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Journal Cover Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.915]   [H-I: 137]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Tight regulation of the interaction between Brassica napus and Sclerotinia
           sclerotiorum at the microRNA level
    • Authors: Jia-Yi Cao; You-Ping Xu; Li Zhao; Shuang-Sheng Li; Xin-Zhong Cai
      Pages: 39 - 55
      Abstract: Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are multifunctional non-coding short nucleotide molecules. Nevertheless, the role of miRNAs in the interactions between plants and necrotrophic pathogens is largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of the miRNA repertoire of the economically important oil crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and those involved in interacting with its most devastating necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We identified 280 B. napus miRNA candidates, including 53 novel candidates and 227 canonical members or variants of known miRNA families, by high-throughput deep sequencing of small RNAs from both normal and S. sclerotiorum-inoculated leaves. Target genes of 15 novel candidates and 222 known miRNAs were further identified by sequencing of degradomes from the two types of samples. MiRNA microarray analysis revealed that 68 miRNAs were differentially expressed between S. sclerotiorum-inoculated and uninoculated leaves. A set of these miRNAs target genes involved in plant defense to S. sclerotiorum and/or other pathogens such as nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) R genes and nitric oxygen and reactive oxygen species related genes. Additionally, three miRNAs target AGO1 and AGO2, key components of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Expression of several viral PTGS suppressors reduced resistance to S. sclerotiorum. Arabidopsis mutants of AGO1 and AGO2 exhibited reduced resistance while transgenic lines over-expressing AGO1 displayed increased resistance to S. sclerotiorum in an AGO1 expression level-dependent manner. Moreover, transient over-expression of miRNAs targeting AGO1 and AGO2 decreased resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. Our results demonstrate that the interactions between B. napus and S. sclerotiorum are tightly regulated at miRNA level and probably involve PTGS.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0494-3
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially
           expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage
    • Authors: Tien Dung Nguyen; Sunok Moon; Van Ngoc Tuyet Nguyen; Yunsil Gho; Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran; Moon-Soo Soh; Jong Tae Song; Gynheung An; Sung Aeong Oh; Soon Ki Park; Ki-Hong Jung
      Pages: 71 - 88
      Abstract: Abstract Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0496-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • Functional characterization of NAC55 transcription factor from oilseed
           rape ( Brassica napus L.) as a novel transcriptional activator modulating
           reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death
    • Authors: Fangfang Niu; Chen Wang; Jingli Yan; Xiaohua Guo; Feifei Wu; Bo Yang; Michael K. Deyholos; Yuan-Qing Jiang
      Pages: 89 - 104
      Abstract: Abstract NAC transcription factors (TFs) are plant-specific and play important roles in development, responses to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. So far, only a few NAC genes have been reported to regulate cell death. In this study, we identified and characterized a NAC55 gene isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). BnaNAC55 responds to multiple stresses, including cold, heat, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. BnaNAC55 has transactivation activity and is located in the nucleus. BnaNAC55 is able to form homodimers in planta. Unlike ANAC055, full-length BnaNAC55, but not either the N-terminal NAC domain or C-terminal regulatory domain, induces ROS accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when expressed both in oilseed rape protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, BnaNAC55 expression causes obvious nuclear DNA fragmentation. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis identified that the expression levels of multiple genes regulating ROS production and scavenging, defense response as well as senescence are significantly induced. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we further confirm that BnaNAC55 could activate the expression of a few ROS and defense-related gene expression. Taken together, our work has identified a novel NAC TF from oilseed rape that modulates ROS accumulation and cell death.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0502-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • AraPPISite: a database of fine-grained protein–protein interaction site
           annotations for Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Hong Li; Shiping Yang; Chuan Wang; Yuan Zhou; Ziding Zhang
