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Journal Cover Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.915]   [H-I: 137]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Suppression of cucumber stachyose synthase gene ( CsSTS ) inhibits phloem
           loading and reduces low temperature stress tolerance
    • Authors: Jianguo Lü; Xiaolei Sui; Si Ma; Xin Li; Huan Liu; Zhenxian Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Abstract Stachyose is the main transporting sugar in phloem of Raffinose family oligosaccharides-transporting species. Stachyose synthase (STS) is a key enzyme for stachyose biosynthesis, but the gene encoding STS is poorly characterized in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is a model plant for studying stachyose metabolism and phloem function. In this research, stachyose synthase gene (CsSTS) from cucumber was isolated and its physiological functions were analyzed. CsSTS expressed mainly in the phloem of the minor veins in mature leaves and localized to companion cells. Reverse genetics with CsSTS RNAi lines revealed obviously reductions in STS activity and stachyose content along with a small amount of starch accumulation in leaves, suggesting that CsSTS is involved in phloem loading of cucumber leaves. After 6 °C low temperature stress, malondialdehyde content and electrical conductivity increased, especially in CsSTS-RNAi plants. But CsSTS expression was up-regulated, STS activity and stachyose level increased, the activities of reactive-oxygen-scavenging enzyme in cucumber seedlings improved significantly and starch accumulation reduced, especially in CsSTS-OE lines. These results demonstrate clearly that CsSTS is involved in phloem loading, carbohydrate distribution and tolerance of cucumber seedlings to low temperature stress.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0621-9
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 1-2 (2017)
  • Comparative analysis of Histone modifications and DNA methylation at OsBZ8
           locus under salinity stress in IR64 and Nonabokra rice varieties
    • Authors: Amit Paul; Pratiti Dasgupta; Dipan Roy; Shubho Chaudhuri
      Pages: 63 - 88
      Abstract: Abstract Rice being an important cereal crop is highly sensitive to salinity stress causing growth retardation and loss in productivity. However, certain rice genotypes like Nonabokra and Pokkali show a high level of tolerance towards salinity stress compared to IR64 variety. This differential response of tolerant varieties towards salinity stress may be a cumulative effect of genetic and epigenetic factors. In this study, we have compared the salinity-induced changes in chromatin modifications at the OsBZ8 locus in salt-tolerant Nonabokra and salt-sensitive IR64 rice varieties. Expression analysis indicates that the OsBZ8 gene is highly induced in Nonabokra plants even in the absence of salt stress, whereas in IR64, the expression significantly increases only during salt stress. Sequence analysis and nucleosomal arrangement within the region −2000 to +1000 of OsBZ8 gene show no difference between the two rice varieties. However, there was a considerable difference in histone modifications and DNA methylation at the locus between these varieties. In Nonabokra, the upstream region was hyperacetylated at H3K9 and H3K27, and this acetylation did not change during salt stress. However, in IR64, histone acetylation was observed only during salt stress. Moreover, the upstream region of OsBZ8 gene has highly dynamic nucleosome arrangement in Nonabokra, compared to IR64. Furthermore, loss of DNA methylation was observed at OsBZ8 locus in Nonabokra control plants along with low H3K27me3 and high H3K4me3. Control IR64 plants show high DNA methylation and enriched H3K27me3. Collectively these results indicate a significant difference in chromatin modifications between the rice varieties that regulates differential expression of OsBZ8 gene during salt stress.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0636-2
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 1-2 (2017)
  • Low genetic diversity and functional constraint of miRNA genes
           participating pollen–pistil interaction in rice
    • Authors: Kun Wang; Xin Wang; Ming Li; Tao Shi; Pingfang Yang
      Pages: 89 - 98
      Abstract: Key message In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the expression and evolution of rice miRNA genes participating pollen-pistil interaction that is crucial to rice yield. Pollen–pistil interaction is an essential reproductive process for all flowering plants. