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Journal Cover Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.915]   [H-I: 137]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • The mobile RNAs, StBEL11 and StBEL29 , suppress growth of tubers in potato
    • Authors: Tejashree H. Ghate; Pooja Sharma; Kirtikumar R. Kondhare; David J. Hannapel; Anjan K. Banerjee
      Abstract: Key message We demonstrate that RNAs of StBEL11 and StBEL29 are phloem-mobile and function antagonistically to the growth-promoting characteristics of StBEL5 in potato. Both these RNAs appear to inhibit tuber growth by repressing the activity of target genes of StBEL5 in potato. Moreover, upstream sequence driving GUS expression in transgenic potato lines demonstrated that both StBEL11 and -29 promoter activity is robust in leaf veins, petioles, stems, and vascular tissues and induced by short days in leaves and stolons. Steady-state levels of their mRNAs were also enhanced by short-day conditions in selective organs. There are thirteen functional BEL1-like genes in potato that encode for a family of transcription factors (TF) ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These BEL1 TFs work in tandem with KNOTTED1-types to regulate the expression of numerous target genes involved in hormone metabolism and growth processes. One of the StBELs, StBEL5, functions as a long-distance mRNA signal that is transcribed in leaves and moves into roots and stolons to stimulate growth. The two most closely related StBELs to StBEL5 are StBEL11 and -29. Together these three genes make up more than 70% of all StBEL transcripts present throughout the potato plant. They share a number of common features, suggesting they may be co-functional in tuber development. Upstream sequence driving GUS expression in transgenic potato lines demonstrated that both StBEL11 and -29 promoter activity is robust in leaf veins, petioles, stems, and vascular tissues and induced by short-days in leaves and stolons. Steady-state levels of their mRNAs were also enhanced by short-day conditions in specific organs. Using a transgenic approach and heterografting experiments, we show that both these StBELs inhibit growth in correlation with the long distance transport of their mRNAs from leaves to roots and stolons, whereas suppression lines of these two RNAs exhibited enhanced tuber yields. In summary, our results indicate that the RNAs of StBEL11 and StBEL29 are phloem-mobile and function antagonistically to the growth-promoting characteristics of StBEL5. Both these RNAs appear to inhibit growth in tubers by repressing the activity of target genes of StBEL5.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0582-4
       
  • The monomeric GTPase RabA2 is required for progression and maintenance of
           membrane integrity of infection threads during root nodule symbiosis
    • Authors: Virginia Dalla Via; Soledad Traubenik; Claudio Rivero; O. Mario Aguilar; María Eugenia Zanetti; Flavio Antonio Blanco
      Abstract: Key message Progression of the infection canal that conducts rhizobia to the nodule primordium requires a functional Rab GTPase located in Golgi/trans-Golgi that also participate in root hair polar growth. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) symbiotically associates with its partner Rhizobium etli, resulting in the formation of root nitrogen-fixing nodules. Compatible bacteria can reach cortical cells in a tightly regulated infection process, in which the specific recognition of signal molecules is a key step to select the symbiotic partner. In this work, we show that RabA2, a monomeric GTPase from common bean, is required for the progression of the infection canal, referred to as the infection thread (IT), toward the cortical cells. Expression of miss-regulated mutant variants of RabA2 resulted in an increased number of abortive infection events, including bursting of ITs and a reduction in the number of nodules. Nodules formed in these plants were small and contained infected cells with disrupted symbiosome membranes, indicating either early senescence of these cells or defects in the formation of the symbiosome membrane during bacterial release. RabA2 localized to mobile vesicles around the IT, but mutations that affect GTP hydrolysis or GTP/GDP exchange modified this localization. Colocalization of RabA2 with ArfA1 and a Golgi marker indicates that RabA2 localizes in Golgi stacks and the trans-Golgi network. Our results suggest that RabA2 is part of the vesicle transport events required to maintain the integrity of the membrane during IT progression.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0581-5
       
