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Journal Cover Livestock Science
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • Use of digestible rather than total amino acid in diet formulation
           increases nitrogen retention and reduces nitrogen excretion from pigs
    • Authors: S.A. Lee; H. Jo; C. Kong; B.G. Kim
      Pages: 8 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 197
      Author(s): S.A. Lee, H. Jo, C. Kong, B.G. Kim
      One of the goals of swine diet formulation is minimizing nitrogen (N) excretion as well as maximizing N retention. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that different requirement expressions of dietary amino acids (AA) may affect N balance in pigs. Twelve pigs with average body weight of 40.9kg (standard deviation =3.3) were used in a quadruplicated 3×3 Latin square design. Three diets were formulated to meet AA requirement estimates based on total AA (Diettotal), apparent ileal digestible AA (DietAID), or standardized ileal digestible AA (DietSID) with constant amounts of corn, soybean meal, and corn germ meal but different crystalline AA contents. Total feces and urine were collected. Nitrogen balance was calculated based on the analyzed data of the diets, feces, and urine samples. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the least squares means among treatments: 1) Diettotal vs. DietAID and DietSID and 2) DietAID vs. DietSID. Pigs fed Diettotal had less retained N (P=0.048) and retention coefficients (P<0.01) resulting in greater urinary (P=0.014) and total (P=0.017) N excretion than DietAID and DietSID. Urinary N excretion tended to be greater (P=0.074) for pigs fed DietAID than DietSID. In conclusion, formulating swine diets based on digestible AA rather than on total AA can reduce N excretion.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2017)
       
  • The dilemma of twin pregnancies in dairy cattle. A review of practical
           prospects
    • Authors: F. López-Gatius; C. Andreu-Vázquez; R. Mur-Novales; V.E. Cabrera; R.H.F. Hunter
      Pages: 12 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 197
      Author(s): F. López-Gatius, C. Andreu-Vázquez, R. Mur-Novales, V.E. Cabrera, R.H.F. Hunter
      Carrying twins has been extensively described as an emerging principal non-infectious factor jeopardizing pregnancy maintenance and reducing the lifespan of dairy cows. The risk of pregnancy loss during the first trimester of gestation for cows carrying twins may be from three to seven times higher than for cows carrying singletons. Longer calving to conception intervals, higher culling rates and a shorter mean production lifespan of 200 days have been reported for cows delivering twins compared to cows delivering singletons. There is therefore a need accurately to detect twin embryos at the time of pregnancy diagnosis to follow twin pregnancies carefully or, alternatively, to remove one of the embryos. Therapeutic approaches for the problem of twin pregnancies include GnRH treatment or induced embryo reduction. With similar results, manual rupture of the amniotic vesicle or transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of allanto-amniotic fluid have been proposed as methods of choice to perform twin reduction in cows on Day 28–41 of gestation. However, benefits and risks of induced twin reduction should be quantified. This report reviews various aspects concerning control of twin pregnancies and the practical implications at herd level. Special attention is paid to timing of spontaneous twin reduction. Prospects for induced embryo reduction are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2017)
       
  • Effect of different periods of maternal deprivation on behavioral and
           cortisol responses at weaning and subsequent growth rate in zebu (Bos
           indicus) type cattle
    • Authors: L.I. Pérez; A. Orihuela; C.S. Galina; I. Rubio; M. Corro; A. Cohen; A. Hernández
      Pages: 17 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L.I. Pérez, A. Orihuela, C.S. Galina, I. Rubio, M. Corro, A. Cohen, A. Hernández
      Recently, a dual procedure of maternal deprivation at 25 and 45 days postpartum (dpp), has proven to induce cyclic activity in zebu type cattle as early as 50 dpp. However, little is known about the welfare of the animals subjected to these treatments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of two periods of maternal deprivation on some behavioral and cortisol responses of cows and calves at weaning, and subsequent growth rates. Forty Bos indicus cow-calf pairs raised under extensive conditions were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=10). In the control group (C) calves remained with their dams; in groups G24, G48 and G72, calves were temporally separated from their mothers for 24, 48 and 72h, respectively, at 25 days and at 45 days postpartum. Calves were weaned at 150 dpp and weighed at 25, 45, 150, 240 and 270 dpp; behavioral and cortisol measures were recorded from both cows and calves at 24, 48 and 72h post weaning. More calves were observed grazing and fewer vocalizing in the groups subjected to cow deprivation in comparison with the C group. At day 3 after weaning, serum cortisol concentration was higher (P<0.05) in group C than in the treatment groups, while day 1 after weaning, more G24 and G48 calves were observed <10m from the fence separating them from their dams (P<0.05) compared with G72 and C calves. Most of the behavioral and cortisol weaning responses disappeared on the third day after weaning, with cows displaying fewer signs of distress than their calves, regardless of treatment. No differences (P>0.05) were found in the weight of the calves at 25, 45 and 150 dpp. However, at 270 dpp, calves in G48 and G72 were heavier (P<0.05) than calves in the other groups. We conclude that calves subjected to mother deprivation during the suckling period displayed fewer behavioral distress signs, diminished cortisol response and higher body weights during the first days after weaning. However, the potential negative impact on calf welfare caused by emotional stress due to maternal deprivation needs further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary amino acid supplementation during gestation on placental
           efficiency and litter birth weight in gestating gilts
    • Authors: Djane Dallanora; Jéssica Marcon; Marina Patricia Walter; Natalha Biondo; Mari Lourdes Bernardi; Ivo Wentz; Fernando Pandolfo Bortolozzo
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 197
      Author(s): Djane Dallanora, Jéssica Marcon, Marina Patricia Walter, Natalha Biondo, Mari Lourdes Bernardi, Ivo Wentz, Fernando Pandolfo Bortolozzo
      Arginine is an important amino acid for angiogenesis and vasodilation, and recent studies have established ideal amino acid ratios for maternal, placental, fetal, and mammary gland tissue growth during gestation. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing gestation diets with arginine and/or amino acid blend (lysine, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan) on placental efficiency and piglet birth weight (BW) in hyper-prolific females. Pregnant gilts were divided into four treatment groups, namely, Control (corn-soybean meal based diet from D25 to D112), Arginine (supplemented with 1% Arg from D25 to D80); Blend (20g of blend from D81 to D112) and Argiblend (supplemented with 1% Arg from D25 to D80 and 20g of blend from D81 to D112 of gestation). The supplementation with Blend increased the weight of gilts at D112). The total number of piglets born, percentage of mummified fetuses, average BW, within-litter coefficient of variation in BW, percentage of low-birth-weight piglets (≤850g or ≤1000g), placental weight, placental efficiency and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with arginine decreased the number of born alive piglets and increased then percentage of stillborn piglets. The average placental weight was higher in Blend than in Control gilts. The effects of supplementation were also evaluated based on prolificacy of females categorized as either high (>14 total piglets born) and low (≤14 total piglets born). Within LowProlif group, gilts fed on the blend treatment had increased LitBW and AvgPBW compared to control gilts. LowProlif gilts supplemented with arginine also had higher AvgPBW than Control gilts. The LowProlif gilts fed on the arginine or blend diets had lower percentage (P<0.05) of low BW piglets (≤850g and ≤1000g) than those fed on the control and argiblend diet. Even though gestation diets supplemented with arginine and/or an amino acid blend did not influence average piglet BW and the within-litter variation in BW, when all the litters were taken into account, the supplementation with arginine or blend increased the average BW and reduced the percentage of low-weight piglets at birth when the litter size was less than 14.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T16:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2017)
       
  • Genome-wide search for signatures of selection in three major Brazilian
           locally adapted sheep breeds
    • Authors: João José de Simoni Gouveia; Samuel Rezende Paiva; Concepta M. McManus; Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano; James W. Kijas; Olivardo Facó; Hymerson Costa Azevedo; Adriana Mello de Araujo; Carlos José Hoff de Souza; Michel Eduardo B. Yamagishi; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro; Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo; Sônia Maria Pinheiro de Oliveira; Marcos Vinicius G.B. da Silva
      Pages: 36 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 197
      Author(s): João José de Simoni Gouveia, Samuel Rezende Paiva, Concepta M. McManus, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano, James W. Kijas, Olivardo Facó, Hymerson Costa Azevedo, Adriana Mello de Araujo, Carlos José Hoff de Souza, Michel Eduardo B. Yamagishi, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro, Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo, Sônia Maria Pinheiro de Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius G.B. da Silva
      The study of locally adapted breeds has the potential to underpin the discovery of genes involved in economically and ecologically important traits. Brazilian locally adapted sheep breeds have distinctive characteristics that could be of value for specialized production systems. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to identify genomic regions that may have been under selection and therefore may explain ecological and production differences observed among three important Brazilian locally adapted sheep breeds. Animals from the Brazilian Creole, Morada Nova and Santa Ines breeds were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine SNP50 BeadChip. The identification of selection signatures was based on two groups of methodologies: differentiation among populations (FST) and linkage disequilibrium (iHS and RsB). Taken together, these analyses allowed for the identification of 86 candidate genes. Functional analysis revealed genes related to immunity, nervous system development, reproduction and sensory perception. A number of genes are of particular interest including: RXFP2, which has recently been associated with the presence/absence and morphology of horns in sheep; the TRPM8 gene, involved in regulation of body temperature at low temperatures; DIS3L2, PLAG1 and NIPBL, associated with height variation; and finally, SPEF2 and SPAG6, important for spermatogenesis. Selective sweeps were identified using multiple methods, and in a number of cases sweep regions contained genes with a demonstrated role in phenotypic variation. The genomic distribution of the sweep regions differed between populations, suggesting that breed specific signatures were successfully identified that may reflect the consequence of local adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T16:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2017)
       
  • The effect of adding xylanase or β-glucanase to diets with corn
           distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS) on growth performance and
           nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs
    • Authors: T. Tsai; C.R. Dove; P.M. Cline; A. Owusu-Asiedu; M.C. Walsh; M. Azain
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 197
      Author(s): T. Tsai, C.R. Dove, P.M. Cline, A. Owusu-Asiedu, M.C. Walsh, M. Azain
      A total of 135 pigs (initial weight=7.2±0.2kg) were used to evaluate the effect of xylanase (XYL) and β-glucanase (BGL) alone or in combination (XB) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs fed diets with corn/SBM and 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (CDDGS). Pens (n=30, 4–5 pigs per pen) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: positive control (PC, Corn/SBM+0% CDDGS), negative control (NC, 30% CDDGS replacing a portion of the corn and SBM with no enzyme addition), negative control+4000 unit/kg xylanase (XYL), negative control +450 unit/kg β-glucanase (BGL), and negative control+4000 unit/kg xylanase+450 unit/kg β-glucanase (XB). All pigs were fed a common phase 1 diet for one week post-weaning, and were switched to experimental diets in phase 2 (d7-21) and phase 3 (d21-35). Pigs fed the NC diet had reduced growth rate (P<0.001) compared to PC. Pigs fed BGL diet had increased ADG by 7.7%, and those fed the XB diet had increased ADG (9.3%) over NC diet during d21-35 (P<0.001). Overall, XB diet improved ADG by 6.6%, compared to NC diet (P<0.001). Digestibility of DM, improved by 1.6% and 1.4% in pigs fed XYL and XB (P<0.001), respectively. Overall, energy digestibility improved by 5.5% in pigs fed diets supplemented with enzymes (P<0.001). Similarly, CP digestibility was 5.9% greater in pigs fed diets supplemented with enzymes as compared to the NC (P<0.001). Addition of XYL, BGL, and XB increased average NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility by 33%, 30%, and 34%, respectively, when compared to NC diet (P<0.02). Supplementation of XYL, BGL, or both enzymes improved P digestibility (46%) when compared to NC diet (P<0.01). The results indicate that ADG was improved by the XB combination, with most of the response accounted for by BGL. There was no effect of enzyme on ADFI or G:F. In contrast, XYL, BGL and XB improved nutrient digestibility. Enzyme supplementation at least partially reduced the negative impact of CDDGS on nutrient digestibility and growth.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T16:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 197 (2017)
       