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are important noncoding small RNAs that regulate mRNA levels in eukaryotic cells, there is little knowledge about which miRNAs involved in the early stages of pollen–pistil interaction in rice and how they evolve under this conserved process. In this study, we sequenced the small RNAs in rice from unpollinated pistil (R0), pistil from 5 min and 15 min after pollination, respectively, to identify known and novel miRNAs that are involved in this process. By comparing the corresponding mRNA-seq dataset, we identified a group of miRNAs with strong negative expression pattern with their target genes. Further investigation of all miRNA loci (MIRNAs) across 1083 public rice accessions revealed significantly reduced genetic diversity in MIRNAs with strong negative expression of their targets when comparing to those with little or no impact on targets during pollen–pistil interaction. Annotation of targets suggested that those MIRNAs with strong impact on targets were pronounced in cell wall related processes such as xylan metabolism. Additionally, plant conserved miRNAs, such as those with functions in gibberellic acid, auxin and nitrate signaling, were also with strong negative expression of their targets. Overall, our analyses identified key miRNAs participating pollen–pistil interaction and their evolutionary patterns in rice, which can facilitate the understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with seed setting.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0638-0
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 1-2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the mature grain phytase candidate HvPAPhy_a gene in barley
           ( Hordeum vulgare L.) using CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs
    • Authors: Inger B. Holme; Toni Wendt; Javier Gil-Humanes; Lise C. Deleuran; Colby G. Starker; Daniel F. Voytas; Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
      Pages: 111 - 121
      Abstract: Abstract In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating the importance of a specific promoter region of the PAPhy_a gene which contains three overlapping cis-acting regulatory elements (GCN4, Skn1 and the RY-element) known to be involved in gene expression during grain filling. The results confirm that the barley PAPhy_a enzyme is the main contributor to the MGPA as grains of knock-out lines show very low MGPA. Additionally, the analysis of the HvPAPhy_a promoter region containing the GCN4/Skn1/RY motif highlights its importance for HvPAPhy_a expression as the MGPA in grains of plant lines with mutations within this motif is significantly reduced. Interestingly, lines with deletions located downstream of the motif show even lower MGPA levels, indicating that the GCN4/SKn1/RY motif is not the only element responsible for the level of PAPhy_a expression during grain maturation. Mutant grains with very low MPGA showed delayed germination as compared to grains of wild type barley. As grains with high levels of preformed phytases would provide more readily available phosphorous needed for a fast germination, this indicates that faster germination may be implicated in the positive selection of the ancient PAPhy gene duplication that lead to the creation of the PAPhy_a gene.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0640-6
      Issue No: Vol. 95, No. 1-2 (2017)
  • Functional characterization of chloroplast-targeted RbgA GTPase in higher
    • Authors: Young Jeon; Hee-Kyung Ahn; Yong Won Kang; Hyun-Sook Pai
      Abstract: Key message Plant RbgA GTPase is targeted to chloroplasts and co-fractionated with chloroplast ribosomes, and plays a role in chloroplast rRNA processing and/or ribosome biogenesis. Ribosome Biogenesis GTPase A (RbgA) homologs are evolutionarily conserved GTPases that are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated functions of chloroplast-targeted RbgA. Nicotiana benthamiana RbgA (NbRbgA) and Arabidopsis thaliana RbgA (AtRbgA) contained a conserved GTP-binding domain and a plant-specific C-terminal domain. NbRbgA and AtRbgA were mainly localized in chloroplasts, and possessed GTPase activity. Since Arabidopsis rbgA null mutants exhibited an embryonic lethal phenotype, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of NbRbgA was performed in N. benthamiana. NbRbgA VIGS resulted in a leaf-yellowing phenotype caused by disrupted chloroplast development. NbRbgA was mainly co-fractionated with 50S/70S ribosomes and interacted with the chloroplast ribosomal proteins cpRPL6 and cpRPL35. NbRbgA deficiency lowered the levels of mature 23S and 16S rRNAs in chloroplasts and caused processing defects. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation revealed that NbRbgA-deficient chloroplasts contained reduced levels of mature 23S and 16S rRNAs and diverse plastid-encoded mRNAs in the polysomal fractions, suggesting decreased protein translation activity in the chloroplasts. Interestingly, NbRbgA protein was highly unstable under high light stress, suggesting its possible involvement in the control of chloroplast ribosome biogenesis under environmental stresses. Collectively, these results suggest a role for RbgA GTPase in chloroplast rRNA processing/ribosome biogenesis, affecting chloroplast protein translation in higher plants.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0664-y
  • Chromatin-associated regulation of sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of
    • Authors: Alba Lloret; Amparo Martínez-Fuentes; Manuel Agustí; María Luisa Badenes; Gabino Ríos
