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Journal Cover Plant Molecular Biology
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]   [SJR: 1.769]   [H-I: 112]
  • Biofortification of rice with lysine using endogenous histones
    • Abstract: Abstract Rice is the most consumed cereal grain in the world, but deficient in the essential amino acid lysine. Therefore, people in developing countries with limited food diversity who rely on rice as their major food source may suffer from malnutrition. Biofortification of stable crops by genetic engineering provides a fast and sustainable method to solve this problem. In this study, two endogenous rice lysine-rich histone proteins, RLRH1 and RLRH2, were over-expressed in rice seeds to achieve lysine biofortification. Their protein sequences passed an allergic sequence-based homology test. Their accumulations in rice seeds were raised to a moderate level by the use of a modified rice glutelin 1 promoter with lowered expression strength to avoid the occurrence of physiological abnormalities like unfolded protein response. The expressed proteins were further targeted to protein storage vacuoles for stable storage using a glutelin 1 signal peptide. The lysine content in the transgenic rice seeds was enhanced by up to 35 %, while other essential amino acids remained balanced, meeting the nutritional standards of the World Health Organization. No obvious unfolded protein response was detected. Different degrees of chalkiness, however, were detected in the transgenic seeds, and were positively correlated with both the levels of accumulated protein and lysine enhancement. This study offered a solution to the lysine deficiency in rice, while at the same time addressing concerns about food safety and physiological abnormalities in biofortified crops.
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
  • Tissue-specific expression of a soybean hypersensitive-induced response
           (HIR) protein gene promoter
    • Abstract: Abstract A Glycine max gene encoding a putative protein similar to hypersensitive-induced response proteins (HIR) was identified as a gene with preferred expressions in flowers and developing seeds by whole transcriptome gene expression profiling. Its promoter gm-hir1 was cloned and revealed to strongly express a fluorescence reporter gene primarily in integuments, anther tapetum, and seed coat with unique tissue-specificity. Expression in the inner integument was apparent prior to pollination, while expression in the outer integument started to develop from the micropylar end outward as the embryo matured. A 5′-deletion study showed that the promoter can be truncated to 600 bp long relative to the translation start site without affecting expression. A positive regulatory element was identified between 600 and 481 bp that controls expression in the inner integument, with no noticeable effect on expression in the outer integument or tapetum. Additionally, removal of the 5′UTR intron had no effect on levels or location of gm-hir1 expression while truncation to 370 bp resulted in a complete loss of expression suggesting that elements controlling both the outer integument and tapetum expression are located within the 481–370 bp region.
      PubDate: 2014-12-13
  • Rad54 is not essential for any geminiviral replication mode in planta
    • Abstract: Abstract The circular single-stranded DNA of phytopathogenic geminiviruses is propagated by three modes: complementary strand replication (CSR), rolling circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR), which need host plant factors to be carried out. In addition to necessary host polymerases, proteins of the homologous recombination repair pathway may be considered essential, since geminiviruses are particularly prone to recombination. Among several others, Rad54 was suggested to be necessary for the RCR of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus. This enzyme is a double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase and chromatin remodeller and was found to bind and modulate the viral replication-initiator protein in vitro and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the previous report, we scrutinized the requirement of Rad54 in planta for two distinct fully infectious geminiviruses with respect to the three replication modes. Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus and Cleome leaf crumple virus were inoculated into Rad54-deficient and wildtype Arabidopsis thaliana plant lines to compare the occurrence of viral DNA forms. Replication intermediates were displayed in the time course of infection by one and two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization. The experiments showed that Rad54 was neither essential for CSR, RCR nor RDR, and it had no significant influence on virus titers during systemic infection.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10
  • Functional analysis of OsPGIP1 in rice sheath blight resistance
