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Journal Cover   Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.842]   [H-I: 121]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2299 journals]
  • Genome-wide analysis reveals phytohormone action during cassava storage
           root initiation
    • Abstract: Abstract Development of storage roots is a process associated with a phase change from cell division and elongation to radial growth and accumulation of massive amounts of reserve substances such as starch. Knowledge of the regulation of cassava storage root formation has accumulated over time; however, gene regulation during the initiation and early stage of storage root development is still poorly understood. In this study, transcription profiling of fibrous, intermediate and storage roots at eight weeks old were investigated using a 60-mer-oligo microarray. Transcription and gene expression were found to be the key regulating processes during the transition stage from fibrous to intermediate roots, while homeostasis and signal transduction influenced regulation from intermediate roots to storage roots. Clustering analysis of significant genes and transcription factors (TF) indicated that a number of phytohormone-related TF were differentially expressed; therefore, phytohormone-related genes were assembled into a network of correlative nodes. We propose a model showing the relationship between KNOX1 and phytohormones during storage root initiation. Exogeneous treatment of phytohormones N 6 -benzylaminopurine and 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid were used to induce the storage root initiation stage and to investigate expression patterns of the genes involved in storage root initiation. The results support the hypothesis that phytohormones are acting in concert to regulate the onset of cassava storage root development. Moreover, MeAGL20 is a factor that might play an important role at the onset of storage root initiation when the root tip becomes swollen.
      PubDate: 2015-06-29
       
  • A purple acid phosphatase plays a role in nodule formation and nitrogen
           fixation in Astragalus sinicus
    • Abstract: Abstract The AsPPD1 gene from Astragalus sinicus encodes a purple acid phosphatase. To address the functions of AsPPD1 in legume-rhizobium symbiosis, its expression patterns, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and phenotypes associated with its over-expression and RNA interference (RNAi) were investigated. The expression of AsPPD1 was up-regulated in roots and nodules after inoculation with rhizobia. Phosphate starvation reduced the levels of AsPPD1 transcripts in roots while increased those levels in nodules. We confirmed the acid phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities of recombinant AsPPD1 purified from Pichia pastoris, and demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze ADP and ATP in vitro. Subcellular localization showed that AsPPD1 located on the plasma membranes in hairy roots and on the symbiosomes membranes in root nodules. Over-expression of AsPPD1 in hairy roots inhibited nodulation, while its silencing resulted in nodules early senescence and significantly decreased nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, HPLC measurement showed that AsPPD1 overexpression affects the ADP levels in the infected roots and nodules, AsPPD1 silencing affects the ratio of ATP/ADP and the energy charge in nodules, and quantitative observation demonstrated the changes of AsPPD1 transcripts level affected nodule primordia formation. Taken together, it is speculated that AsPPD1 contributes to symbiotic ADP levels and energy charge control, and this is required for effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
       
  • Membrane targeting of MnSOD is essential for oxidative stress tolerance of
           nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120
    • Abstract: Abstract The nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC7120 encodes for a membrane-targeted 30 kDa Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a cytosolic FeSOD. The MnSOD is post-translationally processed to 27 and 24 kDa forms in the cytosol and periplasm/thylakoid lumen. The extent of cleavage of signal and linker peptides at the N-terminus is dependent on the availability of combined nitrogen during growth. While the 24 and 27 kDa forms are present in near equal proportions under nitrogen-fixing conditions, the 24 kDa form is predominant under nitrogen-supplemented conditions. Individual contribution of these forms of MnSOD to total oxidative stress tolerance was analysed using recombinant Anabaena strains overexpressing either different molecular forms of MnSOD or MnSOD defective in the cleavage of signal/linker peptide. Targeting of MnSOD to the membrane and subsequent cleavage to release both the 24 and 27 kDa forms was essential for oxidative stress tolerance under nitrogen-fixing conditions. On the other hand, the cleavage of linker peptide was absolutely essential and the release of cytosolic 24 kDa form of MnSOD was obligatory for developing oxidative stress tolerance under nitrogen-supplemented conditions. Thus, a single MnSOD caters to the reduction of superoxide radical in both cytosol and thylakoid lumen/periplasm irrespective of the N-status of growth by regulating its cleavage. This is the first report on the physiological advantage of membrane-targeting and processing of MnSOD in either bacteria or plants. The higher oxidative stress tolerance offered by the cytosolic form of MnSOD has possibly resulted in retention of only the cytosolic form in bacterial non-nitrogen-fixers during evolution.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24
       