  • Reviewer acknowledgments
    • PubDate: 2017-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0577-1
       
  • UV-mediated Chlamydomonas mutants with enhanced nuclear transgene
           expression by disruption of DNA methylation-dependent and independent
           silencing systems
    • Authors: Sari Dewi Kurniasih; Tomohito Yamasaki; Fantao Kong; Sigeru Okada; Dwiyantari Widyaningrum; Takeshi Ohama
      Pages: 629 - 641
      Abstract: Key message In this investigation, we succeeded to generate Chlamydomonas mutants that bear dramatically enhanced ability for transgene expression. To yield these mutants, we utilized DNA methyltransferase deficient strain. These mutants must be useful as a plant cell factory. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (hereafter Chlamydomonas) is a green freshwater microalga. It is a promising cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins because it rapidly grows in simple salt-based media. However, expression of transgenes integrated into the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas is very poor, probably because of severe transcriptional silencing irrespective of the genomic position. In this study, we generated Chlamydomonas mutants by ultraviolet (UV)-mediated mutagenesis of maintenance-type DNA methyltransferase gene (MET1)-null mutants to overcome this disadvantage. We obtained several mutants with an enhanced ability to overexpress various transgenes irrespective of their integrated genomic positions. In addition, transformation efficiencies were significantly elevated. Our findings indicate that in addition to mechanisms involving MET1, transgene expression is regulated by a DNA methylation-independent transgene silencing system in Chlamydomonas. This is in agreement with the fact that DNA methylation occurs rarely in this organism. The generated mutants may be useful for the low-cost production of therapeutic proteins and eukaryotic enzymes based on their rapid growth in simple salt-based media.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0529-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Trichome patterning control involves TTG1 interaction with SPL
           transcription factors
    • Authors: Eugenia Ioannidi; Stamatis Rigas; Dikran Tsitsekian; Gerasimos Daras; Anastasios Alatzas; Antonis Makris; Georgia Tanou; Anagnostis Argiriou; Dimitrios Alexandrou; Scott Poethig; Polydefkis Hatzopoulos; Angelos K. Kanellis
      Pages: 675 - 687
      Abstract: Epidermal cell differentiation is a paramount and conserved process among plants. In Arabidopsis, a ternary complex formed by MYB, bHLH transcription factors and TTG1 modulates unicellular trichome morphogenesis. The formation of multicellular glandular trichomes of the xerophytic shrub Cistus creticus that accumulate labdane-type diterpenes, has attained much attention renowned for its medicinal properties. Here, we show that C. creticus TTG1 (CcTTG1) interacts with the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPLA/B) proteins, putative homologs of AtSPL4/5 that in turn interact with AtTTG1. These interactions occur between proteins from evolutionarily distant species supporting the conserved function of TTG1-SPL complex. Overexpression of AtSPL4 and AtSPL5 decreased the expression of GLABRA2 (AtGL2), the major regulator of trichome morphogenesis, resulting in trichome reduction on the adaxial surface of cauline leaves, thereby illuminating the significance of TTG1-SPLs interactions in trichome formation control. AtGL2 and AtSPL4 have opposite expression patterns during early stages of leaf development. We postulate an antagonistic effect between SPLs and the heterogeneous MYB-bHLH factors binding to TTG1. Hence, the SPLs potentially rearrange the complex, attenuating its transcriptional activity to control trichome distribution.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0538-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • ER-localized adenine nucleotide transporter ER-ANT1: an integrator of
           energy and stress signaling in rice
    • Authors: Xiangqian Zhang; Xu Zheng; Shanwen Ke; Haitao Zhu; Fang Liu; Zemin Zhang; Xinxiang Peng; Lin Guo; Ruizhen Zeng; Pei Hou; Ziqiang Liu; Suowei Wu; Meifang Song; Jianping Yang; Guiquan Zhang
      Pages: 701 - 715
