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Journal Cover Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.842]   [H-I: 121]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Physiological impacts of ABA–JA interactions under water-limitation
    • Abstract: Abstract Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA–JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Auxin response under osmotic stress
    • Abstract: Abstract The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Jasmonates: signal transduction components and their roles in
           environmental stress responses
    • Abstract: Abstract Jasmonates, oxylipin-type plant hormones, are implicated in diverse aspects of plant growth development and interaction with the environment. Following diverse developmental and environmental cues, jasmonate is produced, conjugated to the amino acid isoleucine and perceived by a co-receptor complex composed of the Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) repressor proteins and an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing the F-box CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1). This event triggers the degradation of the JAZ proteins and the release of numerous transcription factors, including MYC2 and its homologues, which are otherwise bound and inhibited by the JAZ repressors. Here, we will review the role of the COI1, JAZ and MYC2 proteins in the interaction of the plant with its environment, illustrating the significance of jasmonate signalling, and of the proteins involved, for responses to both biotic stresses caused by insects and numerous microbial pathogens and abiotic stresses caused by adverse climatic conditions. It has also become evident that crosstalk with other hormone signals, as well as light and clock signals, plays an important role in the control and fine-tuning of these stress responses. Finally, we will discuss how several pathogens exploit the jasmonate perception and early signalling machinery to decoy the plants defence systems.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • The regulatory roles of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in
           plant salt stress responses
    • Abstract: Abstract Soil salinity is one of the most commonly encountered environmental stresses affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies that enable them to adapt to saline growth conditions. For example, it has long been known that salinity-stress increases both the production of the gaseous stress hormone ethylene and the in planta accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding how the fine-tuning of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling transduction can promote salinity tolerance, and how salinity-induced ROS accumulation also acts as a signal in the mediation of salinity tolerance. Furthermore, recent advances have indicated that ethylene signaling modulates salinity responses largely via regulation of ROS-generating and ROS-scavenging mechanisms. This review focuses on these recent advances in understanding the linked roles of ethylene and ROS in salt tolerance.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • CLE peptide signaling and nitrogen interactions in plant root development
    • Abstract: Abstract The CLAVATA signaling pathway is essential for the regulation of meristem activities in plants. This signaling pathway consists of small signaling peptides of the CLE family interacting with CLAVATA1 and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs). The peptide-receptor relationships determine the specificities of CLE-dependent signals controlling stem cell fate and differentiation that are critical for the establishment and maintenance of shoot and root apical meristems. Plants root systems are highly organized into three-dimensional structures for successful anchoring and uptake of water and mineral nutrients from the soil environment. Recent studies have provided evidence that CLE peptides and CLAVATA signaling pathways play pivotal roles in the regulation of lateral root development and systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) integrated with nitrogen (N) signaling mechanisms. Integrations of CLE and N signaling pathways through shoot–root vascular connections suggest that N demand modulates morphological control mechanisms and optimize N uptake as well as symbiotic N fixation in roots.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other
    • Abstract: Abstract Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Hormones and nitrate: a two-way connection
    • Abstract: Abstract During their sessile mode of life, plants need to endure variations in their environment such as a drastic variability in the nutrient concentration in soil solution. It is almost trivial to say that such fluctuations in the soil modify plant growth, development and phase transitions. However, the signaling pathways underlying the connections between nitrogen related signaling and hormonal signaling controlling growth are still poorly documented. This review is meant to present how nitrate/nitrogen controls hormonal pathways. Furthermore, it is very interesting to highlight the increasing evidence that the hormonal signaling pathways themselves seem to feed back control of the nitrate/nitrogen transport and assimilation to adapt nutrition to growth. This thus defines a feed-forward cycle that finely coordinates plant growth and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology
    • Abstract: Abstract The survival and reproduction of plants depend on their ability to cope with a wide range of daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations during their life cycle. Phytohormones are plant growth regulators that are involved in almost every aspect of growth and development as well as plant adaptation to myriad abiotic and biotic conditions. The circadian clock, an endogenous and cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces rhythmic outputs with close to 24-h rhythms, provides an adaptive advantage by synchronizing plant physiological and metabolic processes to the external environment. The circadian clock regulates phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways to generate daily rhythms in hormone activity that fine-tune a range of plant processes, enhancing adaptation to local conditions. This review explores our current understanding of the interplay between the circadian clock and hormone signaling pathways.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • ABA and cytokinins: challenge and opportunity for plant stress research
