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Journal Cover   Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.728]   [H-I: 63]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2589 journals]
  • Optimum standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio of pigs
           weighing 7 to 14 kg
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.V. Nørgaard , T.F. Pedersen , E.A. Soumeh , K. Blaabjerg , N. Canibe , B.B. Jensen , H.D. Poulsen
      The objective of the present study was to evaluate the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp to Lys for pigs after weaning. A total of 96 female pigs were allocated to 1 of 6 diets containing 0.13, 0.15, 0.17, 0.19, 0.21, and 0.23 SID Trp:Lys, with 16 individually housed pigs/treatment. The diets contained similar crude protein (154g/kg), NE (10.5MJ/kg), and SID Lys (10.9g/kg). Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined for a 21-d period. Blood and urine samples were collected on d 8 and 15. Urea concentration in plasma and urine decreased (P < 0.001) concurrently with increasing SID Trp:Lys. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F improved (P < 0.001) with increasing SID Trp:Lys. By fitting by a curvilinear-plateau model, minimum SID Trp:Lys to support optimum ADFI, ADG, and G:F were estimated to be 0.20, 0.20, and 0.16, respectively. By fitting a broken-line model, the minimum SID Trp:Lys was estimated to be 0.18, 0.18, and 0.15 for optimum ADFI, ADG, and G:F, respectively. In conclusion, growth performance of pigs weighing 7 to 14kg increased up to 0.20 SID Trp:Lys.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T13:36:39Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Genetic analysis of pig survival up to commercial
           weight in a crossbred population” [Livest. Sci. 167C (2014)
           19–24]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Dufrasne , I. Misztal , S. Tsuruta , N. Gengler , K.A. Gray



      PubDate: 2015-02-27T13:24:58Z
       
  • Effects of rumen-protected choline with calcium salts of long chain fatty
           acids on milk yield and milk composition of middle and late lactation
           Holstein cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Pineda , F.C. Cardoso
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rumen-protected choline (RPC) supplementation on milk production and milk composition of dairy cows. Fifty lactating multiparous Holstein cows >80 days in milk were randomly assigned to one of two treatments groups. Cows were fed with: 1) control diet (CON; n=25), not supplemented with RPC and 2) supplemented diet (RPC; n=25), supplemented with RPC (115g/cow/d). Control and supplemented cows were fed at ad libitum intake twice daily. Body weight and body condition score were measured weekly. Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily. Milk samples were collected twice weekly on week 3, 6, and 9 and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea nitrogen, somatic cell count, fatty acid (FA) composition, and free choline concentration. Plasma was obtained on week 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9 and analyzed for concentrations of free choline and non-esterified fatty acids. Cows remained in the experiment for 9 weeks. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (v9.4). Higher free choline concentration in plasma (P<0.001) confirmed intake and absorption of RPC by supplemented cows. Dry matter intake (23.6 vs. 23.4 kg/d), body weight (704 vs. 703kg), and body condition score (2.86 vs. 2.90; 1–5 scale) were not affected (P>0.05) by RPC supplementation (CON vs. RPC, respectively). There was no difference (P>0.05) on milk yield (36.72 and 36.81kg/d, respectively), 3.5% fat corrected milk, or energy corrected milk between supplemented and non-supplemented cows, respectively. Although production parameters were not affected by RPC supplementation, they were significantly affected (P<0.01) by period and lactation stage. While concentration of de novo and mixed (16:0+cis-9 16:1) FA in milk fat were greater in CON cows, preformed FA were greater in RPC (P<0.05) supplemented cows. Concentration of total saturated FA (P<0.001) was higher in CON cows, whereas total monounsaturated FA (cis and trans) and cis polyunsaturated FA concentrations were greater in RPC cows (P<0.05). Yield of polyunsaturated omega-3 FA was greater when RPC was added to the diet. Although milk production was not affected, supplemental RPC either in middle or late lactation resulted in milk fat composition enriched by long chain polyunsaturated FA.