  • Treatment of the retained placenta in dairy cows: Comparison of a
           systematic antibiosis with an oral administered herbal powder based on
           traditional Chinese veterinary medicine
    • Authors: Dongan Cui; Shengyi Wang; Lei Wang; Hui Wang; Jianxi Li; Xin Tuo; Xueli Huang; Yongming Liu
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 196
      Author(s): Dongan Cui, Shengyi Wang, Lei Wang, Hui Wang, Jianxi Li, Xin Tuo, Xueli Huang, Yongming Liu
      Cows affected with retained placenta are at a higher risk of developing puerperal metritis. Herbal remedies bear a high potential to treat postpartum uterine diseases in cows. The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare an herbal powder and ceftiofur hydrochloride in the treatment of cows affected with retained placenta and for puerperal metritis prevention. The herbal powder was prepared from a combination of Leonurus artemisia (Laur.) S.Y. Hu F, Angelica sinensis (OLIV.) DIELS (radix), Ligusticum chuanxiong HORT (radix), Sparganiumstoloniferum (Graebn.) Buch.-Ham.exJuz (radix), Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) ROSC (radix), Cyperu srotundus Linn. (radix), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH (radix). A total of 157 cows diagnosed with retained placenta were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups. Cows in the herbal group (n=85) were treated with an oral dose of 0.5g crude herb/kg bw once daily for 1–3day(s), and cows in the control group (n=72) were treated with ceftiofur hydrochloride (2.2mg/kg bw, i.m.) twice daily for 3 consecutive days. Seventy-three cows had total expulsion of the placenta within 72h following initial herbal treatment, yet no cows in the control group expelled the placenta during the same time period, and 50 out of 73 cows achieved total expulsion of the placenta following only one herbal treatment. The median time of retained placenta shedding (20.0 vs. 101.5h; P<0.01) was shorter in the herbal group than in the control group. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the oral administration of the herbal powder tended to have superior clinical efficacy in metritis prevention compared to the systemic administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride in cows affected with retained placenta (8.2% vs. 11.1%, P=0.057, OR 5.771) within 21 days after parturition. Additionally, fewer cows in the herbal group required additional therapeutic antibiotics compared to the controls (8.2% vs. 26.4%, P=0.003). Evidence from this randomized controlled clinical trial suggested that the herbal powder is a clinically effective treatment for retained placenta and the prevention of puerperal metritis and, thus, might have great potential for the medical management of retained placenta in dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2017)
       
  • Milk production and methane emissions from dairy cows fed a low or high
           proportion of red clover silage and an incremental level of rapeseed
           expeller
    • Authors: Helena Gidlund; Mårten Hetta; Pekka Huhtanen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Helena Gidlund, Mårten Hetta, Pekka Huhtanen
      This study evaluated the effects of including increasing levels of rapeseed expeller in dairy cow diets with a low or high proportion of red clover silage on milk production and methane emissions. A total of 32 lactating Swedish Red dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over design with three periods of 21 days, in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. The total mixed ration consisted of 600g/kg dry matter (DM) of forage and 400g/kg DM of concentrate on a DM basis. The forage treatments consisted of a 30:70 or 70:30 ratio of grass to red clover silage (RC30 and RC70). A basal supplement consisted of crimped barley and premix, formulated to contain 130g CP/kg DM. For the three additional concentrate supplements, crimped barley was gradually replaced with incremental levels of rapeseed expeller to reach 170, 210 or 250g CP/kg DM. No differences in feed intake were found between RC30 and RC70, but a positive response was found to increased dietary CP concentration from rapeseed expeller. Increasing proportion of red clover silage did not have any effect on production, while increasing dietary CP concentration increased yield of milk, energy corrected milk (ECM) and milk protein. Nitrogen efficiency was higher with diet RC30 than with RC70 and decreased with increasing dietary CP concentration, while milk urea nitrogen increased. Methane (CH4) emissions per unit feed intake decreased with dietary CP concentration and tended to increase with increasing proportion of red clover silage in the diet. Increased CP intake from red clover silage in the diet of dairy cows had no positive effect on CH4 emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T16:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.009
       
  • Micro-economic analysis of the potential impact of contagious bovine
           
    • Authors: S.W. Kairu-Wanyoike; N.M. Taylor; C. Heffernan; H. Kiara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.W. Kairu-Wanyoike, N.M. Taylor, C. Heffernan, H. Kiara
      There is inadequate herd and community level information on the impact of CBPP and its control by vaccination to allow adequate allocation of resources for CBPP control in affected ecosystems. A study was designed in Narok district of Kenya provide this crucial information for the Maasai ecosystem. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey involving 232 households, a longitudinal survey involving 39 herds, 32 outbreak investigations and a project vaccination follow up involving 203 households. Data were also collected from secondary sources and from current and past vaccination programs. Deterministic spreadsheet models estimated the cost of vaccination at KSh 34.6 (USD 0.49) to KSh 72.2 (USD 1.03): 1USD=KSh 70 per animal depending on the vaccination program. The value of annual production losses due to CBPP in the district were estimated at KSh 113.1 million (USD 1.62 million). The estimate of annual losses associated with response to outbreaks amounted to KSh 12.8 million (USD 0.18 million). Disease reporting and treatment of the sick accounted for 34.7% and 48.4% of the estimated value of annual losses associated with response to outbreaks respectively. Annual household CBPP losses were estimated at KSh 275.3 thousand (USD 3,933), over twice the average annual household net income of KSh 118.8 thousand (USD 1,697) from cattle. At community level, the estimated annual cost of preventive CBPP vaccination through a Wellcome Trust project was KSh 8.53 million (USD 0.12 million), 35.2% of which was due to indirect costs following adverse reactions to vaccination. A benefit-cost analysis demonstrated the annual net benefits to be KSh 67.8 million (USD 0.97 million) and BCR to be 9.60. Herd level BCR was 12.81 while annual net benefits were KSh 35.5 thousand (USD 507.81). Sensitivity analysis showed that vaccination was economically beneficial even when costs of vaccination nearly doubled in biannual vaccination. A break even analysis showed that the threshold herd incidence below which vaccination ceases to be economically worthwhile was 1.1% and 2.3% in annual and biannual vaccination respectively. In conclusion, a CBPP outbreak could cause the loss of a household's entire income from cattle keeping. The highest proportion of costs associated with response to outbreaks was in reporting and treatment of the sick. Early reaction to CBPP reports and eventual eradication of CBPP in the community is therefore urgent to safeguard livelihoods. Annual and biannual CBPP vaccination by any of the programs studied would be beneficial even if the incidence of the disease were as low as 2.2% and 3.9% respectively. However, losses due to adverse post-vaccination reactions need to be monitored and adequately managed. Macroeconomic analysis of the impact of CBPP and its control along the value chain is recommended for better decision making regarding CBPP control at national level.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.002
       
  • Contributions to diversity rather than basic measures of genetic diversity
           characterise the spreading of donkey throughout the American continent
    • Authors: Jordana Goyache; Ferrando Loarca O.R. J.L. Stemmer Aguirre M.A.C. Lara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J. Jordana, F. Goyache, A. Ferrando, I. Fernández, J. Miró, A. Loarca, O.R. Martínez López, J.L. Canelón, A. Stemmer, L. Aguirre, M.A.C. Lara, L.A. Álvarez, S. Llambí, N. Gómez, L.T. Gama, R.D. Martínez, E. Pérez, A. Sierra, M.A. Contreras, V. Landi, A. Martínez, J.V. Delgado
      Donkey was introduced into the Americas soon after its discovery in the 15th century. However, there is no historical consensus on how they spread across the continent. In a previous study, two distinct genetic pools (Clusters A -Southern part - and B - Northern part of South America and Central America) were identified, with likely confluence in Colombia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the main genetic diversity parameters, such as gene diversity (GD) and allelic richness (k), or the relative contributions of various breeds to these parameters are useful indicators to give genetic support to historical information on putative routes of the spreading of donkeys across the American continent. In full agreement with historical sources suggesting that Greater Antilles were the first breeding nucleus, both total contributions to gene diversity (gGDT) and to allelic richness (CT (k)) showed a higher ability to identify the "abundant centre" of the species on the Continent. Even though there are historical reports suggesting various entry points of the donkey into the continent (e.g. in Brazil), these parameters suggested that, in our dataset, the Cuban donkey population was the more likely representative of the first breeding nucleus of the species. Central and South American donkey populations in the surroundings of the Caribbean Gulf would more likely be early derivatives of Antillean donkey. The strong North-South genetic structure was confirmed for the American donkey metapopulation. Current analyses suggest that populations classified into Cluster A (South) are essentially a sample of the genetic background of Cluster B (North). The Andean route had the highest importance in the formation of the South American populations. The extinction of either population belonging to Cluster B could lead to a decrease in overall genetic diversity both at the gene diversity level (negative gGDT values) and the allelic richness level (positive CT (k) contributions). The opposite pattern is found for populations belonging to Cluster A. The extinction of the populations belonging to Cluster B would decrease the overall American donkey gene diversity in roughly 8% and would dramatically affect the number of alleles in the metapopulation (19.1%). However, the extinction of the donkey populations classified into Cluster A would increase overall gene diversity by 2.2%. Although, the genetic scenario of each individual population varies substantially, the joint conservation of the donkey populations classified into both Clusters A and B is highly advised.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
       
  • Optimising natural 13C marker based pasture intake estimates for cattle
           using a genetic algorithm approach
    • Authors: D.J. Cottle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D.J. Cottle
      The sensitivity of pasture intake estimates obtained from using 13C as a marker to differences in assumed diet composition and 13C diet-faecal discrimination was studied. Angus stud heifers grazed a silver grass, perennial ryegrass, bent grass and yorkshire fog pasture. The individual heifers were fed controlled and monitored daily amounts of maize and faecal samples were taken and analysed to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) and DMI/liveweight (LW). Daily methane production was also measured. Monte Carlo simulations using a uniform distribution of diet composition and an extreme value distribution for the 13C diet-faecal discrimination found that the DMI/LW ratio was twice as sensitive to assumed diet composition (and hence pasture 13C) than to the diet-faeces discrimination factor. DMI estimates would be useful for ranking animals on DMI intake alone as the rank correlations for DMI estimated using different input assumptions were high. A genetic algorithm approach was helpful as a means of determining the optimum diet selection or plant proportions to use for each animal and the diet-faecal discrimination to use when uncertainty exists as to their true values, which may often be the case. Some animals had non-credible DMI/LW values when using standard calculation methods. There are no definitive goals or constraints to use but careful choice of the range of individual DMI/LW values set as a hard constraint enabled credible DMI/LW values for all animals to be obtained when using a genetic algorithm approach.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.004
       