      Abstract: Key message PpeS6PDH gene is postulated to mediate sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach concomitantly with specific chromatin modifications. Perennial plants have evolved an adaptive mechanism involving protection of meristems within specialized structures named buds in order to survive low temperatures and water deprivation during winter. A seasonal period of dormancy further improves tolerance of buds to environmental stresses through specific mechanisms poorly known at the molecular level. We have shown that peach PpeS6PDH gene is down-regulated in flower buds after dormancy release, concomitantly with changes in the methylation level at specific lysine residues of histone H3 (H3K27 and H3K4) in the chromatin around the translation start site of the gene. PpeS6PDH encodes a NADPH-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of sorbitol. Consistently, sorbitol accumulates in dormant buds showing higher PpeS6PDH expression. Moreover, PpeS6PDH gene expression is affected by cold and water deficit stress. Particularly, its expression is up-regulated by low temperature in buds and leaves, whereas desiccation treatment induces PpeS6PDH in buds and represses the gene in leaves. These data reveal the concurrent participation of chromatin modification mechanisms, transcriptional regulation of PpeS6PDH and sorbitol accumulation in flower buds of peach. In addition to its role as a major translocatable photosynthate in Rosaceae species, sorbitol is a widespread compatible solute and cryoprotectant, which suggests its participation in tolerance to environmental stresses in flower buds of peach.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0669-6
  • ptxD gene in combination with phosphite serves as a highly effective
           selection system to generate transgenic cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    • Authors: Devendra Pandeya; LeAnne M. Campbell; Eugenia Nunes; Damar L. Lopez-Arredondo; Madhusudhana R. Janga; Luis Herrera-Estrella; Keerti S. Rathore
      Abstract: Key message This report demonstrates the usefulness of ptxD/phosphite as a selection system that not only provides a highly efficient and simple means to generate transgenic cotton plants, but also helps address many of the concerns related to the use of antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes in the production of transgenic crops. Two of the most popular dominant selectable marker systems for plant transformation are based on either antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes. Due to concerns regarding their safety and in order to stack multiple traits in a single plant, there is a need for alternative selectable marker genes. The ptxD gene, derived from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88, that confers to cells the ability to convert phosphite (Phi) into orthophosphate (Pi) offers an alternative selectable marker gene as demonstrated for tobacco and maize. Here, we show that the ptxD gene in combination with a protocol based on selection medium containing Phi, as the sole source of phosphorus (P), can serve as an effective and efficient system to select for transformed cells and generate transgenic cotton plants. Fluorescence microscopy examination of the cultures under selection and molecular analyses on the regenerated plants demonstrate the efficacy of the system in recovering cotton transformants following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under the ptxD/Phi selection, an average of 3.43 transgenic events per 100 infected explants were recovered as opposed to only 0.41% recovery when bar/phosphinothricin (PPT) selection was used. The event recovery rates for nptII/kanamycin and hpt/hygromycin systems were 2.88 and 2.47%, respectively. Molecular analysis on regenerated events showed a selection efficiency of ~ 97% under the ptxD/Phi system. Thus, ptxD/Phi has proven to be a very efficient, positive selection system for the generation of transgenic cotton plants with equal or higher transformation efficiencies compared to the commonly used, negative selection systems.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0670-0
  • Lipid droplet-associated gene expression and chromatin remodelling in
           LIPASE 5′-upstream region from beginning- to mid-endodormant bud in
           ‘Fuji’ apple
    • Authors: Takanori Saito; Shanshan Wang; Katsuya Ohkawa; Hitoshi Ohara; Hiromi Ikeura; Yukiharu Ogawa; Satoru Kondo
      Abstract: Key message We found that lipid accumulation in the meristem region and the expression of MdLIP2A, which appears to be regulated by chromatin remodeling, coincided with endodormancy induction in the ‘Fuji’ apple. In deciduous trees, including apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), lipid accumulation in the meristem region towards endodormancy induction has been thought to be an important process for the acquisition of cold tolerance. In this study, we conducted histological staining of crude lipids in the meristem region of ‘Fuji’ apples and found that lipid accumulation coincided with endodormancy induction. Since a major component of lipid bodies (triacylglycerol) is esterified fatty acids, we analysed fatty acid-derived volatile compounds and genes encoding fatty acid-modifying enzymes (MdLOX1A and MdHPL2A); the reduction of lipid breakdown also coincided with endodormancy induction. We then characterised the expression patterns of lipid body-regulatory genes MdOLE1 and MdLIP2A during endodormancy induction and found that the expression of MdLIP2A correlated well with lipid accumulation towards endodormancy induction. Based on these results, we conducted chromatin remodelling studies and localized the cis-element in the 5′-upstream region of MdLIP2A to clarify its regulatory mechanism. Finally, we revealed that chromatin was concentrated − 764 to − 862 bp of the 5′-upstream region of MdLIP2A, which harbours the GARE [gibberellin responsive MYB transcription factor binding site] and CArG [MADS-box transcription factor binding site] motifs—meristem development-related protein-binding sites.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0662-0
