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Journal Cover Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.715]   [H-I: 69]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Multi-trait animal model estimation of genetic parameters for morphometric
           measurements in the Murgese horse breed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Grazia Bramante, Anna Maria Cito, Elena Ciani, Elisa Pieragostini
      The Murgese is a baroque-type horse breed from Southern Italy that is currently experiencing growing interest both at local and international level. The aim of the present work was to investigate the morphological evolution of withers height (WH), chest girth (CG) and cannon bone circumference (CBC) over the last four decades by using linear regression analysis, and to use a multiple-trait animal model with fixed effects (herd, sex, birth year) to estimate genetic parameters for the above traits in the Murgese horse population. A significant increase of WH (only in males), and decrease of CG and CBC over the considered period was observed, though no remarkable trend in genetic gain was observed for the above traits. Hereditability estimates were 0.27 (WH), 0.31 (CG) and 0.24 (CBC). Genetic correlations ranged 0.641 (CG x WH) to 0.709 (CG x CBC). The obtained results suggest that phenotypic selection has not had so far a large impact on the Murgese morphology, whose evolution over the last four decades seems more likely attributable to improvement in management practices. According with the obtained heritability estimates and the favourable genetic correlations, there is ground for the application of quantitative genetic selection for the considered morphometric traits.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:05:53Z
       
  • Influence of raw material on the occurrence of tail-biting in undocked
           pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Christina Veit, Imke Traulsen, Mario Hasler, Karl-Heinz Tölle, Onno Burfeind, Elisabeth grosse Beilage, Joachim Krieter
      The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of raw material provision on tail-biting outbreaks in long-tailed pigs. Two different substrates, dried corn silage (SG, n = 245) and alfalfa hay (AG, n = 245) were provided for the pigs twice per day from the second week of life until the end of rearing. The control of long-tailed pigs (CG, n = 231) were kept without the provision of additional raw material. Each tail was scored regarding tail lesions/tail losses once per week with a four-point score (0 = no damage/original length, 3 = severe damage/total loss). Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of rearing. The effect of week after weaning, the batch and the interaction between treatment group and batch had highly significant influences on tail lesions (p < 0.001). The main concentration of behavioural disorder took place in the rearing phase. Tail-biting started on average two to three weeks after weaning, followed by tail losses one to two weeks later. The effect of batch had a highly significant influence on tail losses at the end of rearing (p < 0.001). The number of tail losses decreased with the number of batches and ranged from 98.6% in batch one to 8.5% in batch ten. This can be explained by enhanced and more precise animal observation by stable staff and points out the learning process in the course of the study. At the end of rearing, piglets of all batches had lost their tails to the greatest extent in CGs (48.7%), followed by AGs (45.2%) and SGs (41.3%). There was no clear trend in total weight gain regarding the level of tail lesions and tail losses. Corn silage stayed attractive for the piglets during the whole observation period, whereas the acceptance of the alfalfa hay decreased towards the end of rearing. The daytime, the interaction between batch and day after weaning, as well as the interaction between treatment group and day after weaning had highly significant influences on the overall activity behaviour during rearing (p < 0.001). To summarise, the rearing of long-tailed pigs requires intensive animal observation and direct intervention in case of tail-biting outbreaks. A provision of raw material on the floor of the piglet nest (suckling period) and in a piglet bowl (rearing period) from the second week of life until the end of rearing cannot prevent tail-biting during rearing, but reduces the occurrence of the behavioural disorder in long-tailed pigs.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Comparison of gamma - irradiation and enzyme supplementation to eliminate
           antinutritional factors in rice bran in broiler chicken diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Khosravi, B. Dastar, M. Aalami, P. Shawrang, O. Ashayerizadeh
      A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation and enzyme supplementation of crude rice bran in broiler chicken diet and their effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal microbial population, and blood profile in broiler chickens. A total of 144 one - day - old Ross 308 broiler chickens were weighed and assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates (floor pen) of 12 broiler chickens per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet formulated to contain 15% crude rice bran (with or without enzyme supplementation) and the diet containing 15% gamma-irradiated rice bran. The chemical changes of crude and gamma-irradiated rice bran were determined before feeding experiment. At the end of the experiment (d 42), growth performance, ileum microflora, and blood profile in broiler chickens were determined. Proximate composition of rice bran was not affected by gamma irradiation, but the contents of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor decreased (up to 98%) (P < 0.05). The use of gamma-irradiated rice bran improved (P < 0.05) the body weight gain than crude rice bran. Moreover, broiler chickens on gamma-irradiated rice bran treatment had greater (14.9%) body weight gain compared to the enzyme supplementation. Although, none of the treatments had a major effect on the carcass percentage, the breast percentage (22.4%) increased (P < 0.05) because of the enzyme supplementation compared to those (18.5%) of broiler chickens on crude rice bran diet. The relative weight of liver and abdominal fat pad decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding of gamma - irradiated rice bran than the enzyme supplemented diet. Lower numbers (P < 0.05) of salmonella were found in the ileum of broiler chickens fed gamma-irradiated rice bran when compared to the use of the enzyme supplemented diet. Blood profile was not affected by the treatments. The results indicated that gamma irradiation could be a more effective method to reduce the content of antinutritional factors in crude rice bran than enzyme supplementation and improve growth performance and health of broiler chickens.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Core body temperature does not cool down with skin surface temperature
           during recovery at room temperature after acute heat stress exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Sapkota, A. Herr, J.S. Johnson, D.C. Lay
      Identifying new methods of assessing livestock welfare is a growing area of research. Non-invasive methods such as infrared thermography are valuable for quick and accurate observations and could be utilized to monitor the thermal status of swine without direct contact. The study objective was to determine if infrared thermography could be used as a non-invasive, hands-off approach to accurately monitor the welfare of swine by comparing changes in skin surface temperature (SST), core body temperature (CBT), behavior, and heart rate during acute heat stress (AHS) and subsequent recovery in thermoneutral (TN) conditions. In eight replications, 16 pigs (n = 8 barrows and 8 gilts) were subjected to AHS (39.3 ± 0.1°C) for 30 min followed by TN (20.6 ± 0.1°C) for 30 min. The SST, CBT, heart rate, and behavioral data were recorded throughout the entire experiment. During pre-treatment, ear base SST was greater (P < 0.01; 35.6 ± 0.3°C) than all other locations. The SST at all locations increased (P < 0.01) linearly with duration of AHS exposure. During TN, maximum CBT was greater (P < 0.01; 40.6 ± 0.1°C) compared to during AHS (40.3 ± 0.1°C). Pigs spent more time standing during AHS (P < 0.01) and tended (P = 0.10) to lie more during TN; however, heart rate (141 ± 2.3 beats per minute) was not affected by treatment or duration. In summary, rapid TN exposure after an AHS challenge reduces SST; however, CBT was actually increased and this may have implications towards reduced activity and increased organ damage.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype block structure in Limousin,
           Simmental and native Polish Red cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. Jasielczuk, A. Gurgul, T. Szmatoła, T. Ząbek, K. Pawlina, E. Semik, M. Bugno-Poniewierska
      The aim of this study was to characterize in detail linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and haplotype block structures in genomes of commercial Limousin (LM, n=201) and Simmental (SM, n=106) cattle and refer this data to the characteristics found in native unselected Polish Red (PR, n=299) cattle. A panel of 40,158 (LM), 40,117 (SM) and 42,118 (PR) high quality SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers from Illumina BovineSNP50 v2 BeadChip were utilized for the LD analysis based on the pairwise r2 statistic of SNPs at a distance up to 5Mb. The lower average r2 of 0.27 was observed in RP cattle at a short distance up to 25kb when compared to two other studied breeds (0.3 in both LM and SM). The minimum average values of r2 (0.01) were observed at the distances of 1500–3000kb in LM and 3000–5000kb in SM. In PR cattle LD persisted similarly as in SM cattle and the minimum average values of r2 (0.02) were observed at a distance of 3000–5000kb. The effects of minor allelic frequency threshold on the extent of LD was also evaluated by applying three different minimum MAF levels (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2). A total of 828 (LM), 667 (SM) and 761 (PR) haplotype block structures spanning 89,781kb (LM), 72,582kb (SM) and 70,647kb (PR) of the genome were detected. In total, 7.92% (LM), 6.43% (SM) and 6.52% (PR) of all SNPs formed blocks with a range of 2–15 SNPs per block in LM and SM breeds and 2–16 SNPs per block in PR cattle. Mean block lengths were slightly lower in RP cattle than in two other breeds and were estimated as 108.4±99kb, 108.8±97kb and 92.8±87 for LM, SM and PR respectively. For all studied breeds chromosome 1 showed the longest haplotype block structures in the genome, having 66 blocks spanning 8,120kb in LM, 57 blocks spanning 6,754kb in SM and 59 blocks spanning 5,920kb in PR. The results showed slightly faster LD decay in Polish Red cattle (especially at short distances) than in two other breeds and shorter haplotype block structures which may result from population demographic history, overall genetic diversity as well as extensive breeding applied in this breed.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing
           dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Katariina Manni, Marketta Rinne, Arto Huuskonen
      The objective of this experiment was to examine effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage, with digestible organic matter of 703g/kg dry matter (DM). The feeding experiment comprised of a total of 33 bulls (17 Holstein and 16 Nordic Red) with an initial mean live weight of 230kg and age of 200 days and a slaughter age of 566 days. During the feeding experiment the bulls were fed ad libitum either grass silage alone (GS) or a total mixed ration where contained rolled barley grain was added. Barley concentrations were either 300g/kg DM during the whole experiment (SC) or 600g/kg DM during only the early (DC) or late (IC) half of the growing period. When barley proportion was doubled in the diet during the early part of the growing period, it had no effect on the total DMI (SC vs. DC). Including barley in the diet during the late part of growing period increased barley intake by 30% (P< 0.05) compared to the other treatments where barley was given. Silage DM intake decreased on average by 27% (P< 0.05) when barley was included in the diet over the whole growing period (GS vs. others). Including barley in the diet during the late part of growing period increased LWG over the total growing period by 17% (P< 0.05) compared to the silage only treatment (IC vs. GS). When barley was included in the diet during the early part of the growing period, carcass fat score decreased by 20% (P< 0.05) compared to the treatment where barley was included in the diet during the late part of the growing period (DC vs. IC). Although good quality grass silage as a sole feed could support moderate to high levels of performance of growing cattle, including barley to the diet further improved the performance of animals. The present study demonstrated the ability of growing bulls to adapt to different feeding regimes without major effects on performance. This gives flexibility into choosing feeding strategies based on feed availability and prices resulting in potential benefits in the economy of beef production.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Expression of nerve growth factor in skin tissues and its effect on the
           proliferation of outer root sheath cells in cashmere goats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): W. Ma, H.X. Yang, L.M. Sun, H.Z. Jiang, C.Q. Wang, H. Tian, G.S Zhang
      Nerve growth factor (NGF) is widely expressed in the nervous system and best understood for its neuronal function. The present study was designed to describe the characteristics of hair follicles and the expression pattern of NGF and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor (TrkA), in the skin of Liaoning cashmere goats during hair follicle cycling. Results of hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that there was a high ratio of secondary to primary follicles, with more active secondary follicles during anagen phase than other phases. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot showed that both NGF and TrkA mRNA and protein levels were persistently detected in the skin tissue during hair follicle cycling. Furthermore, NGF and TrkA mRNA and protein levels during anagen were significantly higher than that during catagen. Using immunohistochemistry, the especially high immunoreactivities of TrkA in the outer root sheath (ORS) and NGF in the internal root sheath (IRS) and ORS were observed during anagen of hair follicles. Meanwhile, NGF and TrkA immunoreactivities were also observed in the epidermis of cashmere goats at similar expression levels as hair follicles. ORS cells were isolated from secondary follicle, and NGF treatment experiments were also studied. Result show that 20ng/mL or 100ng/mL NGF could significantly promote the proliferation of ORS cells in vitro, but the promotion could be blocked by the addition of 20ng/mL K252a, the inhibitor of TrkA. The present study indicates that NGF might be involved in the reconstruction and growth of hair follicles through TrkA tyrosine kinase dependent pathways.