  • Typology and characteristics of dairy goat production systems in Greece
    • Authors: A.I. Gelasakis; G. Rose; R. Giannakou; G.E. Valergakis; A. Theodoridis; P. Fortomaris; G. Arsenos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.I. Gelasakis, G. Rose, R. Giannakou, G.E. Valergakis, A. Theodoridis, P. Fortomaris, G. Arsenos
      Our objective was to classify dairy goat farms into representative typologies. We used a random sample of 103 goat farms from 8 regions in mainland Greece and the islands. Farmers were surveyed using a designated questionnaire for in depth interviews on their farms. A general description of production methods and farm characteristics was recorded. The farms were classified using a multivariable statistical approach including principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The differences between clusters were assessed using one-way ANOVA and χ2 test and the profitability of farms was estimated. The intensity of production system was mostly classified based on goat herd size and age of kids at weaning. Reproductive management was classified mostly based on age at first mating and does to bucks ratio. Herd turnover rate and genetic improvement strategy was mostly classified by bucks’ replacement rate and doelings to does ratio. Cultivated land per livestock unit, irrigated land used, years of farmer's experience, and facilities and equipment score were significant farming descriptors. We identified four clusters that shared common characteristics and major differences. Cluster 1 (26 farms, 25.2%) included large, semi-intensive, high producing and investing farms. Cluster 2 (50 farms, 48.5%) included semi-extensive, low-input, traditional farms. Cluster 3 (12 farms, 11.7%) included medium-sized, semi-intensive, low replacement rate farms. Cluster 4 (15 farms, 14.6%) included semi-extensive, low-input, traditional farms, producing heavy weight kids carcasses. Regarding profitability, Cluster 1 was significantly more profitable than clusters 2 and 4, whereas the more profitable clusters also had more variation in profit suggesting they are riskier. Cluster 4 could benefit from further developing meat production, processing and packaging to become an independent cluster. This new cluster would be focused on both milk and meat whilst the other three clusters focus on milk.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T15:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.003
       
  • Health and growth of Finnish beef calves and the relation to acute phase
           response
    • Authors: Leena Seppä-Lassila; Ulla Eerola; Toomas Orro; Heidi Härtel; Heli Simojoki; Tiina Autio; Sinikka Pelkonen; Timo Soveri
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 196
      Author(s): Leena Seppä-Lassila, Ulla Eerola, Toomas Orro, Heidi Härtel, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri
      Healthy, thriving calves are essential for beef calf production. We studied the health status and factors associated with the growth of beef calves in six cow-calf herds during the first month of the calves’ lives and at weaning age (200 days). The six herds were visited three times, when calves were approximately 3 days, 16 days and 30 days of age. On each visit calves (n=37) were clinically examined, weighed or measured, blood samples were collected, faecal samples obtained and deep nasopharyngeal swabs were taken. Each blood sample was analysed for acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid-A, fibrinogen), total proteins and albumin, the faecal sample for intestinal tract pathogens (rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella, oocysts of Eimeria coccidia and Cryptosporidium, and nematode eggs), and the nasopharyngeal swab for respiratory tract pathogens (bovine coronavirus (BCV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bacteria and mycoplasma). Clinical diagnosis of respiratory tract disease, diarrhoea or umbilical disease was set at 15.0% for all the three consecutive examinations combined (n=107), but only few pathogens were detected from the samples. The increased levels of acute phase proteins were neither associated with any of the diseases nor with the pathogens. Random intercept linear models were used to explore factors affecting early (3–30 days) and long-term (3–200 days) growth, showing that calves with elevated serum amyloid-A concentrations at the age of 16 days had lower long-term growth. Increased albumin concentration at 30 days of age and higher parity of the dam increased early-term growth. The lack of association between a disease and the acute phase protein may stem from the low disease prevalence in the beef calves examined. The measurement of acute phase proteins of a young calf can help identify animals with possible future growth deficiencies, although the mechanisms through which the association between acute phase proteins and growth has yet to be explained.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T14:33:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Using first and second parity number born alive information to estimate
           later reproductive performance in sows
    • Authors: Tasha R. Gruhot; Julia A. Calderón Díaz; Tom J. Baas; Kenneth J. Stalder
      Pages: 22 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 196
      Author(s): Tasha R. Gruhot, Julia A. Calderón Díaz, Tom J. Baas, Kenneth J. Stalder
      The study objectives were to compare the lifetime performance of sows based on number of piglets born alive (NBA) and NBA across parities, according to 3 NBA classifications in first and second parity. The data used for this study were collected from 2001 to 2014 at 17 farms owned by the same company. Farms were located in the Mid-West region of the United States. A total of 502,491 records accounting for the lifetime performance of 105,719 sows were used in this analysis. Data included both purebred and crossbred sow information. Sows were classified into 3 NBA categories (e.g., low, medium, and high) according to the 25th percentiles of NBA in parity 1 and parity 2. Parity 1 classifications: low <10 NBA, medium 10–12 NBA, high >12 NBA. Parity 2 classifications: low <11 NBA, medium 11–13 NBA, high >13 NBA. Mixed model analyses were applied to the data. Sows in the low first and second parity NBA classification had an average of 1–1.8 less NBA per parity in parities 3 through 7, when compared with sows in the medium and high NBA classifications, respectively (P<0.05). Conversely, sows classified as high NBA in parity 1 and parity 2 had greater NBA in all subsequent parities as well as total lifetime NBA when compared with sows classified as low or medium NBA (P<0.05). The effect that parity 2 classification has on estimated later parity performance is dependent on parity 1 classification (P-interaction <0.05). The interaction between classification was also seen when predicting total lifetime NBA. As parity 1 classification increased, the difference between estimates of high versus low parity 2 NBA classification sows became smaller. For example, with the removal parity of 7, the difference between a high versus low classified sow in parity 2, both with a parity one classification of low, was 10.3 lifetime NBA. The difference between high versus low parity 2 classified sows that were both high in parity one was 8.6 lifetime NBA. It was shown that parity 1 and 2 classification only had a small effect on the parity of removal. Overall, it was demonstrated that the use of first and second parity performance, based on number born alive, can be used effectively to predict subsequent parity and lifetime performance which can aid in selection and culling decisions early in the sow's life.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T14:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2016)
       
  • Comparative study on feeding value of Moringa leaves as a partial
           replacement for alfalfa hay in ewes and goats
    • Authors: Elfadil E. Babiker; Fahad A.L. Juhaimi; Kashif Ghafoor; Khalid A. Abdoun
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 195
      Author(s): Elfadil E. Babiker, Fahad A.L. Juhaimi, Kashif Ghafoor, Khalid A. Abdoun
      A Comparative study on feeding value of Moringa leaves diet (MOD) as a partial replacement for alfalfa hay diet (AHD) in ewes and goats was carried out. Twenty animals from each group were used in a 6-week experiment. Each group of the animals was divided into two groups with 10 animals in each group and arranged in a replicated 2×2 crossover design. Differences in MOD value vs. AHD were analysed by using Student's t-tests. MOD had significantly (p≤0.05) higher ash, fat, nitrogen-free extracts, metabolizable energy, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than AHD. However, crude protein, fibre, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were significantly higher in AHD than MOD. Milk yield was significantly greater when goats and ewes were fed MOD than AHD. Feeding MOD to ewes and goats significantly affected milk composition with higher fat, lactose, and solid non-fat contents than AHD. Milk energy contents and outputs were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in ewes and goats fed MOD than AHD. Goats and ewes fed MOD had significantly lower malondialdehyde (MDA) in their milk and serum than that fed AHD. Catalase content in milk and serum of goats and ewes fed MOD was significantly (p≤0.05) higher than that of animals fed AHD. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and vitamin C were higher in milk and serum of goats and ewes fed MOD than that fed AHD. Lower cholesterol and glucose contents were noted in the serum of goats and ewes fed MOD. Average daily gain by kids and lambs was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in kids and lambs fed MOD than that fed AHD. Replacement of alfalfa with M. oleifera had a positive effect on milk yield, composition and quality of ewes and goats and growth performance of kids and lambs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
       
  • Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds: I. Risk factors for abortion
    • Authors: Hamideh Keshavarzi; Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi; Anders Ringgaard Kristensen; Anna Helena Stygar
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 195
      Author(s): Hamideh Keshavarzi, Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Anna Helena Stygar
      Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation is measured as number of 3-week periods in milk (3-WIM) and stage of pregnancy accordingly as number of 3-week periods in pregnancy. After removing the records with missing information, the analysis included 482,071 3-WIM records for 26,289 pregnant cows collected between 2005 and 2014. The investigated factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion was defined as fetal death or return to estrus after confirmed pregnancy between 63 and 252days in pregnancy. The overall rate of abortion, calculated as the number of aborted cows divided by the number of pregnant cows, was 15.4% ranging from 13.6% to 17.4% at herd level. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of abortion differs between herds. Furthermore, all other investigated factors interacted significantly with herd thus illustrating that the effects of risk factors also differ between herds. Other significant risk factors included parity (interacting with pregnancy stage, mastitis, lactation stage and previous abortion), calving month, mastitis (interacting with pregnancy stage), pregnancy stage (interacting with previous abortion and mastitis), lactation stage (interacting with mastitis) and previous abortion. Milk yield was not a significant risk factor for abortion, but due to significant interaction with mastitis it was kept in the final model. In general, it is concluded that inclusion of significant interactions in a risk factor analysis as the present is of paramount importance for a correct quantification of the risk factors for a cow with given characteristics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
       
  • Effects of Biotite V supplementation on growth performance and the
           immunological responses of weaned pigs after an Escherichia coli
           lipopolysaccharide challenge
    • Authors: Ling Guo; Yulan Liu; Jie Han; Huiling Zhu; Xiuying Wang
      Pages: 112 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 195
      Author(s): Ling Guo, Yulan Liu, Jie Han, Huiling Zhu, Xiuying Wang
      This study evaluated the effect of an aluminosilicate mineral additive-Biotite V (BV) on growth performance, the immunological and adrenal responses in weaned pigs after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two crossbred weaned pigs were used in this 2×2 factorial experiment, with dietary treatment (basal diet with or without 0.45% BV supplementation) and LPS challenge (challenged or not challenged) as two main factors. On day 14 and 21, pigs were injected intraperitoneally with either 100μg/kg body weight of LPS or an equivalent amount of sterile saline. Blood samples were collected 3h after the first challenge followed by total and differential leukocyte counts and analysis of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cortisol, insulin, and biochemical parameters. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly throughout the 4-week experiment. The results showed that both LPS challenges reduced average daily gain (ADG) (P<0.05) and increased feed/gain (P<0.001), and BV decreased feed/gain (P<0.05) of immunology challenged pigs. The LPS challenge×diet interactions were observed for ADG (P<0.05) and feed/gain (P<0.05) during both challenge. LPS challenge reduced the number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils (P<0.05). LPS challenge×diet interaction was observed for plasma TNF-α (P<0.05) concentration, showing decreased plasma TNF-α response to LPS challenged in pigs receiving BV. But no LPS challenge × diet interaction was observed for plasma cortisol or PGE2. There was a diet effect for plasma insulin (P<0.05) and glucose (P<0.05), showing increased plasma insulin and decreased glucose with BV supplementation, but no LPS challenge×diet interaction was observed. We conclude that BV improved the weight gain and feed efficiency of weaned pigs during an immunological challenge by suppressing the proinflammatory cytokine release.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
       