    • Abstract: Abstract Accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces many cellular mechanisms associated with drought resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid advance in our knowledge of how increased ABA levels are perceived by ABA receptors, particularly the PYL/RCAR receptors, but there has been relatively less new information about how ABA accumulation is controlled and matched to stress severity. ABA synthesis and catabolism, conjugation and deconjugation to glucose, and ABA transport all are involved in controlling ABA levels. This highly buffered system of ABA metabolism represents both a challenge and opportunity in developing a mechanistic understanding of how plants detect and respond to drought. Recent data have also shown that direct manipulation of cytokinin levels in transgenic plants has dramatic effect on drought phenotypes and prompted new interest in the role of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in drought. Both ABA and cytokinins will continue to be major foci of drought research but likely with different trajectories both in terms of basic research and in translational research aimed at increasing plant performance during drought.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Phytohormone pathways as targets of pathogens to facilitate infection
    • Abstract: Abstract Plants are constantly threatened by potential pathogens. In order to optimize the output of defense against pathogens with distinct lifestyles, plants depend on hormonal networks to fine-tune specific responses and regulate growth-defense tradeoffs. To counteract, pathogens have evolved various strategies to disturb hormonal homeostasis and facilitate infection. Many pathogens synthesize plant hormones; more importantly, toxins and effectors are produced to manipulate hormonal crosstalk. Accumulating evidence has shown that pathogens exert extensive effects on plant hormone pathways not only to defeat immunity, but also modify habitat structure, optimize nutrient acquisition, and facilitate pathogen dissemination. In this review, we summarize mechanisms by which a wide array of pathogens gain benefits from manipulating plant hormone pathways.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation
    • Abstract: Abstract Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying
           responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory
    • Abstract: Abstract Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in natural environments. Here, we review our current knowledge on how hormonal signaling regulates abiotic stress responses and defenses against insects, and discuss the few recent studies that attempted to dissect hormonal interactions occurring under simultaneous abiotic stress and herbivory. Based on this we hypothesize that drought stress enhances insect resistance due to synergistic interactions between JA and ABA signaling. Responses to flooding or waterlogging involve ethylene signaling, which likely reduces plant resistance to chewing herbivores due to its negative cross-talk with JA. However, the outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling is often plant and/or insect species-dependent and cannot simply be predicted based on general knowledge on the involvement of signaling pathways in single stress responses. More experimental data on non-model plant and insect species are needed to reveal general patterns and better understand the molecular mechanisms allowing plants to optimize their responses in complex environments.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
  • Novel thidiazuron-derived inhibitors of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase
    • Abstract: Key message Two new TDZ derivatives (HETDZ and 3FMTDZ) are very potent inhibitors of CKX and are promising candidates for in vivo studies. Cytokinin hormones regulate a wide range of essential processes in plants. Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea, TDZ), formerly registered as a cotton defoliant, is a well known inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of cytokinins. TDZ thus increases the lifetime of cytokinins and their effects in plants. We used in silico modeling to design, synthesize and characterize twenty new TDZ derivatives with improved inhibitory properties. Two compounds, namely 1-[1,2,3]thiadiazol-5-yl-3-(3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)urea (3FMTDZ) and 1-[2-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (HETDZ), displayed up to 15-fold lower IC 50 values compared with TDZ for AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and ZmCKX1 and ZmCKX4a from Zea mays. Binding modes of 3FMTDZ and HETDZ were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Crystal structure complexes, solved at 2.0 Å resolution, revealed that HETDZ and 3FMTDZ bound differently in the active site of ZmCKX4a: the thiadiazolyl ring of 3FMTDZ was positioned over the isoalloxazine ring of FAD, whereas that of HETDZ had the opposite orientation, pointing toward the entrance of the active site. The compounds were further tested for cytokinin activity in several cytokinin bioassays. We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2016-07-15
  • A CONSTANS-like transcriptional activator, OsCOL13 , functions as a
           negative regulator of flowering downstream of OsphyB and upstream of Ehd1
           in rice
    • Abstract: Abstract Flowering time determines the adaptability of crop plants to different local environments, thus being one of the most important agronomic traits targeted in breeding programs. Photoperiod is one of the key factors that control flowering in plant. A number of genes that participate in the photoperiod pathway have been characterized in long-day plants such as Arabidopsis, as well as in short-day plants such as Oryza sativa. Of those, CONSTANS (CO) as a floral integrator promotes flowering in Arabidopsis under long day conditions. In rice, Heading date1 (Hd1), a homologue of CO, functions in an opposite way, which inhibits flowering under long day conditions and induces flowering under short day conditions. Here, we show that another CONSTANS-like (COL) gene, OsCOL13, negatively regulates flowering in rice under both long and short day conditions. Overexpression of OsCOL13 delays flowering regardless of day length. We also demonstrated that OsCOL13 has a constitutive and rhythmic expression pattern, and that OsCOL13 is localized to the nucleus. OsCOL13 displays transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assays and likely forms homodimers in vivo. OsCOL13 suppresses the florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1 by repressing Ehd1, but has no relationship with other known Ehd1 regulators as determined by using mutants or near isogenic lines. In addition, the transcriptional level of OsCOL13 significantly decreased in the osphyb mutant, but remained unchanged in the osphya and osphyc mutants. Thus, we conclude that OsCOL13 functions as a negative regulator downstream of OsphyB and upstream of Ehd1 in the photoperiodic flowering in rice.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12
  • The “putative” role of transcription factors from Hl WRKY
           family in the regulation of the final steps of prenylflavonid and bitter
           acids biosynthesis in hop ( Humulus lupulus L.)