      Abstract: Most environmental perturbations have a direct or indirect deleterious impact on photosynthesis, and, in consequence, the overall energy status of the cell. Despite our increased understanding of convergent energy and stress signals, the connections between photosynthesis, energy and stress signals through putative common nodes are still unclear. Here we identified an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized adenine nucleotide transporter1 (ER-ANT1), whose deficiency causes seedling lethality in air but viable under high CO2, exhibiting the typical photorespiratory phenotype. Metabolic analysis suggested that depletion of ER-ANT1 resulted in circadian rhythm disorders in sucrose synthesis and induced sucrose signaling pathways, indicating that the ER is involved in the regulation of vital energy metabolism in plants. In addition, the defect of ER-ANT1 triggers ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response in plant cells, suggesting ER stress and photorespiration are closely linked. These findings provide an important evidence for a key role of ER-localized ER-ANT1 in convergent energy and stress signals in rice. Our findings support the idea that ATP is a central signal involved in the plant response to a variety of stresses.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0540-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Salinity-mediated transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the
           Arabidopsis aquaporin PIP2;7
    • Authors: Alicia Pou; Linda Jeanguenin; Thomas Milhiet; Henri Batoko; François Chaumont; Charles Hachez
      Pages: 731 - 744
      Abstract: Key message Salt stress triggers a simultaneous transcriptional repression and aquaporin internalization to modify root cell water conductivity. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are involved in the adjustment of plant water balance in response to changing environmental conditions. In this study, Arabidopsis wild-type (Col-0) and transgenic lines overexpressing PIP2;7 were used to investigate and compare their response to salt stress. Hydraulic conductivity measurements using a high-pressure flowmeter (HPFM) revealed that overexpression of PIP2;7 induced a sixfold increase in root hydraulic conductivity of four week-old Arabidopsis thaliana plants compared to WT. Exposure to a high salt stress (150 mM NaCl) triggered a rapid repression of overall aquaporin activity in both genotypes. Response to salt stress was also investigated in 8 day-old seedlings. Exposure to salt led to a repression of PIP2;7 promoter activity and a significant decrease in PIP2;7 mRNA abundance within 2 h. Concomitantly, a rapid internalization of fluorescently-tagged PIP2;7 proteins was observed but removal from the cell membrane was not accompanied by further degradation of the protein within 4 h of exposure to salinity stress. These data suggest that PIP transcriptional repression and channel internalization act in concert during salt stress conditions to modulate aquaporin activity, thereby significantly altering the plant hydraulic parameters in the short term.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0542-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Functional characterization of tomato membrane-bound NAC transcription
           factors
    • Authors: Payel Bhattacharjee; Rohit Das; Arunava Mandal; Pallob Kundu
      Abstract: Key message Genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify and analyze differential expression pattern of tomato membrane bound NAC transcription factors (SlNACMTFs) during stresses. Two biotic-stress-related SlNACMTFs have been characterized to elucidate their regulatory function. NAC transcription factors are known regulators of stress-related gene expression. As Stresses are perceived and transmitted by membrane-bound proteins, functional characterization of membrane-associated NAC transcription factors in tomato can reveal valuable insight about membrane-mediated stress-signalling. Tomato genome encodes 13 NAC genes which have predicted transmembrane domain(s) (SlNACMTFs). mRNA of 12 SlNACMTFs were readily detected in multiple tissues, and also in polysome isolated from leaf, confirming active transcription and translation from these genes occur under normal physiological condition. Additionally, most of the SlNACMTFs were differentially regulated during stresses and stress-related transcription factor binding sites are prevalent in their promoters. SlNACMTF3 and 8 were majorly regulated in biotic and abiotic stresses. Like other MTFs, SlNACMTF3 was translocated to the plasma membrane, whereas the C-terminus truncated (ΔC) form localized in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Accordingly, the ΔC forms significantly influenced the activity of promoters harbouring NAC binding sites (NACbs). Furthermore, the NAC domain of these transcription factors could directly interact with an NACbs, and the proteins failed to regulate a promoter lacking a crucial NACbs. Interestingly, the type of influence to an NACbs containing promoter was dependent on the context of the NACbs, as the same SlNACMTF showed an alternative mode of regulation on different promoters, as well as the same promoter activity was oppositely regulated by two different SlNACMTF. Finally, both SlNACMTFs demonstrated the differential regulatory effect on the expression of several stress-related genes by interacting with the putative NACbs in their promoter region, suggesting their direct role in plant stress response.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0579-z
       
