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Journal Cover   Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.842]   [H-I: 121]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2280 journals]
  • Analysis of knockout mutants reveals non-redundant functions of
           poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase isoforms in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) has a dual function being involved both in the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and being a constituent of the NAD+ salvage pathway. To date most studies, both in plant and non-plant systems, have focused on the signaling role of PARP in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation rather than any role that can be ascribed to its metabolic function. In order to address this question we here used a combination of expression, transcript and protein localization studies of all three PARP isoforms of Arabidopsis alongside physiological analysis of the corresponding mutants. Our analyses indicated that whilst all isoforms of PARP were localized to the nucleus they are also present in non-nuclear locations with parp1 and parp3 also localised in the cytosol, and parp2 also present in the mitochondria. We next isolated and characterized insertional knockout mutants of all three isoforms confirming a complete knockout in the full length transcript levels of the target genes as well as a reduced total leaf NAD hydrolase activity in the two isoforms (PARP1, PARP2) that are highly expressed in leaves. Physiological evaluation of the mutant lines revealed that they displayed distinctive metabolic and root growth characteristics albeit unaltered leaf morphology under optimal growth conditions. We therefore conclude that the PARP isoforms play non-redundant non-nuclear metabolic roles and that their function is highly important in rapidly growing tissues such as the shoot apical meristem, roots and seeds.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Rice MEL2, the RNA recognition motif (RRM) protein, binds in vitro to
           meiosis-expressed genes containing U-rich RNA consensus sequences in the
    • Abstract: Abstract Post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins through binding to cis-elements in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) is widely used in eukaryotes to complete various biological processes. Rice MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE2 (MEL2) is the RRM protein that functions in the transition to meiosis in proper timing. The MEL2 RRM preferentially associated with the U-rich RNA consensus, UUAGUU[U/A][U/G][A/U/G]U, dependently on sequences and proportionally to MEL2 protein amounts in vitro. The consensus sequences were located in the putative looped structures of the RNA ligand. A genome-wide survey revealed a tendency of MEL2-binding consensus appearing in 3′-UTR of rice genes. Of 249 genes that conserved the consensus in their 3′-UTR, 13 genes spatiotemporally co-expressed with MEL2 in meiotic flowers, and included several genes whose function was supposed in meiosis; such as Replication protein A and OsMADS3. The proteome analysis revealed that the amounts of small ubiquitin-related modifier-like protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor3-like protein were dramatically altered in mel2 mutant anthers. Taken together with transcriptome and gene ontology results, we propose that the rice MEL2 is involved in the translational regulation of key meiotic genes on 3′-UTRs to achieve the faithful transition of germ cells to meiosis.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Lace plant ethylene receptors, AmERS1a and AmERS1c, regulate
           ethylene-induced programmed cell death during leaf morphogenesis
    • Abstract: Abstract The lace plant, Aponogeton madagascariensis, is an aquatic monocot that forms perforations in its leaves as part of normal leaf development. Perforation formation occurs through developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). The molecular basis of PCD regulation in the lace plant is unknown, however ethylene has been shown to play a significant role. In this study, we examined the role of ethylene receptors during perforation formation. We isolated three lace plant ethylene receptors AmERS1a, AmERS1b and AmERS1c. Using quantitative PCR, we examined their transcript levels at seven stages of leaf development. Through laser-capture microscopy, transcript levels were also determined in cells undergoing PCD and cells not undergoing PCD (NPCD cells). AmERS1a transcript levels were significantly lower in window stage leaves (in which perforation formation and PCD are occurring) as compared to all other leaf developmental stages. AmERS1a and AmERS1c (the most abundant among the three receptors) had the highest transcript levels in mature stage leaves, where PCD is not occurring. Their transcript levels decreased significantly during senescence-associated PCD. AmERS1c had significantly higher transcript levels in NPCD compared to PCD cells. Despite being significantly low in window stage leaves, AmERS1a transcripts were not differentially expressed between PCD and NPCD cells. The results suggested that ethylene receptors negatively regulate ethylene-controlled PCD in the lace plant. A combination of ethylene and receptor levels determines cell fate during perforation formation and leaf senescence. A new model for ethylene emission and receptor expression during lace plant perforation formation and senescence is proposed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • A transcriptomic approach to identify regulatory genes involved in fruit
