for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

We no longer collect new content from this publisher because the publisher has forbidden systematic access to its RSS feeds.
Journal Cover Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 81]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate increases hatching weight, growth
           performance, and muscle growth but has no effect on meat quality in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: M.M. Zhao; D.Q. Gong; T. Gao; L. Zhang; J.L. Li; P.A. Lv; L.L. Yu; F. Gao; G.H. Zhou
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.M. Zhao, D.Q. Gong, T. Gao, L. Zhang, J.L. Li, P.A. Lv, L.L. Yu, F. Gao, G.H. Zhou
      To investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on growth performance, muscle growth, and meat quality of broiler chickens, 960 eggs were randomly allocated into 3 treatments: (1) non-injected control, (2) saline treatment injected with 0.6mL 0.75% physiological saline, and (3) CrPyr treatment injected with 0.6mL 0.75% physiological saline containing 12mg CrPyr/egg on 17.5d of incubation. After hatching, 120 male chickens per treatment were selected and randomly assigned to 8 cages for a 42-d feeding trial. The selected chickens had body weight close to the average of their pooled group. No difference in hatchability was observed among treatments, whereas the hatching weight, body weight gain, and feed intake in CrPyr treatment were greater than those of the control and saline treatments (P<0.05). The broiler chickens in CrPyr treatment gained greater total and relative weight, myofiber diameter, and cross-sectional area of pectoral muscle on 21 and 42d (P<0.05). However, there were no differences on the concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine in pectoral muscle of broiler chickens on 21 and 42d, as well as the meat quality among treatments. In conclusion, IOF of CrPyr improved the hatching weight, growth performance, and pectoral muscle weight of broiler chickens. Nevertheless, IOF of CrPyr did not affect the meat quality of pectoral muscle of broiler chickens on 42 d post-hatch.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Undernutrition pre- and post-mating affects serum levels of glucose,
           cholesterol and progesterone, but not the reproductive efficiency of
           crossbred hair ewes synchronized for estrus
    • Authors: U. Macías-Cruz; R. Vicente-Pérez; A. Correa-Calderón; M. Mellado; C.A. Meza-Herrera; L. Avendaño-Reyes
      Pages: 64 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 205
      Author(s): U. Macías-Cruz, R. Vicente-Pérez, A. Correa-Calderón, M. Mellado, C.A. Meza-Herrera, L. Avendaño-Reyes
      The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional restriction pre- and post-mating on serum concentrations of some metabolites and progesterone after the conception, as well as on the reproductive performance of crossbred hair ewes subjected to a synchronization of estrus (progesterone plus 200 IU of PMSG) and natural mating during the reproductive season. At d 30 before mating, 48 Katahdin x Pelibuey multiparous ewes (Body weight [BW] = 50.3 ± 0.5kg, body condition score [BCS] = 3.0 ± 0.06 units) were assigned, under a randomized complete block design, to one of four dietary treatments (n = 12): 1) control (no nutritional restriction [NR]), 2) NR pre-mating (30 d, NRPRE), 3) NR post-mating (50 d, NRPOS) and 4) NR in both periods (80 d, TNR). All ewes were fed the same diet but NR ewes were fed only 60% of the nourishment offered to control. Compared to the other treatments, BW and BCS at mating were higher (P < 0.01) in control and NRPOS ewes, but at 50 d post-mating were higher (P < 0.01) in control and NRPRE ewes. At lambing, TNR ewes had the lowest (P = 0.03) BW and BCS, while serum concentrations of triglyceride, total protein and urea were unaffected (P ≥ 0.13) by the treatments. Also, lower glucose (P = 0.03) and higher (P = 0.02) cholesterol in serum were observed in NRPOS ewes than ewes of the other treatments. Progesterone concentrations were similar (P ≥ 0.39) among treatments until d 8 post-mating, and then (d 10–20) were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in NRPOS and TNR ewes than in NRPRE ewes. Estrus behavior, pregnancy, abortion rate, gestation length, fertility, fecundity and prolificacy were unaffected (P ≥ 0.40) by treatments. In conclusion, NR around mating alters serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and progesterone in the early gestation, but not the reproductive efficiency of crossbred hair ewes synchronized with progesterone and PMSG. Results indicate the high ability of crossbred hair ewes to prioritize their reproductive capacity under malnutrition scenarios during the breeding season.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:05:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of economic values for traits of pig breeds in different
           breeding systems: I. Model development
    • Authors: M. Wolfová; J. Wolf; Z. Krupová; E. Krupa; E. Žáková
      Pages: 79 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 205
      Author(s): M. Wolfová, J. Wolf, Z. Krupová, E. Krupa, E. Žáková
      The objective of this work was to develop a bioeconomic model and a computer program to calculate marginal economic values and relative economic weights of traits in pig breeds within various breeding systems. Using this program, economic values for up to 30 production and functional traits can be estimated. The bioeconomic model includes the calculation of the stationary state of sow herds using Markov chain methodology; calculation of progeny structure; modeling growth of protein and fat tissue of all animal groups; calculation of metabolizable energy, feed and water requirements, and feeding costs for all growth phases of young animals with different feeding diets and for sows in different reproductive statuses (open, lactating, and pregnant sows); calculation of non-feed costs and revenues for all production units; calculation of the total profit per sow and year in all links (breeds and crossbreeds) of the given breeding system; and calculation of marginal economic values of traits for all breeds involved in this breeding system. The complete profit functions of the integrated production systems of all involved breeds and crossbreeds are modeled, and therefore, the program can be used for further economic and sensitivity analyses within pig production systems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:05:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 205 (2017)
       
