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Journal Cover   Plant Molecular Biology
  [SJR: 1.842]   [H-I: 121]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-5028 - ISSN (Online) 0167-4412
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • A single-repeat MYB transcription repressor, MYBH, participates in
           regulation of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Leaf senescence, the final stage of leaf development, is regulated tightly by endogenous and environmental signals. MYBS3, a MYB transcription factor with a single DNA-binding domain, mediates sugar signaling in rice. Here we report that an Arabidopsis MYBS3 homolog, MYBH, plays a critical role in developmentally regulated and dark-induced leaf senescence by repressing transcription. Expression of MYBH was enhanced in older and dark-treated leaves. Gain- and loss-of-function analysis indicated that MYBH was involved in the onset of leaf senescence. Plants constitutively overexpressing MYBH underwent premature leaf senescence and showed enhanced expression of leaf senescence marker genes. In contrast, the MYBH mutant line, mybh-1, exhibited a delayed-senescence phenotype. The EAR repression domain was required for MYBH-regulated leaf senescence. Overexpression and knockout of MYBH repressed and enhanced auxin-responsive gene expression, respectively. MYBH repressed the auxin-amido synthase genes DFL1/GH3.6 and DFL2/GH3.10, which regulate auxin homoeostasis, by binding directly to the TA box in each of their regulatory regions. An auxin-responsive phenotype was enhanced in MYBH overexpression lines and reduced in mybh knockout lines. Overexpression of MYBH enhanced gene expression of SAUR36, an auxin-promoted leaf senescence key regulator, and accelerated ABA- and ethylene-induced leaf senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that the role of MYBH in controlling auxin homeostasis accounts for its capacity to participate in regulation of age- and darkness-induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Unraveling the functions of type II-prohibitins in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: In yeast and mammals, prohibitins (PHBs) are considered as structural proteins that form a scaffold-like structure for interacting with a set of proteins involved in various processes occurring in the mitochondria. The role of PHB in plant mitochondria is poorly understood. In the study, the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana was used to identify the possible roles of type-II PHBs (homologs of yeast Phb2p) in plant mitochondria. The obtained results suggest that the plant PHB complex participates in the assembly of multisubunit complexes; namely, respiratory complex I and enzymatic complexes carrying lipoic acid as a cofactor (pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and glycine decarboxylase). PHBs physically interact with subunits of these complexes. Knockout of two Arabidopsis type-II prohibitins (AtPHB2 and AtPHB6) results in a decreased abundance of these complexes along with a reduction in mitochondrial acyl carrier proteins. Also, the absence of AtPHB2 and AtPHB6 influences the expression of the mitochondrial genome and leads to the activation of alternative respiratory pathways, namely alternative oxidase and external NADH-dependent alternative dehydrogenases.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Identification of genes involved in biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides
           in Dendrobium officinale by RNA-seq analysis
    • Abstract: Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The stems of D. officinale contain mannan polysaccharides, which are promising bioactive polysaccharides for use as drugs. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of mannan polysaccharides in D. officinale have not yet been identified. In this study, four digital gene expression profiling analyses were performed on developing stems of greenhouse-grown D. officinale to identify such genes. Based on the accumulation of mannose and on gene expression levels, eight CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE A genes (CSLA), which are highly likely to be related to the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides, were identified from the differentially expressed genes database. In order to further analyze these DoCSLA genes, a full-length cDNA of each was obtained by RACE. The eight genes, belonging to the CSLA family of the CesA superfamily, contain conserved domains of the CesA superfamily. Most of the genes, which were highly expressed in the stems of D. officinale, were related to abiotic stress. Our results suggest that the CSLA family genes from D. officinale are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive mannan polysaccharides.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three
           RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus , Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato
           virus X
    • Abstract: The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • A cis -regulatory module activating transcription in the suspensor
           contains five cis -regulatory elements
    • Abstract: Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo proper and suspensor of plant embryos activate specific gene sets shortly after fertilization. We analyzed the upstream region of the Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus) G564 gene in order to understand how genes are activated specifically in the suspensor during early embryo development. Previously, we showed that a 54-bp fragment of the G564 upstream region is sufficient for suspensor transcription and contains at least three required cis-regulatory sequences, including the 10-bp motif (5′-GAAAAGCGAA-3′), the 10 bp-like motif (5′-GAAAAACGAA-3′), and Region 2 motif (partial sequence 5′-TTGGT-3′). Here, we use site-directed mutagenesis experiments in transgenic tobacco globular-stage embryos to identify two additional cis-regulatory elements within the 54-bp cis-regulatory module that are required for G564 suspensor transcription: the Fifth motif (5′-GAGTTA-3′) and a third 10-bp-related sequence (5′-GAAAACCACA-3′). Further deletion of the 54-bp fragment revealed that a 47-bp fragment containing the five motifs (the 10-bp, 10-bp-like, 10-bp-related, Region 2 and Fifth motifs) is sufficient for suspensor transcription, and represents a cis-regulatory module. A consensus sequence for each type of motif was determined by comparing motif sequences shown to activate suspensor transcription. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved. A homologous cis-regulatory module was found upstream of the G564 ortholog in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), indicating that the regulation of G564 is evolutionarily conserved in closely related bean species.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01
  • Erratum to: The activity of the artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13)
           reductase promoter is important for artemisinin yield in different
           chemotypes of Artemisia annua L.