      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
       
  • Use of different rooting materials to improve hygiene and to lower ammonia
           emissions within the outdoor concrete area in organic growing finishing
           pig production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Anne-Charlotte Olsson, Jos Botermans, Mats Andersson, Knut-Håkan Jeppsson, Christer Bergsten
      In organic pig production, pigs are often provided with concrete areas outdoors. These outdoor areas are frequently used for urination and defecation by the pigs, which results in high nitrogen emissions. This is inconsistent with the goal of organic farming to minimise the environmental impact of agricultural production.Introduction of a well-designed rooting yard with an optimal rooting material could possibly be a way to improve the conditions in the outdoor area. In an earlier study, we tested different designs of rooting yards.In the present study, we compared outdoor areas without enrichment (Reference, R) with outdoor areas with rooting yards filled with one of three different kinds of rooting material: wood shavings (W), peat (P) or peat + a small amount of pelleted feed (PF). In total, three batches (batch 1: Dec-April (winter/spring); batch 2:May-Sept (summer); batch 3: Oct-Jan (autumn/winter), in a research facility with eight pens of 16 pigs each, were studied. Data on performance and activity, hygiene and ammonia emissions in the outdoor area were used for the evaluation. No significant differences in performance were seen between treatments.The pigs found the rooting yards with rooting material outdoors attractive and pigs with rooting material outdoors tended to be outdoors more often than pigs in the reference pen. However, the differences were generally not significant, due to large variations. Hygiene outdoors was significantly better in the pens with rooting yards and rooting material than in the reference pen, but there were no significant differences depending on whether the rooting yards were filled with wood shavings,peat or peat with feed pellets. However, while the visual hygiene evaluations showed positive results for all rooting materials tested, the ammonia measurements did not show matching results. Instead, the ammonia emissions from the outdoor area were higher in pens with wood shavings in the rooting yards than in the reference pen. Thus introduction of a rooting yard with rooting material in the outdoor area in organic pig production can have positive results in terms of improved hygiene and reduced ammonia emissions if the rooting material consists of peat.Addition of small amounts of feed pellets in the peat, to make the rooting material more attractive to the pigs, did not give any great positive effect.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Variation of TMR Particle Size and Physical Characteristics in Commercial
           Iranian Holstein Dairies and Effects on Eating Behaviour, Chewing
           Activity, and Milk Production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Esmaieli, M. Khorvash, G.R. Ghorbani, S.M. Nasrollahi, M. Saebi
      Evidence is limited on the effect of physical form of total mixed rations (TMR) on management of group-housed dairy cows in commercial dairy herds. The objective of this study was to consider the variation of TMR particle size (PS) and physical characteristics in commercial dairies and its effects on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production. Fifteen dairy herds, feeding TMR, were each studied for 7 consecutive days. In each herd, a group of multiparous (3.5 ± 0.8 parity; mean ± SD), high producing cows (47 ± 4kg milk/d) in mid-lactation (109 ± 12 DIM) was studied. Herds were visited for 7 consecutive days for sampling fresh and refusal feed from the test group to assess particle size distribution, dry matter, and chemical composition. Chewing activity and milk production were monitored for the group. The 15 herds were divided to 3 classes according to geometric mean particle size of TMR: short, medium, and coarse, with average lengths of 4.6, 5.4, and 6.7 mm respectively. The classes were significantly different in geometric mean particle length (GMPL) and physically effective neutral detergent fibre1.18 (peNDF1.18) (P<0.01), but physically effective neutral detergent fibre8 (peNDF8) was similar between medium and coarse classes. Amount of TMR retained on the 19-mm sieve of Penn State Particle Separator was highest for dairy farms with medium GMPL (P<0.01). Diurnal changes in particle size of refusals and chewing activity were similar among classes; the only difference observed was that daily rumination activity in the medium class tended to be greater than for the short and coarse classes (P=0.10). Milk fat percentage and yield as well as fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) were higher in the classes with medium and coarse TMR PS (P<0.01). Although GMPL and peNDF1.18 of TMR were correlated (P<0.05) only with milk F:P (r = 0.53 and 0.64, respectively), peNDF8 was correlated (P<0.05) with both milk F:P (r = 0.56) and chewing activity (r = 0.60). The 19-mm TMR fraction was the only variable that correlated (P<0.05) with milk fat percentage (r = 0.51) along with a tendency to be correlated (P=0.09) with chewing time. Interestingly, grain percentage of TMR was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with both milk F:P (r = −0.58) and chewing time (r = −0.68). In conclusion, commercial dairy farms considered in this study had a high variation in TMR PS, and peNDF8 and the 19-mm fraction of the Penn State Particle Separator were good indicators for predicting bio-physical responses of cows.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Planimetric measurement as a method for scientific assessment of space
           requirements of young suckling piglets in the creep area
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Michaela Fels, Marie Danièle Sange, Nicole Kemper
      In recent years, litter sizes of pigs have continuously increased. In modern pig production, litters with up to 15 or even more piglets born alive are no longer an exception. However, the size of heated creep areas, in which the piglets can retire to rest, has not yet been adapted to the increasing number of piglets per litter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the space requirements of piglets lying in a creep area in order to assess whether common sizes of creep areas are still sufficient to accommodate all piglets of a litter. Thus, the exact floor space that suckling piglets of different weight classes occupied due to their physical size and shape was measured automatically using the colour contrast planimetric method “KobaPlan”. A total number of 234 images of piglets from 0.5kg to 6kg was taken from top view in a special planimetric box. In the digital photo, the number of animal associated pixels was counted by the “KobaPlan” software and compared to a reference area. Thus, the area covered by the individual piglet was calculated. Thereby, it was possible to determine the space the piglets dissipated in lateral and ventral recumbent positions up to the age of three weeks. The results revealed that the space requirements of piglets increased linearly with their weights, independent of lying position. The mean floor space covered by piglets weighing 0.5 to 1.5kg lying on their bellies was 249±42cm², and piglets lying in lateral position covered 275±33cm². Piglets weighing 3.0 to 4.5kg covered more space than lower weight classes in ventral (554±68cm²) and lateral positions (502±41cm²). Piglets in the heaviest weight class (4.5-6.0kg) required 633 ± 52cm2 when lying in a lateral position. Assuming that all piglets were lying in lateral recumbency, for a litter size of 12 piglets weighing up to 6.0kg, a space requirement of 0.76m2 was calculated. For 14 piglets, an area of 0.9m2, and for 16 piglets 1.01m2 is needed. Bearing in mind that litter sizes are growing, a creep area of approximately 0.9m2 is recommended for piglets up to three weeks of age based on a space requirement of 0.06m2 per piglet.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Effects of zinc glycine chelate on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics, bone quality, and mineral content in bone of broiler
           chicken
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Małgorzata Kwiecień, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna Milczarek, Ewa Tomaszewska, Jan Matras
      A total of 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were used to investigate the effects of dietary Zn-Gly (zinc glycine chelate) supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, bone quality, and mineral content in bones. All broilers were randomly assigned to five treatment groups, each of which was replicated five times (10 birds in each cage). 5 groups were formed: control negative - CN (corn-wheat and soybean meal control diet with no supplementation of Zn), control positive – CP (CN + 100mg of Zn as oxide/kg of diet), and 3 groups with Zn-Gly supplementation at three doses: 25, 50, or 100mg·kg−1 (CN + 25, 50, or 100mg of Zn as glycine chelate/kg of diet). The experimental diets were fed to chicks for over 6 weeks. In the study, a positive trend to gain body weight and the weight of breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles was observed when organic Zn was introduced, in particular at a dose of 50 and 25mg. The addition of Zn, regardless of its source, had an effect on the increase (P < 0.05) in the intake of feed. A considerable increase in values such as cross-sectional area (A), second moment of inertia (Ix), and mean relative wall thickness (MRWT) was found both in the femur and in the tibia in the group supplemented with 50mg Zn-Gly. The use of Zn-Gly improved the quality of the tibia and femur and their strength parameters, perhaps due to the increased deposition of Ca and P in bones. The addition of Zn-Gly increased (P < 0.05) the accumulation of Zn in bones. In conclusion, these results suggest that the supplementation of Zn-Gly in amounts lower than recommended has no negative effect on the production performance of Ross broiler chickens, which in turn suggests that such an amount of Zn is sufficient to ensure the optimum body weight and positive production performance and is the condition of correct ossification and mineralisation of the bone tissue.