  • Dynamic metabolic reprogramming of steroidal glycol-alkaloid and
           phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may impart early blight resistance in wild
           tomato ( Solanum arcanum Peralta)
    • Authors: Balkrishna A. Shinde; Bhushan B. Dholakia; Khalid Hussain; Sayantan Panda; Sagit Meir; Ilana Rogachev; Asaph Aharoni; Ashok P. Giri; Avinash C. Kamble
      Abstract: Key message Exploration with high throughput leaf metabolomics along with functional genomics in wild tomato unreveal potential role of steroidal glyco-alkaloids and phenylpropanoids during early blight resistance. Alternaria solani severely affects tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield causing early blight (EB) disease in tropical environment. Wild relative, Solanum arcanum Peralta could be a potential source of EB resistance; however, its underlying molecular mechanism largely remains unexplored. Hence, non-targeted metabolomics was applied on resistant and susceptible S. arcanum accessions upon A. solani inoculation to unravel metabolic dynamics during different stages of disease progression. Total 2047 potential metabolite peaks (mass signals) were detected of which 681 and 684 metabolites revealed significant modulation and clear differentiation in resistant and susceptible accessions, respectively. Majority of the EB-triggered metabolic changes were active from steroidal glycol-alkaloid (SGA), lignin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. Further, biochemical and gene expression analyses of key enzymes from these pathways positively correlated with phenotypic variation in the S. arcanum accessions indicating their potential role in EB. Additionally, transcription factors regulating lignin biosynthesis were also up-regulated in resistant plants and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed sequence-specific binding of rSaWRKY1 with MYB20 promoter. Moreover, transcript accumulation of key genes from phenylpropanoid and SGA pathways along with WRKY and MYB in WRKY1 transgenic tomato lines supported above findings. Overall, this study highlights vital roles of SGAs as phytoalexins and phenylpropanoids along with lignin accumulation unrevealing possible mechanistic basis of EB resistance in wild tomato.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0660-2
  • Overexpression of the transcription factor NF-YC9 confers abscisic acid
           hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Chao Bi; Yu Ma; Xiao-Fang Wang; Da-Peng Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) family proteins are involved in many developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plants, but whether and how they regulate phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) signaling need further studies. In the present study, we showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers ABA hypersensitivity in both the early seedling growth and stomatal response, while down-regulation of NF-YC9 does not affect ABA response in these processes. We also showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers salt and osmotic hypersensitivity in early seedling growth, which is likely to be directly associated with the ABA hypersensitivity. Further, we observed that NF-YC9 physically interacts with the ABA-responsive bZIP transcription factor ABA-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), and facilitates the function of ABI5 to bind and activate the promoter of a target gene EM6. Additionally, NF-YC9 up-regulates expression of the ABI5 gene in response to ABA. These findings show that NF-YC9 may be involved in ABA signaling as a positive regulator and likely functions redundantly together with other NF-YC members, and support the model that the NF-YC9 mediates ABA signaling via targeting to and aiding the ABA-responsive transcription factors such as ABI5.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0661-1
  • Forward genetic screens identify a role for the mitochondrial HER2 in E
           -2-hexenal responsiveness
    • Authors: Alessandra Scala; Rossana Mirabella; Joachim Goedhart; Michel de Vries; Michel A. Haring; Robert C. Schuurink