  • Long-term T-DNA insert stability and transgene expression consistency in
           field propagated sugarcane
    • Authors: Kerry Hosmer Caffall; Chengkun He; Michele Smith-Jones; Kristin Mayo; Pearl Mai; Shujie Dong; John Ke; Erik Dunder; Michele Yarnall; Rachel Whinna; Joe DeMaio; Weining Gu; Judith Sheldon; Martin Allen; Tricia Costello; Kristin Setliff; Rakesh Jain; Ada Snyder; Clark Lovelady; Eric Rawls; Eric Palmer; Yan Zhang; Nicholas Bate; Liang Shi; Ian Jepson
      Abstract: Key message This study addresses T-DNA insert stability and transgene expression consistency in multiple cycles of field propagated sugarcane. T-DNA inserts are stable; no transgene rearrangements were observed. AmCYAN1 and PMI protein accumulation levels were maintained. There was no evidence that production of either protein declined across generations and no transgene silencing was observed in three commercial sugarcane varieties through commercially relevant ratooning, propagation-by-setts, and micro-propagation generation processes over 4 years of field testing. Long term transgene expression consistency and T-DNA insert stability can be achieved in sugarcane, suggesting that it is highly probable that transgenic sugarcane can be successfully commercialized. This study addresses T-DNA insert stability and transgene expression consistency in multiple cycles of field propagated sugarcane. These data are critical supporting information needed for successful commercialization of GM sugarcane. Here seventeen transgenic events, containing the AmCYAN1 gene driven by a CMP promoter and the E. coli PMI gene driven by either a CMP or Ubi promoter, were used to monitor T-DNA insert stability and consistency of transgene encoded protein accumulation through commercially relevant ratooning, propagation-by-setts, and micro-propagation generation processes. The experiments were conducted in three commercial sugarcane varieties over 4 years of field testing. DNA gel blot analysis showed that the T-DNA inserts are stable; no transgene rearrangements were observed. Quantitative ELISA showed no evidence of decreasing AmCYAN1 and PMI protein levels across generations and no transgene silencing was observed. These results indicate that long term transgene expression consistency and T-DNA insert stability can be achieved in sugarcane, suggesting that it is highly probable that transgenic sugarcane can be successfully commercialized.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0572-6
       
  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals the flooding tolerant mechanism in
           flooding tolerant line and abscisic acid treated soybean
    • Authors: Xiaojian Yin; Susumu Hiraga; Makita Hajika; Minoru Nishimura; Setsuko Komatsu
      Abstract: Soybean is highly sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits markedly reduced plant growth and grain yield under flooding conditions. To explore the mechanisms underlying initial flooding tolerance in soybean, RNA sequencing-based transcriptomic analysis was performed using a flooding-tolerant line and ABA-treated soybean. A total of 31 genes included 12 genes that exhibited similar temporal patterns were commonly changed in these plant groups in response to flooding and they were mainly involved in RNA regulation and protein metabolism. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1, and cytochrome P450 77A1 was up-regulated in wild-type soybean under flooding conditions; however, no changes were detected in the flooding-tolerant line or ABA-treated soybean. The mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 77A1 was specifically up-regulated in root tips by flooding stress, but returned to the level found in control plants following treatment with the P450 inhibitor uniconazole. The survival ratio and root fresh weight of plants were markedly improved by 3-h uniconazole treatment under flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that cytochrome P450 77A1 is suppressed by uniconazole treatment and that this inhibition may enhance soybean tolerance to flooding stress.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0576-2
       