      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
       
  • Selection index for meat and milk traits of buffaloes in Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Divier A. Agudelo-Gómez, Jorge H. Agudelo-Trujillo, Mario F. Cerón-Muñoz
      Genetic parameters and breeding values from unitrait, multitrait, and reduced principal component models for weaning weight, yearling weight, weight at 18 months, weight at two years, age at first calving, milk yield, and maternal genetic effects for weaning weight and yearling weight were estimated for dual purpose buffaloes in Colombia. With those values we constructed selection indices (SI) and estimated genetic progress obtained through mating-modeling under various selection criteria and weighted values for each trait. Comparison of SI was performed using duality diagrams in principal components of breeding values obtained by pseudo-simulation of mating with animals selected with the constructed SIs. The index constructed with the first principal component of the reduced range model led to improved meat, milk yield, and age at first calving.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Effects of chito-oligosaccharide on intestinal mucosal amino acid profiles
           and alkaline phosphatase activities, and serum biochemical variables in
           weaned piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): H.S. Yang, X. Xiong, J.Z. Li, Y.L. Yin
      The present experiment was conducted to determine the effects of chito-oligosaccharide (COS) on intestinal mucosal amino acid profiles and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and serum biochemical variables in weaned piglets. A total of 24 piglets (BW = 7.82 ± 0.21kg) were weaned at 25 d of age and were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of two treatments consisting of a basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 30mg/kg COS for a 14-d period. Each treatment was assigned to 6 pens (2 piglets/pen) and 6 piglets (3 males and 3 females) were randomly selected from each treatment (1 pigs/pen) for blood and tissue sampling. Dietary supplementation with COS increased (P < 0.05) serum IgG and urea nitrogen contents, and tended to increase (P < 0.10) serum calcium. The ileal mucosal ALP activity in piglets fed with COS diet were greater (P < 0.05) than that in CON piglets. Dietary supplementation with COS increased (P < 0.05) the contents of Asn and Cys, and tended to increase (P < 0.10) the contents of Asp and Orn in the small intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets. Moreover, the contents of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) in caecal and colonic digesta of weaned piglets were affected (P < 0.05) by dietary COS supplementation. There were interactions (P < 0.05) between dietary COS and intestinal section for mucosal AA contents and digesta SCFA contents in weaned piglets. In conclusion, the results of the present experiment suggest that dietary supplementation with COS affects intestine and immune functions of weaned piglets.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides on growth
           performance, ileal microbial counts, and jejunal morphology in broiler
           chicks exposed to aflatoxins
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): E. Jahanian, A.H. Mahdavi, S. Asgary, R. Jahanian
      The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) on growth performance, ileal microbial population, and jejunal morphology in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks. A total of 336 seven-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 7 experimental treatments with 4 replicates of 12 chicks each. Experimental treatments consisted of a control group (unchallenged group), and a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments, including 2 aflatoxin levels (0.5 and 2ppm) and 3 supplemental MOS levels (0, 1, and 2g/kg). Broiler chicks were challenged with a mix of aflatoxins during 7–28 d of age. Results showed that increasing aflatoxin level resulted in a marked decrease (P<0.01) in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and subsequent average daily gain (ADG); consequently it impaired (P<0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR). Dietary MOS supplementation increased ADFI (P<0.01) and ADG (P<0.001) in aflatoxin-challenged chicks, resulted in the improvements in FCR values. The retarded ADG was ameliorated by inclusion of 2g/kg of MOS into the diet of aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks. Although incremental levels of aflatoxin decreased (P<0.05) carcass yield, dietary supplementation of MOS up to 2g/kg resulted in an increase in carcass yield. Contamination with 2ppm aflatoxin resulted in increases (P<0.001) in ileal enumerations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, and total negative bacteria at both 28 and 42 d of age. Although the lowest bacterial count was assigned to the control (unchallenged) group, supplemental MOS decreased ileal bacterial populations in aflatoxin-challenged broiler chicks. Dietary supplementation of 2g/kg of MOS was more effective (P<0.05) in depression of ileal microbial counts in broiler chicks challenged with 0.5ppm aflatoxin. Incremental levels of aflatoxin resulted in considerable (P<0.001) decreases in villi height, villi height to crypt depth ratio, villi absorptive area, and apparent villi absorptive area. Moreover, dietary aflatoxin contamination increased crypt depth, goblet cell counts, and lymphoid follicular diameter. These changes, however, were partly modulated by dietary MOS supplementation up to 2g/kg. The present results indicated that although aflatoxicosis reduced growth performance, dietary inclusion of MOS ameliorated the retarded growth via suppressing ileal pathogenic bacteria and enhancing absorptive surface area in broiler chicks.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • A new approach for applied nutritional models: computing parameters of
           dynamic mechanistic growth models using genome-wide prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mateus Castelani Freua, Miguel Henrique de Almeida. Santana, José. Bento Sterman Ferraz
      Nutritional models have long been used as decision support tools by the livestock industry. Despite the advance of genomic prediction, these two disciplines have evolved separately. Because model parameters are responsible to describe between-animal variability, we propose an integration of nutritional models with genomics by means of such parameters. Two dynamic mechanistic models of cattle growth were used: Cornell Cattle Value Discovery System (CVDS) and Davis Growth Model (DGM). We estimated SNP marker effects for their parameters and also for observed phenotypes. Then, we compared what would be the best prediction scenario – model simulation with parameters computed from genomic data or genomic prediction directly on higher phenotypes. We found that genomic prediction on dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) are still a better approach than using CVDS for predictions. Dry matter required (DMR), a CVDS-predicted value for DMI had higher correlation (r = 0.253) with observed DMI than results from genomic prediction (r = 0.07). DGM had better predictive ability (r = 0.38) than genomic prediction on ADG (r = 0.098). This is also the case for whole-body protein (r = 0.496) and fat at slaughter (r = 0.505) whose predictions were better with DGM than genomic prediction performed on the observed traits (r = 0.194 and r = 0.183, respectively). When contrasting simulations with genomically predicted parameters to those with regularly computed ones, CVDS showed moderate correlation and low bias between simulations of DMR (r = 0.966; b = 0.9%) and ADG (r = 0.645; b = 5.5%). Although further model development is necessary, the DGM with subject-specific parameters computed from genotypic data was a better option for predicting phenotypes than genomic prediction alone. In addition, simulations with genomically and regularly computed parameters match at a reasonable extend. This is the main argument to call attention from the research community that our approach may pave the way for the development of a new generation of applied nutritional models, especially towards individual-based simulations with subject-specific parameters computed from genomic information.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Relationship between the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, phospholipase
           D inoculation and the fertility characteristics of crossbred Boer bucks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Zaid Khudhur Mahmood, Zurin-Azlin Mohd Jin, Faez Firduas Jesse, Abdul Aziz Saharee, Jasni Sabri, Rosnina Yusoff, Abd Wahid Haron
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and phospholipase D (PLD) on buck's fertility, specifically, testosterone concentration, scrotal circumference and semen quality. Crossbred Boer goats (n=13) aged 12-14 months were divided into three groups. The first group (n=3) was inoculated with one ml sterile phosphate buffer saline subcutaneously into subaxillary area as the control. The second group (n=5) was inoculated with live C. pseudotuberculosis 1×109 cfu subcutaneously into subaxillary area. The third group (n=5) was inoculated with PLD one ml/ 20kg BW intravenously into jugular vein. Blood collection was done twice a week over a period of three months for testosterone analyses. Semen was collected using electro-ejaculator once every two weeks whilst scrotal circumference was measured once every three weeks. Semen volume, semen pH and sperm progressive motility, concentration, live/dead percentage and morphology were evaluated. Bucks were euthanized three months’ post inoculation and histopathological examination of the testicles and epididymis was performed. The results showed seven folds’ significant decrease (P<0.05) in testosterone concentration in both C. pseudotuberculosis and PLD inoculated groups compared to the control. Semen volume, percentage of dead/live and abnormal sperm morphology showed significant increase (P<0.05) in both inoculated groups compared to the control. The following sperm defects were observed; tapered sperm, decapitated and knobbed head, thickened midpiece, distal and proximal droplet, sterilizing tail and folded tail. Scrotal circumference, semen pH, semen wave pattern, sperm motility and concentration showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in both inoculated groups compared to the control. The testicles showed varied degrees of degeneration and necrosis with shrunken seminferous tubules. In conclusion, testosterone concentration, scrotal circumference and semen quality were negatively affected in both inoculated groups. Moreover, percentages of live/dead and abnormal sperm morphology were also increased. The results suggest that both C. pseudotuberculosis and PLD had detrimental effects on buck's fertility.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Genetic analyses of mothering ability in sows using field-recorded
           observations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Patrick Stratz, Annik Just, Hans Faber, Jörn Bennewitz
      The improvement of the postpartum survival rate of piglets is important for pig breeding nowadays. For the improvement, breeding for good mothering abilities of sows offer a promising strategy. The aim of the following study was to estimate genetic parameters for mothering ability traits recorded on an five-point ordinal scale (1=”best” to 5=”worst”). Information of 48028 litters and 15688 sows belonging to different lines and crosses was available. Genetic parameters were estimated by applying a linear mixed- and a threshold model. Pairwise bivariate analyses were conducted for the linear mixed model (LMM) in order to calculate correlations. The estimates for the heritability (repeatability) using the LMM are between 0.02 and 0.07 (0.05 and 0.09). With the threshold model the heritability (repeatability) estimates are between 0.05 and 0.15 (0.08 and 0.17). The difference between repeatability and heritability points to a huge impact of the permanent environment. The threshold model seems to be more suitable for analysing the data. The heritability estimated for group - and nursing behaviour with the threshold model was highest (0.15 and 0.10). All the correlations were positive and the genetic correlations were in accordance with the phenotypic correlation. The genetic correlation for piglet vitality and estrus behaviour was zero. The highest genetic correlations were estimated between nursing – (group behaviour) and litter balance and piglet weaning weight. For nursing behaviour and piglet weaning weight the genetic correlation was 0.86. Accelerating genetic gain for good mothering abilities of sows will be possible. Especially nursing - and group behaviour seem to be promising traits. For the implementation in breeding programs, clearly defined traits are required and correlations between mothering ability and common production traits (e.g. daily weight gain) should be investigated.


      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
       
  • Genetic parameters of cryptorchidism and testis size in Friesian colts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Anouk Schurink, Adrianne de Jong, Hans R. de Nooij, Ids Hellinga, Bart J. Ducro
      In males with cryptorchidism, one or both testes do not descend into the scrotum thereby affecting among other things fertility. Testis size has been suggested to contribute to cryptorchidism. Therefore, the aim of our study was to estimate genetic parameters of cryptorchidism and testis size in Friesian colts. Data on cryptorchidism (0/1, n = 1,327) and testis size (cm, n = 868 with size of both testes estimated) in Friesian colts of 1 to 7 months-of-age were gathered by a veterinarian during inspections from 2009 to 2012. Heritabilities, phenotypic and genetic correlations were estimated using ASReml4 including age of the colt (in months), location, year and month of inspection as fixed effects. Prevalence of cryptorchidism was 14.2%. Most affected colts (88.3%) were unilateral, while 11.7% were bilateral cases. Of the unilateral cases, significantly fewer colts had a left retained testis (35.5%) compared to a right retained testis (64.5%). Heritability of cryptorchidism was 0.13 (SE = 0.06) and increased slightly when only cases of 4 months and older were considered. Based on literature and our findings we advise not to inspect colts at a very young age. Mean testis size significantly differed between left (3.47cm) and right testis (3.19cm). Heritability of left testis size (0.12±0.07) was lower compared to heritability of right testis size (0.31±0.10), where genetic correlation between left and right testis size was 0.87 (SE = 0.12). The genetic correlation between left testis size and cryptorchidism was −0.94 (SE = 0.15) and between right testis size and cryptorchidism was −0.64 (SE = 0.23). At the age of the investigated Friesian colts, cryptorchidism genetically coincides with smaller testis size. The development of the left and right testis might differ, which could be hereditary in nature. More precise phenotyping, like recording position and size (and side) of the retained testis and age of the stallion, might contribute additionally to disentangling the genetic background of equine cryptorchidism and identifying the gene(s) affecting this disorder. For now, the continuation of the data recording as described in our study will enable the studbook to estimate breeding values and thereby select against cryptorchidism.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T10:08:41Z
       