      Abstract: Key message This work adds a new player, HER2, downstream of the perception of E-2-hexenal, a green leaf volatile, and shows that E-2-hexenal specifically changes the redox status of the mitochondria. It is widely accepted that plants produce and respond to green leaf volatiles (GLVs), but the molecular components involved in transducing their perception are largely unknown. The GLV E-2-hexenal inhibits root elongation in seedlings and, using this phenotype, we isolated E-2-hexenal response (her) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Using map-based cloning we positioned the her2 mutation to the At5g63620 locus, resulting in a phenylalanine instead of serine on position 223. Knockdown and overexpression lines of HER2 confirmed the role of HER2, which encodes an oxidoreductase, in the responsiveness to E-2-hexenal. Since E-2-hexenal is a reactive electrophile species, which are known to influence the redox status of cells, we utilized redox sensitive GFP2 (roGFP2) to determine the redox status of E-2-hexenal-treated root cells. Since the signal peptide of HER2 directed mCherry to the mitochondria, we targeted the expression of roGFP2 to this organelle besides the cytosol. E-2-hexenal specifically induced a change in the redox status in the mitochondria. We did not see a difference in the redox status in her2 compared to wild-type Arabidopsis. Still, the mitochondrial redox status did not change with Z-3-hexenol, another abundant GLV. These results indicate that HER2 is involved in transducing the perception of E-2-hexenal, which changes the redox status of the mitochondria.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0659-8
  • Genome-wide identification, classification, evolutionary analysis and gene
           expression patterns of the protein kinase gene family in wheat and
           Aegilops tauschii
    • Authors: Jun Yan; Peisen Su; Zhaoran Wei; Eviatar Nevo; Lingrang Kong
      Abstract: Key message In this study we systematically identified and classified PKs in Triticum aestivum, Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii. Domain distribution and exon–intron structure analyses of PKs were performed, and we found conserved exon–intron structures within the exon phases in the kinase domain. Collinearity events were determined, and we identified various T. aestivum PKs from polyploidizations and tandem duplication events. Global expression pattern analysis of T. aestivum PKs revealed that some PKs might participate in the signaling pathways of stress response and developmental processes. QRT-PCR of 15 selected PKs were performed under drought treatment and with infection of Fusarium graminearum to validate the prediction of microarray. The protein kinase (PK) gene superfamily is one of the largest families in plants and participates in various plant processes, including growth, development, and stress response. To better understand wheat PKs, we conducted genome-wide identification, classification, evolutionary analysis and expression profiles of wheat and Ae. tauschii PKs. We identified 3269, 1213 and 1448 typical PK genes in T. aestivum, T. urartu and Ae. tauschii, respectively, and classified them into major groups and subfamilies. Domain distributions and gene structures were analyzed and visualized. Some conserved intron–exon structures within the conserved kinase domain were found in T. aestivum, T. urartu and Ae. tauschii, as well as the primitive land plants Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens, revealing the important roles and conserved evolutionary history of these PKs. We analyzed the collinearity events of T. aestivum PKs and identified PKs from polyploidizations and tandem duplication events. Global expression pattern analysis of T. aestivum PKs revealed tissue-specific and stress-specific expression profiles, hinting that some wheat PKs may regulate abiotic and biotic stress response signaling pathways. QRT-PCR of 15 selected PKs were performed under drought treatment and with infection of F. graminearum to validate the prediction of microarray. Our results will provide the foundational information for further studies on the molecular functions of wheat PKs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0637-1
  • Papillae formation on trichome cell walls requires the function of the
           mediator complex subunit Med25
    • Authors: Christy Fornero; Bangxia Suo; Mais Zahde; Katelyn Juveland; Viktor Kirik
      Abstract: Key message Glassy Hair 1 (GLH1) gene that promotes papillae formation on trichome cell walls was identified as a subunit of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25. The MED25 gene is shown to be expressed in trichomes. The expression of the trichome development marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) is not affected in the glh1 mutant. Presented data suggest that Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of genes promoting papillae deposition in trichomes. The plant cell wall plays an important role in communication, defense, organization and support. The importance of each of these functions varies by cell type. Specialized cells, such as Arabidopsis trichomes, exhibit distinct cell wall characteristics including papillae. To better understand the molecular processes important for papillae deposition on the cell wall surface, we identified the GLASSY HAIR 1 (GLH1) gene, which is necessary for papillae formation. We found that a splice-site mutation in the component of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25 gene is responsible for the near papillae-less phenotype of the glh1 mutant. The MED25 gene is expressed in trichomes. Reporters for trichome developmental marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) were not affected in the glh1 mutant. Collectively, the presented results show that MED25 is necessary for papillae formation on the cell wall surface of leaf trichomes and suggest that the Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of a subset of genes that promote papillae deposition in trichomes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0657-x