      PubDate: 2015-02-27T13:24:58Z
       
  • Comparison of methods for estimating herbage intake in grazing dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.L.F. Hellwing , P. Lund , M.R. Weisbjerg , F.W. Oudshoorn , L. Munksgaard , T. Kristensen
      Estimation of herbage intake is a challenge both under practical and experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate herbage intake with different methods for cows grazing seven hours daily on either spring or autumn pastures. In order to generate variation between cows, the 20 cows per season were either allocated to low or high stocking rate. At low stocking rate, there were 6.7 and 3.5 cows per hectare during spring and autumn, respectively, and at high stocking rate, there were 8.8 and 4.6 cows per hectare during spring and autumn, respectively. The experiment lasted 16 days in each season, and the herbage intake was estimated twice during each season. Cows were on pasture from 8:00 until 15:00, and were subsequently housed inside and fed a mixed ration (MR) based on maize silage ad libitum. Herbage intake was estimated with nine different methods: 1) animal performance 2) intake capacity, 3) content of 13C in faeces and diet, 4) 13C in faeces and diet, and with assumption of 13C discrimination in the digestive tract, 5) 13C in faeces and diet, with assumption of 13C discrimination and in combination with in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOM), 6) simultaneous use of two internal markers (ingestible neutral detergent fibre (INDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL)), 7) titanium oxide in combination with IVOM, 8) titanium oxide in combination with INDF and 9) titanium oxide in combination with ADL. Furthermore, grazing time of the individual cows was recorded. The estimated average herbage dry matter intake (DMI) varied from 2.2kg for the method using the INDF:ADL ratio to 7.6 for the methods using 13C and intake capacity. There was a low correlation between the different methods. Dry matter intake of herbage was not affected by stocking rate except for the method using titanium oxide and ADL as markers. Milk yield was not affected by stocking rate either. It was concluded that methods based on animal performance, 13C including discrimination factor or in combination with IVOM as well as methods based on titanium oxide gave similar estimates of the average herbage DMI intake during grazing in systems with indoor concentrate and forage feeding during night.


      PubDate: 2015-02-27T13:24:58Z
       
  • Impact of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance of gestating sows
           on mammary gland and skeletal muscle development of their offspring at
           puberty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Farmer , M.-F. Palin , D. Lösel , C. Rehfeldt , C. Kalbe
      The impacts of diet deprivation and subsequent over-allowance during gestation on mammary development, skeletal muscle histochemistry and gene expression in mammary and muscle tissue of offspring at puberty were determined. Twenty three pubertal gilts (11 control, CTL, and 12 treated, TRT) were used. These gilts were born from sows that were reared under a conventional or an experimental dietary regimen during gestation. The experimental regimen provided 70% (restriction diet, RES) and 115% (over-allowance diet, OVER) of the protein and digestible energy contents provided by the conventional diet. The RES diet was given during the first 10 weeks of gestation followed by the OVER diet until farrowing. Female offspring from these dams were grown until puberty using standard commercial practices and were slaughtered at 212±4 days of age. Mammary tissue and the semitendinosus (ST) muscle were collected. Weights of TRT gilts was less than those from CTL gilts at birth (P<0.05) but were similar thereafter (until puberty, P>0.1). Mammary composition and mammary expression for the genes IGF1, IGF2, ODC1, PRLR-LF, STAT5A, and STAT5B were not affected by treatment (P>0.1). Maternal dietary regime during gestation did not influence skeletal muscle microstructure or relative mRNA abundance for IGF1 and IGF2 (P>0.1). In conclusion, restricted feeding followed by overfeeding of gestating sows has no harmful effects on the development of skeletal muscle and mammary tissue of their female offspring up to puberty.