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: Abstract Knowledge about protein interaction sites provides detailed information of protein–protein interactions (PPIs). To date, nearly 20,000 of PPIs from Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified. Nevertheless, the interaction site information has been largely missed by previously published PPI databases. Here, AraPPISite, a database that presents fine-grained interaction details for A. thaliana PPIs is established. First, the experimentally determined 3D structures of 27 A. thaliana PPIs are collected from the Protein Data Bank database and the predicted 3D structures of 3023 A. thaliana PPIs are modeled by using two well-established template-based docking methods. For each experimental/predicted complex structure, AraPPISite not only provides an interactive user interface for browsing interaction sites, but also lists detailed evolutionary and physicochemical properties of these sites. Second, AraPPISite assigns domain–domain interactions or domain–motif interactions to 4286 PPIs whose 3D structures cannot be modeled. In this case, users can easily query protein interaction regions at the sequence level. AraPPISite is a free and user-friendly database, which does not require user registration or any configuration on local machines. We anticipate AraPPISite can serve as a helpful database resource for the users with less experience in structural biology or protein bioinformatics to probe the details of PPIs, and thus accelerate the studies of plant genetics and functional genomics. AraPPISite is available at
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0498-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • Enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives in tobacco plants by
           improving the metabolic flux of intermediates in the phenylpropanoid
    • Authors: Yu Jeong Jeong; Chul Han An; Su Gyeong Woo; Ji Hye Park; Ki-Won Lee; Sang-Hoon Lee; Yeonggil Rim; Hyung Jae Jeong; Young Bae Ryu; Cha Young Kim
      Pages: 117 - 129
      Abstract: Abstract The biosynthesis of flavonoids such as anthocyanin and stilbenes has attracted increasing attention because of their potential health benefits. Anthocyanins and stilbenes share common phenylpropanoid precursor pathways. We previously reported that the overexpression of sweetpotato IbMYB1a induced anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In the present study, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants (STS-OX and ROST-OX) expressing the RpSTS gene encoding stilbene synthase from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L. cv. Jangyeop) and the RpSTS and VrROMT genes encoding resveratrol O-methyltransferase from frost grape (Vitis riparia) were generated under the control of 35S promoter. Phenotypic alterations in floral organs, such as a reduction in floral pigments and male sterility, were observed in STS-OX transgenic tobacco plants. However, we failed to obtain STS-OX and ROST-OX plants with high levels of resveratrol compounds. Therefore, to improve the production of resveratrol derivatives in plants, we cross-pollinated flowers of STS-OX or ROST-OX and IbMYB1a-OX transgenic lines (SM and RSM). Phenotypic changes in vegetative and reproductive development of SM and RSM plants were observed. Furthermore, by HPLC and LC-MS analyses, we found enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives such as piceid, piceid methyl ether, resveratrol methyl ether O-hexoside, and 5-methyl resveratrol-3,4′-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside in SM and RSM cross-pollinated lines. Here, total contents of trans- and cis-piceids ranged from approximately 104–240 µg/g fresh weight in SM (F2). Collectively, we suggest that coexpression of RpSTS and IbMYB1a via cross-pollination can induce enhanced production of resveratrol compounds in plants by increasing metabolic flux into stilbenoid biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0497-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • TALEN mediated targeted mutagenesis of the caffeic acid
           O-methyltransferase in highly polyploid sugarcane improves cell wall
           composition for production of bioethanol
    • Authors: Je Hyeong Jung; Fredy Altpeter
      Pages: 131 - 142
      Abstract: Abstract Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating in sugarcane stems as well as cell wall bound sugars for commercial ethanol production. Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional mutagenesis is not expected to confer reduction in lignin content in sugarcane due to its high polyploidy (x = 10–13) and functional redundancy among homo(eo)logs. Here we deploy transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to induce mutations in a highly conserved region of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) of sugarcane. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was validated by pyrosequencing as reliable and inexpensive high throughput method for identification and quantitative characterization of TALEN mediated mutations. Targeted COMT mutations were identified by CE in up to 74 % of the lines. In different events 8–99 % of the wild type COMT were converted to mutant COMT as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mutation frequencies among mutant lines were positively correlated to lignin reduction. Events with a mutation frequency of 99 % displayed a 29–32 % reduction of the lignin content compared to non-transgenic controls along with significantly reduced S subunit content and elevated hemicellulose content. CE analysis displayed similar peak patterns between primary COMT mutants and their vegetative progenies suggesting that TALEN mediated mutations were faithfully transmitted to vegetative progenies. This is the first report on genome editing in sugarcane. The findings demonstrate that targeted mutagenesis can improve cell wall characteristics for production of lignocellulosic ethanol in crops with highly complex genomes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0499-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • Rice bifunctional phytocystatin is a dual modulator of legumain and