  • Growth and reproduction genomic-polygenic and polygenic parameters and
           prediction trends as Brahman fraction increases in an Angus-Brahman
           multibreed population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.A. Elzo, R. Mateescu, M.G. Thomas, D.D. Johnson, C.A. Martinez, D.O. Rae, J.G. Wasdin, M.D. Driver, J.D. Driver
      The objectives of this research were to estimate genomic-polygenic and polygenic parameters and to evaluate prediction trends as Brahman fraction increased from 0% to 100% in a subtropical multibreed Angus-Brahman (MAB) population for four growth and reproduction traits using single-step genomic-polygenic (GPM) and polygenic models (PM). Traits were 365-d yearling weight (YW), yearling reproductive tract score (RTS), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI). Numbers of phenotypic records were 1,758 for YW, 381 for RTS, 1,385 for AFC, and 985 for FCI. The pedigree file had 6,869 calves, sires, and dams, and genotype file contained 115,711 actual and imputed GGPHD150k SNP markers from 1,547 animals. The 4-trait GPM and PM included contemporary group, age of dam (YW only), sex of calf (YW only), direct heterosis, maternal heterosis (YW only) as fixed effects, and animal and residual as random effects. Genetic parameters were estimated using REML procedures and computed using AIREMLF90. Heritabilities were slightly higher for GPM than PM (0.47 vs. 0.45 for YW, 0.31 vs. 0.30 for RTS, 0.14 vs. 0.12 for AFC, and 0.31 vs. 0.29 for FCI). Genetic correlations were positive between YW and RTS (GPM: 0.55; PM: 0.60), negative between RTS and AFC (GPM: −0.22; PM: −0.55) and between AFC and FCI (GPM: −0.68; PM: −0.67), and near zero for all other trait pairs. The similarity between GPM and PM heritabilities and genetic correlations indicated that the 115,711 GGPHD150k SNP markers added little additional information to that contained in the pedigree. Regression coefficients of breed group EBV means on Brahman fraction were negative (P = 0.0005) for YW, RTS, and FCI, and positive (P < 0.0001) for AFC as Brahman fraction increased. This indicated that heifers with higher Brahman percentages tended to be lighter and less mature as yearlings, older at first calving, and have shorter FCI than heifers with higher Angus percentages under the subtropical environmental conditions of the MAB population. Regression coefficients of individual animal EBV on Brahman fraction showed similar trends, although absolute values were smaller. However, there was a high degree of variation in EBV values within breed groups. Consequently, animals with high, medium, and low EBV existed across all Brahman percentages, thus allowing the selection of replacement animals of all Brahman percentages based on a common set of objectives.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T09:15:12Z
       
  • Genetic trend estimates for milk yield production and fertility traits of
           the Girolando cattle in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ali William Canaza-Cayo, Jaime Araújo Cobuci, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Robledo de Almeida Torres, Marta Fonseca Martins, Darlene dos Santos Daltro, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva
      Annual genetic trends and selection differentials for 305-d milk yield (305MY), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI) were estimated by four selection paths [sires of bulls (SB), dams of bulls (DB), sires of cows (SC), and dams of cows (DC)] for Girolando dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 12,739 lactation records were obtained from the Brazilian Girolando Breeders Association with cows calving in the period from 2000 to 2011. Two periods were involved: the first, from 1979 to 1996, corresponding to the formation and expansion of the herd, and second, from 1997 to 2007, characterized by the implementation of the breeding program of the Girolando breed. The whole period from 1979 to 2007 was also considered. The Wombat program was used to fit an animal model for the analyses. Estimated breeding values were extracted to calculate genetic trends for the four selection paths. Greater significant estimates of annual genetic changes for 305MY were obtained for the SC and SB paths, being both during the second period. The greatest annual genetic change estimates for 305MY were 43.06 and 101.97 milk/yr for SC and DB, respectively, during the second period. A favorable genetic response was found for the SB and SC paths for AFC, averaging −4.24 (second period) and −0.32day/year, respectively. For FCI, this effect was from 0.04 to 0.18 range for all paths. When all selection paths were combined, estimated annual genetic changes for 305MY and AFC were 7.40 milk/yr and −0.13day/yr. Therefore, the results of this study showed that a well-designed genetic program has a positive impact on 305MY and AFC and a little or without impact on FCI in Girolando cattle over a 28-yr period.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Association of conformation and riding ability in Icelandic horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): Thorvaldur Kristjansson, Sigridur Bjornsdottir, Elsa Albertsdóttir, Agust Sigurdsson, P. Pourcelot, N. Crevier-Denoix, Thorvaldur Arnason
      The official breeding goal for the Icelandic horse promotes five-gaited horses with a functional and aesthetic conformation. The objectives of the present study were to assess the phenotypic and genetic relationship between standard conformational measurements and scores for riding ability. Further, to investigate if more detailed (3-D) morphometric measurements could discriminate between high-class and low-class horses based on scores for each gait. The data comprised records from standard conformational measurements and scores for the different gaits and the total score for riding ability of all assessed breeding horses in Iceland in 2000–2013 (10,091 horses). Further, records from a subpopulation of 98 haphazardly selected breeding horses that were subject to detailed quantification of the conformation in 3-D and genotyped with respect to DMRT3 genotype, were included in the study. Most of the standard measurements had a significant and curvilinear relationship with the studied riding ability traits. They had generally high estimated heritability but weak or moderate genetic correlation with the total score of riding ability. Proportions in the top line of the horse describing the height of the horse at front compared to hind were found to be most important for the riding ability, revealing the advantage of an uphill conformation. Their estimated heritability and genetic correlation with total score for riding ability designate them as important indicators for performance. Certain lengths, proportions and angles between bones in the fore- and hind limbs also had a significant effect on scores for some gaits. These results can improve the assessment of the conformation and consequently the riding ability of the Icelandic horse.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Growth rates of Romane ewe lambs and correlated effects of being mated as
           hoggets or two-tooth ewes on first offspring performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): E. González-García, D. Hazard
      Growth rates, from birth to first lambing, were characterized for a representative population of Romane ewe lambs belonging to a flock reared in rangelands (south of France). Data from 1359 females born during the decade 2002–2012 were extracted from the INRA genetic national database (GEEDOC), organized and processed using several procedures of SAS (9.3). The effects of year of birth of these females, birth rank (litter size at birth: singletons, SING vs. multiple, TWIN), dam parity (primiparous, PRIM vs. multiparous, MULT) and first order interactions were considered. The growth curves were built. Carry-over effects on their first offspring performance were evaluated with two contrasted first mating systems [as hoggets, Early (n=762), 7 months of age or as two-tooth ewe, Late (n=597), 19 months of age]. Significant interactions of dam parity×birth rank were found for most of body weight (BW) comparisons from birth to first lambing. The MULT×SING and PRIM×TWIN individuals showed the highest and lowest growths, respectively. Being mated as hogget was the consequence of having higher BW at birth, weaning and early mating. However, even if Late mating constituted a change on the reproductive management policy of the farm (since 2010), present results showed that two-tooth ewes mostly corresponded to lighter ewes, thus having a weaker growth performance from birth to the early mating age. Average litter size at first lambing (1.8±0.01 vs. 2.1±0.01 lambs/lambing), litter weight (6.2±0.03 vs. 7.4±0.02kg), multiple-born lambs (70.4 vs. 79.3%), number of lambs weaned (1.02±0.006 vs. 1.55±0.004) and total lamb weaned production (23.2±0.12 vs. 31.3±0.08kg of weaned lambs) were lower (P<0.0001) in hoggets when compared to two-tooth ewes (39.7±0.07 vs. 50.6±0.04kg BW at first mating, respectively). The gender ratio of the first offspring was not affected by the age at first mating (female to male ratio: 49:51).


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • APPLICATION OF GENOMIC DATA TO ASSIST A COMMUNITY-BASED BREEDING PROGRAM:
           A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF COAT COLOR GENETICS IN MORADA NOVA SHEEP
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Maria Malane Magalhães Muniz, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano, Concepta McManus, Lillian Cristina Gomes Cavalcanti, Débora Andrea Evangelista Façanha, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais Leite, Olivardo Facó, Samuel Rezende Paiva
      The Brazilian Sheep Breeders´ Association recognizes two varieties of the Morada Nova hair breed, white and red. However, the black variety and / or animals with a pigmented nose has frequently been disqualified from genealogical records. Previous studies suggest that this genetic group might be similar to the red variety. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a Genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions related to hair color and confirm the position of black relative to other Morada Nova varieties. After quality controls, 48 animals were genotyped for 45.982 SNPs using the OvineSNP50k BeadChip. Estimated Fst values between white and red animals, white and black, and red and black were 10.78% (p<0.00001), 9.23% (p<0.00001), and 2.93% (p<0.00001), respectively. The comparison between white and red (n=30) versus black (n= 18) animals revealed 10 highly significant SNPs, most located in a 6.8Mb window in Oar14 which contains the MC1R gene. Differences between black and red coats are the result of the expression of different alleles of the same gene without directly affecting productive/reproductive characteristics. These two varieties showed low genetic variation, insufficient to define them as different groups, and to increase the breeding herd, the animals with black hair and/or pigmentation of the nose should be used breeding purposes. The results of this study contribute to the discussion of the importance in reconciling conservation, traditional breed standards and breeding of farm animals.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Excess of dietary benzoic acid supplementation leads to growth
           retardation, hematological abnormality and organ injury of piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yan Shu, Bing Yu, Jun He, Jie Yu, Ping Zheng, Zhengcai Yuan, Daiwen Chen, Xiangbing Mao
      Benzoic acid has been widely used in feed industry as an organic acidifier and preservative. However, it is unknown whether excessive benzoic acid in diets would have a potential risk on pigs. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of benzoic acid that was used in diets of piglets. A total of 120 weaned pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with initial average BW of 8.16 ± 0.09kg (28 ± 1 d of age) were randomly allotted to four groups receiving diets supplementing 0%, 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.0% benzoic acid for 56 d. Supplementing 0.5% benzoic acid in the diet had no negative effects on the growth of piglets, and increased antioxidant enzyme (CAT and GSH-Px) activities in the liver (P < 0.05). Dietary 2.5% benzoic acid supplementation decreased ADFI and ADG of pigs from 1 to 28 d (P < 0.05), reduced the white blood cell and globulin on d 56 (P < 0.05), and resulted in spleen injury on d 28 and d 56. In addition, besides impairing growth performance of pigs during the whole experiment (P < 0.05), supplementing 5.0% benzoic acid in the diet increased the relative liver weight on d 56 (P < 0.05), enhanced the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase of pigs on d 28 (P < 0.05), and led to liver injury. Moreover, dietary 5.0% benzoic acid supplementation also decreased the red cell pressure product, red blood cell volume and increased red cell distribution width-SD/CV on d 28 (P < 0.05), and resulted in the serious spleen damage. When compared with pigs fed by the diet supplemented 0.5% benzoic acid, pigs fed the diets containing 2.5% or 5.0% benzoic acid would have higher benzoic acid residues in the liver and kidneys on d 28 and d 56 (P < 0.05). These results suggested that dietary 0.5% benzoic acid supplementation had the beneficial effects on piglets, but supplementing excessive (2.5% and 5.0%) benzoic acid in the diets could lead to growth retardation, hematological abnormality and the injury of some organs (liver and spleen).