      PubDate: 2015-02-27T13:24:58Z
       
  • The effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes
           related to lipid metabolism in the mammary tissue of goats
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): E. Tsiplakou , E. Flemetakis , E.D. Kouri , G. Zervas
      Fat synthesis is under the control of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation is still poorly documented. In this study, we examined the effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase: ACACA, fatty acid synthetase: FASN, lipoprotein lipase: LPL, stearoyl-Co A desaturase 1: SCD1, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor G2: PPARG2, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c: SREBP-1c and hormone sensitive lipase HSL) related to FA metabolism in goat mammary tissue (MT). Twenty four lactating goats were divided into three homogenous sub-groups and fed the same ratio in quantities covering 70% (underfeeding), 100% (control) and 130% (overfeeding) of their energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed a significant reduction on mRNA of ACACA, FASN, LPL, SCD1 and HSL in the MT of underfed goats, compared with the respective overfed. A numerical decrease on the mRNA level of PPARG2 and SREBP-1c in the MT of the underfed goats, compared with the respective controls and the overfed was also observed. In conclusion, the negative, compared to positive, energy balance in goats down regulates the ACACA, FASN, LPL, SCD1 and HSL expressions in their MT which indicates that the decrease in nutrient availability may lead to lower rates of lipid synthesis.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Effects of nutrient restriction followed by realimentation on growth,
           visceral organ mass, cellularity, and jejunal morphology in lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): D.B. Li , X.G. Liu , C.Z. Zhang , G.L. Kao , X.Z. Hou
      Effects of nutrient restriction and realimentation on growth, cellularity of visceral organs and jejunal morphology in lambs were investigated. Forty Wu Zhu Mu Qin lambs were divided into control group (CG), moderately protein-restricted group (PR), moderately energy-restricted group (ER) or severely protein- and energy-restricted group (PER). The experiment included an adaptation period (0–30 days), nutritional restriction period (31–90 days), and realimentation period (91–180 days). Weight of lambs was measured weekly. Four lambs of each group were slaughtered at 90 days and 180 days. After slaughter, visceral organs were weighed, and subsamples were obtained to evaluate visceral DNA and protein contents, and jejunal morphology. Final body weight (BW), dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) of lambs in PR, ER and PER were significantly less (P<0.01) than those of CG lambs during the restriction period. On d 180, no significant difference was observed for BW among PR, ER and CG, however, BW of lambs in PER was still less (P<0.01) than that of CG, PR and ER; ADG of nutrition restricted lambs was significantly greater than (P<0.01) that of CG. Visceral organ weight, on wet tissue basis, decreased with nutrition restriction (P<0.05); there was no difference (P>0.05) of visceral organ weights among treatments on d 180. As compared with CG, PR had decreased DNA concentration of the liver (P<0.05), DNA and protein concentration of the pancreas (P<0.05), protein concentration and protein:DNA of kidney and omasum (P<0.05) on d 90; ER had decreased DNA concentration of the heart (P<0.05); and PER had decreased DNA concentration of the liver (P<0.01). Intestinal cellularity was not affected by treatment on d 90. Except for DNA concentration of the duodenum of lambs in ER, and DNA concentration of the jejunum of lambs in PR and ER, no significant differences were observed among treatments in cellularity of visceral organs on d 180. Compared with CG, crypt depth and muscle thickness of the jejunum were decreased (P<0.01) in lambs of PR, ER and PER on d 90. Villus height, crypt depth, muscle thickness and mucosa thickness of lambs in PR and ER were similar to CG lambs on d 180. Results indicate that nutritional restriction of 60 days can retard the growth, cellularity of visceral organs and jejunal morphological development of lambs, and retarded cellularity achieves complete compensatory growth after realimentation of 90 days.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Effects of sucrose and sunflower oil addition to diet of Saanen dairy
           goats on performance and milk fatty acid profile
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): A. Razzaghi , R. Valizadeh , A.A. Naserian , M. Danesh Mesgaran , L. Rashidi