  • Nutritional potential of forage species found in Brazilian Semiarid region
    • Authors: K.C. Santos; A.L.R. Magalhães; D.K.A. Silva; G.G.L. Araújo; G.M. Fagundes; N.G. Ybarra; A.L. Abdalla
      Pages: 118 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 195
      Author(s): K.C. Santos, A.L.R. Magalhães, D.K.A. Silva, G.G.L. Araújo, G.M. Fagundes, N.G. Ybarra, A.L. Abdalla
      Brazilian Semiarid region is the natural environment of many herbaceous and shrubby plants that can be consumed by ruminants. Our objective was to estimate nutritional potential and CH4 production of forages from Brazilian Semiarid region for ruminant diets. We evaluated Manihot pseudoglazziovii, Mimosa caesapiniifolia, Bauhinia cheilantha, Leucaena leucocephala, Clitorea ternatea and Gliricidia sepium by chemical composition, digestibility and degradation parameters and ruminal fermentation. The fractionation of carbohydrates and proteins was performed based on the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. The evaluation of the degradation of organic matter and ruminal fermentation products was performed by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. The ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein were estimated using the in vitro three stage simulation technique. Clitorea, followed by Leucaena, had the highest concentration of the fraction B2 (potentially digestible fiber) while the concentration did not differ (P>0.05) between the other species. The fractions C were found in greater quantities (P<0.05) in the Mimosa and Bauhinia species. Manihot, Gliricidia and, to a lesser extent, Leucaena, resulted in higher (P<0.05) true degradation of organic matter (g/kg organic matter) and higher partitioning factor (ratio of degradability and gas production). Leucaena showed greater intestinal protein digestibility (g/kg dry matter), especially as a protected source of protein ruminal degradation and available in the intestine. Gliricidia, Leucaena and Manihot showed potential for reducing the production of enteric methane, without compromising the degradation of nutrients, with high digestibility and readily fermentable carbohydrates.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
       
  • Recovered energy and efficiency of digestion in sheep and goats fed
           Atriplex nummularia compared to alfalfa hay
    • Authors: A.R. Askar; M.S. Nassar; H.S. Badawy; E.Y. Eid; J.A. Guada; M.F.A. Farid
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): A.R. Askar, M.S. Nassar, H.S. Badawy, E.Y. Eid, J.A. Guada, M.F.A. Farid
      An experiment was carried out to examine differences between sheep and goats in utilizing forages varying in feeding value. Twenty four non-lactating females (Age=3.5 years; Barki sheep, n=12 and Balady goats, n=12) were individually housed in 1.0×1.5m pens with sand floor for a 25-d period and then moved to metabolic cages. Animals of each species were offered either alfalfa hay or Atriplex nummularia foliage as sole diet for ad libitum consumption. Dry matter intake and digestibility were greater (P<0.001) for animals fed alfalfa hay than Atriplex nummularia. Intake of organic matter (g/kg metabolic body weight (BW0.75)/d) and gross energy (kJ/kg BW0.75/d) was greater (P<0.05) for goats than sheep. The significant interaction between forage type and animal species indicated that digestibility (%) of organic matter and energy was only greater for goats than sheep fed Atriplex nummularia, while no significant differences were observed between animal species when fed alfalfa hay. However, NDF digestibility was similar between both animal species fed either roughage. Energy expenditure (kJ/kg BW0.75/d) was similar between goats and sheep, and greater (P<0.001) for animals fed alfalfa hay than Atriplex nummularia. The significant interaction between forage type and animal species indicate that recovered energy (RE, kJ/kg BW0.75/d) was similar for both animal species when fed alfalfa hay, while it was greater for goats than sheep when fed Atriplex nummularia. It is concluded that apparent digestibility and RE were practically similar in sheep and goats when they consumed the high quality forage (i.e. Alfalfa), while low quality forage (i.e. Atriplex nummularia) was better utilized by goats than sheep.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T15:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
       
  • Ninety one-days-old piglets recognize and remember a previous aversive
           handler
    • Authors: Roberta Sommavilla; Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto; Cristiane Goncalves Titto; Maria José Hötzel
      Pages: 7 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): Roberta Sommavilla, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto, Cristiane Goncalves Titto, Maria José Hötzel
      The aim of this study was to determine if 91 days-old piglets can remember a previous aversive handler after three weeks with no contact with this person. For this, 16 piglets from a group of 48 piglets were submitted to an aversive treatment from birth until 70 days of life, made by a woman wearing orange coveralls (AH). AH was noisy, moved harshly and shouted frequently. After day 70, piglets did not have any further contact with AH. At the same time, a new neutral treatment was introduced made by another person (NH – a woman wearing blue coveralls). NH used a soft tone of voice and was careful. The Human Approach Test was applied to measure the avoidance response of piglets to the approach of AH, NH and an unfamiliar handler (UH), at 35 days and at 91 days after birth. Scores ranged from 1 (experimenter could touch piglets) to 4 (piglets escaped as soon as the experimenter moves). On day 35, piglets kept more distance from AH then from the UH (2.37±0.33 and 1.69±0.22 respectively, P=0.04), indicating that they could recognize the aversive handler. On 91 days, piglets still kept more distance from AH then UH and NH (2.75±0.33; 1.31±0.15; 1.25±0.11 respectively, P<0.001), indicating that aversively treated piglets do not avoid an unfamiliar handler, but can remember an aversive handler with whom they had contact early in life. In conclusion, piglets tested at 35 and 91 days of age show different avoidance responses to different humans, according to the quality of their previous interactions. Moreover, they remember a previous aversive handler after at least three weeks with no contact.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T15:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
       
  • An investigation of risk factors for two successive cases of clinical
           mastitis in the same lactation
    • Authors: J.C.F. Pantoja; A.P. Almeida; B. dos Santos; R.S. Rossi
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): J.C.F. Pantoja, A.P. Almeida, B. dos Santos, R.S. Rossi
      The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the occurrence of two successive cases of clinical mastitis (CM). Two farms were visited monthly during 10 months. Milk samples were collected from all cases of CM that occurred during the study. Cows were observed prospectively from the beginning of the study and a case cow was defined when she experienced the second case of CM within the same lactation. For each case cow, 3 control cows matched by days in milk (DIM) were randomly selected from the cohort of cows who did not experience CM. On each visit day, a series of udder and teat characteristics were recorded during milking time: teat-end hyperkeratosis scoring, milking ease scoring, teat length and diameter, teat-to-ground distance, and udder position in relation to the hock. A total of 113 case cows and 324 control cows were used for analyses. The median time to occurrence of the first case of CM was 84 DIM and the median interval between the first and second cases of CM was 39 days. Of all second cases, 49.6% (N=55) occurred in the same mammary gland. Of these 55 cases, 29.1% had identical milk culture results from both first and second cases. Most cases of CM were caused by coliforms and environmental streptococci. Teat-to-ground distance, teat-end hyperkeratosis, udder position in relation to the hock, milking ease, parity, and milk production at the first test of lactation were individually associated with the occurrence of two successive cases of CM. Of all explanatory variables, 3 remained in the final multivariable model. The odds of two successive cases of CM were 3.7 times greater for cows who were “very easy to milk”, as compared with cows who were “difficult to milk”. Cows who had their udders below the hock, and those of parity >2 were 3.6 and 2.5 times more likely to experience two successive cases of CM, as compared with cows whose udder was positioned above the hock, and cows of parity 1, respectively. Findings of this study highlight the importance of teat and udder characteristics as risk factors for two successive cases of CM. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the role of the teat canal in preventing mastitis for modern cows that have been selected for increased milk production, shorter teats, and greater milk flow rates.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T15:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
       
  • Impacts of dietary forage and crude protein levels on the shedding of
           Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria in dairy cattle feces
    • Authors: S. Biswas; M. Niu; J.A.D.R.N. Appuhamy; A.B. Leytem; R.S. Dungan; E. Kebreab; P. Pandey
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): S. Biswas, M. Niu, J.A.D.R.N. Appuhamy, A.B. Leytem, R.S. Dungan, E. Kebreab, P. Pandey
      The shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of ruminants and the consequential risk to the public and environmental health is well reported. However, the influence of dietary manipulation on the shedding of fecal bacteria is not well understood. This study was conducted to improve understanding of the relationship between dietary feed composition and shedding of E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria spp. in dairy feces. Twelve cows were randomly assigned to four treatment diets of two dietary forage levels: low forage (37.4% dry matter, DM) vs. high forage (53.3% of DM) and two dietary crude protein (CP) levels: low protein (15.2% of DM) vs. high protein (18.5% of DM) in a 4×4 replicated Latin square design with four periods each including a 14 d adaptation and 3 d sample collection periods. Generic E. coli was detected in some of the feed ingredients, such as cotton seed, alfalfa hay, almond, and CaCO3, while Listeria was detected in the alfalfa hay and mineral mix. A significant interaction effect was observed between dietary forage and CP on the presence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 (P=0.01) but not with Listeria. On average, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 level (6.6log10 CFU/g of feces) was observed from the high forage and high protein diet and the lowest level was 6.1log10 CFU/g from the low forage and high protein diet. The average Listeria shedding rate was within the range of 1.7–2.3log10 CFU/g among the dietary forage and CP treatments. For the CP treatments, significantly low levels of Listeria were observed from cows fed the high protein (0.9−1.6log10 CFU/g) compared to the low protein (1.3–2.1log10 CFU/g) diet. Considering temporal fluctuations, no significant diurnal pattern was observed for either E.coli O157:H7 or Listeria. In addition, no time of sampling over day by dietary forage or CP content interaction on fecal E.coli O157:H7 or Listeria level was observed. This study showed that diets can influence the shedding of potentially pathogenic bacteria in dairy cow excreta.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T15:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
       
  • Prediction of desirable genotype patterns in Baladi beef cattle and water
           buffalo by identification of new leptin gene SNPs
    • Authors: M.A. Ghoneim; H.A. Ogaly; E.M. Gouda; A.M. El-Behairy
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): M.A. Ghoneim, H.A. Ogaly, E.M. Gouda, A.M. El-Behairy
      The leptin gene is considered to be an excellent candidate gene for predicting desirable economic traits in both beef and dairy cattle. Leptin gene polymorphism has been analyzed in different livestock species and the polymorphic pattern has been demonstrated to be associated with energy balance, milk production, live body weight and reproductive performance. The present study was designed to analyze genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of leptin gene in native beef cattle and water buffalo in comparison to Holstein cattle. A total number of 180 animals (60 animals of each breed) were used for blood sampling and DNA extraction. Target sites in leptin gene (first 94bp fragment of exon 2 and 330bp fragment including first part of exon 3) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two specific primers pairs. Genotyping for R25C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 2 was carried out using the Kpn21-RFLP method. Variations in the exon 3 coding sequence were investigated by PCR-SSCP analysis. Two alleles (C and T) were observed in exon 2 giving rise to three R25C variants (CC, CT and TT). The highest frequency in all populations was the homozygote genotype (CC) where it recorded 91.6%, 98.3% and 100% for Baladi cattle, Holstein cattle and buffalo, respectively. Four alleles (A, B, C and D) and six genotypes (AA, AB, BB, CC, DD and CD) were identified in all studied breeds upon exon 3 analysis. Genotype AA was found to be the most dominant in all studied breeds followed by genotype CC in Holstein and Baladi cattle but followed by AB genotype in buffalo. All observed and expected genotypes were found to be statistically significant (P≤0.05) when subjected to chi-square analysis. Two point mutations have been identified in the first part of exon 3 coding sequence (a3033>t and c3051>t) of Baladi cattle samples. Polymorphisms that were detected in this study indicated that these breeds have high genetic variability in the leptin gene. These results implicate the prospective use of leptin gene polymorphisms for association studies with different productive and reproductive performances and marker assisted selection (MAS).