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189




      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Comparative assessment of development competence of zona-intact and
           zona-free cloned goat embryos produced by innovative micromanipulation
           tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Dharmendra Kumar, Bikash Chandra Sarkhel
      The present study demonstrated a new approach for production of zona free cloned embryos in goat wherein, instead of hand guided bisection applied under Hand-made cloning technique, we have adopted micromanipulator based enucleation using innovative microtools viz., Bisection blade and Aspiration pipette. Using bisection blade, oocyte was bisected into two halves and one half having polar body-MII chromosome was instantly discarded by aspiration pipette, resulted into 100% enucleation efficiency. This process did not require Hoechst staining for confirmation of enucleation. The electrofusion process was carried out using indigenously prepared electrodes for individual electrofusion of demicytoplasts-somatic cell triplet, which revealed significantly higher (P≤0.01) fusion rate (92.78±0.5%) as compared to conventional technique (64.61±0.93%) for zona intact embryos. The developmental rates of zona-free embryos were observed as significantly higher (P≤0.01) 2–4 cells (79.13±0.82 vs 29.42±0.55), 8–16 cells (66.68±01.02 vs 23.83±0.9), morula (31.93±1.12 vs 17.93±1.07), blastocysts (24.0±1.56 vs 7.79±0.98) and mean blastomere counts (210.3±2.3 vs 154.0±1.60) as compared to zona-intact embryos.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • The effects of male and female immunocastration on growth performances and
           carcass and meat quality of pigs intended for dry-cured ham production: A
           preliminary study
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): A. Daza, M.A. Latorre, A. Olivares, C.J. López Bote
      A total of 48 Duroc×(Landrace×Large White) pigs, 24 males and 24 females, with 85±3 d of age were used to study the effect of sex and immunocastration on growth performances and carcass and pork quality. There were 4 experimental treatments; surgical castrated males (SCM), immunocastrated males (ICM), entire females (EF) and immunocastrated females (ICF). The surgical castration had been carried out in 12 males when were 5±3 d of age. The immunocastration consisted in two vaccinations with Improvac®, in 12 boars and in 12 gilts, at the beginning of the trial and 28 d later (45.4 and 70.6kg body weight as average, respectively). Pigs were intended for dry-cured ham elaboration; therefore, heavy body weight (126kg and 167 d of age as average) and a minimum of carcass fat depth (20mm) were required. During the overall period (from days 0–82), SCM were less efficient converting feed into gain than the rest of the treatments (P=0.049). At slaughter, ICM were heavier than SCM and ICF with EF being intermediate (P=0.05) and ICF were fatter, as much at 10th rib (P=0.05) as at level of Gluteus medius muscle (P=0.043), than EF with males (SCM and ICM) in an intermediate position. As a consequence, EF had the leanest carcasses (P=0.048) and 25% of them were rejected for lack of fatness vs 0% in the other treatments (P=0.02). Pork from ICF was redder (higher a*) than that from ICM (P<0.001) and meat from SCM showed a more intense color (higher C*) (P=0.03) and tended to have lower level of oxymyoglobin (P=0.061) and metmyoglobin (P=0.082) than that from EF. The intramuscular fat content was not affected. The inmunocastration of males or females had limited influence on major fatty acids of subcutaneous or intramuscular fat. It can be concluded that immunocastration could be interesting in pigs intended for dry-cured ham elaboration because in males improved the feed conversion ratio with no penalization of carcass or meat quality, in comparison to surgical castration, and in gilts increased backfat thickness of carcass reducing to 0% the rejections at slaughterhouse for lack of fatness.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Effects of L-glutamine on growth performance, antioxidant ability,
           immunity and expression of genes related to intestinal health in weanling
           pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): J. He, G.D. Feng, X. Ao, Y.F. Li, H.X. Qian, J.B. Liu, G.Y. Bai, Z.Z. He
      Although there were many reports about the L-glutamine (Gln) on growth performance and intestine health, little studies were conducted to determine the effects of Gln on nutrient digestibility and expression of genes related to intestinal health. Besides, the glutamic acid with lower price was assumed to substitute the glutamine partly, which can partly be synthesized by the glutamic acid. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of Gln on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profiles, related enzyme activity, small intestinal mucosal morphology and expression of genes related to intestinal health in weanling pigs. A total of 250 [(Landrace× Yorkshire)× Duroc] pigs (9.22±0.11kg) were blocked on the basis of sex and body weight, and then randomly assigned to 1 of the following 5 treatments: 1) CON (basal diet); 2) 1/9 Gln/Glu (CON +0.1% Gln +0.9% Glu); 3) 2/8 Gln/Glu (CON +0.2% Gln +0.8% Glu); 4) 1% Gln (CON +1% Gln); 5) 1% Glu (CON +1% Glu). There were 5 replications (pens) per treatment and 10 pigs per pen in this 28-d experiment. Pigs fed the 1% Gln diet had a higher ADG and G: F (P<0.05) than those fed CON diet during d 0–14 and the overall period. The ATTD of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) was the greatest (P<0.05) in response to the 1% Gln diet on d 28. Compared with CON, feeding the 1% Gln diet increased (P<0.05) the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD), while it decreased (P<0.05) the malondialdehyde (MDA) content on d 28 in the serum. The levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the serum was increased in the 1% Gln group (P<0.05), whereas the percentage of the cluster of differentiation 8 receptors (CD8+) was reduced (P<0.05) in the 1% Gln group compared with CON. The activity of lactase was improved (P<0.05) in pigs fed the 1% Gln diet compared with those fed CON diet. However, the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) was reduced (P<0.05) in pigs fed Gln1, Gln2, the 1% Gln and 1% Glu diets compared with those fed CON diet. Feeding of the 1% Gln diet declined (P<0.05) the relative expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), while improving (P<0.05) the relative expression level of pyruvate kinase (PK) in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, respectively, compared with CON. Taken together, the 1% Gln supplementation to weanling pig diets could modify intestinal health and improve ATTD of nutrients so as to benefit the growth performance. Nevertheless, the Gln/Glu use could not achieve the effects of 1% Gln group in this study.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Relationship of pulmonary arterial pressure and terrain use of Angus cows
           grazing high-altitude foothill rangelands
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Derek W. Bailey, Milton G. Thomas, Tim N. Holt, Mitch B. Stephenson, R. Mark Enns, Scott E. Speidel
      Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) score is used as an indicator trait for risk of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which is commonly termed high altitude disease and observed in cattle grazing at altitude ≥1500m. We hypothesized that cows with higher PAP score would avoid using high elevations, steep slopes and areas far from water while grazing foothill rangeland. During 2013 and 2014, forty-one mature Angus cows from a breeding population of cattle selected for tolerance to high altitude were tracked with global positioning system (GPS) collars for 27 and 17 days, respectively. These cows grazed a 1210 ha foothill rangeland pasture with a vertical relief of 2150–2411m. Pulmonary arterial pressure was measured for each animal at 1 year of age (yearling PAP; 38.2mmHg±5.1SDmmHg) and before tracking (mature PAP; 42.6mmHg±3.7SD). Yearling PAP score was not correlated with the mature PAP score (r=0.23, P=0.15). Terrain use varied among individual tracked cows, and the range among cows within the same pasture was 59m (2204m±15SD) for average elevation use, 4.7% points (8.9%±0.2SD) for average slope use and 247m (446m±77SD) for average distance from water. No correlation was detected between mature PAP scores and terrain use metrics (mean elevation, slope and distance from water of tracked locations; r=−0.16, 0.24, 0.25; P>0.10). Similarly, no correlation was detected (P>0.10) between yearling PAP score and terrain use metrics. Yearling and mature PAP scores were not correlated (P>0.50) to indices of terrain use that combined elevation and slope use (rough index) and elevation, slope and distance from water (rolling index). Yearling PAP and mature PAP were not useful predictors (P>0.10) of terrain use in multiple regression analyses. Angus cows in this study were apparently adapted to high elevations and PAP score had little, if any, relationship with their metrics of grazing distribution of foothill rangeland. In situations where elevation was higher, terrain was more rugged or cattle were not adapted, results may differ from those observed in this study.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Sand bedded freestall and compost bedded pack effects on cow hygiene,
           locomotion, and mastitis indicators
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): E.A. Eckelkamp, J.L. Taraba, K.A. Akers, R.J. Harmon, J.M. Bewley
      The objective of this study was to assess differences between compost bedded pack (CBP) and sand freestall barns (SFB) for mastitis indicators (herd clinical mastitis, SCC, high SCC prevalence (% of herd ≥200,000cells/mL SCC), and BTSCC), and locomotion, hygiene, and hock scores. This study was conducted on commercial Kentucky dairy farms using CBP (n=8) or SFB (n=7) as the primary lactating cow housing facility from May 2013 to May 2014. To indicate good management practices, eligible herds had to maintain a yearly mean SCC <300,000 the year before enrollment in the study. Milk samples were collected from quarters that presented clinical signs of mastitis as identified by milking personnel. Each herd was visited biweekly (n=26 visits) over the study period. Each visit included evaluating 50 cows per herd for hygiene, locomotion, and hock scores. Somatic cell count (SCC) and high SCC prevalence (percentage of animals in each herd with a test day SCC ≥200,000cells/mL) were collected from Dairy Herd Information Association (DHI, Raleigh, NC). Bulk tank SCC from each pick up was gathered from each dairy's milk purchaser. Bulk tank SCC from each pick up for all Kentucky herds on DHI regardless of SCC or housing type from January 2013–2014 was requested from the Kentucky Milk Quality Safety Branch to determine differences among all bedding types without selecting for herds enrolled in DHI. Overall, no differences between 8 CBP and 7 SFB selected based on SCC existed for herd locomotion, hygiene, or hock health. No differences were observed for the main effects of housing, maximum temperature humidity index, or hygiene score on SCC, high SCC prevalence, clinical mastitis incidence, or bulk tank SCC for 8 CBP and 7 SFB Kentucky herds. Similarly, for Kentucky DHI herds, bulk tank SCC was not different among herds using CBP, freestall barns, and tie-stall barns. Herds using CBP alongside freestall barns had the lowest bulk tank SCC in Kentucky. These results indicate that, when managed properly, CBP can provide a housing environment comparable to SFB. Freestalls, tie-stalls, and compost bedded pack barns for all herds on DHI had similar bulk tank SCC.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Environmental impact of a cereal-based intensive beef fattening system
           according to a partial Life Cycle Assessment approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Marco Berton, Giacomo Cesaro, Luigi Gallo, Giacomo Pirlo, Maurizio Ramanzin, Franco Tagliapietra, Enrico Sturaro
      This study investigated the environmental impact of the intensive beef fattening sector in North-Eastern Italy. A partial Life Cycle Assessment method was used with the boundaries of the system set from the arrival of stock calves, mainly born and raised in French suckler cow-calf systems, to the sale of finished young bulls and heifers to the slaughterhouses. One kg of body weight gained (BWG) was taken as the functional unit. This study examined 327 batches (groups of animals homogeneous for sex, genotype, origin, fattening farm and finishing period, 63±32 heads of average size) fattened by 16 farms. Data on animal performance were recorded for each batch. Diet composition and feed intake were collected for each beef category (combination of genotype and sex) within farms. On- and off-farm feed production data and materials used were recorded for each farm. Impact categories regarded (mean values and standard deviation per kg BWG are provided between brackets): global warming potential (8.4 ± 1.6 kg CO2-eq), acidification potential (197 ± 32 g SO2-eq), eutrophication potential (65 ± 12 g PO4-eq), cumulative energy demand (62 ± 16 MJ), and land occupation (8.9 ± 1.7 m2/year). The contribution to global warming, acidification, and eutrophication potentials was greater for the on-farm than off-farm activities, whereas the opposite pattern was found for cumulative energy demand and land occupation. When referred to the whole production system, adding the global warming potential of French suckler cow-calf systems taken from the literature to those found in the present study for the fattening period, the resulting GHG emission was comparable to those reported for other suckler cow-based beef chain systems. The impact category values obtained for each batch were analysed with a linear mixed model which included the effects of farm (random effect), beef category, season of arrival in the fattening farm, and body weight class at the start of the fattening period within beef category. Beef category greatly affected all impact categories and variation across farms was notable. In conclusion, the beef fattening system taken into account was characterized by an overall global warming potential similar to, or slightly lower than, those reported for other beef systems, due to its productive efficiency, but showed a high energy demand, due to the relevance of off-farm activities. Different impact categories evidenced notable variation among farms, suggesting that there is potential for decreasing impacts through appropriate and specific management procedures of herds and farms.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Understanding compost bedded pack barns: Interactions among environmental
           factors, bedding characteristics, and udder health
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): E.A. Eckelkamp, J.L. Taraba, K.A. Akers, R.J. Harmon, J.M. Bewley