    • Abstract: Abstract As one of the most devastating diseases of rice, sheath blight causes severe rice yield loss. However, little progress has been made in rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. It has been reported that polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins can inhibit the degradation of the plant cell wall by polygalacturonases from pathogens. Here, we prokaryotically expressed and purified OsPGIP1 protein, which was verified by Western blot analysis. Activity assay confirmed the inhibitory activity of OsPGIP1 against the PGase from Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, the location of OsPGIP1 was determined by subcellular localization. Subsequently, we overexpressed OsPGIP1 in Zhonghua 11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), and applied PCR and Southern blot analysis to identify the positive T0 transgenic plants with single-copy insertions. Germination assay of the seeds from T1 transgenic plants was carried out to select homozygous OsPGIP1 transgenic lines, and the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in these lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Field testing of R. solani inoculation showed that the sheath blight resistance of the transgenic rice was significantly improved. Furthermore, the levels of sheath blight resistance were in accordance with the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in the transgenic lines. Our results reveal the functions of OsPGIP1 and its resistance mechanism to rice sheath blight, which will facilitate rice breeding for sheath blight resistance.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09
  • ZmGRF, a GA regulatory factor from maize, promotes flowering and plant
           growth in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract Transcription factors that act as positive regulators of gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic genes in plants are not well understood. A nuclear-localized basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ZmGRF, was isolated from maize. The core DNA sequence motif recognized for binding by ZmGRF was CCANNTGGC. ZmGRF overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants promoted flowering, stem elongation, and cell expansion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ZmGRF bound directly to the cis-element CCANNTGGC in the promoter of the Arabidopsis ent-kaurene oxidase (AtKO1) gene and promoted AtKO1 expression. GA4 content increased by 372–567 % in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmGRF compared to wild-type control plants. The GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 gene, which encodes a GA receptor, was also upregulated and the growth-repressing DELLA protein gene GA INSENSITIVE was downregulated. Our results showed ZmGRF functioned through the GA-signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
  • GsSKP21 , a Glycine soja S-phase kinase-associated protein, mediates the
           regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity
    • Abstract: Abstract Plant SKP1-like family proteins, components of the SCF complex E3 ligases, are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Little is known about the precise function of SKP genes in plant responses to environmental stresses. GsSKP21 was initially identified as a potential stress-responsive gene based on the transcriptome sequencing of Glycine soja. In this study, we found that GsSKP21 protein contains highly conserved SKP domains in its N terminus and an extra unidentified domain in its C terminus. The transcript abundance of GsSKP21, detected by quantitative real-time PCR, was induced under the treatment of alkali and salt stresses. Overexpression of GsSKP21 in Arabidopsis dramatically increased plant tolerance to alkali stress. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsSKP21 resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity during both the seed germination and early seedling growth stages. GsSKP21 mediated ABA signaling by altering the expression levels of the ABA signaling-related and ABA-induced genes. We also investigated the tissue expression specificity and subcellular localization of GsSKP21. These results suggest that GsSKP21 is important for plant tolerance to alkali stress and plays a critical regulatory role in the ABA-mediated stress response.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05
  • Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H 2 O 2
           -accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts
    • Abstract: Abstract The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H+ was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Methylation of the S f locus in almond is associated with S -RNase loss of