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T07:30:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2015.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
       
  • Automatic classification system for grazing, ruminating and resting
           behaviour of dairy sheep using a tri-axial accelerometer
    • Authors: V. Giovanetti; M. Decandia; G. Molle; M. Acciaro; M. Mameli; A. Cabiddu; R. Cossu; M.G. Serra; C. Manca; S.P.G. Rassu; C. Dimauro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): V. Giovanetti, M. Decandia, G. Molle, M. Acciaro, M. Mameli, A. Cabiddu, R. Cossu, M.G. Serra, C. Manca, S.P.G. Rassu, C. Dimauro
      A device based on a tri-axial accelerometer was used to measure behavioural parameters of dairy sheep at pasture. Short tests were performed in grazing conditions to collect accelerometer data simultaneously with video recordings of sheep behavioural activities (grazing, ruminating and resting). The raw acceleration data was processed to create 12 variables: mean, variance and inverse coefficient of variation (ICV; mean/standard deviation) for the X-, Y- and Z-axis and the resultant at 1-min intervals. A database inclusive of the 12 acceleration variables and the three behavioural activities detected for each minute was then created. Three multivariate statistical techniques were used to discriminate the behavioural activities using the acceleration data: stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA), canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), and discriminant analysis (DA). Based on the acceleration variables selected by SDA, the subsequent CDA significantly discriminated the three behaviours by extracting two canonical functions. The first canonical function (CAN1) discriminated the grazing activity from the resting and ruminating, whereas the second (CAN2) differentiated the grazing from the ruminating behaviour. After bootstrap resampling, the DA correctly assigned 93.0% of minutes to behavioural activities. Stepwise regression analysis was used to estimate the bite frequency (total number of bites/min) using a subset of acceleration data that contained only minutes in which sheep were grazing. In this case, 15 variables were tested and out of them, only one was selected, the sum of X-axis value per minute (SX), which explained 65% of the total variation of the bite frequency.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T14:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.011
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism of candidategenes in non-descript local
           goats of Sri Lanka
    • Authors: H.B.P.C Ariyarathne; H.B.S Ariyaratne; L.G.S Lokugalappatti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): H.B.P.C Ariyarathne, H.B.S Ariyaratne, L.G.S Lokugalappatti
      In the present study, genetic polymorphism in exon 4 of kappa casein (k-CSN3), exon 2–3 of alpha lactalbumin (LALBA) and exon 1 of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) genes were analyzed as candidate genes for milk production, milk quality and prolificacy aiming to provide information for future studies on genetic improvements in non-descriptive local goats in Sri Lanka. Altogether eleven, thirteen and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in k-CSN3, LALBA and GnRHR gene fragments respectively utilizing the DNA sequencing technique in Sri Lanka. Seven polymorphic sites out of eleven in k-CSN3 gene fragment and the recorded polymorphic site in exon 3 of LALBA gene fragment were homozygous while all three polymorphic sites in GnRHR gene fragment were heterozygous. Two of the SNPs recorded in the present study are found to unique for Sri Lankan non-descript goat population at G203T and A730G in k-CSN3 and GnRHR genes respectively. The study records another two SNPs in GnRHR gene which are already known to be correlated with higher fecundity in goats (G757A and G891T). Results of the present study will be extremely important in future attempts to indicate markers to improve the milk production, composition of milk and litter size of non-descript local goats in Sri Lanka.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T14:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.012
       
  • Milk fat secretion in Holstein dairy cows: insights from grain type and
           oil supplement
    • Authors: S. Kargar; G.R. Ghorbani; M. Khorvash; A. Kahyani; S. Karimi-Dehkordi; M. Safahani-Langarudi; V. Fievez; D.J. Schingoethe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Kargar, G.R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, A. Kahyani, S. Karimi-Dehkordi, M. Safahani-Langarudi, V. Fievez, D.J. Schingoethe
      Effects of grain type and dietary oil supplement on milk fat depression and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of dairy cows were evaluated using eight multiparous Holstein cows (77 ± 22.1 days in milk; mean ± SD) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets. Experimental diets contained either ground barley or ground corn supplemented with either fish oil or soybean oil at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Experimental periods were 25 d, with the final 7 d used for sample and data collection. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.09) to be greater for barley- vs. corn-based diets (23.2 vs. 22.3kg/d), but was reduced for the fish oil compared to soybean oil supplemented diets (21.1 vs. 24.3kg/d; P < 0.001). Total FA intake was greater in corn-based diets and also in soybean oil supplemented diets. Regardless of type of the diet fed, MFD occurred. Although milk fat yield was not affected, the barley-based diets increased (P < 0.001) the concentration of mixed-origin FA (C16:0 plus cis−9 C16:1) but decreased the concentration of preformed FA (P < 0.001) as compared with corn-based diets. Corn-based diets increased concentration of both trans−11 C18:1 (P = 0.03) and cis−9, trans−11 C18:2 (P = 0.01) which was a reflection of greater intake of cis−9, cis−12 C18:2 as substrate for rumen biohydrogenation. Severity of MFD was greater for fish oil than for soybean oil which was evidenced by the increased concentration and yield of biohydrogenation intermediates (especially trans−10 C18:1) associated with MFD (r = –0.61; n = 32) in milk fat. However, fish oil increased concentration of both trans−11 C18:1 (P = 0.001) and cis−9, trans−11 C18:2 (P < 0.001) as compared with soybean oil. Grain type and oil supplement did not interact to affect milk odd- and branched-chain FA (OBCFA) concentration. Cows fed barley-based diets (P < 0.001) and soybean oil supplemented diets (P < 0.001) produced greater OBCFA in milk fat. Overall, there was no interaction between the type of grain and oil supplement on induction of MFD and milk fat yield. However, milk fatty acid composition was differently modified by the grain type and an increase in the concentration of mixed-origin FA of fish oil supplemented diets was unable to attenuate the severity of MFD because of the concomitant decrease in concentrations of de novo synthesized- and preformed-FA as compared with soybean oil supplemented diets.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T14:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.010
       
  • Mapping Sustainability in Pig Farming Research using Keyword Network
           Analysis
    • Authors: Friederike Klein; Katharina Schodl; Christoph Winckler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Friederike Klein, Katharina Schodl, Christoph Winckler
      Integrating sustainability as normative principle in research has become increasingly important, also in agricultural and livestock sciences. Using a keyword network analysis, the present study aimed at identifying the most important research topics addressing sustainability in pig farming research. For this purpose, publication data was extracted from the Web of Science using ‘sustainab⁎ AND pig’ and ‘sustainab⁎ AND swine’ as search terms. The revised matches were converted into a network using the software package ‘Pajek’. Both, degree and betweenness analysis suggest that keywords and research topics with an environmental connotation are most important in the network. After crosschecking the respective abstracts, the keywords were assigned to thematic clusters and topics according to their location in the network. In agreement with the concept of strong sustainability, a large number of clusters covering environmental issues in the network underlines the importance of environmental research topics in this research area. Furthermore, the network emphasizes animal health and welfare as essential part of sustainable pig farming. However, socio-economic subjects, which also present an important aspect of sustainability in livestock farming, have been less well addressed.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.005
       
  • Effect of diets differing in protein concentration (low vs medium) and
           nitrogen source (urea vs soybean meal) on in vitro rumen fermentation and
           on performance of finishing Italian Simmental bulls
    • Authors: Mauro Spanghero; Federico Mason; Cristina Zanfi; Anna Nikulina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mauro Spanghero, Federico Mason, Cristina Zanfi, Anna Nikulina
      This research evaluated the effect of two dietary intestinal digestible protein (PDI) levels and a partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with urea (U) on the performance of finishing Italian Simmental bulls (Exp. 1) and on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, eighty Italian Simmental bulls (495 ± 58kg of body weight (BW), 14-months old) during the last 120 d of fattening were fed diets differing in terms of PDI concentration (85 and 72g/kg dry matter (DM), medium (M) and low (L) diets, respectively) and nitrogen source (only SBM or SBM partly replaced by 0.5% DM of U). Animals were slaughtered at BW of 656 ± 56kg at 18 months of age. The average daily gain (ADG) was satisfactory (1.32kg/d) and the medium PDI level tended (P<0.10) to increase the ADG (1.37 vs 1.28kg/d). Apparent total tract digestibility did not differ between treatments, and the feed efficiency tended to be more favourable for the M diets (0.147 vs 0.137kg BW gain/ kg feed DM, P < 0.10). Slaughter traits were unaffected by dietary treatments. In Exp. 2, continuous culture fermenters were inoculated with rumen fluid from bulls in Exp. 1 and were given the same diets. The fermentation fluid was sampled at feeding time and 1, 2 and 3h after (T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively) and the medium PDI level determined higher ammonia concentrations (P<0.01 at T0, T1, and T2; P<0.05 at T3). The drop of pH at T1 and T2 was less intense (P<0.05) for diets containing U, presumably due to the buffering capacity of urea. In vitro DM digestibility tended to be higher for diets containing U (P<0.10) and was unaffected by the dietary level of PDI. Differences in volatile fatty acids concentrations were limited to butyrate, which was higher for M diets (T0:13.6 vs 12.5mol/100mol, P < 0.10; T2: 13.8 vs 12.5mol/100mol, P <0.01) and for diets containing U (T0: 14.3 vs 11.9mol/100mol; T2: 14.3 vs 12.1mol/100mol, P<0.01). In conclusion, L diets tended to decrease weight gain in finishing Italian Simmental bulls, but both PDI levels and SBM substitution with U had no detrimental effects on slaughter and meat quality traits. Further research efforts are required to explain the increase of butyrate in fermentation fluid of fermenters fed medium PDI diets or U diets.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T14:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.004
       
  • Management routines influencing piglet survival in loose-housed sow herds
    • Authors: Ellen Marie Rosvold; Camilla Kielland; Marko Ocepek; Tore Framstad; Bente Fredriksen; Ina Andersen-Ranberg; Geir Næss; Inger Lise Andersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ellen Marie Rosvold, Camilla Kielland, Marko Ocepek, Tore Framstad, Bente Fredriksen, Ina Andersen-Ranberg, Geir Næss, Inger Lise Andersen
      Piglet mortality is still a significant welfare and ethical matter in pig production, as well as an economical challenge for the farmer. Most of the mortality occurs early after farrowing, and previous studies have shown that the farm's management routines, especially around farrowing, are important factors to reduce it. When sows are loose-housed at farrowing and in the following lactation period, it puts higher demands on management input from the farmer to keep piglet mortality low. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of different management routines around the time of farrowing, and other farm qualities for piglet survival in loose-housed herds. To study risk factors for herd piglet mortality, a cross-sectional field survey was carried out in Norway in the year 2013, and included 52 commercial herds with hybrid LY sows (Norwegian Landrace x Swedish Yorkshire). The farms were visited once, and the farmers answered a questionnaire about their management practices. The outcome was the average herd pre-weaning mortality in the years of 2012–2013. To include as many management factors as possible into the multivariable linear regression model, we generated a new variable based on 4 management routines: 3 routines at farrowing (presence at 80–100% of the farrowings, drying newborn piglets, and practice split suckling), and one concerning farmer´s contact with the sows. This variable was called “Management type” (M), and were divided into 4 categories with increasing effort; M1 herds without any of the 4 mentioned routines, M2 had contact with sows >2 times per day, M3 performed the 3 routines at farrowing, and M4 combined the high sow contact and the 3 routines. The predicted values of mean herd piglet mortality for M1, M2, M3 and M4 were 20.1%, 17.0%, 16.2% and 13.3% respectively. The farmer's increased management effort was associated with lower piglet mortality (P<0.05). The farmer's effort at critical times together with systematic and important routines, and having frequent contact with the sows, makes a huge difference for piglet survival. The farmers are credited for this work by having lower piglet mortality as a result.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.001
       