    • Abstract: Abstract Lupulin glands localized in female hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones are valuable source of bitter acids, essential oils and polyphenols. These compounds are used in brewing industry and are important for biomedical applications. In this study we describe the potential effect of transcription factors from WRKY family in the activation of the final steps of lupulin biosynthesis. In particular, lupulin gland-specific transcription factor HlWRKY1 that shows significant similarity to AtWRKY75, has ability to activate the set of promoters driving key genes of xanthohumol and bitter acids biosynthesis such as chalcone synthase H1, valerophenone synthase, prenyltransferase 1, 1L and 2 and O-methyltransferase-1. When combined with co-factor HlWDR1 and silencing suppressor p19, HlWRKY1 is able to enhance transient expression of gus gene driven by Omt1 and Chs_H1 promoters to significant level as compared to 35S promoter of CaMV in Nicotiana. benthamiana. Transformation of hop with dual Agrobacterium vector bearing HlWRKY1/HlWDR1 led to ectopic overexpression of these transgenes and further activation of lupulin-specific genes expression in hop leaves. It was further showed that (1) HlWRKY1 is endowed with promoter autoactivation; (2) It is regulated by post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) mechanism; (3) It is stimulated by kinase co-expression. Since HlWRKY1 promotes expression of lupulin-specific HlMyb3 gene therefore it can constitute a significant component in hop lupulin regulation network. Putative involvement of HlWRKY1 in the regulation of lupulin biosynthesis may suggest the original physiological function of lupulin components in hop as flower and seed protective compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
  • Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of CAD isoforms
           specific for podophyllotoxin biosynthesis from Podophyllum hexandrum
    • Abstract: Abstract Podophyllotoxin (ptox) is a therapeutically important lignan derived from Podophyllum hexandrum and is used as a precursor for the synthesis of anticancer drugs etoposide, teniposide and etopophose. In spite of its enormous economic significance, genomic information on this endangered medicinal herb is scarce. We have performed de novo transcriptome analysis of methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated P. hexandrum cell cultures exhibiting enhanced ptox accumulation. The results revealed the maximum up-regulation of several isoforms of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). CAD catalyzes the synthesis of coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol from coniferaldehyde (CAld) and sinapaldehyde respectively. Coniferyl alcohol can produce both lignin and lignan while sinapyl alcohol produces only lignin. To isolate the CAD isoforms favoring ptox, we deduced full length cDNA sequences of four CAD isoforms: PhCAD1, PhCAD2, PhCAD3 and PhCAD4 from the contigs of the transcriptome data. In vitro enzyme assays indicated a higher affinity for CAld over sinapaldehyde for each isoform. In silico molecular docking analyses also suggested that PhCAD3 has a higher binding preference with CAld over sinapaldehyde, followed by PhCAD4, PhCAD2, and PhCAD1, respectively. The transgenic cell cultures overexpressing these isoforms independently revealed that PhCAD3 favored the maximum accumulation of ptox as compared to lignin followed by PhCAD4 and PhCAD2, whereas, PhCAD1 favored both equally. Together, our study reveals transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of ptox specific CAD isoforms from P. hexandrum. It provides a useful resource for future research not only on the ptox biosynthetic pathway but on overall P. hexandrum, an endangered medicinal herb with immense therapeutic importance.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07
  • Elucidating and mining the Tulipa and Lilium transcriptomes
    • Abstract: Abstract Genome sequencing remains a challenge for species with large and complex genomes containing extensive repetitive sequences, of which the bulbous and monocotyledonous plants tulip and lily are examples. In such a case, sequencing of only the active part of the genome, represented by the transcriptome, is a good alternative to obtain information about gene content. In this study we aimed to generate a high quality transcriptome of tulip and lily and to make this data available as an open-access resource via a user-friendly web-based interface. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was applied and the transcribed RNA was sequenced from a collection of different lily and tulip tissues, respectively. In order to obtain good transcriptome coverage and to facilitate effective data mining, assembly was done using different filtering parameters for clearing out contamination and noise of the RNAseq datasets. This analysis revealed limitations of commonly applied methods and parameter settings used in de novo transcriptome assembly. The final created transcriptomes are publicly available via a user friendly Transcriptome browser ( The usefulness of this resource has been exemplified by a search for all potential transcription factors in lily and tulip, with special focus on the TCP transcription factor family. This analysis and other quality parameters point out the quality of the transcriptomes, which can serve as a basis for further genomics studies in lily, tulip, and bulbous plants in general.