           papain-like proteases
    • Authors: Ana Paula Christoff; Gisele Passaia; Caroline Salvati; Márcio Alves-Ferreira; Marcia Margis-Pinheiro; Rogerio Margis
      Pages: 193 - 207
      Abstract: Abstract Phytocystatins are well-known inhibitors of C1A cysteine proteinases. However, previous research has revealed legumain (C13) protease inhibition via a carboxy-extended phytocystatin. Among the 12 phytocystatins genes in rice, OcXII is the only gene possessing this carboxy-terminal extension. The specific legumain inhibition activity was confirmed, in our work, using a recombinant OcXII harboring only the carboxy-terminal domain and this part did not exhibit any effect on papain-like activities. Meanwhile, rice plants silenced at the whole OcXII gene presented higher legumain and papain-like proteolytic activities, resulting in a faster initial seedling growth. However, when germinated under stressful alkaline conditions, OcXII-silenced plants exhibited impaired root formation and delayed shoot growth. Interestingly, the activity of OcXII promoter gene was detected in the rice seed scutellum region, and decreases with seedling growth. Seeds from these plants also exhibited slower growth at germination under ABA or alkaline conditions, while maintaining very high levels of OcXII transcriptional activation. This likely reinforces the proteolytic control necessary for seed germination and growth. In addition, increased legumain activity was detected in OcXII RNAi plants subjected to a fungal elicitor. Overall, the results of this study highlight the association of OcXII with not only plant development processes, but also with stress response pathways. The results of this study reinforce the bifunctional ability of carboxy-extended phytocystatins in regulating legumain proteases via its carboxy-extended domain and papain-like proteases by its amino-terminal domain.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0504-5
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • Mutation of Rice Early Flowering3.1 ( OsELF3.1 ) delays leaf senescence in
    • Authors: Yasuhito Sakuraba; Su-Hyun Han; Hyun-Jung Yang; Weilan Piao; Nam-Chon Paek
      Pages: 223 - 234
      Abstract: Abstract In Arabidopsis, EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) has pivotal roles in controlling circadian rhythm and photoperiodic flowering. In addition, ELF3 negatively regulates leaf senescence by repressing the transcription of PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 (PIF5); elf3 mutants senesce earlier and ELF3-overexpressing (ELF3-OX) plants senesce later than wild type (WT). Here, we show that in contrast to Arabidopsis ELF3, which represses senescence, the rice homolog OsELF3.1 promotes leaf senescence; oself3.1 mutants showed delayed senescence and OsELF3.1-OX plants senesced earlier under both dark-induced and natural senescence conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that in the senescing leaves, a number of senescence-associated genes, phytohormone-related genes, and NAC and WRKY family genes (OsNAP, ONAC106, and OsWRKY42) were differentially expressed in oself3.1 mutants compared with WT. Interestingly, we found that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsELF3.1 show delayed leaf senescence, produce short petioles, and flower late in long days, just like Arabidopsis ELF3-OX plants. This demonstrates that the regulatory functions of ELF3 and OsELF3.1 are conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, but the downstream regulatory cascades have opposite effects.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0507-2
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • Novel thidiazuron-derived inhibitors of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase
    • Authors: Jaroslav Nisler; David Kopečný; Radka Končitíková; Marek Zatloukal; Václav Bazgier; Karel Berka; David Zalabák; Pierre Briozzo; Miroslav Strnad; Lukáš Spíchal
      Pages: 235 - 248