      The current study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary sucrose with or without sunflower oil on dairy goat performance, ruminal fermentation and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Sixteen Saanen goats were assigned to the experimental diets control (basal diet without added oil and sucrose (CON), the basal diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SO, 3.7% of diet DM), sucrose (SU, 5.2% of diet DM) and sunflower oil plus sucrose (SO+SU, 3.7% and 5.2% of diet DM, respectively). Sucrose and sunflower oil replaced barley grain in the diets. Milk production and composition were analyzed on days 18, 36 and 54 on treatments, and ruminal fermentation parameters and milk FA profile on days 18 and 54. Dry matter intake, milk fat, protein and lactose concentrations were not affected by treatments. The SU increased (P<0.1) milk yield compared with CON whereas the SU and SO led to higher (P<0.01) 4% fat-corrected milk yield. The SO and SU diets increased (P<0.1) the milk lactose yield more than the CON diet. We observed a higher (P<0.01) content of ruminal acetate in the CON diet, and also higher (P<0.05) valerate content with the SU and SO+SU diets compared with the CON diet. Feeding SU and SO+SU tended to decrease (P<0.05) ruminal pH, yet goats fed SU had the highest (P<0.01) ruminal propionate concentration. There was no effect of diet on ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and ammonia-N concentrations. The acetate:propionate ratio substantially decreased (P<0.05) with the SU compared with the CON and SO+SU, and did not change with SO diet. Feeding sunflower oil increased (P<0.01) plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations compared with feeding the CON and SU diets. The majority of fatty acids measured were not affected by inclusion of sucrose compared with the CON diet. The SO and SO+SU diets increased the proportion of total trans-C18:1, total CLA, and C18 family in milk fat compared to CON or SU diets. The current study implies that replacing barley grain with sucrose may improve milk yield and modify ruminal fermentation pattern in dairy goats. Moreover, sucrose did no alter ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation pathways and following milk fatty acid composition when goats were fed with a combination of unsaturated fat and sugar.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173




      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Genetics of milk fatty acid groups predicted during routine data recording
           in Holstein dairy cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): Mauro Penasa , Francesco Tiezzi , Paolo Gottardo , Martino Cassandro , Massimo De Marchi
      The aim of this paper was to estimate genetic parameters for groups of milk fatty acids (FA), namely saturated (SFA), unsaturated (UFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA), in Holstein cows. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) was used to predict FA groups (g/100g of milk) of 72,848 samples recorded on 17,873 cows between September 2011 and November 2012. Univariate and multivariate models were implemented in a Bayesian framework to estimate (co)variance components for SFA, UFA, MUFA, PUFA, daily milk yield, milk fat and milk protein. Statistical models included fixed effect of parity by stage of lactation, and random effects of herd-test-date, cow permanent environmental, animal additive genetic and residual. Posterior means of heritability estimates for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA were 0.246, 0.069, 0.082 and 0.078, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between FA groups ranged from 0.405 (SFA and PUFA) to 0.952 (MUFA and UFA). The increase of fat content led to an increase of all groups of FA, in particular SFA, with undesirable effects on the healthy quality of the product. The study highlighted the existence of exploitable additive genetic variation for groups of FA routinely predicted by MIRS and thus there is potential to address the selection to healthy milk FA composition.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Chitooligosaccharide supplementation improves the reproductive performance
           and milk composition of sows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L.K. Cheng , L.X. Wang , Q.S. Xu , L.J. Huang , D.S. Zhou , Z. Li , S.G. Li , Y.G. Du , H. Yin
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chitooligosaccharides (COSs) on the reproductive performance of sows. Thirty-eight pregnant sows were investigated in this study. These sows were fed with corn-soybean-based diets supplemented with COS (COS group) or without COS (control group) during the estrous stage. An isotopic-MS relative quantification method was used to analyze the porcine milk oligosaccharide (PMO) diversity between the two groups. COS supplementation increased the total number of piglets born by 18.5% (P<0.05), the number of piglets born alive by 19.2% (P<0.05), and the live born litter weight by 31.3% (P<0.01). In the milk of lactating sows, seventeen distinct PMOs were identified in the two groups. Among them, a trisaccharide (Hex3) and a tetrasaccharide (Hex2GlcNAcNeuAc) were 60% and 150% higher in the COS group than in the control group. These findings indicate that litter size and litter birth weight were increased in sows through COS intervention; meanwhile, COS supplementation can modify the oligosaccharides in porcine milk.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with palygorskite on nutrient
           utilization in weaned Piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yunfeng Lv , Chaohua Tang , Xiuqi Wang , Qingyu Zhao , Junmin Zhang