  • Crucial roles of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein SOAR1 in Arabidopsis
           response to drought, salt and cold stresses
    • Abstract: Abstract Whereas several mitochondrial/chloroplast pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins have been reported to regulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, no nucleus-localized PPR protein has been found to play role in these processes. In the present experiment, we provide evidence that a cytosol-nucleus dual-localized PPR protein SOAR1, functioning to negatively regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seed germination and postgermination growth, is a crucial, positive regulator of plant response to abiotic stresses. Downregulation of SOAR1 expression reduces, but upregulation of SOAR1 expression enhances, ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, and plant tolerance to multiple, major abiotic stresses including drought, high salinity and low temperature. Interestingly and importantly, the SOAR1-overexpression lines display strong abilities to tolerate drought, salt and cold stresses, with surprisingly high resistance to salt stress in germination and postgermination growth of seeds that are able to potentially germinate in seawater, while no negative effect on plant growth and development was observed. So, the SOAR1 gene is likely useful for improvement of crops by transgenic manipulation to enhance crop productivity in stressful conditions. Further experimental data suggest that SOAR1 likely regulates plant stress responses at least partly by integrating ABA-dependent and independent signaling pathways, which is different from the ABI2/ABI1 type 2C protein phosphatase-mediated ABA signaling. These findings help to understand highly complicated stress and ABA signalling network.
      PubDate: 2015-06-21
       
  • Impact of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and
           functions
    • Abstract: Abstract The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and functions are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have impacted rhizosphere microbiome assembly and functions via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a “back to the roots” framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication.
      PubDate: 2015-06-18
       
  • Comparison of gene expression profiles and responses to zinc chloride
           among inter- and intraspecific hybrids with growth abnormalities in wheat
           and its relatives
    • Abstract: Abstract Hybrid necrosis is a well-known reproductive isolation mechanism in plant species, and an autoimmune response is generally considered to trigger hybrid necrosis through epistatic interaction between disease resistance-related genes in hybrids. In common wheat, the complementary Ne1 and Ne2 genes control hybrid necrosis, defined as type I necrosis. Two other types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) have been observed in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. Another type of hybrid necrosis, defined here as type IV necrosis, has been reported in F1 hybrids between Triticum urartu and some accessions of Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides. In types I, III and IV, cell death occurs gradually starting in older tissues, whereas type II necrosis symptoms occur only under low temperature. To compare comprehensive gene expression patterns of hybrids showing growth abnormalities, transcriptome analysis of type I and type IV necrosis was performed using a wheat 38k oligo-DNA microarray. Defense-related genes including many WRKY transcription factor genes were dramatically up-regulated in plants showing type I and type IV necrosis, similarly to other known hybrid abnormalities, suggesting an association with an autoimmune response. Reactive oxygen species generation and necrotic cell death were effectively inhibited by ZnCl2 treatment in types I, III and IV necrosis, suggesting a significant association of Ca2+ influx in upstream signaling of necrotic cell death in wheat hybrid necrosis.
      PubDate: 2015-06-17
       