  • In planta production and characterization of a hyperthermostable GH10
           xylanase in transgenic sugarcane
    • Authors: Jae Yoon Kim; Guang Nong; John D. Rice; Maria Gallo; James F. Preston; Fredy Altpeter
      Abstract: Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) is one of the most efficient and sustainable feedstocks for commercial production of fuel ethanol. Recent efforts focus on the integration of first and second generation bioethanol conversion technologies for sugarcane to increase biofuel yields. This integrated process will utilize both the cell wall bound sugars of the abundant lignocellulosic sugarcane residues in addition to the sucrose from stem internodes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into its component sugars requires significant amounts of cell wall degrading enzymes. In planta production of xylanases has the potential to reduce costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis but has been reported to compromise plant growth and development. To address this problem, we expressed a hyperthermostable GH10 xylanase, xyl10B in transgenic sugarcane which displays optimal catalytic activity at 105 °C and only residual catalytic activity at temperatures below 70 °C. Transgene integration and expression in sugarcane were confirmed by Southern blot, RT-PCR, ELISA and western blot following biolistic co-transfer of minimal expression cassettes of xyl10B and the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase II. Xylanase activity was detected in 17 transgenic lines with a fluorogenic xylanase activity assay. Up to 1.2% of the total soluble protein fraction of vegetative progenies with integration of chloroplast targeted expression represented the recombinant Xyl10B protein. Xyl10B activity was stable in vegetative progenies. Tissues retained 75% of the xylanase activity after drying of leaves at 35 °C and a 2 month storage period. Transgenic sugarcane plants producing Xyl10B did not differ from non-transgenic sugarcane in growth and development under greenhouse conditions. Sugarcane xylan and bagasse were used as substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis with the in planta produced Xyl10B. TLC and HPLC analysis of hydrolysis products confirmed the superior catalytic activity and stability of the in planta produced Xyl10B with xylobiose as a prominent degradation product. These findings will contribute to advancing consolidated processing of lignocellulosic sugarcane biomass.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0573-5
       
  • The Arabidopsis THO/TREX component TEX1 functionally interacts with MOS11
           and modulates mRNA export and alternative splicing events
    • Authors: Brian B. Sørensen; Hans F. Ehrnsberger; Silvia Esposito; Alexander Pfab; Astrid Bruckmann; Judith Hauptmann; Gunter Meister; Rainer Merkl; Thomas Schubert; Gernot Längst; Michael Melzer; Marion Grasser; Klaus D. Grasser
      Abstract: Key message We identify proteins that associate with the THO core complex, and show that the TEX1 and MOS11 components functionally interact, affecting mRNA export and splicing as well as plant development. TREX (TRanscription-EXport) is a multiprotein complex that plays a central role in the coordination of synthesis, processing and nuclear export of mRNAs. Using targeted proteomics, we identified proteins that associate with the THO core complex of Arabidopsis TREX. In addition to the RNA helicase UAP56 and the mRNA export factors ALY2-4 and MOS11 we detected interactions with the mRNA export complex TREX-2 and multiple spliceosomal components. Plants defective in the THO component TEX1 or in the mRNA export factor MOS11 (orthologue of human CIP29) are mildly affected. However, tex1 mos11 double-mutant plants show marked defects in vegetative and reproductive development. In tex1 plants, the levels of tasiRNAs are reduced, while miR173 levels are decreased in mos11 mutants. In nuclei of mos11 cells increased mRNA accumulation was observed, while no mRNA export defect was detected with tex1 cells. Nevertheless, in tex1 mos11 double-mutants, the mRNA export defect was clearly enhanced relative to mos11. The subnuclear distribution of TEX1 substantially overlaps with that of splicing-related SR proteins and in tex1 plants the ratio of certain alternative splicing events is altered. Our results demonstrate that Arabidopsis TEX1 and MOS11 are involved in distinct steps of the biogenesis of mRNAs and small RNAs, and that they interact regarding some aspects, but act independently in others.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0561-9
       