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary palygorskite supplementation on nutrient utilization in weaned piglets. Twenty-seven weaned piglets (age, 24 days; weight, 7.32±0.12kg) were allocated to three treatment groups (n=9 each) and each pig was considered to be a replicate. The control group was fed a basal diet and the two palygorskite treatments groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with either 2000 or 3000mg/kg palygorskite for 42 days. On days 21 and 42, blood samples were collected for measurement of serum biochemical parameters, and three piglets from each group were sacrificed to collect intestinal digesta to assess the activities of gastrointestinal tract digestive enzymes. Titanium dioxide was added to all diets at 0.3% and used as a marker to determine nutrient digestibility at the end of the trial. The feed/gain and diarrhea index were decreased in the 2000mg/kg palygorskite group (P<0.05), as compared with controls, between days 1 and 21. Aspartate aminotransferase activity and serum triglyceride concentration of the two palygorskite groups were lower than those of the control group on day 21 (P<0.05). Digestibility of dry matter and gross energy in the 2000mg/kg palygorskite group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the 2000mg/kg palygorskite group, digestibility of dry matter was reduced in the 3000mg/kg group (P<0.05). Crude fat digestibility was decreased in both palygorskite-treatment groups and a significant difference was observed between the 3000mg/kg palygorskite group and control group (P<0.05). The results showed that dietary supplementation with palygorskite improved growth performance, ameliorated liver damage, increased dry matter, energy and crude protein utilization, while a lower dose (2000mg/kg) seemed to be more effective than a higher dose (3000mg/kg) to decrease crude fat digestibility in weaned piglets.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Genome-wide association study for somatic cell score in Argentinean dairy
           cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Juan P Nani , Maria A Raschia , Mario A Poli , Luis F Calvinho , Ariel F Amadio
      This study aimed to understand the genomic architecture of Argentinean dairy herds by measuring linkage disequilibrium (LD) and identifying loci associated with parameters calculated from somatic cell count (SCC). Phenotypic data consisted of 3,530 SCC records from 544 Holstein and Holstein x Jersey cows owned by a single dairy company located in the Central dairy area of Argentina. SCC was recorded every 40 days. After quality control, genotypic data consisted in 38,872 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The squared correlation of the alleles at two loci (r 2 ) was computed for all SNP pairs on each chromosome. At marker distances less than 10Kb the average r 2 was 0.40. Between 40 and 50Kb the average r 2 was 0.25 and 0.18 for 100Kb apart. Three different variables were calculated from the somatic cell score (SCS): the arithmetic mean (AM), the maximum value (MAX) and the arithmetic mean of the top 3 values (TOP3). Few significant SNP associations were found. As expected, polygenic traits such as SCC are influenced by multiple loci throughout the genome, each with a relatively small effect. AM on one side and TOP3 and MAX on the other, showed different SNP associated showing that they capture different aspects of mastitis response. AM was significantly associated with two SNP: ARS-BFGL-NGS-114608 (BTA1) and Hapmap60306-rs29023088 (BTA5). MAX and TOP3 were significantly associated with four SNP: ARS-BFGL-NGS-107594, ARS-BFGL-NGS-104220 (BTA10), BTA-43543-no-rs (BTA18) and ARS-BFGL-NGS-109705 (BTA26). MAX and TOP3 were equivalent phenotypic variables to be used in a GWAS. These results contribute to gain insight into the genomic regions influencing the SCC in Argentinean herds.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Oregano, rosemary and vitamin E dietary supplementation in growing
           rabbits: Effect on growth performance, carcass traits, bone development
           and meat chemical composition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R. Cardinali , M. Cullere , A. Dal Bosco , C. Mugnai , S. Ruggeri , S. Mattioli , C. Castellini , M. Trabalza Marinucci , A. Dalle Zotte
      The study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with different natural additives (aqueous extracts) on the performance of growing rabbits, the nutritional composition and oxidative stability of their meat and on their hind leg bone traits. For this experiment, 200 New Zealand White rabbits weaned at 30 days of age were randomly allocated into five dietary groups (n=40 rabbits/group) until 80 days of age, when they were sacrificed. Dietary groups were: S (standard diet without any supplementation), E (standard diet+150ppm vitamin E - positive control), O (standard diet+0.2% oregano, Origanum vulgare, aqueous extract), R (standard diet+0.2% rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis, aqueous extract ) and OR (standard diet+0.1% oregano extract+0.1% rosemary extract). An additional 50ppm vitamin E was added to each diet. Rabbits in the O and OR groups showed the highest final live weight and carcass weight (P<0.001). Oregano supplemented animals also had the best feed conversion ratio. Longissimus dorsi (LD) meat of E and R rabbits had higher protein content compared to O and OR (P<0.001) which had a higher moisture content than E rabbits (P<0.005). All dietary treatments improved the oxidative stability of the LD meat compared to the S group. Treatments O and E were the most effective in delaying the lipid oxidation of LD meat, followed by the OR and R diets (P<0.005). No significant differences among groups in composition of the hind leg meat HL were observed. The O rabbits had a higher bone weight (P<0.05) than E animals and this difference was mainly ascribable to femur weight (P<0.01). In conclusion, the study showed that supplementation with 0.2% oregano can have a positive effect on productive performance and meat quality of rabbits.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Regulatory expression of components in the BMP pathway in white adipose