      The objective of this study was to describe relationships among compost bedded pack barn (CBP) measurements (moisture, internal temperature, nutrient content, and bedding bacterial counts), ambient weather conditions, and udder health. Data was collected every 2-weeks (n=25 visits) from 8 Kentucky dairy farms with CBP from May 2013 to May 2014. A single observer scored 50 cows per farm for hygiene and collected compost internal temperature, moisture, and compost samples from 9 evenly distributed areas in each barn. Weighted average somatic cell count (SCC), high SCC prevalence (HSP), and reported clinical mastitis incidence (RCMI) were collected from herd records and milking personnel. Compost internal temperature increased with increasing maximum barn temperature (BT). Compost moisture content decreased with increasing BT. Herd hygiene score decreased with increasing BT and increased with increasing compost moisture content. Herd SCC and HSP both increased with increasing BT but were unaffected by compost measurements. As compost internal temperature increased, staphylococci, streptococci, and bacilli species growth in the pack area decreased and coliform species growth increased. Low CBP moisture and high CBP temperature reduced bacteria levels. Cow hygiene and udder health indicators had a stronger relationship with BT than with CBP internal temperature and moisture.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Influence of four commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines on
           the improvement of production parameters in pigs with maternally derived
           antibodies
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Abel Villa-Mancera, Karina Hernández-Guzmán, Jaime Olivares-Pérez, Pedro Molina-Mendoza
      Anti-PCV2 antibodies in serum, viremia and production parameters (average daily weight gain [ADWG] and mortality) were assessed in piglets immunized with four commercial PCV2 vaccines in the presence of high levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). A total of 217 sows were vaccinated (V) at 7 and 4 weeks before farrowing with an inactivated PCV2 vaccine. All piglets derived from these sows (n=2215) were divided into five groups and 3-week-old piglets were injected with one of four different vaccines (A-D): V sows-VA piglets (n=437), V sows-VB piglets (n=424), V sows-VC piglets (n=432) and V sows-VD piglets (n=417). A control group of non-vaccinated piglets (V-NV, n=426) received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Sows (n=39) received PBS (non-vaccinated group). The ADWG of vaccinated piglets (V-VA, V-VB, V-VC and V-VD) ranging from 661 to 669g/day were significantly higher than the control group (V-NV, 630g/day), but differences in ADWG between vaccinated groups were not statistically significant. An overall mortality ranging from 7.23% to 9.20% was observed in vaccinated piglets (V-VA, V-VB, V-VC and V-VD) compared with the control group (V-NV, 20.02%). The number of genomic copies of PCV2 in serum for the control group were significantly higher than those of the four vaccinated groups at 10, 15, and 22 weeks of age. Vaccination increased serum antibodies in sows 3- to 4-fold; PCV2-specific antibody titers in sera from piglets were very similar to those of their sows. The antibody titers in vaccinated piglets and V-NV group decreased gradually about 3-fold until the week 10. In the presence of high MDA levels, piglets immunized with four commercial PCV2 vaccines showed a significantly reduction of PCV2 infected pigs, viral load, number of PCV2-sero positive pigs and mortality rate as well as significantly higher ADWG than those of the V-NV group.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • A comparison of microbial profiles of different regions of the equine
           hindgut
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): K. Fliegerova, E. Mura, J. Mrázek, G. Moniello
      The microbial profiles of the luminal content of five hindgut segments of one healthy horse were compared with rectal sample to elucidate the effect of anatomical region on bacterial and archaeal community structure and to evaluate the use of faeces as a representative model of large intestine. The qualitative and quantitative changes of the microbial community composition of caecum, right ventral colon, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, right dorsal colon and faeces were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR using universal primers amplifying the V3 region of 16S rDNA. DGGE fingerprints revealed extensive bacterial as well as archaeal diversity in all studied samples and reflected shifts in the community structure among the caecum, the different segments of the colon and the faeces. Archaeal DGGE pattern of the caecum differed from all the other parts of the hindgut. Microbial profile similarities were found between the left and the right dorsal colon and between the left ventral colon and the faeces. The excised DGGE bands were related to uncultured bacteria and methanogens, the dominant archaeal bands of caecum and faeces were related to Methanocorpusculum sp. Diversity indices indicated the higher diversity for bacteria than for archaea and the dominance of some methanogenic species. The real-time PCR revealed the differences in the microbial quantitative composition of each segment, showing the highest number of total bacteria and archaea in the right ventral colon. The analyses of bacterial and archaeal composition along the one equine hindgut indicate that the faecal sample is similar to that of the left ventral colon, but does not represent the microbial community of the caecum and other parts of the colon.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Milk production and milk fatty acids in dairy cows fed crushed rapeseed or
           rapeseed oil
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): A. Hoffmann, S. Görlich, H. Steingass, H. Terry, M. Schollenberger, K. Hartung, R. Mosenthin
      The effect of crushed full fat rapeseed or its free oil on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition was assed using three groups of mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows, assigned to a randomized 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a control (CTL, ether extract 2.3% of dry matter, DM) and two experimental treatments (ether extract 4.2% of DM) supplemented with the same amount of fat either supplied as 4.9% of DM crushed full fat rapeseed, RCor2.2% of DM free rapeseed oil RO. Both experimental treatments increased DM intake (P<0.005) and daily milk yield (P<0.001). Milk fat and protein concentration was decreased in the supplemented diets (p<0.001). A reduced (p<0.001) yield of saturated fatty acids (FA) and an increased yield of long chain and unsaturated FA (p<0.001 for mono unsaturated FA and p<0.05 for poly unsaturated FA) in milk fat was observed for both experimental treatments. The results confirmed a reduced de novo synthesis and an increased carry-over of dietary FA upon feeding dairy cow diets supplemented with long chain and unsaturated FA. The lower degree of saturation in milk fat from cows fed RC compared to RO indicates a partial protection of the crushed rapeseed against ruminal hydrogenation.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Rumen microbial protein flow and plasma amino acid concentrations in early
           lactation multiparity Holstein cows fed commercial rations, and some
           relationships with dietary nutrients
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): N. Swanepoel, P.H. Robinson, L.J. Erasmus
      Common contemporary diet formulation methods involve factorial or empirical models which simulate ruminal fermentation and post ruminal absorption to predict nutrient supply and needs. However, due to their inability to encompass all animal factors that affect digestion and absorption, metabolic models inadequately predict microbial protein (MCP) synthesis in the rumen and passage of nutrients such as protein and amino acids (AA) to the small intestine. Practical and simple on-farm methods to obtain “real time” values directly from cows are required to establish normal ranges of MCP flow from the rumen and plasma AA concentrations on commercial dairy farms. Urine purine derivative (PD) output, an index of MCP supply to the intestine when analyzed in spot urine samples, can accurately predict MCP flow from the rumen under farm conditions. Blood sampling from the tail vein is easily performed on commercial dairy farms and concentrations of free AA in these plasma samples, representative of intestinally absorbed AA, can be used as an index to predict limiting AA. A group of 20 commercial dairy farms, milking 2677±372 cows either 2 or 3 times a day were selected and one of their early lactation pens holding 255±20 cows were used to represent the range of nutritional strategies and rations fed to California dairy cows. On the day of sampling, one load of early lactation total mixed ration (TMR) was sampled and 20 pre-selected cows were body condition scored (BCS). Directly after scoring, the 4 cows with the highest, and the 4 cows with the lowest BCS values were removed to collect 12 tail vein blood samples from the group with average BCS scores. Spot urine samples were collected from all voluntarily urinating cows (retaining 6–12 samples/pen to match the characteristics of the cows pre-selected for BCS scoring and blood sampling). Most rations contained alfalfa hay, corn silage, almond hulls, corn dried distillers grains, corn grain, cottonseed, canola meal (solvent) and a mineral premix. Selected cow groups produced 45±1.2kg milk/day at 73±0.5 days in milk with a BCS of 2.6±0.04 at 2.8 lactations. There were no correlations between MCP and milk production, but MCP flow from the rumen was correlated to organic matter and neutral detergent fiber content of the TMR (P<0.01 and P=0.03 respectively). Plasma AA concentrations were correlated with rumen undegradable crude protein (CP) and starch content of the TMR, with many inter-correlations among AA, but no plasma AA concentration was correlated to milk production. Results show that 8 urine samples and 6 blood samples/group provided accurate representation of the group. This study documents ranges of MCP flowing from the rumen (1703±54.6g CP/day), and plasma AA levels (with low variation within AA), in early lactation multiparity Holstein cows fed a range of contemporary dairy rations with multiple ingredient profile combinations. Since farms selected were well managed operations with cow groups selected to represent averages in early lactation, this data can be used as a benchmark for high, low and mean levels of MCP flow, and plasma AA concentrations, as well as provide real time evaluation of rations to identify possible rumen microbial growth and/or absorbable AA issues in commercial dairy cows.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Estimation of linkage disequilibrium levels and haplotype block structure
           in Chinese Simmental and Wagyu beef cattle using high-density genotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Hong Niu, Bo Zhu, Peng Guo, Wengang Zhang, Jinglong Xue, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Huijiang Gao, Xue Gao, Lingyang Xu, Junya Li
      With the advance of high-throughput genotyping technologies, it is possible to estimate the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype block structure at genome wide level in farm animals. Understanding LD characteristics and haplotype blocks can provide useful information to guide genome wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS). In this study, we investigated the LD pattern and haplotype block structure in two beef cattle populations (Chinese Simmental and Wagyu) using the BovineHD BeadChip. We found the average LD measured by r 2 in Chinese Wagyu was higher than that in Simmental. We observed LD decayed more slowly on the X chromosome than autosomes for both populations. The persistence of LD phase varied from 0.96 at a distance of <2.5kb to 0.51 at a distance from 400kb to 500kb. The estimated ancestral effective population sizes (N e ) in Chin e se Simmental and Wagyu 5 years ago were approximately 74 and 23, respectively. Moreover, we detected 50,475 (991.1Mb, 69.3%) haplotype blocks shared by two populations, 18,440 (238.9Mb, 16.7%) unique blocks in Chinese Simmental and 15,417 (199.8Mb, 14%) in Wagyu. Our study revealed that the r 2 dropped below 0.2 at distances of 34kb and 40kb in Chinese Simmental and Wagyu, which indicated that the implementation of GS for both populations require at least 77,941 and 66,250 markers, respectively. The pattern of LD mirrored the slightly different selection histories for Chinese Simmental and Wagyu, and our result suggested the shared haplotype blocks may offer valuable insights for the implementation of genome wide association and genomic selection studies based on multi-population.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Optimizing the gain of social genetic effect under the control of
           inbreeding using genetic algorithm
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Pingxian Wu, Yanzhi Jiang, Li Zhu, Xuewei Li, Guoqing Tang
      Social interactions among animals are widely existed in livestock population. However, some studies showed that the selection of social genetic effect leaded to extra increase of inbreeding. In this study, two optimization methods (SBLUP+GA1, SBLUP+GA2) based on genetic algorithm were used to obtain the optimal genetic contributions of seedstocks and maximize the average genetic gains of direct and social genetic component while minimizing the inbreeding. In SBLUP+GA1, only the contributions of sires were optimized. In SBLUP+GA2, the contributions of sires and dams were optimized together. The results showed SBLUP+GA1 and SBLUP+GA2 resulted in 18.52% and 25.93% lower inbreeding rate than common social genetic effect selection based on BLUP method (SBLUP) under base parameters, respectively. Under that situation, the average gains for direct, social and total genetic effect component in SBLUP+GA1 were actually improved 3.59%, 10.02% and 4.32% relative to SBLUP, respectively. In SBLUP+GA2, they were 1.28%, 10.00% and 2.02%, respectively. SBLUP+GA2 resulted in lower inbreeding rate, but, obtained slightly less genetic gain than SBLUP+GA1.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • An association analysis between a missense polymorphism at the pig PCSK9
           gene and serum lipid and meat quality traits in Duroc pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 190
      Author(s): Wojciech Chański, Rayner González-Prendes, Anna Castelló, Jordi Jordana, Arianna Manunza, Raquel Quintanilla, Marcel Amills
      A genome-wide association analysis in a Duroc pig population allowed us detecting a genomic region on pig chromosome 6 (141–147Mb) that was associated with serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TRIG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations. This region contains the proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene (SSC6, 145Mb), which has a key role in the regulation of CD36, LDL receptor and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor levels. In the current work, we have genotyped by pyrosequencing a missense PCSK9 c.1222G>A mutation (E408K) in 273 Duroc pigs. The performance of an association analysis with the GEMMA software did not reveal any association between PCSK9 genotype and serum lipid concentrations, evidencing that this polymorphism is not the causal mutation of the CHOL, TRIG, and LDL SSC6 QTL. However, we detected an association, that was highly significant at the nominal level, between PCSK9 genotype and palmitelaidic content at the gluteus medius muscle (P-value = 0.008). There is evidence that PCSK9 induces the degradation of CD36, a key long-chain fatty acid transporter, and that it may decrease the uptake of palmitate. However, the E408K polymorphism analysed in the current work is not predicted to be deleterious, suggesting that the associations found are probably due to the linkage of this polymorphism with a causal mutation yet to be found.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:02:56Z
       