  • Effects of pyrimidine nucleosides on growth performance, gut morphology,
           digestive enzymes, serum biochemical indices and immune response in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: A. Daneshmand; H. Kermanshahi; M. Danesh Mesgaran; A.J. King; S.A. Ibrahim
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): A. Daneshmand, H. Kermanshahi, M. Danesh Mesgaran, A.J. King, S.A. Ibrahim
      The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of pyrimidine nucleosides on growth, intestinal morphology, digestive enzymes and humoral immunity in broilers from 0 to 21 days of age. A total number of 360 day old chicks (Cobb 500) was randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replications. Treatments were comprised of a corn-soybean meal based control diet and diets containing 0.1% pure cytidine, 0.1% pure uridine and 0.1% equal amounts of pure cytidine (0.05%) and uridine (0.05%). On days 11 and 21, two birds per cage (12 birds per treatment) were euthanized to obtain samples of serum, intestine, bursa and spleen. The combination of cytidine plus uridine increased (P < 0.05) body weight and average daily gain of broilers. Supplementing cytidine plus uridine increased (P < 0.05) villus height and width along with activities of alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase; however, maltase was not affected by the experimental diets. The combination of cytidine and uridine increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and IgA activity in the jejunum, but there was no significant difference among treatments regarding the relative weight of the spleen. In conclusion, the study clearly indicated that the combination of cytidine and uridine could improve health status and performance of broilers.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Effects of soybean oil inclusion in the pre-lambing diet on udder size,
           colostrum secretion, and offspring thermoregulation and growth in
           hair-breed ewes
    • Authors: U. Macías-Cruz; A. Mejía-Vázquez; R. Vicente-Pérez; A. Correa-Calderón; P.H. Robinson; M. Mellado; C.A. Meza-Herrera; J.E. Guerra-Liera; L. Avendaño-Reyes
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): U. Macías-Cruz, A. Mejía-Vázquez, R. Vicente-Pérez, A. Correa-Calderón, P.H. Robinson, M. Mellado, C.A. Meza-Herrera, J.E. Guerra-Liera, L. Avendaño-Reyes
      Dietary inclusion of vegetable oils in pregnant females is beneficial to improve offspring development and growth during its pre- and post-natal life because these oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Excessive oil intake can result in contrary effects. To evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion level of soybean oil (SBO) during the last third of gestation on udder size, production and composition of colostrum, newborn thermoregulation, and lamb growth during the pre-weaning period, 30 Katahdin x Pelibuey multiparous ewes (Body weight [BW]= 50.8±0.38kg, body condition score [BCS]= 3.02±0.04 units) were assigned under a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments, which consisted in isoenergetic and isoprotein diets containing 0, 30 or 60g of SBO/kg DM. Diets were offered from d 100 of pregnancy to lambing. All measurements were collected around lambing and first 60 d post-lambing. There was no treatment x time interaction for BW, BCS, production and chemical composition of colostrum, and offspring thermoregulation. Maternal BW and BCS as well as chemical composition were not affected by SBO. Weight and volume of colostrum linearly increased (P = 0.01) as the dietary level of SBO increased from 0 to 60g/kg DM. Rectal temperature in newborn lambs was not affected by SBO, but eye and muzzle temperatures, as well as coat temperatures from ear, muzzle, loin, right flank, belly, rump, shoulder and leg linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing the SBO level in the pre-lambing diet. Treatment x time interaction affected (P ≤ 0.05) udder traits, being higher udder volume and circumference in ewes fed 60g of SBO/kg DM than in control during the pre-lambing period. At birth, morphometric measures in lambs were unaffected by the treatment x sex interaction or main factors, while male lambs from ewes fed 60g of SBO were the heaviest (P < 0.01) compared to any of the other treatments. Pre-weaning daily weight gain and weight at weaning showed a quadratic effect (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing levels of SBO. In general, results suggest that dietary inclusion of 60g of SBO/kg DM during the last third of pregnancy in hair ewes could be an optimal dose to simultaneously increase colostrum production, udder size pre-lambing, newborn thermoregulation and pre-weaning growth of their lambs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Effects of tannins on the fatty acid profiles of rumen fluids and milk
           from lactating goats fed a total mixed ration containing rapeseed oil
    • Authors: F.M. Abo-Donia; L.Y. Yang; A.N. Hristov; M. Wang; S.X. Tang; C.S. Zhou; X.F. Han; J.H. Kang; Z.L. Tan; Z.X. He
      Pages: 16 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): F.M. Abo-Donia, L.Y. Yang, A.N. Hristov, M. Wang, S.X. Tang, C.S. Zhou, X.F. Han, J.H. Kang, Z.L. Tan, Z.X. He
      The 4 experimental diets, all containing rapeseed oil, consisted of one control and 3 other diets supplemented with 3 different levels of commercial oenological extracts tannins (i.e. 3, 6 and 9g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively). The effect of the added tannins on the fatty acid profiles of ruminal fluid was tested in vitro, and 20 multiparous Liuyang black nannies [average body weight (BW): 26.3 ± 0.5kg] at week 6 of lactation were used in an in vivo experiment. For the in vitro experiment, the inclusion of dietary tannins did not (P > 0.05) affect fatty acid contents in the culture fluid in vitro, except the percentage of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) tended to increase (quadratically, P = 0.075) with increasing tannins level. Increasing incubation time decreased the percentage of total cis C17:1 (P = 0.001), cis-11 C18:1 (P < 0.0001), cis-12 C18:1 (P < 0.0001), trans-11 C18:1 (P = 0.016), total cis C18:1 (P < 0.0001) and C18:1 (P < 0.0001), cis-9, cis-12 C18:2n-6 linoleic acid (LA) (P < 0.0001) and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P = 0.001). In the in vivo experiment, concentration of C16:1 in goat milk linearly increased (P = 0.032) and that of cis-11 C18:1 tended (quadratic effect, P = 0.072) to increase with increasing levels of tannins. Tannin inclusion did not affect (P > 0.05) the content of protein, lactose, ash, solid not fat and total solids in the goat milk, but higher levels of tannins reduced milk fat content (P = 0.005), compared with the control diet. Compared with the control, tannins inclusion decreased concentrations of cis-11 C20:1 (P = 0.022) and total n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P = 0.017) in milk at the 3g/kg DM inclusion rate, decreased C11:0 (P = 0.012) and C13:0 (P = 0.029) at 6g/kg DM, but increased cis-9 C18:1 (P = 0.043) and C22:6n-3 docosahexenoic acid (DHA) (P = 0.013) at the 9g/kg DM inclusion rate. Concentrations of cis-14 C18:1, cis-9, cis-12 C18:2n-6 LA, total cis MUFA, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA in milk linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary tannins. These data indicate that dietary inclusion of rapeseed oil in combination with tannins would be an effective tool for increasing the unsaturated fatty acids content in goat milk.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Effects of vitamin supplementation on growth performance and carcass
           characteristics in pigs
    • Authors: J.H. Cho; N. Lu; M.D. Lindemann
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): J.H. Cho, N. Lu, M.D. Lindemann
      Three experiments involving a total of 405 crossbred pigs were performed to evaluate the effects of increasing vitamin supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics. A common vitamin premix (VP) that provided adequate amounts of vitamins (4 fat-soluble and 7 B vitamins), was added at varied levels in Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 1 used 125 weanling pigs with initial body weight (BW) of 7.5 ± 0.2kg. Dietary treatments were basal diet with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.25%, and 0.50% added VP. The experimental diets were fed for 28 d in a single phase. The results demonstrated that average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) linearly increased (P < 0.005) with increasing VP levels during d 14–21, d 21–28, and the overall 28-d period. Experiment 2 used 100 crossbred pigs with initial BW of 49.4 ± 1.0kg. Dietary treatments were basal diet with 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% added VP. The experimental diets were fed for 67 d in a single phase. The results showed that the increasing VP levels did not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics of grower to finisher pigs. Experiment 3 was designed to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary supplementation of 5 B vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folacin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B12) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of nursery-finisher pigs. A total of 180 weanling pigs were provided a common diet without supplementation of the test B vitamins until they reached an average BW of 10kg. Then, 155 pigs were selected for allotment. The experimental diets were fed in 3 phases corresponding to 10–20kg, 20–50kg, and 50–105kg of BW, respectively; the 5 B vitamins were provided to be equivalent to 70%, 170%, 270%, 470%, and 870% of the NRC (1988) requirement estimates on a bioavailable basis for each BW phase. The results demonstrated that overall ADG and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased quadratically (P < 0.05), while overall ADFI tended to increase linearly (P = 0.10) as dietary B vitamins increased. The loin depth, loin eye area, and lean gain improved with increasing B vitamin levels (quadratic, P < 0.05). In summary, increasing supplementation of VP beyond NRC (1988) requirement estimates improved ADG and ADFI of nursery pigs while supplementing a subset of 5 B vitamins improved growth performance and carcass characteristics of grower to finisher pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Rosemary and lemongrass herbs as phytogenic feed additives to improve
           efficient feed utilization, manipulate rumen fermentation and elevate milk
           production of Damascus goats
    • Authors: A.E. Kholif; O.H. Matloup; T.A. Morsy; M.M. Abdo; A.A. Abu Elella; U.Y. Anele; K.C. Swanson
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): A.E. Kholif, O.H. Matloup, T.A. Morsy, M.M. Abdo, A.A. Abu Elella, U.Y. Anele, K.C. Swanson
      This study was conducted to determine the effect of rosemary or lemongrass herbs at 10g daily on feed utilization, milk production, milk composition, and fatty acid profile in lactating Damascus goats. Fifteen goats were divided into 3 treatments (5 goats each) and fed a basal diet of berseem clover and concentrates (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; Control treatment) or the control diet supplemented with either 10g daily of rosemary (Rosemary treatment), or 10g daily of lemongrass (Lemongrass treatment) for 12 weeks. Inclusion of lemongrass and rosemary did not affect (P > 0.05) nutrient intake. However, inclusion of lemongrass or rosemary increased (P < 0.05) organic matter and fiber digestion. Ruminal pH was not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Feeding lemongrass or rosemary treatment increased (P < 0.05) ruminal concentration of short chain fatty acids, propionate, and serum glucose concentration and decreased serum cholesterol concentration. Feeding lemongrass or rosemary treatment increased (P < 0.05) milk production (actual and energy corrected milk), and milk fat and lactose concentration. Feeding rosemary or lemongrass containing diet increased (P < 0.05) total unsaturated fatty acids and total conjugated linoleic acid and decreased total saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of lemongrass and rosemary in the diet of lactating Damascus goats at 10g/goat daily enhanced nutrient digestibility and milk yield, with positive ruminal fermentation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Changes in cortisol and glucose concentrations in rabbits transported to
           the slaughterhouse
    • Authors: P.A. Accorsi; A. Biscotto; R. Viggiani; C. Prodan; D. Bucci; V. Beghelli; M. Mattioli; C.A. Petrulli; G. Postiglione; C. Milandri
      Pages: 47 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): P.A. Accorsi, A. Biscotto, R. Viggiani, C. Prodan, D. Bucci, V. Beghelli, M. Mattioli, C.A. Petrulli, G. Postiglione, C. Milandri
      The effect of transport on Cortisol and Glucose serum concentrations were assessed in rabbits during summer and winter. Animals were divided into high (HSA, 307cm2/rabbit), medium (MSA, 373cm2/rabbit) and low space allowance (LSA, 475cm2/rabbit) transport groups, and rabbits slaughtered directly in the farm were used as control group (C). During summer, cortisol and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in HSA (high space allowance), MSA and LSA than in C rabbits (P < 0.01). LSA cortisol concentrations were significantly lower than MSA and HSA samples and MSA rabbits’ glycaemia was significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared with HSA animals. During winter, cortisol concentrations in group C were significantly lower than in MSA and HSA groups. Glycaemia in group C was lower than in LSA (P < 0.01) and HSA (P < 0.02) groups. Cortisol and glucose levels in summer were significantly higher than in winter. Our data clearly show that some stress-related physiological parameters are significantly modified by transport, in particular in the case of overcrowded transport crates.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Immune response of mature cows subjected to annual booster vaccination
           against neonatal calf diarrhoea with two different commercial vaccines: A
           non-inferiority study
    • Authors: Luc Durel; Clancy Rose; Tracy Bainbridge; Julien Roubert; Klaus-Ulrich Dressel; Johanna Bennemann; Antje Rückner; Thomas Vahlenkamp; Renaud Maillard
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Luc Durel, Clancy Rose, Tracy Bainbridge, Julien Roubert, Klaus-Ulrich Dressel, Johanna Bennemann, Antje Rückner, Thomas Vahlenkamp, Renaud Maillard
      Neonatal calf diarrhoea can have important economic consequences. Scour vaccines are available against some of the most frequent pathogens responsible for this disease: Bovine Rotavirus (BoRV), Bovine Coronavirus (BoCV) and E. coli K99. In this multi-centre, randomised, blinded study, adult cows vaccinated with a trivalent vaccine marketed for years (Rotavec™ Corona, MSD Animal Health - RC) prior to last parturition were revaccinated 12–15 months later, prior to the upcoming parturition, with either a single injection of a recently marketed vaccine (Bovigen™ Scour, Virbac - BS), or RC. The aim of this trial was to verify whether BS is not inferior to RC for the stimulation of the immune response and the passive transfer to calves in these conditions. A total of 136 multiparous dairy cows, from 5 different herds and located in 3 countries (France, UK and Germany) were enrolled in the study. Sixty-five cows were vaccinated with BS and 71 with RC. Antibody levels, measured by competitive ELISA and represented as percentage of inhibition (PI), were assessed in the cow's serum (on the day of vaccination: D0 and on days 21, 42 and at calving), in the colostrum and in the serum of calves in the first week of life. Differences in means of PI between groups and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The non-inferiority threshold was set at −10%. The relationships between antibody levels in the colostrum and the vaccination-calving interval (VCI) or the inter-booster vaccination interval (IBVI) were also analysed. All the lower margins of the 95% CI of the difference in means of PI, in all samples and for the 3 pathogens assessed, were above −10%. This result shows that BS is not inferior to RC for the stimulation of the immune response against BoRV, BoCV and E. coli K99 and the passive transfer of immunity to calves when this vaccine is administered to their dams previously vaccinated with RC. Furthermore, no correlation was found between PI values in the colostrum and the VCI or IBVI. The ratio of animals with a PI ≥ 95% in the colostrum, among cows with similar intervals, was not significantly different between groups, for all antigens tested. Therefore, this study shows that a single injection of the heterologous vaccine BS can be used as a booster in cattle previously vaccinated with RC.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Comparative efficacy of zinc supplementation from different sources on
           nutrient digestibility, hemato-biochemistry and anti-oxidant activity in
           guinea pigs
    • Authors: Sandeep Uniyal; Anil Kumar Garg; Sunil Ekanath Jadhav; Vinod Kumar Chaturvedi; Ranjan Kumar Mohanta
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Sandeep Uniyal, Anil Kumar Garg, Sunil Ekanath Jadhav, Vinod Kumar Chaturvedi, Ranjan Kumar Mohanta
      Nanominerals are recently advocated for replacing their organic and inorganic counterparts. To examine their comparative efficacy, a study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc through different sources and forms on apparent digestibility of nutrients, body weight gain, blood hemato-biochemistry, anti-oxidant activity, and serum mineral status in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Groups (T1, control (inorganic zinc; ZnSO4); T2, organic Zn (Zn methionine), commercial zinc nanoparticle (T3), two zinc nanoparticles prepared in our laboratory (T4, T5), were formed with six guinea pigs in each group (289 ± 3.5g body weight) in a randomized block design. They were supplemented with 20mg Zn per kg feed on dry matter basis for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each animal through cardiac puncture and analyzed for hemato-biochemistry, oxidants/anti-oxidants, thyroid hormones and serum minerals. The results showed that intake and digestibility of nutrients were not affected by source of supplementation. Oxidants/anti-oxidants, thyroid hormones, hemato-biochemistry and serum minerals were also not affected by source of supplementation. However, the growth rate was higher (P = 0.031) in commercial nano-Zn supplemented groups (T3) than in the other groups. Thus, supplementation of 20ppm commercial Zn nanoparticles had a positive effect on growth rate of guinea pigs. But supplementation of Zn increased erythrocytic SOD activity and serum zinc level, irrespective of the source of Zn. As evidenced in our study spanning 90 days of trial, zinc nanoparticles can be safely supplemented up to 20ppm level in the diet of guinea pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Effect of rubber mats on sow behavior and litter performance during
           lactation
    • Authors: Garth R. Ruff; Monique D. Pairis-Garcia; Magnus R. Campler; Steven J. Moeller; Anna K. Johnson
      Pages: 65 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Garth R. Ruff, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Magnus R. Campler, Steven J. Moeller, Anna K. Johnson
      The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of rubber lying mats on sow behavior, production and litter performance throughout lactation. In total, 213 multiparous, late gestation, group housed sows were enrolled in the study after being blocked by parity and classified as lame or non-lame. Sows were randomly allocated to treatments; a farrowing crate with a perforated rubber lying mat (R), or a farrowing crate with standard metal slatted flooring (C). Sow behavior, lesion scores, sow weight, and body condition measurements were obtained once weekly over the course of 4 weeks around the farrowing event (1 week prior until 3 weeks post farrowing day). Piglet weights were recorded during the weeks of farrowing and weaning. Wean to estrus intervals and piglet mortality data were obtained post-hoc via records from the farm's computer database PigKnows®. Sows housed on the R treatment spent an increased proportion of time spent standing (P = 0.02) and tended to spend a lower proportion of their time spent lying (P = 0.07). Sows that were housed on R treatment weaned piglets with lower body weights when compared sows housed on C treatment (P < 0.05). Sows on the R treatment had a higher number of crushed piglets when compared to C treatment sows (P < 0.05). Rubber mats did not affect the total number of body lesions, body condition scores, or body weights of the sows (P > 0.05). In conclusion, rubber mats did not affect behavior of lame or non-lame sows during lactation but impacted weaning weights and total piglet mortality due to crushing. Further research evaluating alternative flooring during the farrowing and lactation period is needed in order to improve sow comfort and longevity while protecting piglet health and viability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Effects of fat sources and dietary C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids ratio on
           growth performance, ruminal fermentation and some blood components of
           Holstein calves
    • Authors: Amir Kadkhoday; Ahmad Riasi; Masoud Alikhani; Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky; Rasoul Kowsar
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Amir Kadkhoday, Ahmad Riasi, Masoud Alikhani, Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky, Rasoul Kowsar
      The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of fat sources and various ratios of dietary C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids, through inclusion of palm fat powder and flaxseed oil, on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, health indices and some blood components of Holstein calves during the pre and postweaning periods. A total of 65 Holstein calves (30 males and 35 females) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 5 experimental groups: 1- starter diet with no fat supplement (CON, C18:2:C18:3 = 18:1), 2- starter diet with 2.2% palm fat powder (PF, C18:2:C18:3 = 18:1), 3- starter diet with 1.5% palm fat powder and 0.8% Ca-salts of flaxseed oil (PCF, C18:2:C18:3 = 4:1), 4- starter diet with 2.7% Ca-salts of flaxseed oil (CFO, C18:2:C18:3 = 1.5:1) and 5- starter diet with 2.2% flaxseed oil (FO, C18:2:C18:3 = 1.5:1). Results showed that palm fat powder had no effect on feed efficiency, but increased (P < 0.05) BCS and decreased (P = 0.01) blood urea nitrogen compared to the CON. Feeding CFO increased (P < 0.01) ADG during postweaning period and feed efficiency over the entire study. Calves in the CFO group had better fecal scores (P = 0.03) and general appearance scores (P < 0.05) compared to the CON. Calves fed starter diet with lower C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids ratio (CFO and FO groups) had greater hip height (P = 0.01) and serum alkaline phosphatse (P = 0.04) and fewer days with diarrhea (P = 0.03) than the CON group. Fat sources and different C18:2 to C18:3 fatty acids ratio had no effect on ruminal fermentation parameters. In general, our results provide evidence that different fat sources had no adverse effect on feed intake and growth performance of calf. Moreover, decreasing C18:2:C18:3 fatty acids ratio in calves starter diets, using Ca-salts of flaxseed oil (2.7%) or flaxseed oil (2.2%) had beneficial effects on growth performance, health indices and some blood components in Holstein dairy calves.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • The effect of selection and sex on genetic parameters of body weight at
           different ages in a commercial broiler chicken population
    • Authors: W. Mebratie; M. Shirali; P. Madsen; R.L. Sapp; R. Hawken; J. Jensen
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): W. Mebratie, M. Shirali, P. Madsen, R.L. Sapp, R. Hawken, J. Jensen
      Data from 54 selection rounds (SRs) for growth rate in a selection line from Cobb breeding company was used for analysis with the objective to investigate the extent of sex by genotype interaction for body weight (BW) in a commercial broiler chicken population, estimate genetic parameters of BW at three different ages, and study the development in genetic variance for BW over several generations of selection. BW was measured at three different ages (t, t-4 and t-7 days) in different birds of both sexes. For the first 39 SRs, BW was recorded at t days, however, as selection continued the birds reached desired BW earlier and the weighing age was changed to t-4 days for 7 SRs and then to t-7 days for the last 8 SRs. A bivariate random regression model regarding BW in each sex as different traits using segmented linear splines and heterogeneous residual variance was used to estimate genetic parameters of BW across the selection trajectory via Gibbs sampling. The genetic variance and the heritability estimates of BW in males and females were found to be different at all three ages. The genetic correlation between BW measured in males and females was less than unity and decreased further as age at weighing was increased. This illustrated that BW in the two sexes should be considered as different but correlated traits and models for BW should account for a decreasing genetic correlation as the distance between the weighing ages increased. An increased genetic variance of BW along the selection trajectory in the first period was observed and genetic correlations between BW measured in different SRs gradually decreased as the distance between SRs increased. Genetic correlations lower than unity between BW at early and late SRs in the first period indicated that the genetic background of BW has gradually changed along the selection trajectory. This change probably contributes significantly to maintaining large levels of genetic variance in highly selected broiler populations.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Copy number veriation regions detection in Qinchuan cattle
    • Authors: Jieping Huang; Ran Li; Xin Zhang; Yongzhen Huang; Ruihua Dang; Xianyong Lan; Hong Chen; Chuzhao Lei
      Pages: 88 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Jieping Huang, Ran Li, Xin Zhang, Yongzhen Huang, Ruihua Dang, Xianyong Lan, Hong Chen, Chuzhao Lei
      Copy number variation (CNV) is a main and prevalent structural alterations underlying evolution of animal, which is considered to affect gene expression and complex traits. In this study, we analyzed genomic characteristics of CNV regions (CNVRs) in 254 Qinchuan cattle using GeneSeek HD 77k BeadChip. PennCNV algorithm was utilized for CNVs detection with strict quality criteria. A total of 255 CNVRs were identified based on 2076 CNVs detected, containing 215 loss events, 31 gain events, and 9 mix events. These regions were 184Mb in length corresponding to 7.3% of the bovine genome. Our function enrichment analysis showed that the CNVRs overlapping with protein coding genes were significantly enriched with multiple biological functions and pathways. These CNVRs were also related with many economic traits of beef cattle including meat and carcass (57 QTLs), reproduction (36 QTLs), and growth (12 QTLs). In conclusion, our results enriched the information of CNVR maps of Qinchuan cattle which will be helpful for breeding of this cattle breed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • The effect of farrowing duration on maternal behavior of hyperprolific
           sows in organic outdoor production
    • Authors: Cecilie Kobek Thorsen; Sarah-Lina Aagaard Schild; Lena Rangstrup-Christensen; Trine Bilde; Lene Juul Pedersen
      Pages: 92 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Cecilie Kobek Thorsen, Sarah-Lina Aagaard Schild, Lena Rangstrup-Christensen, Trine Bilde, Lene Juul Pedersen
      Prolonged farrowing duration has previously been related to hypoxia, stillbirth and poor sow health post partum (pp). A difficult farrowing may affect sow behavior through exhaustion, sickness or pain and thus constitute a risk for sub-optimal maternal behavior. The aim of the present work was to study if the duration of farrowing in an organic sow herd affected sow postural changes, carefulness of lying down and nursing behavior relevant for early piglet mortality. Thirty-eight sows and their piglets housed in individual paddocks with an A-frame hut were video recorded from the day of farrowing and the following 72h. The average farrowing duration till the last live born piglet was 7.5 ± 7h (2.1–28.9h). The only effect found of farrowing duration was a 22 ± 10min reduced latency to leave the hut after birth of the last live born piglet when the farrowing increased with one hour. Other results showed normal, passive sow behavior with increasing activity as days past post partum (pp). Despite a large range in farrowing durations, no considerable effects were found suggesting exhaustion affecting maternal behavior. The results suggest that these organic sows were resilient enough to get through even a difficult farrowing without being energy depleted.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • The influence of natural selection in breeding programs: A simulation
           study
    • Authors: Silvia García-Ballesteros; Juan Pablo Gutiérrez; Luis Varona; Jesús Fernández
      Pages: 98 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Silvia García-Ballesteros, Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Luis Varona, Jesús Fernández
      Natural selection, acting directly on fitness or through stabilizing selection for other traits, has always been present in natural populations. In principle, this force will reduce the genetic variability, which is required for artificial selection programs. The genetic improvement of a trait with economic interest by selection programs depends on the amount of genetic diversity for that trait in a particular population. Most studies on the development of breeding programs account only for the genetic variation for the target trait itself. The objective in this work is determining, through computer simulations, the consequences for the evolution of selection programs, considering not only the variability for the trait of interest but also for fitness under different mutational models. Additionally, a scenario where the trait was subjected to stabilizing selection was also studied. Different parameters as effective population size, phenotypic mean, phenotypic variance and heterozygosity were used to monitor the performance in the different scenarios. In conclusion, considering the action of direct natural selection does not lead to lower levels of genetic variability for neutral traits, and thus it does not reduce the ability of populations to respond to artificial selection regardless of the mutational model used. On the other hand, stabilizing selection penalizes individuals with an extreme phenotype (which is the major objective in the artificial selection), reducing their fitness. Therefore, the artificial selection was ineffective in improving traits subjected to stabilizing selection.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Genetic parameters and correlations between days open and production
           traits across lactations in pasture based dairy production systems
    • Authors: Nicolás Frioni; Gabriel Rovere; Ignacio Aguilar; Jorge I. Urioste
      Pages: 104 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 204
      Author(s): Nicolás Frioni, Gabriel Rovere, Ignacio Aguilar, Jorge I. Urioste
      The aim of this study was to estimate the additive genetic correlations, heritabilities and repeatabilities of days open (DO), milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein yields (PY), using data from pasture based dairy systems of Uruguay, and to explore whether DO should be interpreted as a different trait across lactations or as a trait with repeated measures. The database contained 500, 412 and 294 thousand records of first, second and third lactation, respectively. Cows were offspring of 7747 sires. Fertility records lower and upper limits were 42 and 250 days, respectively. In a first approach (Mdiff) we estimated variance components and covariances over lactations, assuming that the traits were different at each lactation. In a second approach (Mrep) estimations were carried out considering each trait as a repeated measure along lactations. In Mdiff, DO with a production trait was analyzed considering each lactation as a different trait. Three six-variate linear models were analyzed (DO-MY, DO-FY, DO-PY, and lactations first to third). In the Mrep procedure, DO, MY, FY and PY were analyzed together with a multiple trait repeatability model. For all models, the fixed effects were herd-year-season and lactation-age classes. Animal and the permanent environment effect were included as random effects. The additive genetic correlations between DO and yield traits by Mdiff were between +0.39 and +0.78; by Mrep, they ranged from +0.44 to +0.55. Heritabilities of DO by Mdiff were between 0.04 and 0.06 and 0.05 by Mrep. The additive genetic correlations of DO between lactations ranged from +0.76 to +0.91. Heritabilities of MY, FY and PY were 0.23, 0.21 and 0.21, respectively. Repeatabilities obtained were 0.10, 0.49, 0.47 and 0.49 for DO, MY, FY and PY, respectively. We concluded that the heritability of DO was low but enough to consider the trait in selection programs. We confirmed unfavorable additive genetic correlations between DO and yield traits for the Uruguayan pasture systems, which supports the importance of considering fertility in selection programs to reduce or avoid a decline in reproduction. The additive genetic correlations of DO between lactations were high, suggesting that a plausible model should consider DO records of a given animal as repeated measures.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 204 (2017)
       