  • Mapping and comparative proteomic analysis of the starch biosynthetic
           pathway in rice by 2D PAGE/MS
    • Authors: Tao-Shan Chang; Chih-Wei Liu; Yu-Ling Lin; Chao-Yi Li; Arthur Z. Wang; Min-Wei Chien; Chang-Sheng Wang; Chien-Chen Lai
      Abstract: Key message Our results not only provide a comprehensive overview of the starch biosynthetic pathway in the developing endosperm but also reveal some important protein markers that regulate the synthesis of starch. In human diets, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important source of starch, a substantial amount of which is accumulated in developing endosperm. A better understanding of the complicated pathways involved in starch biosynthesis is needed to improve the yield and quality of rice and other cereal crops through breeding. One pure line rice mutant, SA0419, was induced from a wild-type rice, TNG67, by sodium azide mutagenesis; therefore, TNG67 and SA0419 share the same genetic background. SA0419 is, however, a unique glutinous rice with a lower amylose content (8%) than that of TNG67 (20%), and the grains of SA0419 develop earlier and faster than those of TNG67. In this study, we used a comparative proteomic analysis to identify the differentially expressed proteins that may explain the differences in starch biosynthesis and the characteristics of TNG67 and SA0419. A gel-based proteomic approach was applied to profile the expressed proteome in the developing endosperm of these two rice varieties by nano-LC/MS/MS. Several over-expressed proteins were found in SA0419, such as plastidial ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), pyrophosphate–fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), starch branching enzymes (SBE) and starch debranching enzyme (SDBE), with those proteins mainly being involved in the pathways of starch metabolism and PPDK-mediated gluconeogenesis. Those over-expressed enzymes may contribute to the relatively early development, similar starch accumulation and rapid grain filling of SA0419 as compared with TNG67. This study provides a detailed biochemical description of starch biosynthesis and related information regarding a unique starch mutant that may assist future research efforts to improve the yield and quality of grain and starch in rice through breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0652-2
  • Global RNA association with the transcriptionally active chromosome of
    • Authors: Marie-Kristin Lehniger; Sabrina Finster; Joanna Melonek; Svenja Oetke; Karin Krupinska; Christian Schmitz-Linneweber
      Abstract: Key message Processed chloroplast RNAs are co-enriched with preparations of the chloroplast transcriptionally active chromosome. Chloroplast genomes are organized as a polyploid DNA–protein structure called the nucleoid. Transcriptionally active chloroplast DNA together with tightly bound protein factors can be purified by gel filtration as a functional entity called the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC). Previous proteomics analyses of nucleoids and of TACs demonstrated a considerable overlap in protein composition including RNA binding proteins. Therefore the RNA content of TAC preparations from Nicotiana tabacum was determined using whole genome tiling arrays. A large number of chloroplast RNAs was found to be associated with the TAC. The pattern of RNAs attached to the TAC consists of RNAs produced by different chloroplast RNA polymerases and differs from the pattern of RNA found in input controls. An analysis of RNA splicing and RNA editing of selected RNA species demonstrated that TAC-associated RNAs are processed to a similar extent as the RNA in input controls. Thus, TAC fractions contain a specific subset of the processed chloroplast transcriptome.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0649-x
  • The Glycine soja NAC transcription factor GsNAC019 mediates the regulation
           of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity
    • Authors: Lei Cao; Yang Yu; Xiaodong Ding; Dan Zhu; Fan Yang; Beidong Liu; Xiaoli Sun; Xiangbo Duan; Kuide Yin; Yanming Zhu
      Abstract: Key message Overexpression of Gshdz4 or GsNAC019 enhanced alkaline tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. We proved that Gshdz4 up-regulated both GsNAC019 and GsRD29B but GsNAC019 may repress the GsRD29B expression under alkaline stress. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) has a high tolerance to environmental challenges. It is a model species for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of salt-alkaline stresses. Although many NAC transcription factors play important roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses, such as salt, osmotic and cold, their mode of action in alkaline stress resistance is largely unknown. In our study, we identified a G. soja NAC gene, GsNAC019, which is a homolog of the Arabidopsis AtNAC019 gene. GsNAC019 was highly up-regulated by 50 mM NaHCO3 treatment in the roots of wild soybean. Further investigation showed that a well-characterized transcription factor, Gshdz4 protein, bound the cis-acting element sequences (CAATA/TA), which are located in the promoter of the AtNAC019/GsNAC019 genes. Overexpression of Gshdz4 positively regulated AtNAC019 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis, implying