    • PubDate: 2015-05-22
  • Dual functions of GmTOE4a in the regulation of photoperiod-mediated
           flowering and plant morphology in soybean
    • Abstract: Flowering time, maturity, and plant morphology have considerable effects on the adaptation and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max). The identification of novel genes and an understanding of their molecular basis are critical to improve soybean productivity. In this study, we cloned a flowering time related APETALA2-like gene GmTOE4a and generated GmTOE4a-overexpressing lines in the cultivar Williams 82. The transgenic lines exhibited late flowering both under long day and short day conditions, and repressed the flowering-related genes, including GmFT2a, GmFT5a, GmAP1, and GmLFY, whereas the flowering repressors GmFT4 and miR156 were upregulated. Interestingly, GmTOE4a was also mediated by photoperiod via maturity genes E3 and E4, which encode photoreceptors in soybean. Further, miR172-mediated GmTOE4a, which regulates flowering in soybean, is different in Arabidopsis in that it is dependent on the CONSTANS-like gene GmCOL1a. In addition to its effect on flowering time, GmTOE4a regulated plant morphology, increased stem thickness, and reduced plant height, internode length and leaf size, which are important agronomic traits that enhance the capacity to resist lodging and increase soybean yield. This is useful information to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering time and plant morphology in soybean and will greatly influence soybean yield improvement.
      PubDate: 2015-05-20
  • Functional architecture of two exclusively late stage pollen-specific
           promoters in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)
    • Abstract: Late stage pollen-specific promoters are important tools in crop molecular breeding. Several such promoters, and their functional motifs, have been well characterized in dicotyledonous plants such as tomato and tobacco. However, knowledge about the functional architecture of such promoters is limited in the monocotyledonous plant rice. Here, pollen-late-stage-promoter 1 (PLP1) and pollen-late-stage-promoter 2 (PLP2) were characterized using a stable transformation system in rice. Histochemical staining showed that the two promoters exclusively drive GUS expression in late-stage pollen grains in rice. 5′ deletion analysis revealed that four regions, including the −1159 to −720 and the −352 to −156 regions of PLP1 and the −740 to −557 and the −557 to −339 regions of PLP2, are important in maintaining the activity and specificity of these promoters. Motif mutation analysis indicated that ‘AGAAA’ and ‘CAAT’ motifs in the −740 to −557 region of PLP2 act as enhancers in the promoter. Gain of function experiments indicated that the novel TA-rich motif ‘TACATAA’ and ‘TATTCAT’ in the core region of the PLP1 and PLP2 promoters is necessary, but not sufficient, for pollen-specific expression in rice. Our results provide evidence that the enhancer motif ‘AGAAA’ is conserved in the pollen-specific promoters of both monocots and eudicots, but that some functional architecture characteristics are different.