  • Embryo recovery results in Hispano-Arabe horse and Spanish donkey breeds
    • Authors: Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín; Guillermo Vizuete; Juan Jose Galisteo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín, Guillermo Vizuete, Juan Jose Galisteo
      This study was carried out as part of an embryo preservation program undertaken among Hispano-Arabe (H-a) mares and Spanish (Andalusian and Zamorano-Leones) jennies, both considered to be endangered breeds. Over the course of six years, 61 donor mares and 17 donor jennies were monitored and inseminated with chilled semen from 17 H-a stallions and six jackasses. A total of 199 uterine flushings (140 in mares and 59 in jennies) were carried out and the embryo recovery rate was recorded and the effect of various factors such as embryo quality and size, flushing effluent quality and individual effects were analyzed. The ovulation rate was significantly lower in donor mares (1.12) than in jennies (1.86) (p<0.001). Embryo recovery per flush was 35.0% and 40.7% in mares and jennies respectively (p>0.05), and it was influenced by photoperiod (p<0.05). Individual effects were also noted for different stallions and jackasses. The embryo size was significantly affected by day of flush (p<0.05) and embryo morphology (p<0.001). While the effect of a range of variables is described in this study, it is important to emphasize that the endangered nature of the breeds concerned makes it harder to obtain acceptable results in an embryo transfer program, because it is difficult to select the best animals (donors, recipients and stallions), and this may play a role in the results obtained. However, it is necessary to continue the research in this field in order to improve the tools needed to preserve the pool of genetic heritage and diversity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.011
       