           set of wild-type and parthenocarpic tomato genotypes
    • Abstract: Abstract The tomato parthenocarpic fruit (pat) mutation associates a strong competence for parthenocarpy with homeotic transformation of anthers and aberrancy of ovules. To dissect this complex floral phenotype, genes involved in the pollination-independent fruit set of the pat mutant were investigated by microarray analysis using wild-type and mutant ovaries. Normalized expression data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and 2499 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) displaying a >1.5 log-fold change in at least one of the pairwise comparisons analyzed were detected. DEGs were categorized into 20 clusters and clusters classified into five groups representing transcripts with similar expression dynamics. The “regulatory function” group (685 DEGs) contained putative negative or positive fruit set regulators, “pollination-dependent” (411 DEGs) included genes activated by pollination, “fruit growth-related” (815 DEGs) genes activated at early fruit growth. The last groups listed genes with different or similar expression pattern at all stages in the two genotypes. qRT-PCR validation of 20 DEGs plus other four selected genes assessed the high reliability of microarray expression data; the average correlation coefficient for the 20 DEGs was 0.90. In all the groups were evidenced relevant transcription factors encoding proteins regulating meristem differentiation and floral organ development, genes involved in metabolism, transport and response of hormones, genes involved in cell division and in primary and secondary metabolism. Among pathways related to secondary metabolites emerged genes related to the synthesis of flavonoids, supporting the recent evidence that these compounds are important at the fruit set phase. Selected genes showing a de-regulated expression pattern in pat were studied in other four parthenocarpic genotypes either genetically anonymous or carrying lesions in known gene sequences. This comparative approach offered novel insights for improving the present molecular understanding of fruit set and parthenocarpy in tomato.
      PubDate: 2015-10-01
  • Transcriptomic changes following synthesis of a Populus full-sib diploid
           and allotriploid population with different heterozygosities driven by
           three types of 2n female gamete
    • Abstract: Abstract Diploid gametes are usually applied to produce triploids of Populus [originating from first-division restitution (FDR), second-division restitution (SDR), and postmeiotic restitution (PMR) 2n eggs]. Three types of 2n gametes transmitted different parental heterozygosities in Populus. Failed spindle formation and no chromosomal separation to opposite poles during meiosis I mean that FDR 2n gametes carry nonsister chromatids that are potentially heterozygous. By contrast, SDR 2n gametes result from failed sister chromatid separation in meiosis II, and therefore, they carry sister chromatid that are potentially homozygous. Completely homozygous 2n gametes can arise from the PMR mechanism. The alteration of gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants. We compared gene expression in the full-sib progeny of three allotriploid Populus populations (triploid-F, triploid-S, and triploid-P) with that in its parent species, and their full-sib diploid F1 hybrid. Genome-wide expression level dominance was biased toward the maternal in the diploid F1 hybrid and three allotriploid populations, whereas our data indicated important, but different, effects of the transmission of different heterozygosity by 2n female gametes in the expression patterns of allopolyploids. Because of the higher level of heterozygosity, the triploids had higher rates of non-additive and transgressive expression patterns in the triploid-F than in triploid-S and triploid-P. Compared with diploid F1, about 30-fold more genes (251) were differently expressed in the triploid-F than in the triploid-S (9) and triploid-P (8), respectively. These findings indicate that hybridization and polyploidization have immediate and distinct effects on the large-scale patterns of gene expression, and different effects on the transmission of heterozygosity by three 2n female gametes.