that AtNAC019/GsNAC019 may be the target genes of Gshdz4. GsNAC019 was demonstrated to be a nuclear-localized protein in onion epidermal cells and possessed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Moreover, overexpression of GsNAC019 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to alkaline stress at the seedling and mature stages, but reduced ABA sensitivity. The closest Arabidopsis homolog mutant plants of Gshdz4, GsNAC019 and GsRD29B containing athb40, atnac019 and atrd29b were sensitive to alkaline stress. Overexpression or the closest Arabidopsis homolog mutant plants of the GsNAC019 gene in Arabidopsis positively or negatively regulated the expression of stress-related genes, such as AHA2, RD29A/B and KIN1. Moreover, this mutation could phenotypically promoted or compromised plant growth under alkaline stress, implying that GsNAC019 may contribute to alkaline stress tolerance via the ABA signal transduction pathway and regulate expression of the downstream stress-related genes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0643-3
  • MicroRNA expression changes following synthesis of three full-sib Populus
           triploid populations with different heterozygosities
    • Authors: Yujing Suo; Yu Min; Chunbo Dong; Yi Wang; Shiping Cheng; Xiangyang Kang
      Abstract: Key message Through high-throughput sequencing, we compared the relative expression levels of miRNA in three full-sib Populus triploid populations with that in their parents and one diploid hybrid population. We found similar numbers of miRNAs differentially expressed between the parents and the four progeny hybrid populations. In addition, unbalanced parental expression level dominance of miRNAs were found in the three allotriploid and interspecific hybrid populations, which may reprogram gene expression networks and contribute to the growth of Populus hybrids. These results indicated that hybridization has a great impact on the miRNA expression variation in the newly synthesized Populus triploid and diploid hybrid populations. However, we also found no significant differences in miRNA expression among one diploid and three triploid hybrid populations, hinting that miRNA abundances do not increase with the genome content. No dosage effect of miRNA expression could lead to dosage-dependent negative effects on target genes and their downstream pathway in polyploids. We speculate that polyploids may gain advantages from the slight decrease in miRNA regulation, suggesting an important molecular mechanism of polyploid advantage. Hybridization with three types of induced 2n gametes transmitted different parental heterozygosities has been proven as an efficient method for Populus triploid production. Several researches have shown that miRNA could be non-additively expressed in allopolyploids. However, it is still unclear whether the non-additively expressed miRNAs result from the effect of hybridization or polyploidization, and whether a dose response to the additional genomic content exists for the expression of miRNA. Toward this end, through high-throughput sequencing, we compared the expression levels of miRNA in three full-sib Populus triploid populations with that in their parents and one interspecific hybrid population. We found similar numbers of miRNAs differentially expressed between the parents and the four progeny hybrid populations. Unbalanced parental expression level dominance of miRNAs were found in the three triploid and diploid hybrid populations, which may reprogram gene expression networks and affect the growth of Populus hybrids. These results indicated that hybridization has a great impact on the miRNA expression variation in the newly synthesized Populus triploid and diploid hybrid populations. However, we also found no significant differences in miRNA expression among the three triploid populations and the diploid hybrid population. No dosage effect of miRNA expression could lead to dosage-dependent negative effects on target genes and their downstream pathway in polyploids. We speculate that polyploids may gain advantages from the decrease in miRNA negative regulation, suggesting an important molecular mechanism of polyploid advantage.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0627-3
  • The maize CorA/MRS2/MGT-type Mg transporter, ZmMGT10, responses to
           magnesium deficiency and confers low magnesium tolerance in transgenic
    • Authors: Hongyou Li; Ning Wang; Jianzhou Ding; Chan Liu; Hanmei Du; Kaifeng Huang; Moju Cao; Yanli Lu; Shibin Gao; Suzhi Zhang