  • Identification of artificial selection signatures in Caracu breed lines
           selected for milk production and meat production
    • Authors: Bárbara Machado Campos; Adriana Santana do Carmo; Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva; Lucas Lima Verardo; João José de Simoni Gouveia; Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado; Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Bárbara Machado Campos, Adriana Santana do Carmo, Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva, Lucas Lima Verardo, João José de Simoni Gouveia, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
      The identification of selection signatures allows a better comprehension of evolutionary processes, gene function and organization in the genome. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify and characterize genomic regions subject to selection, comparing two Caracu breed lines, one selected for milk (Caracu Caldeano) and other for meat production (Caracu). Animals were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine HD Genotyping BeadChip which included ~777K SNP. The identification of selection signatures was based on population differentiation (FST). Twenty-one genomic regions related to meat and milk production and adaptation characteristics were identified. The genes identified as candidate to be under selection in this study included those related to muscle growth and meat quality (TFCP2, KIAA1244, CDH23 and FAM186B), milk compounds synthesis (MUC19), reproductive metabolism (SLC39A11). Genes related to adaptative traits including resistance to metabolic diseases (C6), and epidermal development and resistance to high temperatures (KRT86) and KRT83) were also identified. The observed relevant genomic regions of Caracu and Caracu Caldeano differed, indicating that specific selection signatures of each line were successfully identified and may represent the consequence of adaptation to the local environment and type of animal production.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.014
       
  • Effects of melengestrol acetate supplementation after fixed-timed
           artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows
    • Authors: W.M. Costa Junior; R.F. Cooke; M.H.C. Pereira; J.L.M. Vasconcelos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): W.M. Costa Junior, R.F. Cooke, M.H.C. Pereira, J.L.M. Vasconcelos
      This experiment compared pregnancy rates in Bos indicus cows assigned to temporary calf weaning (TCW) or eCG administration during estrus synchronization, with or without melengestrol acetate (MGA) supplementation after artificial insemination (AI). A total of 3042 lactating, multiparous, non-pregnant Nelore cows were managed in 48 groups, and assigned to an estrus synchronization + fixed-time AI protocol (d −11 to 0, with AI on d 0). On d −11, groups were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 gonadotropic stimulus, which were either 48-h TCW from d −2 to AI (n = 9 groups, 604 cows) or 300 IU i.m. injection of eCG on d −2 (n = 39 groups, 2438 cows). On d 1, groups were assigned to receive, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, 1 of 3 MGA treatments: 0.5mg of MGA/cow from d 5 to 18 (M5to18; n = 16 groups, 1074 cows) or from d 13 to 18 (M13to18; n = 16 groups, 971 cows), or no MGA supplementation (CON; n = 16 groups, 997 cows). Estrus expression was evaluated by painting the tailhead of each cow on d −2, and evaluating the presence of tailhead paint at AI. Body condition score (BCS; 1 to 9 scale) was recorded at AI, and cows were classified as adequate (≥ 4.5) or inadequate (< 4.5) BCS. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 80 were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in M5to18 and M13to18 compared with CON cows (62.9, 62.9, and 55.3% on d 30, 58.1, 59.2, and 50.5% on d 80, respectively; SEM = 3.1), and similar (P ≥ 0.79) between M5to18 and M13to18 cows. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 80 were similar (P ≥ 0.17) between cows assigned to eCG and TCW (58.1 and 62.6% on d 30, 54.3 and 57.6% on d 80, respectively; SEM = 2.7). The MGA supplementation × gonadotropic stimulus interaction was not significant (P ≥ 0.41) whereas no interactions of main treatment effects with cow BCS and estrus expression were detected (P ≥ 0.21) for pregnancy outcomes. Hence, supplementing B indicus beef cows with MGA post-AI increased pregnancy rates compared with non-supplemented cows, and this outcome was independent of period and length of MGA supplementation, gonadotropic stimulus, cow BCS status, and estrus expression during the synchronization protocol.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.012
       