      Abstract: Key message Two new TDZ derivatives (HETDZ and 3FMTDZ) are very potent inhibitors of CKX and are promising candidates for in vivo studies. Cytokinin hormones regulate a wide range of essential processes in plants. Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea, TDZ), formerly registered as a cotton defoliant, is a well known inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of cytokinins. TDZ thus increases the lifetime of cytokinins and their effects in plants. We used in silico modeling to design, synthesize and characterize twenty new TDZ derivatives with improved inhibitory properties. Two compounds, namely 1-[1,2,3]thiadiazol-5-yl-3-(3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)urea (3FMTDZ) and 1-[2-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (HETDZ), displayed up to 15-fold lower IC 50 values compared with TDZ for AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and ZmCKX1 and ZmCKX4a from Zea mays. Binding modes of 3FMTDZ and HETDZ were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Crystal structure complexes, solved at 2.0 Å resolution, revealed that HETDZ and 3FMTDZ bound differently in the active site of ZmCKX4a: the thiadiazolyl ring of 3FMTDZ was positioned over the isoalloxazine ring of FAD, whereas that of HETDZ had the opposite orientation, pointing toward the entrance of the active site. The compounds were further tested for cytokinin activity in several cytokinin bioassays. We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0509-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 1-2 (2016)
  • Altered levels of AtHSCB disrupts iron translocation from roots to shoots
    • Abstract: Key message Plants overexpressing AtHSCB and hscb knockdown mutants showed altered iron homeostasis. The overexpression of AtHSCB led to activation of the iron uptake system and iron accumulation in roots without concomitant transport to shoots, resulting in reduced iron content in the aerial parts of plants. By contrast, hscb knockdown mutants presented the opposite phenotype, with iron accumulation in shoots despite the reduced levels of iron uptake in roots. AtHSCB play a key role in iron metabolism, probably taking part in the control of iron translocation from roots to shoots. Many aspects of plant iron metabolism remain obscure. The most known and studied homeostatic mechanism is the control of iron uptake in the roots by shoots. Nevertheless, this mechanism likely involves various unknown sensors and unidentified signals sent from one tissue to another which need to be identified. Here, we characterized Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing AtHSCB, encoding a mitochondrial cochaperone involved in [Fe–S] cluster biosynthesis, and hscb knockdown mutants, which exhibit altered shoot/root Fe partitioning. Overexpression of AtHSCB induced an increase in root iron uptake and content along with iron deficiency in shoots. Conversely, hscb knockdown mutants exhibited increased iron accumulation in shoots and reduced iron uptake in roots. Different experiments, including foliar iron application, citrate supplementation and iron deficiency treatment, indicate that the shoot-directed control of iron uptake in roots functions properly in these lines, implying that [Fe–S] clusters are not involved in this regulatory mechanism. The most likely explanation is that both lines have altered Fe transport from roots to shoots. This could be consistent with a defect in a homeostatic mechanism operating at the root-to-shoot translocation level, which would be independent of the shoot control over root iron deficiency responses. In summary, the phenotypes of these plants indicate that AtHSCB plays a role in iron metabolism.
      PubDate: 2016-09-21
  • Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP6 localizes in the phloem and
           affects jasmonate composition
    • Abstract: Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN6 (AtACBP6) encodes a cytosolic 10-kDa AtACBP. It confers freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, possibly by its interaction with lipids as indicated by the binding of acyl-CoA esters and phosphatidylcholine to recombinant AtACBP6. Herein, transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP6 promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) construct exhibited strong GUS activity in the vascular tissues. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-AtACBP6 antibodies showed AtACBP6 localization in the phloem especially in the companion cells and sieve elements. Also, the presence of gold grains in the plasmodesmata indicated its potential role in systemic trafficking. The AtACBP6 protein, but not its mRNA, was found in phloem exudate of wild-type Arabidopsis. Fatty acid profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed an increase in the jasmonic acid (JA) precursor, 12-oxo-cis,cis-10,15-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and a reduction in JA and/or its derivatives in acbp6 phloem exudates in comparison to the wild type. Quantitative real-time PCR showed down-regulation of COMATOSE (CTS) in acbp6 rosettes suggesting that AtACBP6 affects CTS function. AtACBP6 appeared to affect the content of JA and/or its derivatives in the sieve tubes, which is consistent with its role in pathogen-defense and in its wound-inducibility of AtACBP6pro::GUS. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of AtACBP6 in JA-biosynthesis in Arabidopsis phloem tissues.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19
  • Multidimensional patterns of metabolic response in abiotic stress-induced