  • Accurate CpG and non-CpG cytosine methylation analysis by high-throughput
           locus-specific pyrosequencing in plants
    • Abstract: Abstract Pyrosequencing permits accurate quantification of DNA methylation of specific regions where the proportions of the C/T polymorphism induced by sodium bisulfite treatment of DNA reflects the DNA methylation level. The commercially available high-throughput locus-specific pyrosequencing instruments allow for the simultaneous analysis of 96 samples, but restrict the DNA methylation analysis to CpG dinucleotide sites, which can be limiting in many biological systems. In contrast to mammals where DNA methylation occurs nearly exclusively on CpG dinucleotides, plants genomes harbor DNA methylation also in other sequence contexts including CHG and CHH motives, which cannot be evaluated by these pyrosequencing instruments due to software limitations. Here, we present a complete pipeline for accurate CpG and non-CpG cytosine methylation analysis at single base-resolution using high-throughput locus-specific pyrosequencing. The devised approach includes the design and validation of PCR amplification on bisulfite-treated DNA and pyrosequencing assays as well as the quantification of the methylation level at every cytosine from the raw peak intensities of the Pyrograms by two newly developed Visual Basic Applications. Our method presents accurate and reproducible results as exemplified by the cytosine methylation analysis of the promoter regions of two Tomato genes (NOR and CNR) encoding transcription regulators of fruit ripening during different stages of fruit development. Our results confirmed a significant and temporally coordinated loss of DNA methylation on specific cytosines during the early stages of fruit development in both promoters as previously shown by WGBS. The manuscript describes thus the first high-throughput locus-specific DNA methylation analysis in plants using pyrosequencing.
      PubDate: 2015-06-14
       
  • Involvement of genes encoding ABI1 protein phosphatases in the response of
           Brassica napus L. to drought stress
    • Abstract: Abstract In this report we characterized the Arabidopsis ABI1 gene orthologue and Brassica napus gene paralogues encoding protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C, group A), which is known to be a negative regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. Six homologous B. napus sequences were identified and characterized as putative PP2C group A members. To gain insight into the conservation of ABI1 function in Brassicaceae, and understand better its regulatory effects in the drought stress response, we generated transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing A. thaliana ABI1. Transgenic plants subjected to drought showed a decrease in relative water content, photosynthetic pigments content and expression level of RAB18- and RD19A-drought-responsive marker genes relative to WT plants. We present the characterization of the drought response of B. napus with the participation of ABI1-like paralogues. The expression pattern of two evolutionarily distant paralogues, BnaA01.ABI1.a and BnaC07.ABI1.b in B. napus and their promoter activity in A. thaliana showed differences in the induction of the paralogues under dehydration stress. Comparative sequence analysis of both BnaABI1 promoters showed variation in positions of cis-acting elements that are especially important for ABA- and stress-inducible expression. Together, these data reveal that subfunctionalization following gene duplication may be important in the maintenance and functional divergence of the BnaABI1 paralogues. Our results provide a framework for a better understanding of (1) the role of ABI1 as a hub protein regulator of the drought response, and (2) the differential involvement of the duplicated BnaABI1 genes in the response of B. napus to dehydration-related stresses.
      PubDate: 2015-06-10
       
  • Identification of ICE1 as a negative regulator of ABA-dependent pathways
           in seeds and seedlings of Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract Inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) mediates the cold stress signal via an abscisic acid (ABA)-independent pathway. A possible role of ICE1 in ABA-dependent pathways was examined in this study. Seedling growth was severely reduced in a T-DNA insertion mutant of ICE1, ice1-2, when grown on 1/2 MS medium lacking sugars, but was restored to wild-type (WT) levels by supplementation with 56 mM glucose. In addition to this sugar-dependent phenotype, germination and establishment of ice1-2 were more sensitive to high glucose concentrations than in the WT. Hypersensitivity to ABA was also observed in ice1-2, suggesting its sensitivity to glucose might be mediated through the ABA signaling pathway. Glucose and ABA induced much higher expression of two genes related to ABA signal transduction, ABA-INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) and ABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), in ice1-2 than in the WT during establishment. In summary, in addition to its known roles in regulating cold responses, stomatal development, and endosperm breakdown, ICE1 is a negative regulator of ABA-dependent responses.
      PubDate: 2015-06-06
       