      PubDate: 2015-09-29
  • Hygromycin B-induced cell death is partly mediated by reactive oxygen
           species in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)
    • Abstract: Abstract The aminoglycoside antibiotic hygromycin B (Hyg) inhibits prokaryotic, chloroplast and mitochondrial protein synthesis. Because of the toxic effect of Hyg on plant cells, the HPT gene, encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase, has become one of the most widely used selectable markers in plant transformation. Yet the mechanism behind Hyg-induced cell lethality in plants is not clearly understood. In this study, we aimed to decipher this mechanism. With Hyg treatment, rice calli exhibited cell death, and rice seedlings showed severe growth defects, leaf chlorosis and leaf shrinkage. Rice seedlings also exhibited severe lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, for oxidative stress damage at the cellular level. The production of reactive oxygen species such as O 2 ·− , H2O2 and OH· was greatly induced in rice seedlings under Hyg stress, and pre-treatment with ascorbate increased resistance to Hyg-induced toxicity indicating the existence of oxidative stress. Overexpression of mitochondrial Alternative oxidase1a gene without HPT selection marker in rice enhanced tolerance to Hyg and attenuated the degradation of protein content, whereas the rice plastidial glutathione reductase 3 mutant showed increased sensitivity to Hyg. These results demonstrate that Hyg-induced cell lethality in rice is not only due to the inhibition of protein synthesis but also mediated by oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2015-09-28
  • Roles of sodium hydrosulfide and sodium nitroprusside as priming molecules
           during drought acclimation in citrus plants
    • Abstract: Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that the gaseous molecules hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) enhances plant acclimation to stress; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we explored if pretreatment of citrus roots with NaHS (a H2S donor) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) for 2 days (d) could elicit long-lasting priming effects to subsequent exposure to PEG-associated drought stress for 21 d following a 5 d acclimation period. Detailed physiological study documented that both pretreatments primed plants against drought stress. Analysis of the level of nitrite, NOx, S-nitrosoglutahione reductase, Tyr-nitration and S-nitrosylation along with the expression of genes involved in NO-generation suggested that the nitrosative status of leaves and roots was altered by NaHS and SNP. Using a proteomic approach we characterized S-nitrosylated proteins in citrus leaves exposed to chemical treatments, including well known and novel S-nitrosylated targets. Mass spectrometry analysis also enabled the identification of 42 differentially expressed proteins in PEG alone-treated plants. Several PEG-responsive proteins were down-regulated, especially photosynthetic proteins. Finally, the identification of specific proteins that were regulated by NaHS and SNP under PEG conditions provides novel insight into long-term drought priming in plants and in a fruit crop such as citrus in particular.
      PubDate: 2015-09-24
  • A genome-scale integrated approach aids in genetic dissection of complex
           flowering time trait in chickpea
    • Abstract: Abstract A combinatorial approach of candidate gene-based association analysis and genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrated with QTL mapping, differential gene expression profiling and molecular haplotyping was deployed in the present study for quantitative dissection of complex flowering time trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association mapping in a flowering time association panel (92 diverse desi and kabuli accessions) was performed by employing the genotyping information of 5724 SNPs discovered from 82 known flowering chickpea gene orthologs of Arabidopsis and legumes as well as 832 gene-encoding transcripts that are differentially expressed during flower development in chickpea. GWAS using both genome-wide GBS- and candidate gene-based genotyping data of 30,129 SNPs in a structured population of 92 sequenced accessions (with 200–250 kb LD decay) detected eight maximum effect genomic SNP loci (genes) associated (34 % combined PVE) with flowering time. Six flowering time-associated major genomic loci harbouring five robust QTLs mapped on a high-resolution intra-specific genetic linkage map were validated (11.6–27.3 % PVE at 5.4–11.7 LOD) further by traditional QTL mapping. The flower-specific expression, including differential up- and down-regulation (>three folds) of eight flowering time-associated genes (including six genes validated by QTL mapping) especially in early flowering than late flowering contrasting chickpea accessions/mapping individuals during flower development was evident. The gene haplotype-based LD mapping discovered diverse novel natural allelic variants and haplotypes in eight genes with high trait association potential (41 % combined PVE) for flowering time differentiation in cultivated and wild chickpea. Taken together, eight potential known/candidate flowering time-regulating genes [efl1 (early flowering 1), FLD (Flowering locus D), GI (GIGANTEA), Myb (Myeloblastosis), SFH3 (SEC14-like 3), bZIP (basic-leucine zipper), bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) and SBP (SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein)], including novel markers, QTLs, alleles and haplotypes delineated by aforesaid genome-wide integrated approach have potential for marker-assisted genetic improvement and unravelling the domestication pattern of flowering time in chickpea.