  • Silencing of an α-dioxygenase gene, Ca-DOX , retards growth and
           suppresses basal disease resistance responses in Capsicum annum
    • Authors: Chi Eun Hong; Young-Im Ha; Hyoju Choi; Ju Yeon Moon; Jiyoung Lee; Ah-Young Shin; Chang Jin Park; Gyeong Mee Yoon; Suk-Yoon Kwon; Ick-Hyun Jo; Jeong Mee Park
      Abstract: Alpha-dioxygenases (α-DOX) catalyzing the primary oxygenation of fatty acids to oxylipins were recently found in plants. Here, the biological roles of the pepper α-DOX (Ca-DOX) gene, which is strongly induced during non-host pathogen infection in chili pepper, were examined. Virus-induced gene silencing demonstrated that down-regulation of Ca-DOX enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens and suppressed the hypersensitive response via the suppression of pathogenesis-related genes such as PR4, proteinase inhibitor II and lipid transfer protein (PR14). Ca-DOX-silenced pepper plants also exhibited more retarded growth with lower epidermal cell numbers and reduced cell wall thickness than control plants. To better understand regulation of Ca-DOX, transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene driven from a putative Ca-DOX promoter were generated. GUS expression was significantly induced upon avirulent pathogen infection in transgenic Arabidopsis leaves, whereas GUS induction was relatively weak upon virulent pathogen treatment. After treatment with plant hormones, early and strong GUS expression was seen after treatment of salicylic acid, whereas ethylene and methyl jasmonate treatments produced relatively weak and late GUS signals. These results will enable us to further understand the role of α-DOX, which is important in lipid metabolism, defense responses, and growth development in plants.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0575-3
       
  • The protein phosphatase 2C clade A protein OsPP2C51 positively regulates
           seed germination by directly inactivating OsbZIP10
    • Authors: Nikita Bhatnagar; Myung-Ki Min; Eun-Hye Choi; Namhyo Kim; Seok-Jun Moon; Insun Yoon; Taekryoun Kwon; Ki-Hong Jung; Beom-Gi Kim
      Abstract: Protein phosphatase 2C clade A members are major signaling components in the ABA-dependent signaling cascade that regulates seed germination. To elucidate the role of PP2CA genes in germination of rice seed, we selected OsPP2C51, which shows highly specific expression in the embryo compared with other protein phosphatases based on microarray data. GUS histochemical assay confirmed that OsPP2C51 is expressed in the seed embryo and that this expression pattern is unique compared with those of other OsPP2CA genes. Data obtained from germination assays and alpha-amylase assays of OsPP2C51 knockout and overexpression lines suggest that OsPP2C51 positively regulates seed germination in rice. The expression of alpha-amylase synthesizing genes was high in OsPP2C51 overexpressing plants, suggesting that elevated levels of OsPP2C51 might enhance gene expression related to higher rates of seed germination. Analysis of protein interactions between ABA signaling components showed that OsPP2C51 interacts with OsPYL/RCAR5 in an ABA-dependent manner. Furthermore, interactions were observed between OsPP2C51 and SAPK2, and between OsPP2C51 and OsbZIP10 and we found out that OsPP2C51 can dephosphorylates OsbZIP10. These findings suggest the existence of a new branch in ABA signaling pathway consisting of OsPYL/RCAR-OsPP2C-bZIP apart from the previously reported OsPYL/RCAR-OsPP2C-SAPK-bZIP. Overall, our result suggests that OsPP2C51 is a positive regulator of seed germination by directly suppressing active phosphorylated OsbZIP10.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0568-2
       