  • Extended lactation in high-yielding Holstein cows: Characterization of
           milk yield and risk factors for lactations &gt;450 days
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): M. Mellado, J.M. Flores, A. de Santiago, F.G. Veliz, U. Macías-Cruz, L. Avendaño-Reyes, J.E. García
      Two data files consisting of 3278 (one herd) and 4393 lactations (three herds) were used to characterize milk production of high-yielding Holstein cows milked three times per day and experiencing extended lactations (up to 1399 days) in a hot environment. Additional objectives were to identify risk factors for the occurrence of extended lactations, to assess the association between lactation length and milk yield and to determine the conception rates of cows with extended lactations and with multiple services. Thirty percent of lactations were between 450 and 1399 days. Lactation yield of cows with lactations >900 days was over 30,000kg. Average daily milk yield from 305 to >450 days in milk was 29.9 and 31.9kg for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The epidemiological analysis of risk factors for extended lactations using a multiple variable logistic regression indicated that ketosis (OR=1.4), peak milk yield (<50 vs >50kgd−1, OR=1.4), temperature-humidity index at 60 days postpartum (<82 vs >82 units, OR=1.4), retained placenta (odds ratio (OR)=1.5), 305-d milk yield (<11,000 vs >11,000kg, OR=1.6) and the occurrence of metritis (OR=1.8), significantly increased the risk for lactations >450 days. Primiparous cows had less than half the risk of extended lactations (OR=0.3) compared to multiparous cows. Conception rate in cows with extended lactations decreased as number of services increased (conception rate=50.5% for 4 services and 13% for ≥14 services). The data showed that well-managed Holstein cows milked three times daily were capable of lactating for over 1200 days with remarkably high persistency and with high milk yield at drying-off. Reproductive and metabolic disorders associated with calving were important risk factors for extended lactations.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:03:46Z
       
  • Multiple-trait analysis of a long-term selection experiment for
           non-destructive deformation in White Leghorns: Evolution of genetic
           parameters for traits related to eggshell strength
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Olivier Gervais, Keijiro Nirasawa, Christian E. Vincenot, Yoshitaka Nagamine, Kazuyuki Moriya
      Background Economic losses resulting from poor eggshell quality are critical issue for the poultry industry, challenging researchers to find practical solutions to improve the resistance of eggshells to external pressure. Although many studies have proposed non-destructive methods to improve shell strength, relatively few long-term experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. Using REML under a five-trait animal model, this study evaluates a long-term selection experiment for non-destructive deformation that was conducted on two divergent lines of White Leghorns and provides insight into how the selection process affects other traits related to eggshell strength (breaking strength, shell thickness, shell percentage, and shell weight). The evolution of the genetic parameters over the course of the experiment was analyzed also. Results The heritability estimates for non-destructive deformation were 0.388 (± 0.032) for the strong line and 0.415 (± 0.030) for the weak line. For eggshell breaking strength, heritability values were 0.347 (± 0.028) for the strong line and 0.482 (± 0.032) for the weak line. Strong genetic correlations were found between non-destructive deformation and eggshell breaking strength (–0.774 ± 0.031 and –0.840 ± 0.022 for the strong and weak lines, respectively). Estimated heritabilities for the other traits varied from 0.448 to 0.591 for the strong line and from 0.493 to 0.672 for the weak line. In addition, these traits showed large negative genetic correlations with non-destructive deformation, from –0.623 to –0.903 for the strong line and from –0.730 to –0.934 for the weak line. Moreover, the regression coefficients associated with the generation means of the breeding values revealed an asymmetric response between the two lines, and further analysis of the evolution of the genetic parameters over the course of the experiment hinted at possible reasons for this asymmetry. Conclusions The large genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and eggshell breaking strength and the similarity of the heritability estimates for these two traits (medium to moderately high), suggest that non-destructive deformation can be used instead of breaking strength as a means to evaluate eggshell strength. Nevertheless, additional research is necessary to better understand the effect of selection for non-destructive deformation on factors not considered in this study, such as egg production and hatching rate.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:03:46Z
       
  • Herbs and spices inclusion as feedstuff or additive in growing rabbit
           diets and as additive in rabbit meat: a review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Dalle Zotte, C. Celia, Zs. Szendrő
      The European ban on the non-therapeutic use of antibiotic growth promoters and limits on the use of other drugs have increased digestive disorders and mortality in growing rabbits. In addition, consumers demand natural products, and therefore synthetic active compounds should be replaced by natural ones. This has increased the search for alternatives, such as herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals) as replacers. Plants (whole plants, leaves or seeds, mainly used as feedstuffs) and their extracts (considered as additives) are being increasingly used in animal nutrition as appetizers, digestive and physiological stimulants, colorants, and antioxidants, and for the prevention and treatment of certain pathological conditions. The digestive effects of herbs and spices have been tested primarily in humans and laboratory animals, and few trials have been performed on farm animals. Studies on the dietary inclusion of herbs and spices or their extracts in rabbit meat production are quite scarce, and the overall benefit remains unclear due to discrepancies in results, such as the use of plant preparations as galactagogues in rabbit does. Some positive results have been shown their potential, however. The dietary inclusion of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds with oregano leaves has been observed to improve diet utilization, whereas the dietary inclusion of a mixture of Lupinus albus L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., and Cassia senna L. has acted as growth promoter. Antimicrobial effects are derived especially from plant volatile oils. In the rabbit, a stabilizing effect on microbiota was observed when the diet was supplemented with thyme oil. When diets were supplemented with thyme leaves and spirulina algae, an antimicrobial effect on Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium leptum in the caecum was observed. Black cumin seeds have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory effects. Several herbs and spices (green tea, rooibos, oregano, rosemary and thyme) provide antioxidant effects rabbit dietary supplementation or inclusion in meat and meat products. Research in the use of herbs or/and spices has demonstrated their potential as feed additives and/or antioxidants, but further research is recommended to optimize effects on rabbits before practical proposals can be drafted.


      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:03:46Z
       
  • Causal relationships between clinical mastitis events, milk yields and
           lactation persistency in US Holsteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): K. Dhakal, F. Tiezzi, J.S. Clay, C. Maltecca
      Complex relationships exist between udder susceptibility to mastitis and milk production traits. Identifying causal association between these traits could help to disentangle these complex relationships. The main objective of the study was to use producer-recorded health data to examine the causal relationship between mastitis events, milk yield and lactation persistency. A total of 48,058 first lactation cows, daughters of 2213 Holstein bulls and raised across 207 herds were analyzed using structural equation models. Traits included in the dataset were mastitis events and average test day milk yields recorded in three different periods: period 1 (5–60 DIM), period 2 (61–120 DIM) and period 3 (121–180 DIM). In addition, lactation persistency was also included. A subset including 28,867 daughters of 1809 Holstein sires having both first and second lactation across 201 herds was further investigated. In these datasets, mastitis events were defined on a lactation basis as binary trait; either a cow was assigned a score of 1 (had a mastitis event in that lactation) or a score of 0 (healthy) for that particular lactation, regardless of the time of occurrence. Total milk yield from first and second lactation were also included in the analyses. We estimated negative structural coefficient (−0.032) between clinical mastitis and test day milk production in early lactation period suggesting that mastitis results in a direct decline in milk production in early lactation. We nonetheless elicited little impact of mastitis on test day milk production of mid and late lactation periods, and on milk yield lactation persistency. Likewise the positive estimate of the structural coefficient (0.123) from mastitis event in first lactation to second lactation suggests an increased risk of mastitis in second lactation if a case of mastitis occurs in the primiparous cow. Heritability estimates obtained from the structural equation models were low for mastitis (ranged 0.04 to 0.07), and negative genetic correlations were found between mastitis events and milk yield. The study illustrates how mastitis events and production are causally linked. Through the use of structural equation models we elicited the causal effect among mastitis and production traits that evolve over the course of cow life.


      PubDate: 2016-05-13T22:35:04Z
       
  • Factors and determinants of animal genetic resources management activities
           across the world
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): G. Leroy, B. Besbes, P. Boettcher, I. Hoffmann, D. Pilling, R. Baumung, B. Scherf
      This paper investigates the factors affecting the implementation of various management activities related to the characterization, use and conservation of animal genetic resources (AnGR) across countries. The 128 official country reports provided for The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture were analysed based on a multivariate approach. These reports investigated topics related the national level of AnGR diversity, the extent of characterization activities, use and breeding programmes and conservation activities, as well as capacities in AnGR management and the use of biotechnologies related to livestock breeding. A large part of the variability (34.7%) of the dataset could be explained by one synthetic variable, which could be interpreted as the general extent of AnGR related activities, and indicate that country efforts on AnGR are directed relatively homogenously towards the various activities and species considered. This variable differentiated mainly OECD and BRICS countries from less developed ones. OECD and BRICS countries also appeared to be differentiated with respect to the use of some specific biotechnologies such as cloning, genetic modification and transplantation of gonadal tissues. With regards to economic and development indicators, the first synthetic variable showed large correlation with the number of researchers in agricultural sciences per inhabitant (r=0.643) and national GDP (r=0.516). Capacities in research therefore appeared to be one of the main enabling forces for activities related to AnGR and the implementation of the Global Plan of Action (GPA) for AnGR.