      Abstract: Key message ZmMGT10 was specifically expressed in maize roots and induced by a deficiency of magnesium. Overexpression of ZmMGT10 restored growth deficiency of the Salmonella typhimurium MM281 strain and enhanced the tolerance in Arabidopsis to stress induced by low magnesium levels by increasing uptake of Mg2+ via roots. CorA/MRS2/MGT-type Mg2+ transporters play a significant role in maintaining magnesium (Mg) homeostasis in plants. Although the maize CorA/MRS2/MGT family comprises of 12 members, currently no member has been functionally characterized. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of ZmMGT10 from the maize MRS2/MGT gene family. ZmMGT10 has a typical structure feature which includes two conserved TMs near the C-terminal end and an altered AMN tripeptide motif. The high sequence similarity and close phylogenetic relationship indicates that ZmMGT10 is probably the counterpart of Arabidopsis AtMGT6. The complementation of the Salmonella typhimurium mutated MM281 strain indicates that ZmMGT10 possesses the ability to transport Mg2+. ZmMGT10 was specifically expressed in the plant roots and it can be stimulated by a deficiency of Mg. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants which overexpressed ZmMGT10 grew more vigorously than wild-type plants under low Mg conditions, exhibited by longer root length, higher plant fresh weight and chlorophyll content, suggesting ZmMGT10 was essential for plant growth and development under low Mg conditions. Further investigations found that high accumulation of Mg2+ occurred in transgenic plants attributed to improved Mg2+ uptake and thereby enhanced tolerance to Mg deficiency. Results from this investigation illustrate that ZmMGT10 is a Mg transporter of maize which can enhance the tolerance to Mg deficient conditions by improving Mg2+ uptake in the transgenic plants of Arabidopsis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0645-1
  • The iron-chelate transporter OsYSL9 plays a role in iron distribution in
           developing rice grains
    • Authors: Takeshi Senoura; Emi Sakashita; Takanori Kobayashi; Michiko Takahashi; May Sann Aung; Hiroshi Masuda; Hiromi Nakanishi; Naoko K. Nishizawa
      Abstract: Key message Rice OsYSL9 is a novel transporter for Fe(II)-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid that is responsible for internal iron transport, especially from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds. Metal chelators are essential for safe and efficient metal translocation in plants. Graminaceous plants utilize specific ferric iron chelators, mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, to take up sparingly soluble iron from the soil. Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) family transporters are responsible for transport of metal-phytosiderophores and structurally similar metal-nicotianamine complexes. Among the rice YSL family members (OsYSL) whose functions have not yet been clarified, OsYSL9 belongs to an uncharacterized subgroup containing highly conserved homologs in graminaceous species. In the present report, we showed that OsYSL9 localizes mainly to the plasma membrane and transports both iron(II)-nicotianamine and iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid into the cell. Expression of OsYSL9 was induced in the roots but repressed in the nonjuvenile leaves in response to iron deficiency. In iron-deficient roots, OsYSL9 was induced in the vascular cylinder but not in epidermal cells. Although OsYSL9-knockdown plants did not show a growth defect under iron-sufficient conditions, these plants were more sensitive to iron deficiency in the nonjuvenile stage compared with non-transgenic plants. At the grain-filling stage, OsYSL9 expression was strongly and transiently induced in the scutellum of the embryo and in endosperm cells surrounding the embryo. The iron concentration was decreased in embryos of OsYSL9-knockdown plants but was increased in residual parts of brown seeds. These results suggested that OsYSL9 is involved in iron translocation within plant parts and particularly iron translocation from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0656-y
  • The MEDIATOR genes MED12 and MED13 control Arabidopsis root system
           configuration influencing sugar and auxin responses
    • Authors: Javier Raya-González; Jesús Salvador López-Bucio; José Carlos Prado-Rodríguez; León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera; Ángel Arturo Guevara-García; José López-Bucio
      Abstract: Key message Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth. The MEDIATOR (MED) complex plays diverse functions in plant development, hormone signaling and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance through coordination of transcription. Here, we performed genetic, developmental, molecular and pharmacological analyses to characterize the role of MED12 and MED13 on the configuration of root architecture and its relationship with auxin and sugar responses. Arabidopsis med12 and med13 single mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes consistent with altered auxin homeostasis including altered primary root growth, lateral root development, and root hair elongation. MED12 and MED13 were required for activation of cell division and elongation in primary roots, as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression. Remarkably, most of these mutant phenotypes were rescued by supplying sucrose to the growth medium. The growth response of primary roots of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants to sucrose and application of auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) revealed the correlation of med12 phenotype with the activity of the auxin intake permease and suggests that MED12 acts upstream of AUX1 in the root growth response to sugar. These data provide compelling evidence that MEDIATOR links sugar sensing to auxin transport and distribution during root morphogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0647-z
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