           tissues of cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yuhang Qiao , Tomoya Yamada , Yohei Kanamori , Ryosuke Kida , Mei Shigematsu , Yusuke Fujimoto , Shozo Tomonaga , Tohru Matsui , Masayuki Funaba
      The BMP pathway positively regulates murine brown adipogenesis. We herein examined the mRNA levels of BMPs and activin βB as well as receptors for the BMP pathway in the adipose tissues of cattle fed diets with a differential ratio of concentrate to roughage or a vitamin A-deficient diet. The expression of activin βB was significantly increased in the subcutaneous fat depot of animals fed the concentrate diet, while the vitamin A-deficient diet significantly increased the expression of BMP4 in the mesenteric fat depot. The expression of receptors for the BMP pathway, ALK2, ALK3, ActRIIA, and BMPR2, showed a similar pattern to that of BMP4 and activin βB in response to the dietary treatments. The results of the present study demonstrated that diet modulated the expression of components of the BMP pathway and may be responsible for the regulatory expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes in the adipose tissues of cattle.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • A Meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy
           intake in Scandinavian dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Charlotte Jensen , Søren Østergaard , Ingunn Schei , Jan Bertilsson , Martin Riis Weisbjerg
      The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment mean observations was compiled from original data of 13 trials from Denmark, Norway and Sweden representing the breeds Danish Holstein, Danish Red, Danish Jersey, Norwegian Red and Swedish Red. Total data were grouped into 4 sub datasets according to parity; either primiparous or multiparous and according to stage of lactation; either DIM 1 to 100 (Early) or DIM 101 to 200 (Mid). All analyzed ration characteristics were calculated from NorFor principles or estimated from NorFor feed table values. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects model with trials as random effect. Residuals were weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids absorbed in the small intestine and crude fat, in the model. Breed specific responses were parallel and only differed by their intercept. In early lactation for multiparous cows with a mean NEL intake (136MJ) the model predicted an ECM response of 35.4kg and for primiparous cows with mean NEL intake (115MJ) the model predicted an ECM response of 27.8kg. Marginal milk response (kg ECM/MJ NEL) decreased more for multiparous cows (from 0.34 to 0.08) than for primiparous cows (from 0.20 to 0.15) within the observation ranges of NEL intake.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Seasonal variation in sperm quality parameters in Swedish red dairy bulls
           used for artificial insemination
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): S. Valeanu , A. Johannisson , N. Lundeheim , J.M. Morrell
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which seasonal factors such as temperature, atmospheric pressure or visible light length affect dairy bull sperm quality. Straws from 10 dairy bulls, from semen collections in three different seasons, were available for this study. The following quality parameters were assessed: motility, measured by computer assisted sperm motility analysis (SpermVision motility analyzer), membrane integrity (staining with SYBR14/PI (Propidium Iodide)with flow cytometric measurement of fluorescence), content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured using HE(Hydroethidine) and DCFDA (2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate), mitochondrial membrane potential (using JC-1 fluorescence stain), acrosome reaction (measured with fluorescein isothiocyanate-PNA (FITC-PNA) labeling combined with calcium ionophore A23187 and PI), DNA fragmentation index (%DFI, Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) as well as morphology, using the William׳s staining protocol. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance (PROC MIXED), using SAS software. The proportion (%) (mean±SD) of living, dying and dead sperm cells varied between seasons, with the proportion of living spermatozoa being lowest in summer, although a significant difference (P<0.05) was only observed between spring and summer. The %DFI assessed by SCSA was lowest in spring and differed significantly (p <0.04) from summer. A trend towards significance was observed between spring and summer for the motility parameters linearity (LIN) (P=0.068) and straightness (STR) (P=0.062).