  • Genetic parameter estimates for temperament, heifer rebreeding, and
           stayability in Nellore cattle
    • Authors: T.S. Valente; O.D. Albito A.C. Carvalheiro Baldi L.G. Albuquerque M.J.R.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): T.S. Valente, O.D. Albito, A.C. Sant’Anna, R. Carvalheiro, F. Baldi, L.G. Albuquerque, M.J.R. Paranhos da Costa
      The aim of this study was to estimate heritability for five temperament and two reproductive traits in Nellore cattle and to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among them. Temperament was evaluated using the movement (MOV), tension (TEN) and crush (CS) scores (measured with animals inside the squeeze chute) as well as the flight speed (FS) and temperament score (TS). Reproductive traits included i) heifer rebreeding (HR), which evaluates heifers’ ability to become pregnant, given that they had calved once; and ii) stayability (STAY), which measures cows’ ability to calve at least 3 offspring before reaching 65 months of age. We used Bayesian inference and Gibbs sampling in a two-trait analysis to estimate genetic parameters applying a linear model for FS and threshold models for MOV, TEN, CS, TS, HR and STAY. The animal model included contemporary group as a fixed effect, direct additive genetic and residual effects as random effects, and animal age at yearling as a covariate (with linear and quadratic effects). Heritability estimates for MOV, TEN, CS, FS, TS, HR and STAY were 0.14 ± 0.04, 0.11 ± 0.03, 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.22 ± 0.02, 0.19 ± 0.04, 0.13 ± 0.02 and 0.13 ± 0.02, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates were low to moderate and the highest values (in magnitude) were −0.19 ± 0.21 (HR-CS), −0.21 ± 0.15 (STAY-TEN) and −0.24 ± 0.16 (STAY-CS), indicating that the selection to improve cattle temperament does not negatively affect HR and STAY. These results indicate that all traits had sufficient genetic variability to respond to direct selection; however, given the low estimated heritability, we expect to see only long-term genetic changes. Genetic correlations showed that there is no antagonism of temperament with fertility and longevity; however, we recommend including these traits as selection criteria in Nellore breeding programs to obtain satisfactory genetic changes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Effects of feeding sugar beets, ensiled with or without an additive, on
           the performance of dairy cows
    • Authors: Anne Louise; Frydendahl Hellwing Ulrike Messerschmidt Mogens Larsen Martin Riis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Ulrike Messerschmidt, Mogens Larsen, Martin Riis Weisbjerg
      The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional composition and quality of beet silages ensiled without (SBS–) and with silage additive (SBS+) and the effect on nutrient intake, milk yield, and milk composition when maize silage was replaced with SBS+ or SBS–. SBS– ferment heavily, and the main fermentation products are ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid. Adding a silage additive restricts fermentation and preserves most of the sugar in SBS+. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a multiple 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of two weeks adaptation and one week of measurements. The cows were fed either a control diet (DCON) or diets where two-third of the maize silage was replaced with SBS+ (DSBS+) or SBS– (DSBS–) on a dry matter (DM) basis, in a partial mixed ration (PMR). The cows had access to one milking robot, and were offered up to 3.0kg/day of concentrate in the milking robot. The concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and sucrose in SBS– were 90.7, 64.9, 29.9, and 1.4g/kg DM, corrected for evaporation losses, respectively. The concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and sucrose in SBS+ were 4.4, 2.5, 4.4, and 105g/kg DM, respectively. The intake of PMR did not differ between the three treatments. The intake of concentrate in the milking robot was lower for DSBS– and DSBS+ compared to DCON, due to fewer visits to the robot. Milk yield was lower but more concentrated for the two treatments with beet silages compared to DCON. The yield of energy corrected milk was 36.9kg and 36.3kg in DCON and DSBS–, respectively, which was higher than the 34.9kg in DSBS+. It is concluded that the milk production value of SBS– is comparable to maize silage, whereas SBS+ seemed to be lower. However, this may be partly due to fewer visits to the milking robot and thus less concentrate intake in DSBS+. The results show that sugar beets ensiled wet, without silage additive, is a promising feed for lactating cows.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • The use of near infrared spectroscopy to predict faecal indigestible and
           digestible fibre fractions in lactating dairy cattle
    • Authors: Federico Righi; Marica Simoni Giulio Visentin Carmen Manuelian Sarah Afro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Federico Righi, Marica Simoni, Giulio Visentin, Carmen L. Manuelian, Sarah Currò, Afro Quarantelli, Massimo De Marchi
      The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of faecal near infrared spectroscopy (FNIRS) to predict undigested neutral detergent fibre at 240h of fermentation (uNDF240) and other fibre fractions in lactating dairy cattle faeces. A total of 130 faecal samples (600g) were collected directly from the rectum of dairy cows randomly selected across the lactating groups of 6 herds located in northern Italy and fed grass/alfalfa hay forage based total mixed ration. Reference values were matched with FNIRS spectra. Prediction equations were developed for each trait using external validation. Our results showed that the calculated uNDF240 (DM basis) to ADL ratio in faeces averaged 2.84, ranging from 1.58 to 4.10. The similar ratio of acid detergent fibre (ADF) and uNDF240 to NDF (66–67%) indicated that potentially digestible NDF in faeces is mainly represented by hemicelluloses, whereas uNDF240 is mainly composed of lignin and cellulose. The coefficient of determination of external validation (R2 V) of uNDF240 was 0.59 when expressed as percentage of DM and 0.36 when expressed as percentage of NDF, and the corresponding ratio performance deviation of external validation (RPD) values in validation were 1.52 and 1.26, respectively. Values of R2 V ranged from 0.54 to 0.63 for fibre fractions and RPD in validation ranged from 1.45 (ADL, %DM) to 1.68 (ADF, %DM). Despite the low accuracy of the prediction models, this study contributes to the knowledge of the FNIRS application to uNDF240 and other fibre fractions in faeces. Further investigations with different diet composition should be addressed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Environmental impact of milk production across an intensification gradient
           in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Daniel Woldegebriel; Henk Udo Theo Viets Eugenie van der Harst
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Daniel Woldegebriel, Henk Udo, Theo Viets, Eugenie van der Harst, José Potting
      This paper quantifies environmental performances of milk production systems differing in degree of intensification in the Mekelle milkshed area, Ethiopia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to estimate Land Use (LU), Fossil Energy Use (FEU) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the cattle sub-system in 8 large-scale, 8 (peri-)urban and 8 rural farms. The large-scale farms owned considerably more and other types of cattle (35.0 cattle units (cu); mainly Friesians) than the (peri-)urban (6.3 cu; mainly crossbreds) and rural farms (4.1 cu; mainly local breeds). The milk production per average cow per year was much lower in rural farms (730kg) than in large-scale (2377kg) and (peri-)urban farms (1829kg). Milk was the main contributor to the economic benefits of the large-scale (90%) and (peri-)urban (80%) farms, whereas milk (sold and consumed at home) contributed only about 40% to the economic benefits in the multifunctional rural farms. The environmental impacts per cu, reflecting the absolute impacts of cattle keeping, were considerably higher in the large-scale and (peri-)urban farms than in the rural farms. LU and FEU were for the great majority caused by the land use for hay, straws and grasses, and harvesting, transport and processing of feeds, in particular wheat bran. On-farm emissions from enteric fermentation and manure storage were the main contributors to GWP. The impacts per kg milk did not differ significantly between the three systems. The LU per kg milk estimates (9.4, 11.2 and 8.8m2 in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively high compared to LCA studies of milk production in developed countries due to large amounts of low-quality forages and wheat bran fed, whereas the FEU values per kg milk (7.5, 11.1 and 6.6 MJ in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively low compared to studies of milk production systems in developed countries. The GWP estimates per kg milk (1.75, 2.25 and 2.22kg CO2-equivalents per kg milk in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were slightly higher than GWP values for the same types of farms in other developing countries, due to the relatively large amounts of low quality feeds fed. The quality of cattle management practices seems more important than the choice for a specific cattle keeping system in reducing environmental impacts of milk production.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Evaluation of methodologies for equine biometry
    • Authors: Rodrigues dos; Santos Guilherme Freiberger Fernanda Bottin Maisa Chiocca Aline
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Moisés Rodrigues dos Santos, Guilherme Freiberger, Fernanda Bottin, Maisa Chiocca, Aline Zampar, Diego de Córdova Cucco
      Equines have some peculiarities of zootechnical interests that differ from other species, mainly due to their motor capacity to perform work or sporting functions. For that reason, body dimensions and proportions are extremely important in horse selection and breeding, and morphological characteristics such as length, height, width and angular measurements may influence the quality of movement and physical structure of the animal. In this way, this work aimed to evaluate the biometric data of equines, obtained by the traditional method of body measurement and photogrammetry technique using ImageJ® software. In addition, the methods were correlated and the limitations and advantages of each one were shown. The effect of evaluators for both methods was verified to demonstrate the efficiency of the procedures. Three trained evaluators took body measurements, each performing four replications per horse. A total of 10,944 biometric measurements were taken on twenty-four adult horses. The data was collected from 19 biometric measurements, and photographic images were captured with the purpose of performing measurements in these same anatomical points through the software. The results of this work demonstrated that there is a very high correlation between biometric measurements and photogrammetry for four metric measurements with values between 0.90 and 0.95 and for six measures of high correlation (0.73 to 0.86). Angular measurements showed the largest differences, with correlations ranging from negligible to high (0.29 to 0.81). It was concluded that the ImageJ® software is an alternative that can be used to obtain equine morphological data, due to the easy execution of data collection, as well as the fact that the software is free. Thus, this strategy can be used mainly by breeders who seek to form a database with zoometric information that is essential for equine genetic improvement.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Effect of enzymatically hydrolyzed scallop visceral protein powder used as
           a replacement of fish meal on the growth performance, immune responses,
           intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens
    • Authors: R.E. Xing; H.Y. Yang X.Q. Wang H.H. Liu X.L. Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R.E. Xing, H.Y. Yang, X.Q. Wang, H.H. Yu, S. Liu, X.L. Chen, P.C. Li
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using dietary supplemental enzymatically hydrolyzed scallop visceral protein (EHSVP) and scallop visceral protein (SV) to replace fishmeal with regard to the growth performance, carcass characteristics, immune response, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 300 1-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 5 cages per treatment and 10 broiler chickens per cage. The broiler chickens received a basal diet supplemented with 3% fishmeal or different concentrations of EHSVP (1, 2, and 3%) and SV (2 and 3%) treatments until d 42. Broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation exhibited a greater average daily weight gain (P < 0.05) and lower feed conversion ratio. The carcass yield, eviscerated yield, and leg muscle yield of broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation were increased (P < 0.05) and the abdominal fat rate was decreased compared with broiler chickens fed fishmeal diet (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation were increased the activities of digestive enzymes (P < 0.05); moreover, it inhibited colonization of E. coli and Salmonella pathogenic bacteria and increased the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05). For EHSVP and SV supplementation, especially 2% EHSVP, the length of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum as well as the weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa immune organs were increased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 2% EHSVP supplementation increased the villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio and decreased the crypt depth (P < 0.05), thereby improving intestinal development. In conclusion, as a fishmeal replacement, EHSVP supplementation can significantly improve growth performance, carcass characteristics, and weight of immune organs as well as promote the development of the small intestine. At the same time, supplementation can also significantly improve gut health and the intestinal microbial environment in broiler chickens. A diet with EHSVP supplementation is more effective in improving the growth performance, carcass characteristics, immune response, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens than SV. Therefore, fishmeal can be partially replaced by EHSVP.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not work synergistically with exogenous
           enzymes to enhance feed utilization, ruminal fermentation and lactational
           performance of Nubian goats
    • Authors: A.E. Kholif; M.M. Abdo U.Y. Anele M.M. El-Sayed T.A. Morsy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.E. Kholif, M.M. Abdo, U.Y. Anele, M.M. El-Sayed, T.A. Morsy
      The present study assessed the effect of in-feed doses of an exogenous enzyme preparation and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production performance, nutrient utilization, ruminal and blood serum measurements in goats. Sixteen lactating Nubian does (35.1 ± 0.8kg) were utilized in a quadruplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design over a period of 88 days. Enzymes and/or yeast were included in a basal diet (control treatment) at doses of 4g exogenous enzyme (EZ treatment), 4g yeast (SC treatment), or 8g of their mixture at 1:1 w/w (EZSC treatment). The EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.01) feed intake, milk yield, energy corrected milk, milk component yields, and feed efficiency. In addition, the EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.01) concentrations of milk total solids, solids excluding fat, fat, and lactose compared with the control treatment. Greater (P<0.05) nutrient digestibility and diet's total digestible nutrients, digestible crude protein, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy for lactation were observed with feeding EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments. In addition, greater (P<0.001) ruminal pH, and concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids were observed with feeding EZ, SC, and EZSC diets. The SC and EZSC treatments decreased (P<0.05) ruminal ammonia-N compared with EZ and control treatments. The EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.001) concentrations of blood total proteins, albumin, globulin, and glucose. As a result, it is concluded that in-feed dose of exogenous enzymes or yeast at 4g/doe/d will enhance feed intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk yield and composition in lactating Nubian does. Mixing the exogenous enzyme with the yeast did not show any synergistic effect.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Genetic basis of Lipomatous Myopathy in Piedmontese beef cattle
    • Authors: Peletto M.G.; Strillacci M.T. Capucchio Biasibetti Modesto P.L. Acutis Bagnato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Peletto, M.G. Strillacci, M.T. Capucchio, E. Biasibetti, P. Modesto, P.L. Acutis, A. Bagnato
      In Piedmontese cattle breed, the sporadic detection of Lipomatous Myopathy (LM) has been reported. The phenotypic disease expression consists in degeneration and infiltration of the muscular tissue characterized by replacement of myofibers with adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of genetic loci associated with lipomatous myopathy in Piedmontese cattle breed through a genome wide association study based on a DNA pooling design. The samples used for the study were collected from a meat cutting plant, pairing cases and controls within farms. Samples of different muscles (diaphragm, superficial and deep pectoral, intercostal, sternocleidomastoid group and vastus lateralis) were histopathologically and enzymatically classified as cases and controls. DNA pools of cases and controls were constructed. Equal amounts of DNA were pooled from individuals for the constitution of 4 pools (2 independent biological replicates for cases and 2 for controls). Technical duplicates were also built and all pools genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip three time each, for a total of 24 chip array positions. SNPs positions were based on the UMB 3.1 bovine assembly. The B-allele frequencies (BAF) for each array replicate were used in a specific pipeline in R software to perform multiple marker tests after excluding the 5% of SNPs showing the highest BAF variability from the replicate arrays within tail, as well as the monomorphic SNPs. A total of 41 QTLRs were identified on the 29 bovine autosomes, and 4 on the X chromosome. A subset of the identified markers fall inside or nearby genes involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis and cell to cell adhesions. The biological role of these genes in the onset of lipomatous myopathy has been identified looking at the known functions of the encoded proteins on the GeneCards database. Gene networks have been identified using STRING.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Methane emissions from non-lactating pregnant dairy cows while grazing
    • Authors: Conrad Ferris; Haopeng Jiao Stephen Murray Alan Gordon Alistair Carson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Conrad P. Ferris, Haopeng Jiao, Stephen Murray, Alan W. Gordon, Alistair F. Carson
      There is little information on methane (CH4) emissions from non-lactating pregnant dairy cattle when grazing. To address this issue, enteric CH4 emissions were estimated from a total of 68 non-lactating pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle during three successive years (23, 22 and 23 cows in year 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Cows used in these studies ranged from 19 – 69 days prior to their actual calving date when measurements commenced. Methane emissions were measured using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technique over six consecutive 24-hour periods, with measurements commencing 28 August, 16 September and 15 September during years 1 – 3, respectively. Cows were given access to fresh grazing on the first and fourth day of the measurement period, but were not offered a concentrate supplement. Across the three years of the experiment mean CH4 emissions were 216g/cow/day and 25.2g/kg dry matter intake. Emission increased with increasing lactation number, from 200 (1st lactation) to 228 (>2nd lactation) g/day. Relationships between individual cow body weight and methane emissions (R2 = 0.17) and estimates of intakes for individual cows and CH4 emissions (R2 = 0.21) were poor.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Effects of dry whey powder alone or combined with calcium butyrate on
           productive performance, duodenal morphometry, nutrient digestibility, and
           ceca bacteria counts of broiler chickens
    • Authors: C. Pineda-Quiroga; R. Atxaerandio; R. Ruiz; A. García-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Pineda-Quiroga, R. Atxaerandio, R. Ruiz, A. García-Rodríguez
      Prebiotics and organic acids have been proposed as safe additives in poultry feeding to promote performance and health. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of supplementing corn-soybean diets of broiler chickens with dry whey powder (WP), fat-coated calcium butyrate (CaB), and a mixture of both on apparent ileal digestibility (AID), pH of gastrointestinal content at various segments, productive performance, duodenal histomorphometry, and ceca microbial counts. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 WP inclusion rates (0 and 60g/kg of diet) and 2 CaB rates (0 and 1g/kg of diet). One-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to floor pens and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. In Trial 1, 120 broiler chickens were allocated to 4 treatments with 3 pens per treatment and 10 broiler chickens per pen during 21 d. With the addition of WP, the AID of dry matter, crude protein, Ca, and P increased, and cecum pH decreased only when CaB was also added (CaB × WP, P < 0.046). In Trial 2, 1,200 broiler chickens were allocated to the 4 treatments with 10 pens per treatment and 30 broiler chickens per pen during 42 d. With the dietary supplementation of WP, average daily gain and feed intake of broiler chickens increased during starter, grower-finisher periods, and the entire feeding period only when CaB was also added (P < 0.047). However, with addition of WP, feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased in broiler chickens fed the diet without CaB, but it increased in those fed with CaB during the grower-finisher and entire feeding periods (P < 0.001). Duodenal histomorphometry measurements were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin stains, and cecal microbial counts were determined by selective culture media. With the addition of WP, villus height, villus height to crypt depth ratio, and villus surface area were increased only when CaB was also added (CaB × WP, P < 0.017), while the supplementation of WP increased Bifidobacterium spp. counts only when CaB was not added (CaB × WP, P = 0.049). Results obtained in the present study indicate that the supplementation of WP without CaB addition improved the FCR of broiler chickens. However, the supplementation of WP together with CaB improve duodenal development, increases nutrient AID, and the weight and ingestion of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.001
       