    • Abstract: Abstract Self-compatibility in almond (Prunus dulcis) is attributed to the presence of the S f haplotype, allelic to and dominant over the series of S-alleles controlling self-incompatibility. Some forms of the S f haplotype, however, are phenotypically self-incompatible even though their nucleotide sequences are identical. DNA from leaves and styles from genetically diverse almond samples was cloned and sequenced and then analyzed for changes affecting S f -RNase variants. Epigenetic changes in several cytosine residues were detected in a fragment of 4,700 bp of the 5′ upstream region of all self-compatible samples of the S f -RNases, differentiating them from all self-incompatible samples of S f -RNases analyzed. This is the first report of DNA methylation in a Rosaceae species and appears to be strongly associated with inactivation of the S f allele. Results facilitate an understanding of the evolution of self-compatibility/self-incompatibility in almond and other Prunus species, and suggest novel approaches for future crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • OsCYCP1;1, a PHO80 homologous protein, negatively regulates phosphate
           starvation signaling in the roots of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)
    • Abstract: Abstract Phosphorus is one of the most essential and limiting nutrients in all living organisms, thus the organisms have evolved complicated and precise regulatory mechanisms for phosphorus acquisition, storage and homeostasis. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the modification of PHO4 by the PHO80 and PHO85 complex is a core regulation system. However, the existence and possible functions in phosphate signaling of the homologs of the PHO80 and PHO85 components in plants has yet to be determined. Here we describe the identification of a family of seven PHO80 homologous genes in rice named OsCYCPs. Among these, the OsCYCP1;1 gene was able to partially rescue the pho80 mutant strain of yeast. The OsCYCP1;1 protein was predominantly localized in the nucleus, and was ubiquitously expressed throughout the whole plant and during the entire growth period of rice. Consistent with the negative role of PHO80 in phosphate signaling in yeast, OsCYCP1;1 expression was reduced by phosphate starvation in the roots. This reduction was dependent on PHR2, the central regulator of phosphate signaling in rice. Overexpression and suppression of the expression of OsCYCP1;1 influenced the phosphate starvation signaling response. The inducible expression of phosphate starvation inducible and phosphate transporter genes was suppressed in the OsCYCP1;1 overexpression lines and was relatively enhanced in the OsCYCP1;1 RNAi plants by phosphate starvation. Together, these results demonstrate the role of PHO80 homologs in the phosphate starvation signaling pathway in rice.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • DWD HYPERSENSITIVE TO UV-B 1 is negatively involved in UV-B mediated
           cellular responses in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract Among T-DNA insertion mutants of various cullin4-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase (CRL4) substrate receptors, one mutant that exhibits enhanced sensitivity in response to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) illumination has been isolated and its corresponding gene has been named DWD HYPERSENSITIVE TO UV-B 1 (DHU1) in Arabidopsis. dhu1 lines showed much shorter hypocotyls than those in wild type under low doses of UV-B. Other light did not alter hypocotyl growth patterns in dhu1, indicating the hypersensitivity of dhu1 is restricted to UV-B. DHU1 was upregulated by more than two times in response to UV-B application of 1.5 μmol m−2 s−1, implying its possible involvement in UV-B signaling. DHU1 is able to bind to DDB1, an adaptor of CRL4; accordingly, DHU1 is thought to act as a substrate receptor of CRL4. Microarray data generated from wild-type and dhu1 under low doses of UV-B revealed that 209 or 124 genes were upregulated or downregulated by more than two times in dhu1 relative to wild type, respectively. About 23.4 % of the total upregulated genes in dhu1 were upregulated by more than five times in response to UV-B based on the AtGenExpress Visualization Tool data, while only about 1.4 % were downregulated to the same degree by UV-B, indicating that loss of DHU1 led to the overall enhancement of the upregulation of UV-B inducible genes. dhu1 also showed altered responsiveness under high doses of UV-B. Taken together, these findings indicate that DHU1 is a potent CRL4 substrate receptor that may function as a negative regulator of UV-B response in Arabidopsis.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Arabidopsis drought-induced protein Di19-3 participates in plant response
           to drought and high salinity stresses