  • Formation of wood secondary cell wall may involve two type cellulose
           synthase complexes in Populus
    • Authors: Wang Xi; Dongliang Song; Jiayan Sun; Junhui Shen; Laigeng Li
      Abstract: Cellulose biosynthesis is mediated by cellulose synthases (CesAs), which constitute into rosette-like cellulose synthase complexe (CSC) on the plasma membrane. Two types of CSCs in Arabidopsis are believed to be involved in cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and secondary cell walls, respectively. In this work, we found that the two type CSCs participated cellulose biosynthesis in differentiating xylem cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening in Populus. During the cell wall thickening process, expression of one type CSC genes increased while expression of the other type CSC genes decreased. Suppression of different type CSC genes both affected the wall-thickening and disrupted the multilaminar structure of the secondary cell walls. When CesA7A was suppressed, crystalline cellulose content was reduced, which, however, showed an increase when CesA3D was suppressed. The CesA suppression also affected cellulose digestibility of the wood cell walls. The results suggest that two type CSCs are involved in coordinating the cellulose biosynthesis in formation of the multilaminar structure in Populus wood secondary cell walls.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0570-8
       
  • Transcriptome portrait of cellulose-enriched flax fibres at advanced stage
           of specialization
    • Authors: Oleg Gorshkov; Natalia Mokshina; Vladimir Gorshkov; Svetlana Chemikosova; Yuri Gogolev; Tatyana Gorshkova
      Abstract: Functional specialization of cells is among the most fundamental processes of higher organism ontogenesis. The major obstacle to studying this phenomenon in plants is the difficulty of isolating certain types of cells at defined stages of in planta development for in-depth analysis. A rare opportunity is given by the developed model system of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) phloem fibres that can be purified from the surrounding tissues at the stage of the tertiary cell wall deposition. The performed comparison of the whole transcriptome profile in isolated fibres and other portions of the flax stem, together with fibre metabolism characterization, helped to elucidate the general picture of the advanced stage of plant cell specialization and to reveal novel participants potentially involved in fibre metabolism regulation and cell wall formation. Down-regulation of all genes encoding proteins involved in xylan and lignin synthesis and up-regulation of genes for the specific set of transcription factors transcribed during tertiary cell wall formation were revealed. The increased abundance of transcripts for several glycosyltransferases indicated the enzymes that may be involved in synthesis of fibre-specific version of rhamnogalacturonan I.
      PubDate: 2016-12-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0571-7
       
  • Arabidopsis ANAC069 binds to C[A/G]CG[T/G] sequences to negatively
           regulate salt and osmotic stress tolerance
    • Authors: Lin He; Xinxin Shi; Yanmin Wang; Yong Guo; Kejun Yang; Yucheng Wang
      Abstract: Key message ANAC069 binds to the DNA sequence of C[A/G]CG[T/G] to regulate the expression of genes, resulting in decreased ROS scavenging capability and proline biosynthesis, which contribute to increased sensitivity to salt and osmotic stress. NAM-ATAF1/2 and CUC2 (NAC) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in abiotic stress responses. In the present study, we characterized the physiological and regulatory roles of Arabidopsis thaliana ANAC069 in response to abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ANAC069 displayed increased sensitivity to abscisic acid, salt, and osmotic stress. Conversely, ANAC069 knockdown plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, but no change in ABA sensitivity. Further studies showed that ANAC069 inhibits the expression of SOD, POD, GST, and P5CS genes. Consequently, the transcript level of ANAC069 correlated negatively with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability and the proline level. The genes regulated by ANAC069 were further studied using a gene chip on a genome-wide scale, and 339 and 226 genes up- and downregulated by ANAC069 were identified. Analysis of the promoters of the genes affected by ANAC069 suggested that ANAC069 regulates the expression of genes mainly through interacting with the DNA sequence C[A/G]CG[T/G] in response to abiotic stresses. Collectively, our data suggest that ANAC069 could recognize C[A/G]CG[T/G] sequences to regulate the expression of genes that negatively regulates salt and osmotic stress tolerance by decreasing ROS scavenging capability and proline biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0567-3
       