  • Dietary supplementation with Lonicera macranthoides leaf powder enhances
           growth performance and muscle growth of Chinese Tibetan pigs
    • Authors: Z.Y. Wang; Y.H. Duan; F.N. Li; B.C. Yang; J.X. Zhang; S.Z. Hou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Z.Y. Wang, Y.H. Duan, F.N. Li, B.C. Yang, J.X. Zhang, S.Z. Hou
      This study was conducted to explore the effects of dietary supplementation with Lonicera macranthoides leaf (LML) on growth performance and muscle growth of Chinese Tibetan pigs. L. macranthoides leaves were harvested, air-dried, and milled to powder. Ninety-six pigs with an average initial body weight of 5.03 ± 0.24kg were randomly assigned into four groups (24 pigs per group) in a completely randomized design according to the body weight. Pigs were fed either a basal diet with no supplement (control), or a diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% of LML powder. Results showed that dietary supplementation with 1.5% powder increased ADG and lean percentage, improved the gain:feed ratio, and lowered the incidence of diarrhea in Tibetan pigs (P < 0.05), compared with the control group. Moreover, dietary supplementation with 1.0% and 1.5% powder increased the concentration of several free amino acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle and the mRNA expression of selected AA transporters, significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes related to muscle growth (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested that the dietary level of LML powder within the range of 1.0%~1.5% would facilitate the absorption and utilization of free AA, thus improving muscle growth and growth performance of Chinese Tibetan pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.026
       
  • Nanotechnology-based selection of boar spermatozoa: growth development and
           health assessments of produced offspring
    • Authors: Casey L. Durfey; Derris D. Burnett; Shengfa F. Liao; Christy S. Steadman; Mark A. Crenshaw; Henry J Clemente; Scott T. Willard; Peter L. Ryan; Jean M. Feugang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Casey L. Durfey, Derris D. Burnett, Shengfa F. Liao, Christy S. Steadman, Mark A. Crenshaw, Henry J Clemente, Scott T. Willard, Peter L. Ryan, Jean M. Feugang
      The heterogeneous population of spermatozoa within the semen ejaculate influences the sire fertility. The current design of magnetic nanoparticle conjugates allows for selective targeting and removal of non-viable spermatozoa within the semen ejaculate. However, the safe application of this process, termed as nanoselection or nanopurification in previous studies, in food animal production and toxicity concerns has yet to be explored. Here, we assessed the fertility potential of nanoselected boar spermatozoa and the subsequent post-natal growth and health characteristics of resulting offspring. Semen doses were harvested from three fertile boars (n=4 doses per boar) and split in two groups (2 doses/boar). Six semen doses (2 per boar)) were subjected to the targeted depletion of acrosome membrane damaged and apoptotic spermatozoa (nanoselected). Meanwhile, the remaining semen doses (n=6) were maintained in the shipping Styrofoam box (control). The motility characteristics of both control and nanoselected spermatozoa were evaluated before and after nanoselection, followed by their use for double inseminations of six estrus synchronized gilts (2 doses/boar/gilt; 3 gilts /control or nanoselected). In comparison to the controls, the computer-assisted sperm analyzer (Hamilton-Thorne) revealed greater motion characteristics of nanoselected spermatozoa, with a significantly higher proportion of progressive spermatozoa and straightness (P<0.05). The fertility potential of nanoselected spermatozoa was not compromised, and produced offspring showed growth rates and weight gains at market that were comparable to their counterparts born from control spermatozoa (P>0.05). Various developmental and health parameters of produced offspring such as hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activities, blood glucose and immunoglobulin G concentrations, hematocrit, and white blood cell proportions were similar between and across all pigs (control and nanoselected). In addition, reproductive tracts of females born from nanoselected spermatozoa showed no indication of impaired fertility potential, although a significant shortened uterine horn length was measured (56.3±2.6cm vs. 64.4±2.2cm in the control group, P=0.04). In conclusion, findings revealed no obvious perturbations of sperm function following nanoselection, while post-natal growth, development, or health data of derived offspring suggest absence of inflicted sub-lethal toxicities attributable to sperm nanoselection. This study supports the safe use of the proposed nanotechnology-based selection for effective semen handling in terminal line swine production systems.

      PubDate: 2017-10-01T17:11:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.024
       
  • Estimation of economic values for traits of pig breeds in different
           breeding systems: II. Model application to a three-way crossing system
    • Authors: Krupa
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 205
      Author(s): E. Krupa, Z. Krupová, M. Wolfová, E. Žáková
      The objective of this study is to apply the bioeconomic model described in a companion study (see Wolfová et al., 2017) for the calculation of the economic weights of traits of pig breeds involved in the three-way crossing system of The Czech National Program for Pig Breeding. Dam breeds, Czech Large White (CLW) in the dam position and Czech Landrace (CL) in the sire position, and sire breed, Pietrain (PN), were chosen for the calculation. The most common integrated production system was modeled with artificial insemination of gilts and sows, using boars only for estrus stimulation. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of age and were reared in a nursery until the age of 84 days. All replacement gilts and boars were reared within the breeding system. The greatest part of the surplus female and male pigs was finished to a fixed slaughter weight; a small percentage was sold as piglets after nursery or as breeding gilts and boars. Economic weights of 14 production and functional traits were calculated for all three breeds, taking into account the number of gene expressions for these traits transmitted by selected animals through one generation of their progeny in all links of the breeding system. As expected, maternal traits were more important than growth and carcass traits in maternal breeds than in the sire breed. However, the relative economic importance of maternal versus growth and carcass traits differed between the dam breeds. For example, the ratio of the economic weights for the number of piglets born alive and lifetime daily gain of finished animals was 103:1 for the CLW and 92:1 for the CL breed. The ratio for the PN breed was 3.4:1. Moreover, the economic importance of functional traits in comparison to growth traits was higher in dam breeds than in the sire breed, (e.g., the ratios of economic weights for sow productive life and daily gain in finishing were 31:1, 27:1, and 1.3:1 for the CLW, CL, and PN, respectively). The results for sow and progeny structure, animal performance, feed requirement, and economic characteristics obtained for the three breeds were in good accordance with the real situations as reported by Czech pig enterprises. This points out that the developed model can be used for the economic evaluation of pig production systems and for the calculation of economic weights of pig traits.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:05:17Z
       