    • Abstract: Abstract Di19 (drought-induced protein19) family is a novel type of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger proteins. In this study, Arabidopsis Di19-3 was functionally characterized. The experimental results revealed that AtDi19-3 is a transcriptional activator, and could bind to the TACA(A/G)T sequence. AtDi19-3 expression in plants was remarkably induced by NaCl, mannitol and abscisic acid (ABA). T-DNA insertion mutation of AtDi19-3 results in an increase in plant tolerance to drought and high salinity stresses and ABA, whereas overexpression of AtDi19-3 leads to a drought-, salt- and ABA-sensitive phenotype of the transgenic plants. In the presence of NaCl, mannitol or ABA, rates of seed germination and cotyledon greening in Atdi19-3 mutant were higher, but in AtDi19-3 overexpression transgenic plants were lower than those in wild type. Roots of Atdi19-3 mutant seedlings were longer, but those of AtDi19-3 overexpression transgenic seedlings were shorter than those of wild type. Chlorophyll and proline contents in Atdi19-3 mutant were higher, but in AtDi19-3 overexpression seedlings were lower than those in wild type. Atdi19-3 mutant showed greater drought-tolerance, whereas AtDi19-3 overexpression transgenic plants exhibited more drought-sensitivity than wild type. Furthermore, expression of the genes related to ABA signaling pathway was altered in Atdi19-3 mutant and AtDi19-3 transgenic plants. These data suggest that AtDi19-3 may participate in plant response to drought and salt stresses in an ABA-dependent manner.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • A Brassica napus PHT1 phosphate transporter, BnPht1;4, promotes phosphate
           uptake and affects roots architecture of transgenic Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential nutrient elements for plant development. In this work, BnPht1;4 gene, encoding a phosphate transporter of PHT1 family, was isolated from Brassica napus. BnPht1;4 possesses the major characteristic of PHT1 high-affinity Pi transporters in plants, such as plasma-membrane localization and 12 transmembrane-spanning domains. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis and promoter activity assay showed BnPht1;4 was inert in plants under Pi sufficient conditions. However, expression of this gene was remarkably enhanced in roots under Pi deficient conditions. Interestingly, under low Pi conditions, its promoter activity is impaired in tips of elongated roots, suggesting that the high-affinity Pi transporter may be not involved in low Pi response at root tip area. The experimental results also indicated that BnPht1;4 induction by Pi deficiency is dependent on the existence of sugar. In 35S:BnPht1;4 transgenic Arabidopsis, the increase of Pi availability resulted in the change of root architecture under Pi deficient conditions, showing longer primary roots and lower lateral root density than that of wild type. By cis-element analysis, two P1BS and two W-box elements were found in BnPht1;4 promoter. Yeast one-hybrid assay indicated that PHR1 could bind to the BnPht1;4 promoter. P1BS elements in BnPht1;4 promoter are essential for BnPht1;4 induction in Pi starvation response. Furthermore, WRKY75 could bind to the BnPht1;4 promoter, in which W-box elements are important for this binding. These results indicated BnPht1;4 may be dually controlled by two family regulators under low Pi responses. Thus, our data on the regulative mechanism of high-affinity Pi transporter in Pi starvation response will be valuable for B. napus molecular agriculture.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Activation tagging of ATHB13 in Arabidopsis thaliana confers
           broad-spectrum disease resistance
    • Abstract: Abstract Powdery mildew species Oidium neolycopersici (On) can cause serious yield losses in tomato production worldwide. Besides on tomato, On is able to grow and reproduce on Arabidopsis. In this study we screened a collection of activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutants and identified one mutant, 3221, which displayed resistance to On, and in addition showed a reduced stature and serrated leaves. Additional disease tests demonstrated that the 3221 mutant exhibited resistance to downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis) and green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), but retained susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. The resistance trait and morphological alteration were mutually linked in 3221. Identification of the activation tag insertion site and microarray analysis revealed that ATHB13, a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor, was constitutively overexpressed in 3221. Silencing of ATHB13 in 3221 resulted in the loss of both the morphological alteration and resistance, whereas overexpression of the cloned ATHB13 in Col-0 and Col-eds1-2 backgrounds resulted in morphological alteration and resistance. Microarray analysis further revealed that overexpression of ATHB13 influenced the expression of a large number of genes. Previously, it was reported that ATHB13-overexpressing lines conferred tolerance to abiotic stress. Together with our results, it appears that ATHB13 is involved in the crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress resistance pathways.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Processing of the 5′-UTR and existence of protein factors that
           regulate translation of tobacco chloroplast psbN mRNA