      PubDate: 2016-05-13T22:35:04Z
       
  • Dynamics of salivary immunoglobulin A and serum interleukin 6 levels in
           newborn calves
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): Stephani Fischer, Sophie Diers, Rolf Bauerfeind, Claus-Peter Czerny, Stephan Neumann
      Mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important component of the adaptive first line immune defense. Especially in newborn calves, where diarrheal pathogens can cause severe diseases, the adaptive mucosal immunity is crucial. Regulating local IgA production is complex. Cytokines and in particular, interleukin 6 (IL-6), are described to be main actors in this process. In vaccination trails, IL-6 is used to improve the immune response with ambiguous results. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of IL-6 on the physiological development of salivary IgA production in newborn calves. Ten clinically healthy female Holstein calves were sampled over a period of four weeks. Immunoglobulin A and IL-6 were measured in serum, colostrum, milk and saliva. In addition, to compare the mucosal immune response with the systemic immune response, immunoglobulin G was measured in serum, colostrum and milk, too, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to determine the ability of newborn calves to produce IL-6 actively by themselves, the relative gene expression was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Interleukin 6 gene expression in PBMCs was detected directly after birth. A significant positive correlation between serum IL-6 and salivary IgA was found on day seven (p=0.043). Furthermore, the IL-6 serum concentration peaked on day 14 and coincided with a remarkable IgA increase in saliva (p<0.01). Therefore, IL-6 seemed to play a role during the first initialization phase of a local IgA response.


      PubDate: 2016-05-13T22:35:04Z
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of plant-food by-products: A review focusing on the
           tropics
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): J.L. Guil-Guerrero, L. Ramos, C. Moreno, J.C. Zúñiga-Paredes, M. Carlosama-Yepez, P. Ruales
      This review characterizes the antimicrobial potential of agricultural by-products from tropical countries, assessing their suitability as substitutes for antibiotics in animal-production farms. This study responds to an increasing trend in the use of antibiotics and other growth promoters in farm animals in tropical areas. Such use is intended to improve the daily gastrointestinal welfare and also to provide resistance or prevention against acute or chronic diseases, such as infectious diarrhoea and inflammatory bowel diseases. Such diseases pose a major challenge in all countries, but tropical conditions encourage the survival of bacteria and pathogens and commensal bacteria more than in temperate climates, and therefore tropical countries need particular attention in order to solve this dilemma. Fortunately, as a substitute to antibiotics, these countries have considerable antimicrobial potential in plants – that is, agricultural by-products contain a diverse pool of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties, which could be employed as feed supplements to improve animal health. By-products from tropical countries constitute rich sources of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, essential oils, active peptides, saponins, and sterols. Among reviewed by-products, high activity has been detected for avocado seeds, cocoa bean shell, and banana peels, while for isolated pure compounds, high activity has been reported for: alkaloids from lupine and capsaicin; phenolics such as gallic and chlorogenic acids, naringin, exiguaflavanone D, and kenusanone A; and saponins from Capsicum seeds. Some by-product extracts have shown minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values very close to that of their isolated pure components. In conclusion, plant-food by-products of tropical origin contain diverse active compounds which act effectively against most pathogenic bacteria tested, avoiding well-characterized cell damage.


      PubDate: 2016-05-13T22:35:04Z
       
  • Short communication: Field-trial evaluation of an automatic temperature
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Birte Tietgen, Hans-Joachim Laue, Martina Hoedemaker, Steffi Wiedemann
      The assessment of the rectal temperature plays an important role in the early detection of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in young calves, but the measurement is invasive and labor-intensive. The aims of this retrospective field-trial evaluation were to assess the correlation between the automatic measurements of the reticulo-ruminal (ReRu) temperature and the rectal temperature and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart to detect pre-weaned calves suffering from BRD. In 150 male fattening calves (16.6 ± 3.3 d at arrival) the ReRu-temperature was obtained every 5min automatically with a wireless device over a period of 8 weeks. Data was averaged over periods of 30min and 4–6h (day periods). The 30-min means were further evaluated using CUSUM control charts. All calves were inspected by trained persons at least twice a day and rectal temperatures were measured in calves showing visible signs related to BRD. A ReRu hyperthermia (ReRu temperature ≥ 40°C) was detected in 139 calves over 30min and in 99 calves over day periods, respectively. During the evaluation period 30 animals were affected by BRD (rectal temperatures ≥ 40°C and one additional clinical sign). The correlations between rectal temperatures and both the corresponding 30min as well as the day period ReRu temperatures was r = 0.75. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of ReRu hyperthermia for the 30min means to detect BRD were 77% and 97%, respectively, whereas means of the day periods had a Se of 61% and a Sp of 97%. The CUSUM test revealed a Se of 71% and Sp of 98% to detect BRD. On average, by the CUSUM method calves with clinical signs of BRD were identified 3.5 d earlier. In conclusion, the automated ReRu temperature measurement possesses potential for the early detection of febrile responses in very young calves warranting further investigations.


      PubDate: 2016-05-13T22:35:04Z
       
  • Host-parasite ecology of keds (Melophagus ovinus (L.)) relative to sheep
           breed and age on Wyoming rangeland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): John D. Scasta, K. Koepke
      Sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus (L.)), an obligate external parasite of economic concern, are a continual problem in high-elevation grazing situations in most temperate sheep productions areas of the world. The influence of sheep breed, age, and the interaction of breed⁎age on host-parasite ecology, could inform integrated keds management strategies. We measured ked density and presence/absence on Rambouillet, Hampshire, and Suffolk ewes in Wyoming, USA to determine the role of breed, ewe age, and breed⁎age interaction on ked parasitism. Eighteen ewes per breed group were examined for ked presence and ked density with sub-groups within each breed of 1, 2, and 3+ years of age. We used a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze the effect of breed, age, and the interaction of breed and age, on a stacked response variable ‘ked infestation’ that is a function of both ked presence and density. Ked infestations differed by ewe age (p = 0.0153; F = 4.55) and by ewe breed (p = 0.0178; F = 3.30). Ked infestation increased with ewe age, as 29% of yearling ewes had keds and 63% of three-year old ewes had keds. Ked infestation was the greatest on the fine-wool Rambouillet ewes (72% presence; 1.4 keds per ewe), and was lower on the medium-wool breeds (Hampshire ewes had 39% presence and 1.0 keds per ewe and Suffolk ewes had 22% presence and 0.3 keds per ewe). The breed⁎age interaction did not significantly influence ked infestation in our joint model of the stacked bivariate ked infestation response outcome (p = 0.1292; F = 1.75). The lack of a significant interaction is attributed to the relatively large variance around the mean for such small breed-age sub-groups and warrants additional study. Our results have implications for parasite management as 100% of three-year old Rambouillet ewes had keds present, but none of the yearling Suffolk ewes had any keds and only 29% of three-year old Suffolk ewes had keds present. The results from our study indicate keds do discriminate by breed perhaps due to an ecological adaptation for a wool-environment that is dense and comprised of a long staple -- features characteristic of the Rambouillet ewes in our study. Integrated ked management strategies could manipulate this host-parasite ecology by selecting resistant breeds and/or strategically treating the most susceptible ewes. For example, this could be all Rambouillet ewe ages or only Suffolk ewes > 2 years of age.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T22:18:18Z
       
  • Gastrointestinal transport of calcium and phosphate in lactating goats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Svenja Starke, Julia Reimers, Alexandra S. Muscher-Banse, Bernd Schröder, Gerhard Breves, Mirja R. Wilkens
      Previous studies gave evidence for the assumption that in contrast to sheep, dairy goats can adapt to lactation-induced challenges of calcium (Ca) homeostasis by effective adaptation of gastrointestinal Ca absorption. Ca and phosphate (Pi) homeostasis are known to be closely related challenged during lactation. However, for both, Ca and Pi homeostasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms and their regulation during lactation in goats have only marginally been investigated so far. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of lactation on gastrointestinal Ca and Pi absorption in dairy goats on a functional level using the Ussing chamber technique to determine macromineral fluxes across gastrointestinal epithelia, and on a structural level by analyzing gastrointestinal RNA and protein expression of key genes involved in transcellular Ca and Pi transport. Besides slightly increased functional Ca absorption and elevated expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 6, calbindin D 9K and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase type 1 in jejunum, an upregulation of Ca absorption in lactating goats also occurred in the rumen in terms of increased Ca fluxes. However, the exact molecular and regulatory mechanisms have to be examined in more detail. Interestingly, intestinal Pi absorption in duodenum and jejunum was downregulated by lactation on functional level, and in accordance, sodium-dependent P i cotransporter type IIb RNA and protein expression were decreased in jejunum. Whether this downregulation of intestinal Pi absorption can be attributed to sufficient Pi supply from endogenous sources or to lactation-induced increased dietary Pi intake has still to be investigated.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T22:18:18Z
       
  • Plant and natural product based homemade remedies manufactured and used by
           farmers of six central Swiss cantons to treat livestock
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Tinetta Bischoff, Christian R. Vogl, Silvia Ivemeyer, Franziska Klarer, Beat Meier, Matthias Hamburger, Michael Walkenhorst
      The use of medicinal plants and other natural multicomponent remedies might be one measure to reduce the use of antibiotics in livestock. Ethnoveterinary research has the potential to identify promising natural remedies. The knowledge about remedies for livestock was collected from farmers in six central Swiss cantons, Glarus, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Schwyz, Zug and Uri. Between February and April 2013 49 interviews with 63 farmers (25 females and 38 males, aged 24 to 74) were conducted. We collected information on the manufacturing of 370 homemade remedies. Of these, 114 contained no plants, 26 contained a mixture of two to five plants, and 230 contained one plant species (defined as homemade single-herbal remedy report (HSHR)). These 230 HSHRs represented 68 plant species belonging to 35 different botanical families. Thirteen species were reported for the first time for ethnoveterinary use in Switzerland. Matricaria recutita, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica and Coffea were the most frequently used ingredients of HSHR. A total of 278 use reports (UR) were described for the 230 HSHR, (233 UR for treating cattle). Treatment of skin disorders (QD), gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic dysfunction (QA) were the most frequently mentioned uses for these remedies. Fewer uses were linked to treatments of the respiratory system (QR), the genito-urinary (QG) and musculo-skeletal systems (QM). In the categorie QA the most UR were described for Matricaria recutita, Linum usitatissimum, and Camellia sinensis. Quercus robur was mainly used to treat diarrhoea in calfs, Coffea Arabica to treat general gastrointestinal troubles, colic, abdominal pain or diarrhoea, and Arthemisia absinthium to treat general gastro-intestinal disorders, diarrhoea or lack of appetite. For four orally administered plant species (Artemisia absinthium, Avena sativa, Citrus x limon, Quercus robur) daily oral doses were determined for the first time (median: 0.03, 6.16, 0.01 and 0.58g dry plant equivalent per kg0.75). In the category QD the most often described plant species were Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Picea abies, Sanicula europaea and Senecio ovatus. For the latter two plant species we determined for the first time an ethnoveterinary based concentration in the finished product (median: 0.13 and 0.39g dry plant equivalent per 100g finished product). Medicinal plants are known, and used by farmers of central Switzerland mostly for treatment of skin and gastrointestinal diseases. According to recent pharmaceutical and human clinical research several plant species documented in this ethnoveterinary study are worth to be further investigated in clinical trials with livestock.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T22:18:18Z
       
 
 
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