      PubDate: 2015-09-22
  • Defining multiple, distinct, and shared spatiotemporal patterns of DNA
           replication and endoreduplication from 3D image analysis of developing
           maize ( Zea mays L.) root tip nuclei
    • Abstract: Abstract Spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication have been described for yeast and many types of cultured animal cells, frequently after cell cycle arrest to aid in synchronization. However, patterns of DNA replication in nuclei from plants or naturally developing organs remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report findings from 3D quantitative analysis of DNA replication and endoreduplication in nuclei from pulse-labeled developing maize root tips. In both early and middle S phase nuclei, flow-sorted on the basis of DNA content, replicative labeling was widely distributed across euchromatic regions of the nucleoplasm. We did not observe the perinuclear or perinucleolar replicative labeling patterns characteristic of middle S phase in mammals. Instead, the early versus middle S phase patterns in maize could be distinguished cytologically by correlating two quantitative, continuous variables, replicative labeling and DAPI staining. Early S nuclei exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling preferentially localized to regions with weak DAPI signals. Middle S nuclei also exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling, but the label was preferentially localized to regions with strong DAPI signals. Highly condensed heterochromatin, including knobs, replicated during late S phase as previously reported. Similar spatiotemporal replication patterns were observed for both mitotic and endocycling maize nuclei. These results revealed that maize euchromatin exists as an intermingled mixture of two components distinguished by their condensation state and replication timing. These different patterns might reflect a previously described genome organization pattern, with “gene islands” mostly replicating during early S phase followed by most of the intergenic repetitive regions replicating during middle S phase.
      PubDate: 2015-09-22
  • Ectopic expression of a hot pepper bZIP-like transcription factor in
           potato enhances drought tolerance without decreasing tuber yield
    • Abstract: Abstract Over-expression of group A bZIP transcription factor genes in plants improves abiotic stress tolerance but usually reduces yields. Thus, there have been several efforts to overcome yield penalty in transgenic plants. In this study, we characterized that expression of the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) gene CaBZ1, which encodes a group S bZIP transcription factor, was induced by salt and osmotic stress as well as abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants over-expressing CaBZ1 exhibited reduced rates of water loss and faster stomatal closure than non transgenic potato plants under drought and ABA treatment conditions. CaBZ1 over-expression in transgenic potato increased the expression of ABA- and stress-related genes (such as CYP707A1, CBF and NAC-like genes) and improved drought stress tolerance. Interestingly, over-expression of CaBZ1 in potato did not produce undesirable growth phenotypes in major agricultural traits such as plant height, leaf size and tuber formation under normal growth conditions. The transgenic potato plants also had higher tuber yields than non transgenic potato plants under drought stress conditions. Thus, CaBZ1 may be useful for improving drought tolerance in tuber crops. This might be the first report of the production of transgenic potato with improved tuber yields under drought conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-09-22
  • Prediction of Leymus arenarius (L.) antimicrobial peptides based on de
           novo transcriptome assembly
    • Abstract: Abstract Leymus arenarius is a unique wild growing Poaceae plant exhibiting extreme tolerance to environmental conditions. In this study we for the first time performed whole-transcriptome sequencing of lymegrass seedlings using Illumina platform followed by de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation. Our goal was to identify transcripts encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), one of the key components of plant innate immunity. Using the custom software developed for this study that predicted AMPs and classified them into families, we revealed more than 160 putative AMPs in lymegrass seedlings. We classified them into 7 families based on their cysteine motifs and sequence similarity. The families included defensins, thionins, hevein-like peptides, snakins, cyclotide, alfa-hairpinins and LTPs. This is the first communication about the presence of almost all known AMP families in trascriptomic data of a single plant species. Additionally, cysteine-rich peptides that potentially represent novel families of AMPs were revealed. We have confirmed by RT-PCR validation the presence of 30 transcripts encoding selected AMPs in lymegrass seedlings. In summary, the presented method of pAMP prediction developed by us can be applied for relatively fast and simple screening of novel components of plant immunity system and is well suited for whole-transcriptome or genome analysis of uncharacterized plants.