           growth of Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Abstract: Key message Contextualization of specific transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis within the stress–tissue–time perspective provides a simplified representation of the cellular transcriptional response pathways to abiotic stress, while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Crops resistant to abiotic stresses are a long-term goal of many research programs, thus understanding the progression of stress responses is of great interest. We reanalyzed the AtGenExpress transcription dataset to go beyond gene-level characterization, and to contextualize the discrete information into (1) a process-level signature of stress-specific, time-specific, and tissue-specific responses and (2) identify patterns of response progression across a time axis. To gain a functional perspective, ∼1000 pathways associated with the differentially-expressed genes were characterized across all experiments. We find that the global response of pathways to stress is multi-dimensional and does not obviously cluster according to stress, time or tissue. The early response to abiotic stress typically involves induction of genes involved in transcription, hormone synthesis and signaling modules; a later response typically involves metabolism of amino acids and secondary metabolites. By linking specific primary and secondary response pathways, we outline possible stress-associated routes of response progression. The contextualization of specific processes within stress–tissue–time perspective provides a simplified representation of cellular response while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Such simplified representation allows finding stress-specific markers based on process-combinations pointing whether a stress-specific response was invoked as well as provide a reference point for the conductance of comparative inter-plant study of stress response, bypassing the need in detailed orthologous mapping.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0539-7
  • The germin-like protein OsGLP2-1 enhances resistance to fungal blast and
           bacterial blight in rice
    • Authors: Qing Liu; Jianyuan Yang; Shijuan Yan; Shaohong Zhang; Junliang Zhao; Wenjuan Wang; Tifeng Yang; Xiaofei Wang; Xingxue Mao; Jingfang Dong; Xiaoyuan Zhu; Bin Liu
      Abstract: Key message This is the first report that GLP gene (OsGLP2-1) is involved in panicle blast and bacterial blight resistance in rice. In addition to its resistance to blast and bacterial blight, OsGLP2-1 has also been reported to co-localize with a QTLs for sheath blight resistance in rice. These suggest that the disease resistance provided by OsGLP2-1 is quantitative and broad spectrum. Its good resistance to these major diseases in rice makes it to be a promising target in rice breeding. Rice (Oryza sativa) blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae are the two most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Germin-like protein (GLP) gene family is one of the important defense gene families which have been reported to be involved in disease resistance in plants. Although GLP proteins have been demonstrated to positively regulate leaf blast resistance in rice, their involvement in resistance to panicle blast and bacterial blight, has not been reported. In this study, we reported that one of the rice GLP genes, OsGLP2-1, was significantly induced by blast fungus. Overexpression of OsGLP2-1 quantitatively enhanced resistance to leaf blast, panicle blast and bacterial blight. The temporal and spatial expression analysis revealed that OsGLP2-1is highly expressed in leaves and panicles and sub-localized in the cell wall. Compared with empty vector transformed (control) plants, the OsGLP2-1 overexpressing plants exhibited higher levels of H2O2 both before and after pathogen inoculation. Moreover, OsGLP2-1 was significantly induced by jasmonic acid (JA). Overexpression of OsGLP2-1 induced three well-characterized defense-related genes which are associated in JA-dependent pathway after pathogen infection. Higher endogenous level of JA was also identified in OsGLP2-1 overexpressing plants than in control plants both before and after pathogen inoculation. Together, these results suggest that OsGLP2-1 functions as a positive regulator to modulate disease resistance. Its good quantitative resistance to the two major diseases in rice makes it to be a promising target in rice breeding.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0521-4
  • ER-localized adenine nucleotide transporter ER-ANT1: an integrator of
           energy and stress signaling in rice
    • Authors: Xiangqian Zhang; Xu Zheng; Shanwen Ke; Haitao Zhu; Fang Liu; Zemin Zhang; Xinxiang Peng; Lin Guo; Ruizhen Zeng; Pei Hou; Ziqiang Liu; Suowei Wu; Meifang Song; Jianping Yang; Guiquan Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Most environmental perturbations have a direct or indirect deleterious impact on photosynthesis, and, in consequence, the overall energy status of the cell. Despite our increased understanding of convergent energy and stress signals, the connections between photosynthesis, energy and stress signals through putative common nodes are still unclear. Here we identified an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized adenine nucleotide transporter1 (ER-ANT1), whose deficiency causes seedling lethality in air but viable under high CO2, exhibiting the typical photorespiratory phenotype. Metabolic analysis suggested that depletion of ER-ANT1 resulted in circadian rhythm disorders in sucrose synthesis and induced sucrose signaling pathways, indicating that the ER is involved in the regulation of vital energy metabolism in plants. In addition, the defect of ER-ANT1 triggers ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response in plant cells, suggesting ER stress and photorespiration are closely linked. These findings provide an important evidence for a key role of ER-localized ER-ANT1 in convergent energy and stress signals in rice. Our findings support the idea that ATP is a central signal involved in the plant response to a variety of stresses.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0540-1