      PubDate: 2016-07-07
  • Mutation of Rice Early Flowering3.1 ( OsELF3.1 ) delays leaf senescence in
    • Abstract: Abstract In Arabidopsis, EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) has pivotal roles in controlling circadian rhythm and photoperiodic flowering. In addition, ELF3 negatively regulates leaf senescence by repressing the transcription of PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 (PIF5); elf3 mutants senesce earlier and ELF3-overexpressing (ELF3-OX) plants senesce later than wild type (WT). Here, we show that in contrast to Arabidopsis ELF3, which represses senescence, the rice homolog OsELF3.1 promotes leaf senescence; oself3.1 mutants showed delayed senescence and OsELF3.1-OX plants senesced earlier under both dark-induced and natural senescence conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that in the senescing leaves, a number of senescence-associated genes, phytohormone-related genes, and NAC and WRKY family genes (OsNAP, ONAC106, and OsWRKY42) were differentially expressed in oself3.1 mutants compared with WT. Interestingly, we found that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsELF3.1 show delayed leaf senescence, produce short petioles, and flower late in long days, just like Arabidopsis ELF3-OX plants. This demonstrates that the regulatory functions of ELF3 and OsELF3.1 are conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, but the downstream regulatory cascades have opposite effects.
      PubDate: 2016-07-05
  • Plant hormones in interactions with the environment
    • PubDate: 2016-06-29
  • Comparative analysis of the pteridophyte Adiantum MFT ortholog reveals the
           specificity of combined FT/MFT C and N terminal interaction with FD for
           the regulation of the downstream gene AP1
    • Abstract: Abstract To study the evolution of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene families in non-flowering plants, we performed a functional analysis of the PEBP gene AcMFT of the MFT clade in the pteridophyte Adiantum capillus-veneris. The expression of AcMFT was regulated by photoperiod similar to that for FT under both long day and short day conditions. Ectopic expression of AcMFT in Arabidopsis promotes the floral transition and partially complements the late flowering defect in transgenic Arabidopsis ft-1 mutants, suggesting that AcMFT functions similarly to FT in flowering plants. Interestingly, a similar partial compensation of the ft-1 late flowering phenotype was observed in Arabidopsis ectopically expressing only exon 4 of the C terminus of AcMFT and FT. This result indicated that the fourth exon of AcMFT and FT plays a similar and important role in promoting flowering. Further analysis indicated that exons 1–3 in the N terminus specifically enhanced the function of FT exon 4 in controlling flowering in Arabidopsis. Protein pull-down assays indicated that Arabidopsis FD proteins interact with full-length FT and AcMFT, as well as peptides encoded by 1–3 exon fragments or the 4th exon alone. Furthermore, similar FRET efficiencies for FT-FD and AcMFT-FD heterodimer in nucleus were observed. These results indicated that FD could form the similar complex with FT and AcMFT. Further analysis indicated that the expression of AP1, a gene downstream of FT, was up-regulated more strongly by FT than AcMFT in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results revealed that AcMFT from a non-flowering plant could interact with FD to regulate the floral transition and that this function was reduced due to the weakened ability of AcMFT-FD to activate the downstream gene AP1.
      PubDate: 2016-05-23
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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