      PubDate: 2015-09-14
  • Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased
           genes might be legacy of domestication
    • Abstract: Abstract Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.
      PubDate: 2015-09-11
  • Virus tolerance and recovery from viral induced-symptoms in plants are
           associated with transcriptome reprograming
    • Abstract: Abstract Plant recovery from viral infection is characterized by initial severe systemic symptoms which progressively decrease, leading to reduced symptoms or symptomless leaves at the apices. A key feature to plant recovery from invading nucleic acids such as viruses is the degree of the host’s initial basal immunity response. We review current links between RNA silencing, recovery and tolerance, and present a model in which, in addition to regulation of resistance (R) and other defence-related genes by RNA silencing, viral infections incite perturbations of the host physiological state that trigger reprogramming of host responses to by-pass severe symptom development, leading to partial or complete recovery. Recovery, in particular in perennial hosts, may trigger tolerance or virus accommodation. We discuss evidence suggesting that plant viruses can avoid total clearance but persistently replicate at low levels, thereby modulating the host transcriptome response which minimizes fitness cost and triggers recovery from viral-symptoms. In some cases a susceptible host may fail to recover from initial viral systemic symptoms, yet, accommodates the persistent virus throughout the life span, a phenomenon herein referred to as non-recovery accommodation, which differs from tolerance in that there is no distinct recovery phase, and differs from susceptibility in that the host is not killed. Recent advances in plant recovery from virus-induced symptoms involving host transcriptome reprogramming are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10
  • Molecular dissection of a rice microtubule-associated RING finger protein
           and its potential role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract Although a number of RING E3 ligases in plants have been demonstrated to play key roles in a wide range of abiotic stresses, relatively few studies have detailed how RING E3 ligases exert their cellular actions. We describe Oryza sativa RING finger protein with microtubule-targeting domain 1 (OsRMT1), a functional RING E3 ligase that is likely involved in a salt tolerance mechanism. Functional characterization revealed that OsRMT1 undergoes homodimer formation and subsequently autoubiquitination-mediated protein degradation under normal conditions. By contrast, OsRMT1 is predominantly found in the nucleus and microtubules and its degradation is inhibited under salt stress. Domain dissection of OsRMT1 indicates that the N-terminal domain is required for microtubule targeting. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis and degradation assay revealed that OsRMT1-interacted proteins localized in various organelles were degraded via the ubiquitin (Ub)/26S proteasome-dependent pathway. Interestingly, when OsRMT1 and its target proteins were co-expressed in N. benthamiana leaves, the protein–protein interactions appeared to take place mainly in the microtubules. Overexpression of OsRMT1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased tolerance to salt stress. Our findings suggest that the abundance of microtubule-associated OsRMT1 is strictly regulated, and OsRMT1 may play a relevant role in salt stress response by modulating levels of its target proteins.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10
  • Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol
           accumulation in microalgae
    • Abstract: Abstract Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264–269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08
  • CEF1/OsMYB103L is involved in GA-mediated regulation of secondary wall
           biosynthesis in rice
    • Abstract: Abstract Although the main genes in rice involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components have been characterized, the molecular mechanism underlying coordinated regulation of genes expression is not clear. In this study, we reported a new rice variety, cef1, showed the culm easily fragile (CEF) without other concomitant phenotypes. The CEF1 gene encodes a MYB family transcription factor OsMYB103L, was cloned based on map-based approach. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that CEF1 belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily and highly similar to Arabidopsis AtMYB103. Expression pattern analysis indicated that CEF1 is mainly expressed in internodes and panicles. Biochemical assays demonstrated that OsMYB103L is a nuclear protein and shows high transcriptional activation activity at C-terminus. OsMYB103L mediates cellulose biosynthesis and secondary walls formation mainly through directly binding the CESA4, CESA7, CESA9 and BC1 promoters and regulating their expression. OsMYB103L may also function as a master switch to regulate the expression of several downstream TFs, which involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Furthermore, OsMYB103L physically interacts with SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and involved in GA-mediated regulation of cellulose synthesis pathway. Our findings revealed that OsMYB103L plays an important role in GA-regulating secondary cell wall synthesis, and the manipulation of this gene provide a new strategy to help the straw decay in soil.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08
  • SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant
           growth and development in Pisum sativum L.