  • Validating porcine SCD haplotype effects on fatty acid desaturation and
           fat deposition in different genetic backgrounds
    • Authors: Ana I. Fernández; Cristina Óvilo; Carmen Barragán; M. Carmen Rodríguez; Luis Silió; Josep Maria Folch; Almudena Fernández
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ana I. Fernández, Cristina Óvilo, Carmen Barragán, M. Carmen Rodríguez, Luis Silió, Josep Maria Folch, Almudena Fernández
      Fatty acid composition and fat desaturation have profound effects on meat quality. One of the major enzymes participating in fatty acid metabolism is the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), which is the key enzyme involved in the fatty acid desaturation, in particular in the synthesis of C18:1 from C18:0 and C16:1 from C16:0. Previous studies have reported a likely causal SCD haplotype (g.2108C>T, g.2228T>C, g.2281A>G) determining desaturation potential in Duroc-based populations. In the current study we have evaluated the effects of SCD polymorphisms on fatty acid desaturation and SCD gene expression in muscle and subcutaneous fat in three experimental backcrosses and validated these effects in a Chinese-European hybrid pigs. In addition, we have evaluated the joint effects of SCD polymorphisms and major mutations (LEPR c.1987C>T, RYR1c.1843C>T, MC4Rc.1426A>G) previously reported to be involved in porcine fat deposition and fatty acids metabolism, in order to clarify SCD polymorphisms’ actual effects. The obtained results from association and gene expression analyses support the SCD haplotype effects on fatty acid desaturation, and moreover on fat atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It also reveals potential effects on intramuscular fat content, not previously reported, likely conditional on breed fatness status. Moreover, a new polymorphism, g.2520G>A, that could impact splicing and SCD translation and which appears in complete linkage disequilibrium with the causal SCD haplotype, has been here identified. In addition, the conducted joint analyses of SCD with LEPR, RYR1 and MC4R genetic variants show complex gene relations that could hamper the discrimination of specific gene effects and the success of selection strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:05:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.021
       
  • A longitudinal field study investigating the association between teat-end
           shape and two minute milk yield, milking unit-on time, and time in low
           flow rate
    • Authors: M. Wieland; D.V. Nydam; P.D. Virkler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Wieland, D.V. Nydam, P.D. Virkler
      Data from electronic milk meters that measure milking characteristics have been used to monitor and improve parlor efficiency. However, the variability within them and associated cow characteristics such as teat-end shape have not been investigated by rigorous methods. Our primary objective was to investigate the association of teat-end shape (TES) and the milking characteristics: two minute milk yield (2MIN), milking unit-on time (DUR), and time in low flow rate (LOW). The secondary objective was to determine which of cow, day, and milking time (i.e., 1st, 2nd, and 3rd milking session of each day) contributes most of the variation in 2MIN, DUR, and LOW. In a longitudinal field study 284,601 milking observations from 3,312 cows were analyzed from a commercial dairy herd. Cows were milked thrice daily. Teat-end shape was classified into 3 categories: pointed, flat, and round. Udder level milking characteristics were gathered using on-farm milk meters. Three-level null models were generated to determine the variance components present at the different levels. Cow, day, and milking time attributed 84%, 2%, and 14%; 78%, 2%, and 20%; and 21%, 5%, and 74% to the variation in 2MIN, DUR, and LOW, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed differences in 2MIN [least squares means ± standard errors (LSM ± SE)] among cows with different TES: 6.4 ± 0.1; 7.3 ± 0.1; and 6.7 ± 0.1kg in cows with pointed, flat, and round TES, respectively. There was an interaction between TES and milking mode such that DUR was shortest for cows with flat [LSM ± SE (229 ± 3s)] TES when milked on automatic take-off compared with cows with pointed (248 ± 3s) and round (243 ± 1s) TES, but was not different when milking clusters were detached manually. Time in low flow rate was lowest in cows with flat [LSM, 95%CI (10.3, 9.9–10.7s)] TES when milked on automatic take-off compared with cows with pointed (11.4, 11.1–11.7s) and round (11.5, 11.4–11.6s) TES, whereas LOW was highest in cows with flat (30.2, 27.5–33.2s) TES compared with cows with pointed (19.0, 18.0–20.1s) and round (19.7, 19.1–20.2s) TES when milking clusters were detached manually. Different milking machine settings and milking routine such as limiting the employment of manual milking mode for cows with different teat-end shape might have the potential to increase parlor efficiency and decrease potentially harmful effects of machine milking on teat tissue condition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.011
       
  • Genomic differentiation as a tool for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
           prioritization for Genome wide association and phenotype prediction in
           livestock
    • Authors: Sajjad Toghiani; Ling-Yun Chang; Ashley Ling; Sammy E. Aggrey; Romdhane Rekaya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sajjad Toghiani, Ling-Yun Chang, Ashley Ling, Sammy E. Aggrey, Romdhane Rekaya
      Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in detecting associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypic variation and in identifying several causative mutations. However, SNPs with significant association identified using GWAS tend to explain only small fraction of the phenotypic variations. GWAS are affected by lack of power due to small sample size, large numbers of highly correlated markers, and the moderate to small effects of most quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This situation is further complicated by the continuous increase in marker density, especially with the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The latter generates an unprecedented number of marker variants, with a complex linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure limiting the advantage and adequacy of existing methods that internally try to prioritize (filter) SNPs (e.g. BayesB, and BayesR). Consequently, it is becoming necessary to either filter SNPs before conducting the association analysis or to enlist additional sources of information. Methods that include biological prior information (e.g. BayesRC) are limited by the amount and quality of available prior information. Knowledge of genetic diversity based on evolutionary forces is beneficial for tracking loci influenced by selection. The fixation index (FST), as a measure of allele frequency variation among sub-populations, provides a tool to reveal genomic regions under selection pressure. In order to evaluate its usefulness as an additional source of information, a simulation was carried out. A trait with heritability of 0.4 was simulated and three subpopulations were created based on the empirical phenotypic distribution (< 5% quantile; > 95% quantile; and between 5 and 95% quantiles). Marker data was simulated to mimic a bovine chip of 600K, 1 million, and 3 million SNP marker panels. Genetic complexity of the trait was modelled by the number of QTLs, their distribution, and the magnitude of their effects. Using different empirical cut off values for FST, most QTLs were correctly detected using as few as 2.5% of SNP markers in the panels. Furthermore, the genomic similarity, calculated based on the selected SNPs, was very high (>0.80) for individuals with similar genetic and phenotypic values despite having limited to no pedigree relationship. These results indicate that filtering SNPs using FST could be beneficial for use in GWAS by focusing on genome regions under selection pressure. High functional genomic similarity based on selected markers indicates similarity in SNP signatures, regardless of relatedness, and translates into high phenotypic correlation that could be used in decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.007
       
  • Genetic analysis for farrowing rate and litter size for Landrace and
           Yorkshire sows in South China
    • Authors: Xiujin Li; Shuihua Xie; Xiaohong Liu; Yaosheng Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Xiujin Li, Shuihua Xie, Xiaohong Liu, Yaosheng Chen
      Farrowing rate (FR) and litter size (LS) are economically important traits that directly affect the number of weaned piglets per sow per year. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and calculate genetic trends for FR and LS at birth in herds of Landrace and Yorkshire sows in South China. We analyzed 16,451 Landrace sows with 58,091 observations and 33,953 Yorkshire sows with 101,486 observations for FR, and we analyzed 15,079 Landrace sows with 47,831 litters and 31,470 Yorkshire sows with 83,974 litters for LS traits. We used a single-trait threshold model to analyze FR. A joint multi-trait linear-threshold model was used to analyze three LS traits simultaneously: total number of piglets born (NBT), number of piglets born alive (NBA), and number of piglets born dead (NBD). Estimated heritability values for FR were 0.112±0.012 in Landrace and 0.120±0.010 in Yorkshire sows. For the three LS traits, the highest heritability was estimated for NBT, followed by NBA and NBD in both breeds, with values ranging from 0.044±0.004 to 0.109±0.008 in Landrace and from 0.039±0.004 to 0.108±0.007 in Yorkshire. Estimated correlations between NBT and NBA ranged from 0.861±0.018 to 0.949±0.010 in Landrace and from 0.895±0.009 to 0.933±0.009 in Yorkshire for random additive genetic effects, random permanent effects, and random service sire effects. Estimates of correlations between NBT and NBD ranged from −0.010±0.092 to 0.353±0.058 in Landrace and from 0.253±0.065 to 0.516±0.044 in Yorkshire. Estimates of correlations between NBA and NBD were not significantly different from 0 in either population, except for additive genetic effects in Yorkshire sows (0.267±0.059). Among the genetic trends, NBT and NBA showed persistent improvements in both breeds, whereas NBD shows no apparent improvement in either population. Genetic trends for FR showed slight declines over time in both populations. The estimated genetic parameters suggest the possibility of improving these reproductive traits by selection. Our results confirm that the selection criterion for LS should be NBA rather than NBT. Despite its low effect, the effect of service sire should be included as a random effect in the statistical model. Finally, due to the genetic downtrend for FR, this trait should be included in future pig breeding goals in South China.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T19:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.008
       
  • The effects of pre-transport supplementation with electrolytes and betaine
           on performance, carcass yield and meat quality of broilers in summer and
           winter
    • Authors: J.A. Downing; M.J. Kerr; D.L. Hopkins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.A. Downing, M.J. Kerr, D.L. Hopkins
      The consequences of high ambient temperature for broiler chickens collectively results in poorer productivity, prostration and even death. As they approach processing weight, broilers are particularly sensitive to heat stress as they produce large amounts of metabolic heat. Transport from farm to the processing site is a stress for broilers. So, the combination of high ambient temperature prior to transport and the stress associated with transport to processing have unwanted effects on broiler performance and meat quality. In two experiments (summer and winter) the effect of supplementing the water of Ross-308 broiler chickens with electrolytes, with or without betaine for 2 days before processing, on performance and breast muscle meat quality were investigated. In the summer experiment broilers were exposed to a cyclic high temperature protocol over the two days (9 h at 28-29°C and 14 h at 22-24°C). In the winter experiment the shed temperature ranged between 14-18°C. The growth performance of birds during supplementation and then the breast muscle meat quality 24-72 h post-mortem were determined. In both experiments betaine had no effect on any performance or meat quality measure and the electrolyte supplementation had no effect on growth performance. In the summer experiment, electrolyte supplementation had significant effects on some measures of meat quality. Breast muscle from supplemented birds had lower 24 h post-mortem pH and based on meat ‘lightness’, lower levels of PSE meat. The 72 h drip loss was significantly lower in meat from birds that had been supplemented with electrolytes. The electrolyte supplements had no effects on meat ‘redness’ or ‘yellowness’, on shear force or cooking losses. In the winter experiment, the electrolyte supplementation had no effect on growth performance or breast muscle meat quality. In this experiment, the average shed temperature was approximately 16°C with peak values of approximately 18°C. The growth rate of the birds was approximately 40% higher than that identified in industry performance standards for the Ross-308 strain. The data suggest that the temperature for best performance of the Ross-308 is lower than the 18-24°C currently accepted as ideal. In all experiments there were significant effects of bird gender on performance and meat quality measures. While electrolyte supplementation supported improvements in meat quality during periods of moderately high ambient temperature, the commercial benefit of these would need to be assessed. The value of electrolyte supplementation is likely to be more substantial when broiler chickens experience heat wave conditions with temperatures > 32°C, but this remains to be evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.006
       