  • A single-repeat MYB transcription repressor, MYBH, participates in
           regulation of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Abstract Leaf senescence, the final stage of leaf development, is regulated tightly by endogenous and environmental signals. MYBS3, a MYB transcription factor with a single DNA-binding domain, mediates sugar signaling in rice. Here we report that an Arabidopsis MYBS3 homolog, MYBH, plays a critical role in developmentally regulated and dark-induced leaf senescence by repressing transcription. Expression of MYBH was enhanced in older and dark-treated leaves. Gain- and loss-of-function analysis indicated that MYBH was involved in the onset of leaf senescence. Plants constitutively overexpressing MYBH underwent premature leaf senescence and showed enhanced expression of leaf senescence marker genes. In contrast, the MYBH mutant line, mybh-1, exhibited a delayed-senescence phenotype. The EAR repression domain was required for MYBH-regulated leaf senescence. Overexpression and knockout of MYBH repressed and enhanced auxin-responsive gene expression, respectively. MYBH repressed the auxin-amido synthase genes DFL1/GH3.6 and DFL2/GH3.10, which regulate auxin homoeostasis, by binding directly to the TA box in each of their regulatory regions. An auxin-responsive phenotype was enhanced in MYBH overexpression lines and reduced in mybh knockout lines. Overexpression of MYBH enhanced gene expression of SAUR36, an auxin-promoted leaf senescence key regulator, and accelerated ABA- and ethylene-induced leaf senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that the role of MYBH in controlling auxin homeostasis accounts for its capacity to participate in regulation of age- and darkness-induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Unraveling the functions of type II-prohibitins in Arabidopsis
           mitochondria
    • Abstract: Abstract In yeast and mammals, prohibitins (PHBs) are considered as structural proteins that form a scaffold-like structure for interacting with a set of proteins involved in various processes occurring in the mitochondria. The role of PHB in plant mitochondria is poorly understood. In the study, the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana was used to identify the possible roles of type-II PHBs (homologs of yeast Phb2p) in plant mitochondria. The obtained results suggest that the plant PHB complex participates in the assembly of multisubunit complexes; namely, respiratory complex I and enzymatic complexes carrying lipoic acid as a cofactor (pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and glycine decarboxylase). PHBs physically interact with subunits of these complexes. Knockout of two Arabidopsis type-II prohibitins (AtPHB2 and AtPHB6) results in a decreased abundance of these complexes along with a reduction in mitochondrial acyl carrier proteins. Also, the absence of AtPHB2 and AtPHB6 influences the expression of the mitochondrial genome and leads to the activation of alternative respiratory pathways, namely alternative oxidase and external NADH-dependent alternative dehydrogenases.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Identification of genes involved in biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides
           in Dendrobium officinale by RNA-seq analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The stems of D. officinale contain mannan polysaccharides, which are promising bioactive polysaccharides for use as drugs. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides in D. officinale have not yet been identified. In this study, four digital gene expression profiling analyses were performed on developing stems of greenhouse-grown D. officinale to identify such genes. Based on the accumulation of mannose and on gene expression levels, eight CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A genes (CSLA), which are highly likely to be related to the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides, were identified from the differentially expressed genes database. In order to further analyze these DoCSLA genes, a full-length cDNA of each was obtained by RACE. The eight genes, belonging to the CSLA family of the CesA superfamily, contain conserved domains of the CesA superfamily. Most of the genes, which were highly expressed in the stems of D. officinale, were related to abiotic stress. Our results suggest that the CSLA family genes from D. officinale are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three
           RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus , Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato
           virus X
    • Abstract: Abstract The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • A cis -regulatory module activating transcription in the suspensor
           contains five cis -regulatory elements
    • Abstract: Abstract Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo proper and suspensor of plant embryos activate specific gene sets shortly after fertilization. We analyzed the upstream region of the Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus) G564 gene in order to understand how genes are activated specifically in the suspensor during early embryo development. Previously, we showed that a 54-bp fragment of the G564 upstream region is sufficient for suspensor transcription and contains at least three required cis-regulatory sequences, including the 10-bp motif (5′-GAAAAGCGAA-3′), the 10 bp-like motif (5′-GAAAAACGAA-3′), and Region 2 motif (partial sequence 5′-TTGGT-3′). Here, we use site-directed mutagenesis experiments in transgenic tobacco globular-stage embryos to identify two additional cis-regulatory elements within the 54-bp cis-regulatory module that are required for G564 suspensor transcription: the Fifth motif (5′-GAGTTA-3′) and a third 10-bp-related sequence (5′-GAAAACCACA-3′). Further deletion of the 54-bp fragment revealed that a 47-bp fragment containing the five motifs (the 10-bp, 10-bp-like, 10-bp-related, Region 2 and Fifth motifs) is sufficient for suspensor transcription, and represents a cis-regulatory module. A consensus sequence for each type of motif was determined by comparing motif sequences shown to activate suspensor transcription. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved. A homologous cis-regulatory module was found upstream of the G564 ortholog in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), indicating that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved in closely related bean species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
       