      PubDate: 2015-05-20
  • Arabidopsis abscisic acid receptors play an important role in disease
    • Abstract: Stomata are natural pores of plants and constitute the entry points for water during transpiration. However, they also facilitate the ingress of potentially harmful bacterial pathogens. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in protecting plants against biotic stress, by regulating stomatal closure. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism whereby ABA influences plant defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000, which is a virulent bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis, at the pre-invasive stage. We found that overexpression of two ABA receptors, namely, RCAR4/PYL10-OX and RCAR5/PYL11-OX (hereafter referred to as RCARs), resulted in ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes being exhibited during the seed germination and seedling growth stages. Sensitivity to ABA enhanced the resistance of RCAR4-OX and RCAR5-OX plants to Pst DC3000, through promoting stomatal closure leading to the development of resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Protein phosphatase HAB1 is an important component that is responsible for ABA signaling and which interacts with ABA receptors. We found that hab1 mutants exhibited enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000; moreover, similar to RCAR4-OX and RCAR5-OX plants, this enhanced resistance was correlated with stomatal closure. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that alteration of RCAR4- or RCAR5-HAB1 mediated ABA signaling influences resistance to bacterial pathogens via stomatal regulation.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
  • A hydrophobic proline-rich motif is involved in the intracellular
           targeting of temperature-induced lipocalin
    • Abstract: Temperature-induced lipocalins (TILs) play an essential role in the response of plants to different abiotic stresses. In agreement with their proposed role in protecting membrane lipids, TILs have been reported to be associated to cell membranes. However, TILs show an overall hydrophilic character and do not contain any signal for membrane targeting nor hydrophobic sequences that could represent transmembrane domains. Arabidopsis TIL (AtTIL) is considered the ortholog of human ApoD, a protein known to associate to membranes through a short hydrophobic loop protruding from strands 5 and 6 of the lipocalin β-barrel. An equivalent loop (referred to as HPR motif) is also present between β-strands 5 and 6 of TILs. The HPR motif, which is highly conserved among TIL proteins, extends over as short stretch of eight amino acids and contains four invariant proline residues. Subcellular localization studies have shown that TILs are targeted to a variety of cell membranes and organelles. We have also found that the HPR motif is necessary and sufficient for the intracellular targeting of TILs. Modeling studies suggest that the HPR motif may directly anchor TILs to cell membranes, favoring in this way further contact with the polar group of membrane lipids. However, some particular features of the HPR motif open the possibility that targeting of TILs to cell membranes could be mediated by interaction with other proteins. The functional analysis of the HPR motif unveils the existence of novel mechanisms involved in the intracellular targeting of proteins in plants.
      PubDate: 2015-05-10
  • The rice transcription factor OsWRKY47 is a positive regulator of the
           response to water deficit stress
    • Abstract: OsWRKY47 is a divergent rice transcription factor belonging to the group II of the WRKY family. A transcriptomic analysis of the drought response of transgenic rice plants expressing P SARK ::IPT, validated by qPCR, indicated that OsWRKY47 expression was induced under drought stress in P SARK ::IPT plants. A PCR-assisted site selection assay (SELEX) of recombinant OsWRKY47 protein showed that the preferred sequence bound in vitro is (G/T)TTGACT. Bioinformatics analyses identified a number of gene targets of OsWRKY47; among these two genes encode a Calmodulin binding protein and a Cys-rich secretory protein. Using Oswrk47 knockout mutants and transgenic rice overexpressing OsWRKY47 we show that the transcription of these putative targets were regulated by OsWRKY47. Phenotypic analysis carried out with transgenic rice plants showed that Oswrky47 mutants displayed higher sensitivity to drought and reduced yield, while plants overexpressing OsWRKY47 were more tolerant.
      PubDate: 2015-05-09
  • CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt
           mediated flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Abstract: Cyclin-dependent protein kinases are involved in many crucial cellular processes and aspects of plant growth and development, but their precise roles in abiotic stress responses are largely unknown. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 (CDKG2) was shown to act as a negative regulator of the salinity stress response, as well as being involved in the control of flowering time. GUS expression experiments based on a pCDKG2::GUS transgene suggested that CDKG2 was expressed throughout plant development, with especially high expression levels recorded in the seed and in the flower. The loss-of-function of CDKG2 led to an increased tolerance of salinity stress and the up-regulation of the known stress-responsive genes SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, NHX3, RD29B, ABI2, ABI3, MYB15 and P5CS1. Flowering was accelerated in the cdkg2 mutants via the repression of FLC and the consequent up-regulation of FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Transgenic lines constitutively expressing CDKG2 showed greater sensitivity to salinity stress and were delayed in flowering. Furthermore, the CDKG2 genotype affected the response of flowering time to salinity stress. Our data connect CDKG2 to undescribed functions related to salt stress tolerance and flowering time through the regulation of specific target genes.