  • ABI5-binding proteins (AFPs) alter transcription of ABA-induced genes via
           a variety of interactions with chromatin modifiers
    • Authors: Tim J. Lynch; B. Joy Erickson; Dusty R. Miller; Ruth R. Finkelstein
      Abstract: Key message Overexpression of ABI5/ABF binding proteins (AFPs) results in extreme ABA resistance of seeds via multiple mechanisms repressing ABA response, including interactions with histone deacetylases and the co-repressor TOPLESS. Several ABI5/ABF binding proteins (AFPs) inhibit ABA response, resulting in extreme ABA resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpression lines, but their mechanism of action has remained obscure. By analogy to the related Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA) protein, it was suggested that the AFPs interact with the co-repressor TOPLESS to inhibit ABA-regulated gene expression. This study shows that the AFPs that inhibit ABA response have intrinsic repressor activity in a heterologous system, which does not depend on the domain involved in the interaction with TOPLESS. This domain is also not essential for repressing ABA response in transgenic plants, but does contribute to stronger ABA resistance. Additional interactions between some AFPs and histone deacetylase subunits were observed in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence assays, consistent with a more direct mechanism of AFP-mediated repression of gene expression. Chemical inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by trichostatin A suppressed AFP effects on a small fraction of the ABI5-regulated genes tested. Collectively, these results suggest that the AFPs participate in multiple mechanisms modulating ABA response, including both TOPLESS-dependent and -independent chromatin modification.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0569-1
       
  • The PPR protein SLOW GROWTH 4 is involved in editing of nad4 and affects
           the splicing of nad2 intron 1
    • Authors: Stefan Weißenberger; Jürgen Soll; Chris Carrie
      Abstract: Key message SLO4 is a mitochondrial PPR protein that is involved in editing nad4, possibly required for the efficient splicing of nad2 intron1. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute a large protein family in flowering plants and are thought to be mostly involved in organellar RNA metabolism. The subgroup of PLS-type PPR proteins were found to be the main specificity factors of cytidine to uridine RNA editing. Identifying the targets of PLS-type PPR proteins can help in elucidating the molecular function of proteins encoded in the organellar genomes. In this study, plants lacking the SLOW GROWTH 4 PPR protein were characterized. Slo4 mutants were characterized as having restricted root growth, being late flowering and displaying an overall delayed growth phenotype. Protein levels and activity of mitochondrial complex I were decreased and putative complex I assembly intermediates accumulated in the mutant plants. An editing defect, leading to an amino acid change, in the mitochondrial nad4 transcript, encoding for a complex I subunit, was identified. Furthermore, the splicing efficiency of the first intron of nad2, encoding for another complex I subunit, was also decreased. The change in splicing efficiency could however not be linked to any editing defects in the nad2 transcript.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0566-4
       
  • Multidimensional patterns of metabolic response in abiotic stress-induced
           growth of Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Abstract: Key message Contextualization of specific transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis within the stress–tissue–time perspective provides a simplified representation of the cellular transcriptional response pathways to abiotic stress, while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Crops resistant to abiotic stresses are a long-term goal of many research programs, thus understanding the progression of stress responses is of great interest. We reanalyzed the AtGenExpress transcription dataset to go beyond gene-level characterization, and to contextualize the discrete information into (1) a process-level signature of stress-specific, time-specific, and tissue-specific responses and (2) identify patterns of response progression across a time axis. To gain a functional perspective, ∼1000 pathways associated with the differentially-expressed genes were characterized across all experiments. We find that the global response of pathways to stress is multi-dimensional and does not obviously cluster according to stress, time or tissue. The early response to abiotic stress typically involves induction of genes involved in transcription, hormone synthesis and signaling modules; a later response typically involves metabolism of amino acids and secondary metabolites. By linking specific primary and secondary response pathways, we outline possible stress-associated routes of response progression. The contextualization of specific processes within stress–tissue–time perspective provides a simplified representation of cellular response while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Such simplified representation allows finding stress-specific markers based on process-combinations pointing whether a stress-specific response was invoked as well as provide a reference point for the conductance of comparative inter-plant study of stress response, bypassing the need in detailed orthologous mapping.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0539-7
       
 
 
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