  • Trichome patterning control involves TTG1 interaction with SPL
           transcription factors
    • Authors: Eugenia Ioannidi; Stamatis Rigas; Dikran Tsitsekian; Gerasimos Daras; Anastasios Alatzas; Antonis Makris; Georgia Tanou; Anagnostis Argiriou; Dimitrios Alexandrou; Scott Poethig; Polydefkis Hatzopoulos; Angelos K. Kanellis
      Abstract: Abstract Epidermal cell differentiation is a paramount and conserved process among plants. In Arabidopsis, a ternary complex formed by MYB, bHLH transcription factors and TTG1 modulates unicellular trichome morphogenesis. The formation of multicellular glandular trichomes of the xerophytic shrub Cistus creticus that accumulate labdane-type diterpenes, has attained much attention renowned for its medicinal properties. Here, we show that C. creticus TTG1 (CcTTG1) interacts with the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPLA/B) proteins, putative homologs of AtSPL4/5 that in turn interact with AtTTG1. These interactions occur between proteins from evolutionarily distant species supporting the conserved function of TTG1-SPL complex. Overexpression of AtSPL4 and AtSPL5 decreased the expression of GLABRA2 (AtGL2), the major regulator of trichome morphogenesis, resulting in trichome reduction on the adaxial surface of cauline leaves, thereby illuminating the significance of TTG1-SPLs interactions in trichome formation control. AtGL2 and AtSPL4 have opposite expression patterns during early stages of leaf development. We postulate an antagonistic effect between SPLs and the heterogeneous MYB-bHLH factors binding to TTG1. Hence, the SPLs potentially rearrange the complex, attenuating its transcriptional activity to control trichome distribution.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0538-8
  • SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 2 controls floral organ development
           and plant fertility by activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Zhishuo Wang; Ying Wang; Susanne E. Kohalmi; Lisa Amyot; Abdelali Hannoufa
      Abstract: Abstract A network of genes is coordinately expressed to ensure proper development of floral organs and fruits, which are essential for generating new offspring in flowering plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, microRNA156 (miR156) plays a role in regulating the development of flowers and siliques by targeting members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) gene family. Despite the important roles of the miR156/SPL network, our understanding of its downstream genes that are involved in floral organ and silique growth is still incomplete. Here, we report that the miR156/SPL2 regulatory pathway regulates pollen production, fertility rate, and the elongation of floral organs, including petals, sepals, and siliques in Arabidopsis. Transgenic plants exhibiting both overexpression of miR156 and dominant-negative alleles of SPL2 had reduced ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2 (AS2) transcript levels in their siliques. Furthermore, their fertility phenotype was similar to that of the AS2 loss-of-function mutant. We also demonstrate that the SPL2 protein binds to the 5′UTR of the AS2 gene in vivo, indicating that AS2 is directly regulated by SPL2. Our results suggest that the miR156/SPL2 pathway affects floral organs, silique development and plant fertility, as well as directly regulates AS2 expression.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0536-x
  • AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 can functionally replace AINTEGUMENTA but alters
           Arabidopsis flower development when misexpressed at high levels
    • Authors: Han Han; Beth A. Krizek
      Abstract: Key message Expression differences underlie the functional differences between two related transcription factors: AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6. Ectopic expression of AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 at high levels alters floral organ initiation, growth and identity specification. AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) encode related transcription factors with partially overlapping roles in floral organ development in Arabidopsis thaliana. To investigate whether the functional differences between ANT and AIL6 are a consequence of differences in gene expression and/or protein activity, we made transgenic plants in which a genomic copy of AIL6 was expressed under the control of the ANT promoter. ANT:gAIL6 can rescue the floral organ size defects of ant mutants when AIL6 is expressed at similar levels as ANT in wild type. Thus, the functional differences between ANT and AIL6 result primarily from gene expression differences. However, lines that express AIL6 at higher levels display additional phenotypes that include reduced numbers of floral organs and the production of mosaic floral organs. These phenotypes were also observed in two different inducible AIL6 transgenic lines but not in 35S:ANT, suggesting that AIL6 protein may have activities distinct from ANT, although the in vivo relevance of such differences is not clear. Similar to 35S:ANT plants, overexpression of AIL6 in the inducible lines also results in the production of larger flowers. The distinct phenotypes resulting from AIL6 misexpression in the transgenic lines described here and those previously characterized appear to result from different levels and patterns of AIL6 expression.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0535-y