      PubDate: 2015-05-07
  • DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 is involved in m CG and m CCG DNA methylation and
           is essential for sporophyte development in Physcomitrella patens
    • Abstract: DNA methylation has a crucial role in plant development regulating gene expression and silencing of transposable elements. Maintenance DNA methylation in plants occurs at symmetrical mCG and mCHG contexts (m = methylated) and is maintained by DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) and CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) DNA methyltransferase protein families, respectively. While angiosperm genomes encode for several members of MET1 and CMT families, the moss Physcomitrella patens, serving as a model for early divergent land plants, carries a single member of each family. To determine the function of P. patens PpMET we generated ΔPpmet deletion mutant which lost mCG and unexpectedly mCCG methylation at loci tested. In order to evaluate the extent of mCCG methylation by MET1, we reexamined the Arabidopsis thaliana Atmet1 mutant methylome and found a similar pattern of methylation loss, suggesting that maintenance of DNA methylation by MET1 is conserved through land plant evolution. While ΔPpmet displayed no phenotypic alterations during its gametophytic phase, it failed to develop sporophytes, indicating that PpMET plays a role in gametogenesis or early sporophyte development. Expression array analysis revealed that the deletion of PpMET resulted in upregulation of two genes and multiple repetitive sequences. In parallel, expression analysis of the previously reported ΔPpcmt mutant showed that lack of PpCMT triggers overexpression of genes. This overexpression combined with loss of mCHG and its pleiotropic phenotype, implies that PpCMT has an essential evolutionary conserved role in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Collectively, our results suggest functional conservation of MET1 and CMT families during land plant evolution. A model describing the relationship between MET1 and CMT in CCG methylation is presented.
      PubDate: 2015-05-06
  • Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin
           gene ( MusaPIP2;6 ) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role
           in salt tolerance
    • Abstract: High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • Multiple internal sorting determinants can contribute to the trafficking
           of cruciferin to protein storage vacuoles
    • Abstract: Trafficking of seed storage proteins to protein storage vacuoles is mediated by carboxy terminal and internal sorting determinants (ISDs). Protein modelling was used to identify candidate ISDs residing near surface-exposed regions in Arabidopsis thaliana cruciferin A (AtCruA). These were verified by AtCruA fusion to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and expression in developing embryos of A. thaliana. As the presence of endogenous cruciferin was found to mask the effects of weaker ISDs, experiments were conducted in a line that was devoid of cruciferin. In total, nine ISDs were discovered and a core determinant defined using a series of alanine scanning and deletion mutant variants. Coupling of functional data from AtCruA ISD-YFP fusions with statistical analysis of the physiochemical properties of analogous regions from several 11/12S globulins revealed that cruciferin ISDs likely adhere to the following rules: (1) ISDs are adjacent to or within hydrophilic, surface-exposed regions that serve to present them on the protein’s surface; (2) ISDs generally have a hydrophobic character; (3) ISDs tend to have Leu or Ile residues at their core; (4) ISDs are approximately eight amino acids long with the physiochemical consensus [hydrophobic][preferably charged][small or hydrophobic, but not tiny][IL][polar, preferably charged][small, but not charged][hydrophobic, not charged, preferably not polar][hydrophobic, not tiny, preferably not polar]. Microscopic evidence is also presented for the presence of an interconnected protein storage vacuolar network in embryo cells, rather than discreet, individual vacuoles.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01
  • The cytosolic branched-chain aminotransferases of Arabidopsis thaliana
           influence methionine supply, salvage and glucosinolate metabolism
    • Abstract: Arabidopsis thaliana possesses six branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT1–6). Previous studies revealed that some members of this protein family are involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids and/or in the Met chain elongation pathway, the initial steps towards the biosynthesis of Met-derived glucosinolates. We now analyzed branched-chain aminotransferase 6 (BCAT6). In vivo GFP-tagging experiments strongly suggest this enzyme to be localized to the cytosol. Substrate specificity assays performed with recombinant enzyme revealed that BCAT6 transaminates Val, Leu and Ile as well as the corresponding 2-oxo acids but also transaminates Met and its cognate ketoacid 4-methyl-2-oxobutanoate. We established single (bcat6-1), double (bcat4-2/bcat6-1) and triple (bcat3-1/bcat4-2/bcat6-1) mutants involving BCAT6 with the latter exhibiting a clear macroscopic phenotype with smaller plants and abnormal leaf morphology. Metabolite profiling of these mutants demonstrated that BCAT6 can contribute to Met chain elongation with the triple mutant line lacking BCAT3, 4 and 6 showing a dramatic reduction of Met-derived glucosinolate species down to 32 and 14 % of wild-type levels in plant foliage and seeds, respectively. This drop in glucosinolate levels is accompanied by a 46-fold increase of free Met, demonstrating the important role of the three branched-chain aminotransferases in converting Met to its 2-oxo acid for glucosinolate chain elongation. In addition, we determined the relative amounts of 5′-deoxy-5′-methylthioadenosine, an intermediate of the Met recycling pathway. This metabolite accumulated to relative high amounts in the absence of the cytosolic BCAT4 and BCAT6, suggesting that cytosolic Met salvage also contributes to the biosynthesis of glucosinolates.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08