    • Abstract: Abstract Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.
      PubDate: 2015-09-07
  • G-protein α-subunit (GPA1) regulates stress, nitrate and phosphate
           response, flavonoid biosynthesis, fruit/seed development and substantially
           shares GCR1 regulation in A. thaliana
    • Abstract: Abstract Heterotrimeric G-proteins are implicated in several plant processes, but the mechanisms of signal-response coupling and the roles of G-protein coupled receptors in general and GCR1 in particular, remain poorly understood. We isolated a knock-out mutant of the Arabidopsis G-protein α subunit (gpa1-5) and analysed its transcriptome to understand the genomewide role of GPA1 and compared it with that of our similar analysis of a GCR1 mutant (Chakraborty et al. 2015, PLoS ONE 10(2):e0117819). We found 394 GPA1-regulated genes spanning 79 biological processes, including biotic and abiotic stresses, development, flavonoid biosynthesis, transcription factors, transporters and nitrate/phosphate responses. Many of them are either unknown or unclaimed explicitly in other published gpa1 mutant transcriptome analyses. A comparison of all known GPA1-regulated genes (including the above 394) with 350 GCR1-regulated genes revealed 114 common genes. This can be best explained by GCR1–GPA1 coupling, or by convergence of their independent signaling pathways. Though the common genes in our GPA1 and GCR1 mutant datasets constitute only 26 % of the GPA1-regulated and 30 % of the GCR1-responsive genes, they belong to nearly half of all the processes affected in both the mutants. Thus, GCR1 and GPA1 regulate not only some common genes, but also different genes belonging to the same processes to achieve similar outcomes. Overall, we validate some known and report many hitherto unknown roles of GPA1 in plants, including agronomically important ones such as biotic stress and nutrient response, and also provide compelling genetic evidence to revisit the role of GCR1 in G-protein signalling.
      PubDate: 2015-09-07
  • Functions of OsDof25 in regulation of OsC4PPDK
    • Abstract: Abstract Relative little is known about the functions of the so-called Dof zinc factors in plants. Here we report on the analysis of OsDof25 and show a function in regulation of the important C4 photosynthesis gene, OsC4PPDK in rice. Over-expression of OsDof25 enhanced the expression of OsC4PPDK in transient expression experiments by binding in a specific way to a conserved Dof binding site which was confirmed by yeast and in vitro binding studies. Expression studies using promoter GUS plants as well as qPCR experiments showed that OsDof25 expressed in different tissues including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and that expression of OsDof25 was partially overlapping with the OsC4PPDK gene. Conclusive evidence for a role of OsDof25 in regulation of C4PPDK came from loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments with transgenic rice, which showed that down-regulation or over-expression of OsDof25 correlated with OsC4PPDK expression and that OsDof25 has functions as transcriptional activator.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03
  • Tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic variation in triticale
           (× Triticosecale spp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) regenerants
    • Abstract: Abstract Plant regeneration via in vitro culture can induce genetic and epigenetic variation; however, the extent of such changes in triticale is not yet understood. In the present study, metAFLP, a variation of methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, was used to investigate tissue culture-induced variation in triticale regenerants derived from four distinct genotypes using androgenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The metAFLP technique enabled identification of both sequence and DNA methylation pattern changes in a single experiment. Moreover, it was possible to quantify subtle effects such as sequence variation, demethylation, and de novo methylation, which affected 19, 5.5, 4.5 % of sites, respectively. Comparison of variation in different genotypes and with different in vitro regeneration approaches demonstrated that both the culture technique and genetic background of donor plants affected tissue culture-induced variation. The results showed that the metAFLP approach could be used for quantification of tissue culture-induced variation and provided direct evidence that in vitro plant regeneration could cause genetic and epigenetic variation.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03
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