    • Abstract: Abstract The chloroplast psbB operon includes five genes encoding photosystem II and cytochrome b 6 /f complex components. The psbN gene is located on the opposite strand. PsbN is localized in the thylakoid and is present even in the dark, although its level increases upon illumination and then decreases. However, the translation mechanism of the psbN mRNA remains unclear. Using an in vitro translation system from tobacco chloroplasts and a green fluorescent protein as a reporter protein, we show that translation occurs from a tobacco primary psbN 5′-UTR of 47 nucleotides (nt). Unlike many other chloroplast 5′-UTRs, the psbN 5′-UTR has two processing sites, at −39 and −24 upstream from the initiation site. Processing at −39 enhanced the translation rate fivefold. In contrast, processing at −24 did not affect the translation rate. These observations suggest that the two distinct processing events regulate, at least in part, the level of PsbN during development. The psbN 5′-UTR has no Shine–Dalgarno (SD)-like sequence. In vitro translation assays with excess amounts of the psbN 5′-UTR or with deleted psbN 5′-UTR sequences demonstrated that protein factors are required for translation and that their binding site is an 18 nt sequence in the 5′-UTR. Mobility shift assays using 10 other chloroplast 5′-UTRs suggested that common or similar proteins are involved in translation of a set of mRNAs lacking SD-like sequences.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • A Rosa canina WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene, RcWOX1 , is involved in
           auxin-induced rhizoid formation
    • Abstract: Abstract Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01
  • Effect of cytokinins on delaying petunia flower senescence: a
           transcriptome study approach
    • Abstract: Abstract Flower senescence is a fascinating natural process that represents the final developmental stage in the life of a flower. Plant hormones play an important role in regulating the timing of flower senescence. Ethylene is a trigger and usually accelerates the senescence rate, while cytokinins are known to delay it. The aim of this work was to study the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) on petal senescence by transcript profile comparison after 3 or 6 h using a cross-species method by hybridizing petunia samples to a 4 × 44 K Agilent tomato array. The relative content of ethylene, abscisic acid, anthocyanins, total carotenoids and total phenols that determine the physiological behaviours of the petal tissue were measured. BA treatment prolonged the flower life and increased the concentrations of phenols and anthocyanins, while total carotenoids did not increase and were lower than the control. The ethylene biosynthetic and perception gene expressions were studied immediately after treatment until 24 h and all genes were repressed, while ethylene production was strongly induced after 4 days. The microarray analyses highlighted that BA strongly affected gene regulation after 3 h, but only 14 % of genes remained differentially expressed after 6 h. The most affected pathways and genes were those related to stress, such as heat shock proteins, abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism and its signalling pathway, lipid metabolism and antioxidant defence systems. A gene annotation enrichment analysis using DAVID showed that the most important gene clusters were involved in energy generation and conservation processes. In addition to the ethylene pathway, cytokinins seem to be strongly involved the regulation of the ABA response in flower tissues.
      PubDate: 2014-11-26
  • Comparative assessments of CRISPR-Cas nucleases’ cleavage efficiency
           in planta
    • Abstract: Abstract Custom-designed nucleases can enable precise plant genome editing by catalyzing DNA-breakage at specific targets to stimulate targeted mutagenesis or gene replacement. The CRISPR-Cas system, with its target-specifying RNA molecule to direct the Cas9 nuclease, is a recent addition to existing nucleases that bind and cleave the target through linked protein domains (e.g. TALENs and zinc-finger nucleases). We have conducted a comparative study of these different types of custom-designed nucleases and we have assessed various components of the CRISPR-Cas system. For this purpose, we have adapted our previously reported assay for cleavage-dependent luciferase gene correction in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves (Johnson et al. in Plant Mol Biol 82(3):207–221, 2013). We found that cleavage by CRISPR-Cas was more efficient than cleavage of the same target by TALENs. We also compared the cleavage efficiency of the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 protein based on expression using three different Cas9 gene variants. We found significant differences in cleavage efficiency between these variants, with human and Arabidopsis thaliana codon-optimized genes having the highest cleavage efficiencies. We compared the activity of 12 de novo-designed single synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA) constructs, and found their cleavage efficiency varied drastically when using the same Cas9 nuclease. Finally, we show that, for one of the targets tested with our assay, we could induce a germinally-transmitted deletion in a repeat array in A. thaliana. This work emphasizes the efficiency of the CRISPR-Cas system in plants. It also shows that further work is needed to be able to predict the optimal design of sgRNAs or Cas9 variants.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18