  • Association analysis of genes involved in maize ( Zea mays L.) root
           development with seedling and agronomic traits under contrasting nitrogen
    • Abstract: A better understanding of the genetic control of root development might allow one to develop lines with root systems with the potential to adapt to soils with limited nutrient availability. For this purpose, an association study (AS) panel consisting of 74 diverse set of inbred maize lines were screened for seedling root traits and adult plant root traits under two contrasting nitrogen (N) levels (low and high N). Allele re-sequencing of RTCL, RTH3, RUM1, and RUL1 genes related to root development was carried out for AS panel lines. Association analysis was carried out between individual polymorphisms, and both seedling and adult plant traits, while controlling for spurious associations due to population structure and kinship relations. Based on the SNPs identified in RTCL, RTH3, RUM1, and RUL1, lines within the AS panel were grouped into 16, 9, 22, and 7 haplotypes, respectively. Association analysis revealed several polymorphisms within root genes putatively associated with the variability in seedling root and adult plant traits development under contrasting N levels. The highest number of significantly associated SNPs with seedling root traits were found in RTCL (19 SNPs) followed by RUM1 (4 SNPs) and in case of RTH3 and RUL1, two and three SNPs, respectively, were significantly associated with root traits. RTCL and RTH3 were also found to be associated with grain yield. Thus considerable allelic diversity is present within the candidate genes studied and can be utilized to develop functional markers that allow identification of maize lines with improved root architecture and yield under N stress conditions.
      PubDate: 2015-04-04
  • Overexpression of the carbohydrate binding module of strawberry expansin2
           in Arabidopsis thaliana modifies plant growth and cell wall metabolism
    • Abstract: Several cell wall enzymes are carbohydrate active enzymes that contain a putative Carbohydrate Binding Module (CBM) in their structures. The main function of these non-catalitic modules is to facilitate the interaction between the enzyme and its substrate. Expansins are non-hydrolytic proteins present in the cell wall, and their structure includes a CBM in the C-terminal that bind to cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins. We studied the ability of the Expansin2 CBM (CBMFaEXP2) from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) to modify the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants overexpressing CBMFaEXP2 were characterized phenotypically and biochemically. Transgenic plants were taller than wild type, possibly owing to a faster growth of the main stem. Cell walls of CBMFaEXP2-expressing plants were thicker and contained higher amount of pectins. Lower activity of a set of enzymes involved in cell wall degradation (PG, β-Gal, β-Xyl) was found, and the expression of the corresponding genes (AtPG, Atβ-Gal, Atβ-Xyl5) was reduced also. In addition, a decrease in the expression of two A. thaliana Expansin genes (AtEXP5 and AtEXP8) was observed. Transgenic plants were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea infection than wild type, possibly as a consequence of higher cell wall integrity. Our results support the hypothesis that the overexpression of a putative CBM is able to modify plant cell wall structure leading to modulation of wall loosening and plant growth. These findings might offer a tool to controlling physiological processes where cell wall disassembly is relevant, such as fruit softening.
      PubDate: 2015-04-03
  • Dr. Leon S. Dure, III (1931–2014)
    • PubDate: 2015-04-01
  • Genetic and epigenetic modifications to the BBAA component of common wheat
           during its evolutionary history at the hexaploid level
    • Abstract: The formation and evolution of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) involves allopolyploidization events at two ploidy levels. Whether the two ploidy levels (tetraploidy and hexaploidy) have impacted the BBAA subgenomes differentially remains largely unknown. We have reported recently that extensive and distinct modifications of transcriptome expression occurred to the BBAA component of common wheat relative to the evolution of gene expression at the tetraploid level in Triticum turgidum. As a step further, here we analyzed the genetic and cytosine DNA methylation differences between an extracted tetraploid wheat (ETW) harboring genome BBAA that is highly similar to the BBAA subgenomes of common wheat, and a set of diverse T. turgidum collections, including both wild and cultivated genotypes. We found that while ETW had no significantly altered karyotype from T. turgidum, it diverged substantially from the later at both the nucleotide sequence level and in DNA methylation based on molecular marker assay of randomly sampled loci across the genome. In particular, ETW is globally less cytosine-methylated than T. turgidum, consistent with earlier observations of a generally higher transcriptome expression level in ETW than in T. turgidum. Together, our results suggest that genome evolution at the allohexaploid level has caused extensive genetic and DNA methylation modifications to the BBAA subgenomes of common wheat, which are distinctive from those accumulated at the tetraploid level in both wild and cultivated T. turgidum genotypes.
      PubDate: 2015-03-26
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