  • Erratum to: Deciphering the role of the AT-rich interaction domain and the
           HMG-box domain of ARID-HMG proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Adrita Roy; Arkajyoti Dutta; Dipan Roy; Payel Ganguly; Ritesh Ghosh; Rajiv K. Kar; Anirban Bhunia; Jayanta Mukhopadhyay; Shubho Chaudhuri
      PubDate: 2016-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0534-z
  • Transcriptome profiling of developmental leaf senescence in sorghum (
           Sorghum bicolor )
    • Authors: Xiao-Yuan Wu; Wei-Juan Hu; Hong Luo; Yan Xia; Yi Zhao; Li-Dong Wang; Li-Min Zhang; Jing-Chu Luo; Hai-Chun Jing
      Abstract: Key message This piece of the submission is being sent via mail. Leaf senescence is essential for the nutrient economy of crops and is executed by so-called senescence-associated genes (SAGs). Here we explored the monocot C4 model crop Sorghum bicolor for a holistic picture of SAG profiles by RNA-seq. Leaf samples were collected at four stages during developmental senescence, and in total, 3396 SAGs were identified, predominantly enriched in GO categories of metabolic processes and catalytic activities. These genes were enriched in 13 KEGG pathways, wherein flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were overrepresented. Seven regions on Chromosomes 1, 4, 5 and 7 contained SAG ‘hotspots’ of duplicated genes or members of cupin superfamily involved in manganese ion binding and nutrient reservoir activity. Forty-eight expression clusters were identified, and the candidate orthologues of the known important senescence transcription factors such as ORE1, EIN3 and WRKY53 showed “SAG” expression patterns, implicating their possible roles in regulating sorghum leaf senescence. Comparison of developmental senescence with salt- and dark- induced senescence allowed for the identification of 507 common SAGs, 1996 developmental specific SAGs as well as 176 potential markers for monitoring senescence in sorghum. Taken together, these data provide valuable resources for comparative genomics analyses of leaf senescence and potential targets for the manipulation of genetic improvement of Sorghum bicolor.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0532-1
  • The catalytic subunit of magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester
           cyclase forms a chloroplast complex to regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis
           in rice
    • Authors: Weiyi Kong; Xiaowen Yu; Haiyuan Chen; Linglong Liu; Yanjia Xiao; Yunlong Wang; Chaolong Wang; Yun Lin; Yang Yu; Chunming Wang; Ling Jiang; Huqu Zhai; Zhigang Zhao; Jianmin Wan
      Abstract: Key message YGL8 has the dual functions in Chl biosynthesis: one as a catalytic subunit of MgPME cyclase, the other as a core component of FLU-YGL8-LCAA-POR complex in Chl biosynthesis. Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MgPME) cyclase is an essential enzyme involved in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis. However, its roles in regulating Chl biosynthesis are not fully explored. In this study, we isolated a rice mutant yellow-green leaf 8 (ygl8) that exhibited chlorosis phenotype with abnormal chloroplast development in young leaves. As the development of leaves, the chlorotic plants turned green accompanied by restorations in Chl content and chloroplast ultrastructure. Map-based cloning revealed that the ygl8 gene encodes a catalytic subunit of MgPME cyclase. The ygl8 mutation caused a conserved amino acid substitution (Asn182Ser), which was related to the alterations of Chl precursor content. YGL8 was constitutively expressed in various tissues, with more abundance in young leaves and panicles. Furthermore, we showed that expression levels of some nuclear genes associated with Chl biosynthesis were affected in both the ygl8 mutant and YGL8 RNA interference lines. By transient expression in rice protoplasts, we found that N-terminal 40 amino acid residues were enough to localize the YGL8 protein to chloroplast. In vivo experiments demonstrated a physical interaction between YGL8 and a rice chloroplast protein, low chlorophyll accumulation A (OsLCAA). Moreover, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that YGL8 also interacted with the other two rice chloroplast proteins, viz. fluorescent (OsFLU1) and NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (OsPORB). These results provide new insights into the roles of YGL8, not only as a subunit with catalytic activity, but as a core component of FLU–YGL8–LCAA–POR complex required for Chl biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-08-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0513-4
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