  • Effect of Bacillus subtilis supplementation and dietary crude protein
           level on growth performance and intestinal morphological changes of meat
           type chicken
    • Authors: K.Z. Mahmoud; B.S. Obeidat; M.Z. Al-Sadi; Sh.R. Hatahet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): K.Z. Mahmoud, B.S. Obeidat, M.Z. Al-Sadi, Sh.R. Hatahet
      A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic to decrease crude protein (CP) requirement of broiler chicks. Growth performance, carcass, and meat quality characteristics, digestive tract development and ileal digestibility of CP were investigated using a total of 720 one-day-old commercial mixed sex broiler chicks. The recommended CP (CP100) or 2% below the recommended CP (CP98) were tested in the presence or absence of 0.2g/kg of B. subtilis (0.8×109 cfu/g) in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design. Broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 30 broiler chicks per pen. Basal diets of starter, grower, and finisher were formulated according to the recommendations for commercial broiler chicks. Bacillus subtilis supplementation did not affect growth performance of broiler chicks. However, dietary CP level decreased (P<0.05) body weight gain and feed efficiency. Broiler chicks supplemented with B. subtilis had a greater (P<0.05) fillet weight with no differences observed for other carcass characteristic measurements. Adding B. subtilis had no effect on the meat quality measurements; however, dietary CP reduced (P<0.05) meat water holding capacity. Also, B. subtilis deepened (P<0.05) jejunum crypts and improved (P<0.05) ileal CP digestibility. The results obtained from this study have enough evidence to assume that B. subtilis supplementation had beneficial effect on jejunum morphology and can reduce the adverse effect of dietary CP reduction. It may be concluded that the alteration in gastrointestinal morphological characters because of probiotic use was positively reflected on better CP ileal digestibility and the improved feed efficiency.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.015
       
  • Overview of conjugated linoleic acid formation and accumulation in animal
           products
    • Authors: Sun Jin Hur; Hyeong Sang Kim; Young Yil Bahk; Yeonhwa Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sun Jin Hur, Hyeong Sang Kim, Young Yil Bahk, Yeonhwa Park
      In this review, we provide an overview of the methods used to enhance conjugate linoleic acid (CLA) in animal products and the mechanisms through which CLA is synthesized or accumulated in animal products. Linoleic acid is the key precursor of CLA; thus, CLA can be synthesized through conversion of linoleic acid by ruminal bacteria (Propionibacterium) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) with biohydrogenation. Accordingly, it is possible to increase the CLA concentrations in meat, milk, or eggs from animals through feeding of a polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich diet, e.g., a diet containing linoleic acid. Dietary green grass enhances the growth of specific rumen bacteria that are responsible for the synthesis of CLA in animals. CLA or linoleic acid intake increases CLA concentration in dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt. In order to increase CLA status in humans, probiotic bacteria that can be used to convert dietary linoleic acid to CLA. However, it is unclear how much CLA needs to be consumed to have appropriate benefit on human health. Thus, future research is needed to establish methods for controlling the amounts of CLA and CLA isomers in animal products and to determine the exact mechanisms of CLA consumption on human health.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.016
       
  • Effect of different early weaning regimens for calves on adipogenic gene
           expression in Hanwoo loin at the fattening stage
    • Authors: Kondreddy Eswar Reddy; JinYoung Jeong; Sung Dae Lee; Youl-Chang Baek; YoungKyun Oh; Minseok Kim; Kyung Min So; Dong Woon Kim; jae Hwan Kim; Sungkwon Park; Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, JinYoung Jeong, Sung Dae Lee, Youl-Chang Baek, YoungKyun Oh, Minseok Kim, Kyung Min So, Dong Woon Kim, jae Hwan Kim, Sungkwon Park, Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Early weaning (EW) of calves using a high energy diet to encourage a higher carcass yield through early postnatal metabolic imprinting events may be used as a feeding strategy to improve beef quality. To better understand the importance of nutritional feeding in EW calves, 2-week-old Korean calves were fed with different diets for 10 weeks. After this period, all calves were fed with the same diet for 22 months and then biopsied. We used the RNA-seq technique to investigate the genes and gene networks involved in these treatments. A total of 32,226 fragments were sequenced among the treatments. Overall, 102, 181, and 191 genes showing differential expression levels for T1 (milk replacement + concentrate), T2 (milk replacement + concentrate + roughages), and T3 (milk replacement + concentrate + 30% starch) treatments were identified, respectively (FDR < 0.05). In GO enrichment analysis, many biological pathways, including cellular processes, biological regulation, and metabolic processes, were found to be significantly enriched with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in groups T2 and T3. Many DEGs from T2 and T3 groups were highly enriched in various gene ontology terms related to developmental processes. KEGG pathway analysis found the following: T2 showed changes in the PPAR signaling pathway, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and WNT signaling pathway, whereas T3 showed changes in the tight junction, insulin signaling, mTOR signaling, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathways, with both groups showing changes in the adipocytokine signaling pathway. A group of 10 genes strongly associated with adipogenesis and muscle development showed greatly different expression in qRT-PCR, particularly in the T2 and T3 dietary groups. The results suggested that feeding concentrate and roughages (T2) as well as a high starch diet (T3) after EW enhanced the fat content in loin muscle. These results allowed us to identify the nutrition metabolic imprinting effects that cause energy utilization and fat accumulation in loin muscle and give valuable information about the importance of nutrition in the EW stage of calves.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T07:30:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.014
       
  • Evidence for gene-gene epistatic interactions between susceptibility genes
           for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle
    • Authors: Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga; Patricia Vázquez; Mikel Iriondo; Carmen Manzano; Mikel Aguirre; Joseba M. Garrido; Ramon A. Juste; Andone Estonba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga, Patricia Vázquez, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano, Mikel Aguirre, Joseba M. Garrido, Ramon A. Juste, Andone Estonba
      Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), with a particularly negative impact on the economy of the dairy industry. In recent years, several whole genome and candidate gene association studies have been published reporting MAP susceptibility genes, but the putative interaction between them remains unknown. Here, twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine SLC11A1, NOD2, SP110, TLR2, TLR4, and CD209 genes, previously related with paratuberculosis disease, have been analyzed. Several significant (P < 0.05) pair-wise genetic interactions were detected: CD209-TLR4, CD209-TLR2, TLR4-TLR2, SP110-SLC11A1, SP110-TLR2, and SP110-NOD2. The statistical interaction described here between bovine CD209 and TLR4 genes may be indicative of the biological interaction between their protein products upon infection by mycobacteria, as has been reported to occur in humans. Overall, this is the first evidence of epistasis among bovine innate immunity genes affecting susceptibility to MAP infection, corroborating, in turn, their implication in the disease.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.012
       
  • Effects of early intervention with sodium butyrate on lipid
           metabolism-related gene expression and liver metabolite profiles in
           neonatal piglets
    • Authors: Ren Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Yu, E. Ren, J. Xu, Y. Su, W. Zhu
      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of early intervention with sodium butyrate on the lipid metabolism and liver metabolite profiles in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of newborn crossbred Duroc × Landrace × Large White piglets were randomly assigned to the control or sodium butyrate treatment with 5 litters per treatment. Piglets in the sodium butyrate treatment were orally administered with 7 to 13mL sodium butyrate solution (150mmol/L) per day from d 0 to 6, whereas the piglets in the control treatment were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. At the age of 7 and 21 d, 1 piglet from each litter was sacrificed. The liver, backfat, and loin muscle of piglets were collected for gene expression or metabolome analysis. The results showed that sodium butyrate treatment had no effect on the growth performance of piglets. Sodium butyrate decreased the concentration of cholesterol (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.079) in the serum on d 7, while there was no difference in serum metabolites between 2 treatments on d 21. Real-time PCR assay showed that sodium butyrate down-regulated the mRNA expression of lipogentic genes sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthetize in the liver on d 7 (P < 0.05). Adipocyte markers leptin, fatty acid binding protein 4, and peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor γ expression in backfat were up-regulated (P < 0.05) by sodium butyrate treatment on d 7. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed that sodium butyrate mainly affected liver glycolysis metabolism and gluconeogenesis metabolism of piglets on d 7 and 21. These results indicate that early oral administration of sodium butyrate could change the lipid metabolism by decreasing fatty acid synthesis, and modulate hepatic metabolite profiles.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
       
  • Energy and protein requirements for Angus and Nellore young bulls
    • Authors: Rafael Aparecido Gomes; Karina Costa Busato; Marcio Machado Ladeira; Kristen A. Johnson; Matheus Castilho Galvão; Aline Castro Rodrigues; Mario Luiz Chizzotti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Rafael Aparecido Gomes, Karina Costa Busato, Marcio Machado Ladeira, Kristen A. Johnson, Matheus Castilho Galvão, Aline Castro Rodrigues, Mario Luiz Chizzotti
      Thirty-two animals with initial body weight (BW) of 380±5.2 kg were used to determine energy and protein requirements of Nellore and Angus young bulls using the comparative slaughter technique. Four animals per breed were slaughtered at beginning of the experiment. The remainder were housed in individual stalls, where eight animals per breed were fed ad libitum a silage/concentrate (SC) diet (300 g/kg of silage and 700 g/kg of a concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, DM basis). Another 4 animals per breed were fed the SC diet at 55% of their dry matter intake adjusted for the metabolic BW of animals that received the SC diet ad libitum. Intake was measured daily and a metabolism trial was conducted with total collection of feces and urine. The data were used then to estimate the metabolizable energy intake. After 84 d of growth the cattle were slaughtered.The data were analyzed using the GLM and NLIN procedures of SAS adopting significance level of 0.05. The metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance differed between Angus and Nellore: 0.580 versus 0.456 MJ/kg BW0.75•d-1 when calculated by logarithm model and 0.559 versus 0.483 MJ/kg BW0.75•d-1 when calculated by nonlinear model. There was no difference between breeds in the nutritional requirements for growth. Our results support that Zebu bulls have lower net energy requirements for maintenance than Bos taurus taurus bulls.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.011
       
  • Increase in dietary arginine level could ameliorate detrimental impacts of
           coccidial infection in broiler chickens
    • Authors: M. Laika; R. Jahanian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Laika, R. Jahanian
      The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Arg on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and morphological indices of jejunal epithelial cells in coccidia-challenged broiler chickens. A total of 288 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly distributed among 3 experimental treatments with 8 replicate pens of 12 broiler chickens each. Experimental treatments consisted of the graded levels of dietary Arg (100, 105, and 110% of the standard recommendations during different growth periods). From 16 to 20 d of age, half of the replicate pens of each dietary Arg level were orally challenged with a mixture of Eimeria species (acervulina, tenella, maxima, and necatrix). Results showed that dietary Arg had no marked effect on average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain (ADG) during the starter (0 to 14 d of age) and grower (14 to 28 d of age) periods. Although ADFI wasn’t affected by coccidial challenge, ADG of Eimeria-challenged broiler chickens were lower (P < 0.05) than those of uninfected ones during both grower and finisher periods. Dietary supplementation of 105 and 110% of Arg, however, prevented depressed ADG in coccidia-infected broiler chickens during the finisher period (28 to 42 d of age) compared with 100% of Arg (Arg × coccidiosis, P < 0.05). Coccidial challenge increased (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio (FCR), while 110% of Arg supplementation improved (P < 0.05) FCR values during both grower and finisher periods. Although coccidial challenge increased FCR value in control broiler chickens (100% of Arg), dietary Arg supplementation of 105 and 110% improved FCR values during the grower period, resulted in an Arg × coccidiosis interaction (P < 0.01). Subjecting the broiler chickens to coccidiosis reduced liver weight (P < 0.001) and carcass yield (P < 0.05). Dietary Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.001) villi height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio. On the other hand, both VH and VH to CD ratio were decreased (P < 0.001) in coccidial-infected broiler chickens. Although subjecting the broiler chickens to coccidiosis increased (P < 0.001) muscular layer thickness (MLT) of jejunum, supplemental Arg of 110% resulted in a decrease (P < 0.01) in jejunal MLT. In addition, supplemental Arg reduced (P < 0.05) fecal oocyst count, with the lowest count assigned to the broiler chickens fed 110% of Arg. Dietary Arg supplementation of 110% improved morphological indices in coccidia-challenged broiler chickens, while it had no obvious impact in untreated ones, resulted in the Arg × coccidiosis interactions (P < 0.05). The present findings showed that supplementing the diets with Arg above the recommended values could ameliorate negative effects of Eimeria on growth performance and morphological indices of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.002
       