  • Characterization of the psbH precursor RNAs reveals a precise
           endoribonuclease cleavage site in the psbT/psbH intergenic region that is
           dependent on psbN gene expression
    • Abstract: Abstract The plastid psbB operon harbours 5 genes, psbB, psbT, psbH, petB and petD. A sixth gene, the psbN gene, is located on the opposite DNA strand in the psbT/psbH intergenic region. Its transcription produces antisense RNA to a large part of the psbB pentacistronic mRNA. We have investigated whether transcription of the psbN gene, i.e. production of antisense RNA, influences psbT/psbH intergenic processing. Results reveal the existence of four different psbH precursor RNAs. Three of them result from processing and one is produced by transcription initiation. One of the processed RNAs is probably created by site-specific RNA cleavage. This RNA is absent in plants where the psbN gene is not transcribed suggesting that cleavage at this site is dependent on the formation of sense/antisense double-stranded RNA. In order to characterize the nuclease that might be responsible for double-stranded RNA cleavage, we analysed csp41a and csp41b knock-out mutants and the corresponding double mutant. Both CSP41 proteins are known to interact physically and CSP41a had been shown to cleave within 3′-untranslated region stem-loop structures, which contain double-stranded RNA, in vitro. We demonstrate that the psbH RNA, that is absent in plants where the psbN gene is not transcribed, is also strongly diminished in all csp41 plants. Altogether, results reveal a site-specific endoribonuclease cleavage event that seems to depend on antisense RNA and might implicate endoribonuclease activity of CSP41a.
      PubDate: 2015-05-27
       
  • Overexpression of ZmMAPK1 enhances drought and heat stress in transgenic
           Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Abstract: Abstract Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades play a crucial role in the response to extracellular stimuli in eukaryotes. A number of MAPK family genes have been isolated in plants, but the maize MAPK genes have been little studied. Here, we studied the role of maize MAP kinase 1 (ZmMAPK1) using gene expression, protein subcellular localization, transformation in Arabidopsis, expression patterns of the stress-responsive genes and physiological parameter analysis. Our physiological parameter analysis suggested that over-expression ZmMAPK1 can increase proline content and decrease malondialdehyde content under drought, and prevent chlorophyll loss and the production of scavenger reactive oxygen species under heat stress. The resistance characteristics of the over-expression of ZmMAPK1 were associated with a significant increase in survival rate. These results suggest that ZmMAPK1 plays a positive role in response to drought and heat stress in Arabidopsis, and provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of MAPK in response to abiotic stress in plants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-26
       