  • The B″ regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A mediates the
           dephosphorylation of rice retinoblastoma-related protein-1
    • Abstract: Abstract The phosphorylation of plant retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is well documented, but the counteracting phosphatases have not been identified yet. We report here that rice retinoblastoma-related protein-1 (OsRBR1) interacted with the B″ subunit of rice protein phosphatase 2A (OsPP2A B″) and underwent reversible phosphorylation during the cell division cycle. The OsRBR1-OsPP2A B” association required B domain in OsRBR1 and the C-terminal region of OsPP2A B″. We found by immunoprecipitation that OsPP2A B″, OsPP2A catalytic subunit subtype II, PSTAIRE-type CDK and OsRBR1 were in the same protein complex, indicating a physical association between the phosphatase, the kinase and their common substrate. OsPP2A B″ contains three predicted CDK phosphorylation sites: Ser95, Ser102 and Ser119. The in vitro phosphorylation of Ser95 and Ser119 with PSTAIRE-kinases was verified by mass spectrometry. We generated a series of phosphorylation site mutants to mimic the dephosphorylated or phosphorylated states of OsPP2A B″, and confirmed that all of the three predicted sites can be phosphorylated. Yeast two-hybrid experiments suggested that the phosphorylation of OsPP2A B″ promoted the formation of the OsPP2A holoenzyme. A triple phosphorylation mimicking OsPP2A B″ mutant containing holoenzyme showed higher activity in phosphatase assays. Our data collectively show that the phosphatase activity of OsPP2A against OsRBR1 is regulated by the phosphorylation of its B″ regulatory subunit. However, the analysis of the effect of okadaic acid, a phosphatase inhibitor, in rice cell suspension cultures revealed that the dephosphorylation of OsRBR1 was completely inhibited only by high dose (300 nM) of the okadaic acid during the cell cycle progression. Therefore the role of the protein phosphatase 1 should be considered as an additional post translational regulatory component of RBR protein function in higher plants.
      PubDate: 2014-11-15
  • Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame
           qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering
           and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops
    • Abstract: Abstract The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element.
      PubDate: 2014-11-01
  • Transcriptome profiling of Vitis
    , an extremely cold-tolerant Chinese wild        class="a-plus-plus">Vitis species, reveals
           candidate genes and events that potentially connected to cold stress
    • Abstract: Abstract Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an exceptional wild-growing Vitis (grape) species that can safely survive a wide range of cold conditions, but the underlying cold-adaptive mechanism associated with gene regulation is poorly investigated. We have analyzed the physiochemical and transcriptomic changes caused by cold stress in a cold-tolerant accession, ‘Heilongjiang seedling’, of Chinese wild V. amurensis. We statistically determined that a total of 6,850 cold-regulated transcripts were involved in cold regulation, including 3,676 up-regulated and 3,174 down-regulated transcripts. A global survey of messenger RNA revealed that skipped exon is the most prevalent form of alternative spicing event. Importantly, we found that the total splicing events increased with the prolonged cold stress. We also identified thirty-eight major TF families that were involved in cold regulation, some of which were previously unknown. Moreover, a large number of candidate pathways for the metabolism or biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were found to be regulated by cold, which is of potential importance in coordinating cold tolerance with growth and development. Several heat shock proteins and heat shock factors were also detected to be intensively cold-regulated. Furthermore, we validated the expression profiles of 16 candidates using qRT-PCR to further confirm the accuracy of the RNA-seq data. Our results provide a genome-wide view of the dynamic changes in the transcriptome of V. amurensis, in which it is evident that various structural and regulatory genes are crucial for cold tolerance/adaptation. Moreover, our robust dataset advances our knowledge of the genes involved in the complex regulatory networks of cold stress and leads to a better understanding of cold tolerance mechanisms in this extremely cold-tolerant Vitis species.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
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