sugar. A scheme for the genetic control of flavonol glycoside biosynthesis is proposed. Flavonol glycosides (FGs) are predominant in soybean leaves and they show substantial differences among genotypes. In previous studies, we identified two flavonoid glycoside glycosyltransferase genes that segregated in recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between cultivars Nezumisaya and Harosoy; one was responsible for the attachment of glucose to the 2″-position of glucose or galactose that is bound to the 3-position of kaempferol and the other was involved in the attachment of glucose to the 6″-position. This study was conducted to clone and characterize the 6″-glucosyltransferase gene. Linkage mapping indicated that the gene was located in the molecular linkage group I (chromosome 20). Based on the genome sequence, we cloned a candidate cDNA, GmF3G6"Gt from Harosoy but the corresponding cDNA could not be amplified by PCR from Nezumisaya. The coding region of GmF3G6″Gt in Harosoy is 1386 bp long encoding 462 amino acids. This gene was not expressed in leaves of Nezumisaya. The GmF3G6″Gt recombinant protein converted UDP-glucose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside or kaempferol 3-O-galactoside to kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-glucoside or kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-galactoside, respectively. These results indicate that GmF3G6″Gt encodes a flavonol 3-O-glucoside/galactoside (1→6) glucosyltransferase and corresponds to the Fg1 gene. GmF3G6″Gt had an amino acid similarity of 82 % with GmF3G6″Rt encoding flavonol 3-O-glucoside/galactoside (1→6) rhamnosyltransferase, suggesting a recent evolutionary divergence of the two genes. This may be the first cloning of a sugar-sugar glucosyltransferase gene in the UGT family that attaches glucose to the 6″-position of sugar bound to a flavonol. A scheme for the control of FG biosynthesis is proposed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0523-2
       
  • Precision breeding for RNAi suppression of a major 4-coumarate:coenzyme A
           ligase gene improves cell wall saccharification from field grown sugarcane
           
    • Abstract: Abstract Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a major feedstock for commercial bioethanol production. The recent integration of conversion technologies that utilize lignocellulosic sugarcane residues as well as sucrose from stem internodes has elevated bioethanol yields. RNAi suppression of lignin biosynthetic enzymes is a successful strategy to improve the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites, such as lignin and flavonoids. Identifying a major 4CL involved in lignin biosynthesis among multiple isoforms with functional divergence is key to manipulate lignin biosynthesis. In this study, two full length 4CL genes (Sh4CL1 and Sh4CL2) were isolated and characterized in sugarcane. Phylogenetic, expression and RNA interference (RNAi) analysis confirmed that Sh4CL1 is a major lignin biosynthetic gene. An intragenic precision breeding strategy may facilitate the regulatory approval of the genetically improved events and was used for RNAi suppression of Sh4CL1. Both, the RNAi inducing cassette and the expression cassette for the mutated ALS selection marker consisted entirely of DNA sequences from sugarcane or the sexually compatible species Sorghum bicolor. Field grown sugarcane with intragenic RNAi suppression of Sh4CL1 resulted in reduction of the total lignin content by up to 16.5 % along with altered monolignol ratios without reduction in biomass yield. Mature, field grown, intragenic sugarcane events displayed 52–76 % improved saccharification efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass compared to wild type (WT) controls. This demonstrates for the first time that an intragenic approach can add significant value to lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical production.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0527-y
       
  • The catalytic subunit of magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester
           cyclase forms a chloroplast complex to regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis
           in rice
    • Authors: Weiyi Kong; Xiaowen Yu; Haiyuan Chen; Linglong Liu; Yanjia Xiao; Yunlong Wang; Chaolong Wang; Yun Lin; Yang Yu; Chunming Wang; Ling Jiang; Huqu Zhai; Zhigang Zhao; Jianmin Wan
      Abstract: Key message YGL8 has the dual functions in Chl biosynthesis: one as a catalytic subunit of MgPME cyclase, the other as a core component of FLU-YGL8-LCAA-POR complex in Chl biosynthesis. Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MgPME) cyclase is an essential enzyme involved in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis. However, its roles in regulating Chl biosynthesis are not fully explored. In this study, we isolated a rice mutant yellow-green leaf 8 (ygl8) that exhibited chlorosis phenotype with abnormal chloroplast development in young leaves. As the development of leaves, the chlorotic plants turned green accompanied by restorations in Chl content and chloroplast ultrastructure. Map-based cloning revealed that the ygl8 gene encodes a catalytic subunit of MgPME cyclase. The ygl8 mutation caused a conserved amino acid substitution (Asn182Ser), which was related to the alterations of Chl precursor content. YGL8 was constitutively expressed in various tissues, with more abundance in young leaves and panicles. Furthermore, we showed that expression levels of some nuclear genes associated with Chl biosynthesis were affected in both the ygl8 mutant and YGL8 RNA interference lines. By transient expression in rice protoplasts, we found that N-terminal 40 amino acid residues were enough to localize the YGL8 protein to chloroplast. In vivo experiments demonstrated a physical interaction between YGL8 and a rice chloroplast protein, low chlorophyll accumulation A (OsLCAA). Moreover, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that YGL8 also interacted with the other two rice chloroplast proteins, viz. fluorescent (OsFLU1) and NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (OsPORB). These results provide new insights into the roles of YGL8, not only as a subunit with catalytic activity, but as a core component of FLU–YGL8–LCAA–POR complex required for Chl biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-08-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0513-4
       
 
 
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