  • Erratum to: The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13)
           reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different
           chemotypes of Artemisia annua L.
    • PubDate: 2015-05-22
       
  • Arabidopsis abscisic acid receptors play an important role in disease
           resistance
    • Abstract: Abstract Stomata are natural pores of plants and constitute the entry points for water during transpiration. However, they also facilitate the ingress of potentially harmful bacterial pathogens. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in protecting plants against biotic stress, by regulating stomatal closure. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism whereby ABA influences plant defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, which is a virulent bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis, at the pre-invasive stage. We found that overexpression of two ABA receptors, namely, RCAR4/PYL10-OX and RCAR5/PYL11-OX (hereafter referred to as RCARs), resulted in ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes being exhibited during the seed germination and seedling growth stages. Sensitivity to ABA enhanced the resistance of RCAR4-OX and RCAR5-OX plants to Pst DC3000, through promoting stomatal closure leading to the development of resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Protein phosphatase HAB1 is an important component that is responsible for ABA signaling and which interacts with ABA receptors. We found that hab1 mutants exhibited enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000; moreover, similar to RCAR4-OX and RCAR5-OX plants, this enhanced resistance was correlated with stomatal closure. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that alteration of RCAR4- or RCAR5-HAB1 mediated ABA signaling influences resistance to bacterial pathogens via stomatal regulation.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
       
  • A hydrophobic proline-rich motif is involved in the intracellular
           targeting of temperature-induced lipocalin
    • Abstract: Abstract Temperature-induced lipocalins (TILs) play an essential role in the response of plants to different abiotic stresses. In agreement with their proposed role in protecting membrane lipids, TILs have been reported to be associated to cell membranes. However, TILs show an overall hydrophilic character and do not contain any signal for membrane targeting nor hydrophobic sequences that could represent transmembrane domains. Arabidopsis TIL (AtTIL) is considered the ortholog of human ApoD, a protein known to associate to membranes through a short hydrophobic loop protruding from strands 5 and 6 of the lipocalin β-barrel. An equivalent loop (referred to as HPR motif) is also present between β-strands 5 and 6 of TILs. The HPR motif, which is highly conserved among TIL proteins, extends over as short stretch of eight amino acids and contains four invariant proline residues. Subcellular localization studies have shown that TILs are targeted to a variety of cell membranes and organelles. We have also found that the HPR motif is necessary and sufficient for the intracellular targeting of TILs. Modeling studies suggest that the HPR motif may directly anchor TILs to cell membranes, favoring in this way further contact with the polar group of membrane lipids. However, some particular features of the HPR motif open the possibility that targeting of TILs to cell membranes could be mediated by interaction with other proteins. The functional analysis of the HPR motif unveils the existence of novel mechanisms involved in the intracellular targeting of proteins in plants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-10
       
  • CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt
           mediated flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Abstract: Abstract Cyclin-dependent protein kinases are involved in many crucial cellular processes and aspects of plant growth and development, but their precise roles in abiotic stress responses are largely unknown. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 (CDKG2) was shown to act as a negative regulator of the salinity stress response, as well as being involved in the control of flowering time. GUS expression experiments based on a pCDKG2::GUS transgene suggested that CDKG2 was expressed throughout plant development, with especially high expression levels recorded in the seed and in the flower. The loss-of-function of CDKG2 led to an increased tolerance of salinity stress and the up-regulation of the known stress-responsive genes SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, NHX3, RD29B, ABI2, ABI3, MYB15 and P5CS1. Flowering was accelerated in the cdkg2 mutants via the repression of FLC and the consequent up-regulation of FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Transgenic lines constitutively expressing CDKG2 showed greater sensitivity to salinity stress and were delayed in flowering. Furthermore, the CDKG2 genotype affected the response of flowering time to salinity stress. Our data connect CDKG2 to undescribed functions related to salt stress tolerance and flowering time through the regulation of specific target genes.
      PubDate: 2015-05-07
       
 
 
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