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Beef production from Holstein–Friesian, Norwegian
           Red×Holstein–Friesian and Jersey×Holstein–Friesian
           male cattle reared as bulls or steers
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): A. McNamee , M.G. Keane , D.A. Kenny , A.P. Moloney , F. Buckley , E.G. O’ Riordan
      The Norwegian Red and Jersey dairy breeds have been evaluated for crossbreeding with Holstein–Friesian dairy cows in Ireland. If such crossbreeding becomes common practice, the resultant male calves will enter the beef industry. The objective was to compare production and carcass traits for Holstein–Friesian (HF), Norwegian Red×Holstein–Friesian (NR) and Jersey×Holstein–Friesian (JE) male cattle. A total of 120 spring-born male calves were reared to slaughter in a 3 breed types (HF, NR and JE)×two genders (bulls and steers)×2 slaughter weights (Light, 570kg and Heavy, 640kg) factorial experiment. Following rearing indoors, the calves were at pasture for the first grazing season. Steers were castrated in September. The calves were housed for the first winter in October and offered grass silage ad libitum plus 1.5kg/day concentrates. They returned to pasture in April for their second grazing season. The bulls were housed in August and the steers were housed in November. Both genders were finished on a total mixed ration of proportionately 0.67 concentrates and 0.33 silage (dry matter basis). Routine slaughter data were collected. The ribs joint was dissected into its components. Across gender and slaughter weight groups, slaughter weights per day of age were 836, 828 and 761 (s.e. 12.2)g for HF, NR and JE, respectively. Corresponding carcass weights and kill-out proportions were 314, 309 and 277 (s.e. 5.2)kg, and 495, 499 and 485 (s.e. 2.9)g/kg, respectively. Carcass conformation class (15-point scale) was 4.7, 5.3 and 4.0 (s.e. 0.23) for HF, NR and JE, respectively. Carcass fat class (15-point scale) was 8.5, 8.6 and 7.7 (s.e. 0.26) for HF, NR and JE, respectively. Feed intake during finishing was similar for the breed types, but intake per kg mean live weight was higher for JE. Slaughter weight per day of age was greater for bulls than steers and for Heavy than Light slaughter weight. Bulls had higher kill out proportions, better carcass conformation, greater M. longissimus area and a greater proportion of ribs joint muscle, and a lower proportion of fat than steers. There were few important interactions. It is concluded that crossbreeding with NR had no negative effects on the beef merit of the male progeny compared with pure Holstein–Friesian but crossbreeding with JE reduced carcass weight and value per kg.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • The effect of tail docking on the welfare of pigs housed under challenging
           conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): G. Di Martino , A. Scollo , F. Gottardo , A.L. Stefani , E. Schiavon , K. Capello , S. Marangon , L. Bonfanti
      This study was performed to investigate the effect of tail docking in the weaner and finishing phase in 448 heavy pigs (slaughtered at 40 weeks of age and 170kg) reared under challenging conditions that were previously considered as risk factors for tail biting (e.g., male gender, high stocking density, fully slatted floor and poor health). The finishing unit had a history of mortality higher than 5%, mainly due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Influenza and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae circulation. In both units, a rack with straw and a metal chain were constantly available in all pens. A 2×2 factorial design was adopted to test the effects of gender and tail presence on blood measures (cortisol, haptoglobin, and albumin/globulin ratio), behaviour and skin lesions. Tail docking did not have an effect on the physiological measures, conflicts, and ear and tail biting behaviours at the weaner phase or at fattening. However, in the last days of the weaner phase, an outbreak of tail biting triggered by a “biter” was recorded in one pen of barrows. At fattening, tail docking did not produce any significant difference regarding skin lesions on the ears, the front, the middle and the back third of the animals. Nevertheless, undocked animals showed a higher prevalence of mild tail lesions (P<0.01) and a lower frequency