  • Effect of swine based probiotic on performance, diarrhoea scores,
           intestinal microbiota and gut health of grower-finisher crossbred pigs
    • Authors: Runjun Dowarah; A.K. Verma; Neeta Agrawal; B.H.M. Patel; P. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Runjun Dowarah, A.K. Verma, Neeta Agrawal, B.H.M. Patel, P. Singh
      The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of host specific probiotic on growth performance, diarrhoea scores, intestinal microbiota and gut health of grower-finisher pigs. A feeding trial (180 days) was carried out with 36 early weaned piglets (28 days) divided into three dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., T0 (basal diet alone, control), T1 (basal diet + probiotic of dairy origin, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-15) and T2 (basal diet + probiotic of swine origin, Pediococcus acidilactici strain FT28). The probiotics were fed as fermented feed @ 200g/pig/day. At the end of the trial, six pigs from each group were sacrificed to determine the intestinal morphology. Daily feeding of probiotics from weaning to market age showed positive (P<0.05) impact on average daily gain (ADG), average dry matter intake (ADMI) and gain: feed ratio (G: F). The fecal count of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria were increased (P<0.001), whereas, E. coli and clostridia population decreased (P<0.001) in both probiotics fed groups compared to control. The lactic acid concentration in feces was highest (P=0.003) in T2 group; whereas, ammonia nitrogen and pH were observed to be lower (P<0.05) in treatment (T1 and T2) groups compared to control. Probiotic supplementation (dairy and swine origin) lowered (P<0.05) diarrhoea scores after weaning, however P. acidilactici strain FT28 was more effective in decreasing (P<0.05) diarrhoea scores than L. acidophilus NCDC-15. The villi height (V) and crypt depth (C) was increased (P<0.05) with decreased (P<0.05) V: C ratio in both probiotic fed groups. In conclusion, probiotics supplementation in basal diet improved growth performance, fecal microbial count and intestinal morphology in grower-finisher pigs. Whereas, P. acidilactici strain FT28 was more effective in reducing diarrhoea scores and maintaining acidic environment of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) indicating a synergistic probiotic effect along with gut microbiota for promotion of gut health of the animal.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.006
       
  • Review: The mechanism of blood coagulation, its disorders and measurement
           in poultry
    • Authors: M. Buzala; A. Słomka; B. Janicki; M.B. Ponczek; E. Żekanowska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Buzala, A. Słomka, B. Janicki, M.B. Ponczek, E. Żekanowska
      Intensive genetic selection has improved productive traits in poultry and contributed to changes in systemic metabolism; however, their blood coagulation processes have received little study. The precise physiological mechanisms of haemostasis in birds remain poorly understood, but blood clotting is believed to be governed by an extrinsic tissue factor-dependent pathway, with some residual intrinsic pathway serving an ancillary function. Disorders of haemostasis are a common pathology in poultry rearing, manifested by bleeding, which most often occurs in the muscles, intramuscular fat, connective tissue and internal organs. Efficient diagnosis of haemostatic disorders in poultry remains an ongoing problem. The diagnostic methods currently in use in veterinary medicine are inadequate for evaluating haemostatic disorders. The optimisation of coagulometric methods and the availability of species-specific reagents remain significant obstacles. Furthermore, although vitamin K is essential for the synthesis of extrinsic coagulation factors and interacts with vitamin D in bone formation, it is frequently deficient in birds. The objective of the paper is to present the current state of knowledge of haemostatic disorders in poultry, and to stress the need to develop more detailed laboratory procedures and methods of producing species-specific reagents for determination of haemostatic parameters to deepen the understanding of blood clotting in birds.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.009
       
  • Effect of pre-partum dam supplementation, creep-feeding and post-weaning
           feedlot on age at puberty in Nellore heifers
    • Authors: Delci de Deus Nepomuceno; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Marcos Vinicius de Castro Ferraz Junior; Marcos Vinicius Biehl; Jose Renato da Silva Gonçalves; Elizangela Mirian Moreira; Michael Lee Day
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Delci de Deus Nepomuceno, Alexandre Vaz Pires, Marcos Vinicius de Castro Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius Biehl, Jose Renato da Silva Gonçalves, Elizangela Mirian Moreira, Michael Lee Day
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three nutritional strategies and its interactions on age at puberty in Nellore heifers. The treatments were arranged in factorial design (2 × 2 x 2), including three periods of supplementation: Period I – Pre-partum dam supplementation with protein (n = 122; 0.5kg soybean meal/cow, daily) during the last trimester of gestation or no supplementation (n = 115); Period II – Creep-feeding (n = 120; 22% CP and 72% TDN) to heifer calves for 95 d before weaning or no creep-feeding (n = 117); and Period III – Post-weaning feedlot from 7 to 11 month of age (n = 117; 15% CP and 56% TDN) or no feedlot (n = 120; only pasture). There was no interaction among periods of supplementation. At weaning, pre-partum dam supplementation (P = 0.91) and creep-feeding (P = 0.89) did not affect BW of heifer calves. At the end of the post-weaning feedlot (Period III) BW was greater (P < 0.01) in the heifers supplemented (234.1 ± 2.2kg) than in pasture (187.2 ± 2.1kg) treatment and this difference was maintained through 26 month of age. The age at puberty was not influenced by pre-partum dam supplementation (P = 0.88) or creep-feeding (P = 0.57). However, the post-weaning feedlot treatment anticipated (P = 0.06) the age at puberty. At 18 month of age, the percentage of pubertal heifers was increased by post-weaning feedlot (31.7 vs. 13.3%; P < 0.01) and led to an increase of 10% in pregnancy rate at the same age. In conclusion, neither the cow supplementation nor creep feeding used in the present study anticipated puberty in Nellore heifers. However, enhanced nutrition during the post-weaning period was an effective method to anticipate puberty.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.008
       
  • Functional claw trimming improves the gait and locomotion of sows
    • Authors: A.K. Tinkle; K.J. Duberstein; M.E. Wilson; M.A. Parsley; M.K. Beckman; J. Torrison; M.J. Azain; C.R. Dove
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.K. Tinkle, K.J. Duberstein, M.E. Wilson, M.A. Parsley, M.K. Beckman, J. Torrison, M.J. Azain, C.R. Dove
      Within the swine industry, lameness is one of the leading causes of culling and euthanasia of sows. Lameness negatively affects sow productivity and reproduction, both of which are major factors leading to culling sows. Claw lesions are one of the leading causes of sow lameness, specifically caused by overgrown claws or dewclaws. The objective of this study was to discern the difference in sow gait, pre- and post-functional trimming. In this study, 52 sows were functionally trimmed to a claw length of 5.5cm from the coronary band, and were videotaped using two high-speed cameras at three time points: pre trim (PRE), one hour post (POST1) and 48hours post (POST48) trimming. Videos were analyzed to measure the following spatiotemporal values: stance duration, swing duration, stride duration, stride length, limb velocity, breakover duration, and duration of three-limb support phases. Sows showed significant improvement in gait from PRE to POST48 in response to claw trimming including a decrease in swing and stride duration, decreased breakover, and increased swing:stance ratio, and velocity (P < 0.05). These changes signify more forward movement, which may indicate increased efficiency of gait following claw-trimming.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.013
       
  • The effect of coated sodium butyrate supplementation in sow and nursery
           diets on lactation performance and nursery pig growth performance
    • Authors: Y.D. Jang; M.D. Lindemann; H.J. Monegue; J.S. Monegue
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Y.D. Jang, M.D. Lindemann, H.J. Monegue, J.S. Monegue
      Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of coated sodium butyrate (CSB) supplementation to peripartal and lactating sows and nursery pigs on lactation performance and nursery growth performance. In Exp. 1, a total of 43 gestating sows (d 81–92 of gestation) were allotted to 0 (n=15), 500 (n=16), or 1,000 (n=12) ppm of CSB supplementation based on breed, parity and body weight (BW), and then fed treatment diets until weaning. In Exp. 2 and 3, a total of 144 weanling pigs (72 pigs for Exp. 2 and 3, respectively) from 0 or 1,000 ppm CSB sow treatments in Exp. 1 were allotted within the sow treatment to 0, 500, or 1,000 ppm of CSB supplementation in nursery diets based on breed and BW in a split plot design for a 35-d growth study. All pigs in Exp. 2 were injected with ovalbumin at weaning and d 14 postweaning as an immune challenge. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in sow BW, litter size, litter weight, lactation feed intake or milk composition among treatments. However, colostral IgG (P = 0.06) and IgA (P = 0.09) concentrations tended to increase quadratically as CSB supplementation levels increased. In Exp. 2, pigs from the 1,000 ppm CSB sow treatment had greater BW at d 35 (P < 0.01), average daily gain (ADG; P < 0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI; P < 0.01) and feed to gain (F:G) ratio (P = 0.07) than those from the 0 ppm CSB sow treatment. For the nursery treatments, ADG (P < 0.05) and ADFI (P = 0.06) during the 35-d period increased linearly as CSB supplementation levels increased whereas F:G ratio had a negative quadratic response (P = 0.10). In Exp. 3, F:G ratio for d 0–14 postweaning tended to be lower (P = 0.09) in pigs from the 1,000 ppm CSB sow treatment compared with those from the 0 ppm CSB sow treatment whereas BW, ADG, and ADFI (P < 0.05) during the 35-d period decreased linearly as CSB supplementation levels increased in the diets. In conclusion, CSB supplementation tended to increase colostral IgG and IgA concentrations in sows and improved growth performance of nursery pigs under an immune challenge when supplemented in the nursery diet.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.005
       
  • Productive performance and cecal microbial counts of floor housed laying
           hens supplemented with dry whey powder alone or combined with Pediococcus
           acidilactici in the late phase of production
    • Authors: C. Pineda-Quiroga; R. Atxaerandio; I. Zubiria; I. Gonzalez-Pozuelo; A. Hurtado; R. Ruiz; A. Garcia-Rodriguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Pineda-Quiroga, R. Atxaerandio, I. Zubiria, I. Gonzalez-Pozuelo, A. Hurtado, R. Ruiz, A. Garcia-Rodriguez
      Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been proposed as safe additives in animal feeding. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of supplementing corn-soybean diets of laying hens with dry whey powder (prebiotic), Pediococcus acidilactici (probiotic), and the combination of both (synbiotic) on the productive performance, egg quality traits, and cecal microbial counts. A total of 300 laying hens, 57 wk of age, were randomly allocated to floor pens for 70 d. Pens were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets with 5 pens per treatment and 15 laying hens per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of inclusion of dry whey powder (WP, 0 and 60g/kg of diet) and 2 levels of P. acidilactici (PA, 0 and 2g/kg of diet). Cecal counts of Bifidobacterium spp. were increased with the addition of WP (8.4 vs. 6.5 log10 cfu/g cecal content, P = 0.012). An interaction between levels of WP and PA was found on egg production (P = 0.008) and on cecal counts of Clostridium perfringens (P = 0.047), so that the addition of WP increased egg production (82.5 vs. 75.6%) and reduced Clostridium perfringens colony counts (4.3 vs. 5.8 log10 cfu/g cecal content) only when PA was not used. In conclusion the joint addition of WP and PA in hens’ diets during the late stage of production did not improve productive performance or change the cecal microbial population. However, the addition of WP increased Bifidobacterium spp. cecal counts and only reduced the Clostridium perfringens counts together with an increase on egg production, when PA was not added.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.007
       