  • How do stocking density and straw provision affect fouling in
           conventionally housed slaughter pigs'
    • Authors: Mona Lilian Vestbjerg Larsen; Maja Bertelsen; Lene Juul Pedersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mona Lilian Vestbjerg Larsen, Maja Bertelsen, Lene Juul Pedersen
      The aim of the study was to investigate when fouling appears in conventionally housed slaughter pigs and whether stocking density and straw provision are risk factors to fouling. During four batches of a total of 112 pens with slaughter pigs, pens were randomly assigned to one level of each of two treatments: (1) 150g of straw provided per pig per day on the solid floor (n=56) v. no straw provided (n=56), (2) stocking density of 1.21 (n=56) v. 0.73m2/pig (n=56). Fouling was recorded each day, and a pen had an event of fouling if at least half of the solid floor was wet with excreta and/or urine. Only the first event of fouling for each pen was included, and thus results represent whether a pen had a fouling event or not and when it happened. Data was analysed by using a Cox regression assuming proportional hazard and with right censoring of pens that never developed fouling. First event of fouling was mostly seen during the first week after insertion and in the last 3 weeks prior to slaughter (10 week study period). Pens with high stocking density had a 90% higher hazard of fouling compared to pens with low stocking density (P=0.016), meaning that pens with a high stocking density had a higher risk of fouling and of developing it earlier. Pens with straw provided had a 49% higher hazard of fouling compared to pens with no straw provided (P=0.14). No interaction was seen between stocking density and straw provision (P=0.80). In conclusion, stocking density was a significant risk factor of fouling, whereas straw provision only indicated this numerically within the used experimental setup and chosen sample size. The results suggest that lowering the stocking density to a level of around 1.21m2/pig could reduce the risk of fouling in slaughter pigs. The relationship between fouling and straw provision needs further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.005
       
  • Recognition and drinking behaviour analysis of individual pigs based on
           machine vision
    • Authors: Wei-xing Zhu; Yi-zheng Guo; Peng-peng Jiao; Chang-hua Ma; Chen Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Wei-xing Zhu, Yi-zheng Guo, Peng-peng Jiao, Chang-hua Ma, Chen Chen
      Water consumption by individual pigs can be an interesting indicator of their health. A method using machine vision is proposed to (a) recognise the presence of an individual pig within the drinking zone and (b) analyse the vision images to determine if the pig is drinking. First, isolation of an individual pig within the drinking zone is extracted from the topview of the set of video sequences for group-housed pigs. Next, the distance between the individual pig and the drink nipple is calculated and used to determine whether the individual pig is in contact with the drink nipple. If yes, the colour moments, area, perimeter and other features of the pig are extracted. Then the features are normalised. The individual pig is recognised by computing the Euclidean distance between the pig and the standard sample. The contact time between an individual pig and the drink nipple is used to determine whether the pig is drinking. The pigsty contains 7 pigs and is monitored in real-time, and 140 video clips containing images of the individual pigs while drinking are captured. The correct (drinking) recognition rate for individual pigs is 90.7%. Our method differs from traditional methods in that it avoids any disturbance to the pigs, and it can be used for the recognition of individual pigs within a stress-free environment. Our results can provide a reference point and direction for exploration of other behaviours of topview group-housed pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-12T22:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.003
       
  • Relationship between residual feed intake and carcass composition, meat
           quality and size of small intestine in a population of F2 chickens
    • Authors: Hakimeh Emamgholi Begli; Rasoul Vaez Torshizi; Ali Akbar Masoudi; Alireza Ehsani; Just Jensen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Hakimeh Emamgholi Begli, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi, Ali Akbar Masoudi, Alireza Ehsani, Just Jensen
      Feed represent about 70% of the total costs in poultry production. These costs can be reduced by improving feed efficiency through genetic selection. Selection for improving feed efficiency may have correlated effects on other economically important traits such as carcass composition and meat quality. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the breeding values of cumulative residual feed intake (RFI) and carcass weight, carcass compositions, meat quality, and size of small intestines in chicken. The population studied was an F2 derived from a cross between an Arian fast-growing broiler line and Iranian native fowl. Individual feed intake and body weight measured every week from 2 to 12 weeks and carcass and meat quality traits were assessed after slaughtering at 12 weeks of age. Breeding values for cumulative RFI (RFIBV) were calculated using a quadratic spline with four knots and heterogeneous residual variance. Traits were analyzed using analysis of covariance with a model including RFIBV and sex. No significant relationship was observed between RFIBV with live body weight and eviscerated carcass weight (P > 0.05). RFIBV had negative association with breast muscle percentage, gizzard percentage and Ultimate pH of breast meat (P < 0.05). A positive relationship existed between RFIBV and abdominal fat percentage, skin percentage, lightness and yellowness of breast muscle color. No significant relationship was detected between RFIBV and back and neck, wing, liver, lung, spleen bursa and heart percentages. Also a non-significant association was observed between RFIBV and cooking loss percentage, shear force, drip loss percentage and small intestinal morphometric measurements. In general, the results suggest that selection on RFI will improve the feed efficiency of chickens without impairing carcass compositions and meat quality characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T22:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.001
       
  • Does supplementation during previous phase influence performance during
           the growing and finishing phase in Nellore cattle'
    • Authors: M.T.P. Roth; F.D. de Resende; I.M. de Oliveira; R.M. Fernandes; L. Custódio; G.R. Siqueira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.T.P. Roth, F.D. de Resende, I.M. de Oliveira, R.M. Fernandes, L. Custódio, G.R. Siqueira
      In Brazil, the beef cattle are widely raised in pasture post weaning, but the supplementation has been studied only in individual phases of the animal's growth curve. Therefore, the objective of this study was evaluated the nutritional interrelationship between the growing and finishing phases in the performance of Nellore bulls. Eighty-four weaned calves (body weight [BW] = 205 ± 4.7kg; 8 months) raised on pasture during the growing phase (dry season, summer and autumn) and finished in feedlot were used. The experiment was conducted as a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 1) two supplements levels in the dry season (protein [1g/kg BW/day - PR1] or protein-energy [3g/kg BW/day - PE] supplement); 2) two supplement levels in summer (mineral supplement [ad libitum - MS] or protein supplement [1g/kg BW/day - PR2]); and three supplement levels in autumn (MS, PR2 or PE). The animals were finished with a common diet. The dry season supplementation affected the average daily gain (ADG) in the summer (P < 0.05). In summer, animals fed MS had a greater ADG when fed PR1 in the previous (dry) season than those receiving PE (0.696 vs. 0.581kg, P < 0.01); while, no difference in ADG was observed when the animals received PR2 (0.815kg, P = 0.99). In autumn, animals fed PR2 in the previous (summer) season exhibited 11.3% lower ADG than those supplemented with MS (0.503 vs. 0.567kg, P < 0.01), regardless of the autumn supplementation. Dry season supplementation did not affect the ADG during finishing phase (0.909kg, P = 0.14). The animals fed PR2 in the summer and PE in the autumn had tendency of lower ADG during the feedlot (P = 0.06) compared with animals fed MS, however, they were finished 20 d earlier (P = 0.06). In conclusion, to provide PE in the dry season, followed by MS in the summer is not recommended, because this strategy reduces the ADG. In addition, dry season supplementation does not affect the ADG during finishing phase, while supply supplements of greater nutritional value in autumn reduces feedlot period.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.019
       
  • Effects of intermittent cold stimulation on antioxidant capacity and mRNA
           expression in broilers
    • Authors: Jianhong Li; Fangfang Huang; Xiang Li; Yingying Su; Huitang Li; Jun Bao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jianhong Li, Fangfang Huang, Xiang Li, Yingying Su, Huitang Li, Jun Bao
      In this study, the effects of intermittent cold stress on the antioxidant capacity and antioxidant-related gene expression in broilers were examined. AA broilers were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was kept in a normal thermal environment. Treatment groups I, II, and III were maintained at 3°C, 5°C, and 7°C lower than the control group, respectively, for 6-h periods at intervals of 2 days from 22 days of age to 42 days of age. At 35 days of age, the antioxidant indexes of group I and the control group were higher than those of groups II and III (P < 0.05). At 42 days of age, the activities of TAOC and GSH-Px were higher in group I than in the control group, group II and III. The activities of TSOD and CAT were higher in group I than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). The TAOC activity of all treatment groups increased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age. (P < 0.05). The GSH-Px activity of group I and the CAT activity of group III increased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). The GSH-Px activity of group II and the control group and the CAT activity of group II decreased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). At 35 days of age, mRNA expression levels of SOD were lower in all treatment groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). At 42 days of age, mRNA expression levels of SOD were higher in group I and the control group than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). At 35 days of age, GSH-PX expression was lower in groups II and III than in the control group and group I (P < 0.05), but did not differ between group I and the control group (P > 0.05). At 42 days of age, GSH-Px expression was higher in the control than in groups II and III (P < 0.05) and higher in group I than in the control (P < 0.05). SOD expression in all treatment groups increased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). GSH-Px expression in the control group and groups II and III decreased from 35 days of age to 42 days of age (P < 0.05). The influence of intermittent cold treatment on SOD and GSH-Px expression was consistent with SOD and GSH-Px activities. These results suggested that the influence of cold on antioxidant capacity is related to gene transcription regulation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.004
       
  • Parentage assignment using SNP markers, inbreeding and population size for
           the Brazilian Red Sindhi cattle
    • Authors: João Cláudio do C. Panetto; Marco Antonio Machado; Marcos Vinicius G.B. da Silva; Rosangela Silveira Barbosa; Glaucyana Gouveia dos Santos; Ricardo de M.H. Leite; Maria Gabriela C.D. Peixoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): João Cláudio do C. Panetto, Marco Antonio Machado, Marcos Vinicius G.B. da Silva, Rosangela Silveira Barbosa, Glaucyana Gouveia dos Santos, Ricardo de M.H. Leite, Maria Gabriela C.D. Peixoto
      Brazilian Red Sindhi was originated from a very small number of founders and showed a consistent growth during the last three decades. One relevant herd was kept without proper birth recording and the reconstruction of parentage was possible for this herd through the use of a panel with 3,894 SNP markers. Pedigree errors were also identified and corrected for animals sampled in various herds distributed in different Brazilian regions. A panel containing 71 SNP markers was indicated as the minimum number for the effective parentage verification within the Red Sindhi population in Brazil. Corrected genealogy was used for the description of inbreeding and effective population size, which was accessed with the paired increases in coancestry approach. Average inbreeding was high (F=9.03%) for 15,217 inbred animals (54.1% of the total). Nevertheless, a trend of decrease with time was observed for this parameter with the average individual increases in inbreeding approach ( ∆ F i ) . This population went through a bottleneck during the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, reaching a minimum population size of N e = 55.8 6. After that period, a consistent increase in the number of breeders and animals has raised the effective population size to the current value of N e = 87.55 .

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T22:15:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.08.008
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.81.131.189
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016