  • Associations of blood parameters with age, feed efficiency and sampling
           routine in young beef bulls
    • Authors: S.L. Bourgon; M. Diel de Amorim; S.P. Miller; Y.R. Montanholi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.L. Bourgon, M. Diel de Amorim, S.P. Miller, Y.R. Montanholi
      Utilization of blood parameters as proxies for feed efficiency is an avenue to maximize profitability of the beef industry. Among other factors, age and sampling routine may impact the reliability of potential proxies for residual feed intake (RFI). Thus, the objectives were to assess associations of blood parameters with age and RFI under two sampling routines. Thirty-two crossbred bulls with an average body weight (BW) of 633 ± 93kg and 369 ± 29 days of age were studied. Residual feed intake was calculated using average daily gain, BW and ultrasound traits for body composition. Seven blood samples for each bull were collected during a 33-day on-station sampling period and an additional sample was collected at slaughter for analysis of blood metabolites and hormones. Bulls were classified as younger (342 ± 17 days of age) and older (395 ± 4 days of age) and into efficient (-0.55 ± 0.70kg DM/day) and inefficient (RFI = 0.55 ± 0.29kg DM/day). Means of blood parameters were compared between age and feed efficiency groups using a mixed model for on-station sampling and a general linear model for slaughter sampling. During the on-station sampling, glucose (P = 0.01), potassium (P = 0.01) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (P = 0.01) were lesser in older bulls while urea (P = 0.05), acetate (P = 0.01), osmolality (P = 0.01), testosterone (P = 0.01) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH; P = 0.04) were greater in older bulls. At slaughter, carbon dioxide (P = 0.01), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (P = 0.05) and FSH (P = 0.01) were greater in older bulls. Over the on-station sampling, osmolality (P = 0.05) was greater in inefficient bulls while leptin (P = 0.01) was greater in efficient bulls. On the day of slaughter, cholesterol (P = 0.04) and alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.04) were lesser in efficient bulls. Age and RFI classes interaction was observed for T3 (P = 0.01) during the on-station sampling where lesser T3 blood levels where observed in efficient bulls within the younger group (P = 0.01) and in older bulls within the inefficient group (P = 0.05). Overall, these results support the association of blood parameters with variation in age and RFI and illustrate the impact of sampling routine on components of intermediary metabolism in yearling bulls, providing information to the development of proxies for RFI.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.003
       
  • Effect of Silybum marianum herb on the productive performance, carcass
           traits and meat quality of growing rabbits
    • Authors: M. Cullere; A. Dalle Zotte; C. Celia; A.L. Renteria-Monterrubio; Zs. Gerencsér; Zs. Szendrő; M. Kovács; M.L. Kachlek; Zs. Matics
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Cullere, A. Dalle Zotte, C. Celia, A.L. Renteria-Monterrubio, Zs. Gerencsér, Zs. Szendrő, M. Kovács, M.L. Kachlek, Zs. Matics
      The present study aimed to test the effect of a dietary supplementation with Silybum marianum (SM), an herbaceous Mediterranean plant traditionally used to treat liver and gastrointestinal diseases and with antioxidant properties, on the productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits. With this purpose, at weaning (5 weeks of age), a total of 144 Pannon Large rabbits were allocated to three experimental groups. The control group (C, n=51) was fed with a basal diet, whereas the other groups received the basal diet supplemented with SM herbal powder at two concentrations: 5g/kg (SM1, n=48) and 10g/kg (SM2, n=45). Rabbits were housed in wire-mesh cages (3 rabbits/cage) and fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Productive performance and mortality were recorded weekly. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11 weeks of age, carcasses were dissected, and hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were analysed for meat quality (oxidative status, pHu and L⁎, a⁎, b⁎ colour) traits. In addition, a sensory analysis on the LTL meat was carried out by a trained panel. Mortality was significantly reduced in SM treatments compared to C group from week 6 to 7 (10.4 and 11.1 vs. 17.7%, for SM1, SM2 and C groups, respectively; P<0.05), and in SM2 compared to C and SM1 considering the whole productive cycle (5–11 weeks). The dietary inclusion of SM did not affect carcass traits and did not change neither colour nor oxidative status of LTL muscle. Differently, SM diet increased pHu of LTL muscle (5.98 vs. 6.03 vs. 6.10 in C, SM1 and SM2, respectively; P<0.05). The sensory traits of LTL meat were affected by SM dietary inclusion: a higher herbaceous odour was observed in SM2 compared to C and SM1 (P<0.001) treatments, whereas rabbit odour followed an opposite trend with C receiving a higher score compared to SM1 and SM2 (P<0.05). Panelists also perceived a stronger rabbit flavour in C than in SM1 and SM2 meat (2.40 vs. 1.90 and 1.70, P<0.05; P<0.001). Silybum marianum seems to be a promising natural feed additive to improve the health condition of growing rabbits. Differently, the antioxidant activity of Silybum marianum was not confirmed when considering fresh meat of rabbits supplemented with the inclusion levels of the present experiment. The dietary supplementation with Silybum marianum changed then sensory characteristics of rabbit loin thus, in the future, consumer acceptability should be also carefully assessed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T15:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.012
       
  • Review: The effect of grass and herbs in organic egg production on egg
           fatty acid composition, egg yolk colour and sensory properties
    • Authors: Marianne Hammershøj; Niels Finn Johansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Marianne Hammershøj, Niels Finn Johansen
      In organic egg production it is required that the hens have access to pasture or forage material, which offers a wide range of various plant material. In the temperate climate, grasses, herbs and legumes are cultivated in the pasture for the hens, or the forage material may be fed as silage or dried. The effects of grasses and herbs consumed by the egg laying hen on the egg quality parameters of fatty acid composition, yolk colour and carotenoid content, and the sensory properties are elucidated. Forage material of grasses and herbs typically affects the egg yolk fatty acid composition towards a relative higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular n-3 fatty acids, which decreases the ratio of n-6/n-3 from 11–19 in eggs from hens without access to pasture or forage material to ~5 in eggs from hens on grass pasture. The egg yolk colour is highly affected by plant material type and intake of the hen, where different carotenoids of different herbs are reflected in the yolk carotenoids. Pastures of grass, alfalfa silage and stinging nettle are plant sources with high potential of affecting the egg yolk to a more reddish and yellow colour. Sensory properties of eggs from hens fed forage material or on pasture appear to be affected in some experiments, however, not as a general result. The amount of intake of the forage materials is essential for its impact on the egg quality, and the presently reported intakes span from 6g/hen/day to 126g/hen/day, which depend on both the forage material as well as the hen. In summary, the egg quality parameters of fatty acid composition and yolk colour are highly affected by grass and herbs, whereas the sensory properties are less predictable to reflect the grass and herb intake by organic egg layers.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T15:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.001
       
  • Copy number variation of bovine MAPK10 modulates the transcriptional
           activity and affects growth traits
    • Authors: Mei Liu; Bo Li; Yongzhen Huang; Mingjuan Yang; Xianyong Lan; Chuzhao Lei; Weidong Qu; Yueyu Bai; Hong. Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mei Liu, Bo Li, Yongzhen Huang, Mingjuan Yang, Xianyong Lan, Chuzhao Lei, Weidong Qu, Yueyu Bai, Hong. Chen
      Beef production is an economically important sector of animal husbandry and much attention has been paid on the identification of molecular markers associated with gene expressions and growth traits. The aim of this study was to search for potential effects of a novel copy number variation (CNV) located in intron 10 of bovine Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10 (MAPK10) on phenotypic variation. Cattle of nine Chinese domestic breeds were included: Qinchuan (QC), Nanyang (NY), Xianan (XN), Jiaxian (JX), Jinnan (JN), Qinghai (QH), Dzomo (DZ), Fu (FU) and Chinese Holstein cattle (CH). In total, genomic DNA of 455 female cattle and RNA of 27 fetal and/or adult tissues of QC cattle were used. Methods of Real-time quantitative PCR, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ANOVA were applied to evaluate the copy number distributions and their effects on genes’ transcriptional levels and growth traits. Substantial genetic differences between NY cattle and other four breeds (XN, QH, DZ and FU) were observed (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Negative correlations between copy numbers and transcript levels of MAPK10 / MYOG were shown in fetal skeletal muscle (P<0.01). Statistical analysis between CNV and growth traits revealed that the NY cattle with copy number gain type showed better traits, including body weight (P<0.05), body height and chest girth (P<0.01). These results suggested that this CNV locus could modulate the transcriptional activity and thereby affect the phenotypic traits. Our study firstly indicated that the CNV at MAPK10 locus was a promising genetic marker to improve meat production in beef cattle breeding.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.014
       
  • Moderately increased energy intake during gestation improves body
           condition of primiparous sows, piglet growth performance, and milk fat and
           protein output
    • Authors: Jun Wang; Mei Yang; Meng Cao; Yan Lin; Lianqiang Che; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi; Zhengfeng Fang; Shengyu Xu; Bin Feng; Gang Liu; De Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jun Wang, Mei Yang, Meng Cao, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Gang Liu, De Wu
      This study determined the effect of dietary energy allowance during gestation on reproductive performance, blood metabolites, and milk composition in primiparous sows. Forty-four Landrace × Yorkshire gilts were randomly assigned to receive one of four dietary energy allowances (n = 11): low (L), medium (M), high (H), and extremely high (EH). The gilts in L, M, H, and EH treatments were provided 75, 100, 125, and 150% of the energy requirement for maintenance from 0 to 30 d of gestation, respectively. Compared to d 0 to 30 of gestation, dietary energy allowances in each group increased by 20% from d 30 to 90 of gestation and increased by 50% from d 90 of gestation to parturition. After parturition, all primiparous sows received the same diet and fed ad libitum during lactation. The results showed that dietary energy linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) sow body weight and backfat thickness at d 0 and 28 of lactation. Dietary energy linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) sow body weight gain and backfat gain from d 0 of gestation to d 0 of lactation. With increasing dietary energy allowance, there were linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in sow body weight loss and backfat loss during lactation, and linear and quadratic decreases (P < 0.01) in average daily feed intake during lactation. However, with increasing dietary energy allowance, individual birth and weaning weight linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05), and litter weight quadratically increased at birth (P < 0.05) and tended to increase at weaning (quadratic, P = 0.06). The greatest individual weight and litter weight at birth and weaning was observed when sows were provided the H energy allowance. The number of total born and born alive was not influenced by dietary energy. With increasing dietary energy allowance, the fat and protein content linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) in colostrum, and the fat and protein content quadratically increased (P = 0.01) in mature milk. The greatest fat and protein content in mature milk was observed when sows were provided the H energy allowance. The results indicated that providing 125, 150, and 187.5% of the energy requirement for maintenance during early, mid, and late gestation was beneficial in maintaining optimal body condition of primiparous sows, as well as improving piglet growth performance and milk fat and protein output.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.012
       
 
 
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