of belly nosing behaviour (P=0.04). In undocked animals, the average frequency of severe tail lesions was 3.6%, whereas the average frequency of mild tail lesions was 18.57%. Two peaks were detected at 12 and 32 weeks of age (P=0.01), i.e., at the beginning and in the middle of the fattening period. Overall, the behavioural activities of exploring chain decreased throughout the fattening cycle (P=0.02), whereas the activity of exploring straw in the rack increased according to age (P=0.05). The frequency of ear biting showed a decrease (P=0.02), whereas the frequency of lying behaviour increased (P=0.04). The mortality was approximately 5%: 4.5% in undocked vs. 5.5% in docked pigs; 6.5% in barrows vs. 3.5% in females. The straw consumption was 5g/pig/day at the weaner phase and 30g/pig/day at fattening. The results did not demonstrate a generalised welfare endangerment directly related to tail biting in undocked heavy pigs housed under challenging conditions.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • An investigation into the effect of dietary particle size and pelleting of
           diets for finishing pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 173
      Author(s): M.E.E. Ball , E. Magowan , K.J. McCracken , V.E. Beattie , R. Bradford , A. Thompson , F.J. Gordon
      The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of feed form (meal or pellets) and dietary particle size profile (fine or coarse) in a 2×2 factorial design on finishing pig performance and nutrient digestibility. A simple cereal soya-based finishing pig diet was formulated to provide 13.6MJ/kg digestible energy (DE) and 167g/kg crude protein (CP). The coarsely ground diets were made using 2×14mm+4×10mm screens and 6×4mm screens were used to produce the finely ground diets. Diets were then pelleted or not. The effect of feed form and particle size was tested on pig performance (20 pigs per pen, 8 replicates per treatment) and nutrient digestibility (8 pigs/replicates per treatment) in two separate trials. Data were analysed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Genstat Version 14.0 according to the 2×2 factorial design. There was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between particle size and feed form. However, the ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of pigs between 18 weeks of age and finish was significantly improved (P<0.05 and<0.001, respectively) when diets were in pellet form (990g/day and 2.79, respectively) compared with when diets were in meal form (940g/day and 3.01, respectively). Pigs offered the finely ground diets also had a higher ADG (989g/day, P<0.05) (between 18 weeks and finish) and a better FCR (2.82, P<0.01) than pigs offered coarsely ground diets (941g/day and 2.98, respectively). Overall FCR between 12 weeks of age and finish was improved by 5.5% when diets were pelleted (P<0.001) and by 3% when diets were finely ground (P<0.05). Pelleting of the diet significantly improved dry matter (DM) digestibility and DE content (both P<0.05) and tended (P<0.1) to improve energy digestibility and ash digestibility. Reducing the particle size of the diet significantly improved CP digestibility (P<0.05) and tended (P<0.1) to improve DM, energy digestibility and digestible energy content. Nitrogen excretion was reduced (P<0.05) by 10% when pigs were offered diets in pellet form compared to meal form. There was no effect of feed form or particle size (P>0.05) on stomach ulceration. Overall, the results suggest a cumulative effect of feed form and particle size on FCR, nutrient digestibility and DE content of the diet since these parameters were optimized when pigs were offered a pelleted diet with a fine particle size profile but were poorest when meal diets with a coarse particle size profile were offered.


      PubDate: 2015-02-21T19:55:46Z
       
  • Effect of dietary fiber type on intestinal nutrient digestibility and
           hindgut fermentation of diets Fed to finishing pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Lixiang Gao , Liang Chen , Qingua Huang , Lihui Meng , Ruqing Zhong , Chenglin Liu , Xiangfang Tang , Hongfu Zhang
      The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary fiber type on intestinal nutrient and energy digestibility and hindgut fermentation in finishing pigs. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW=21.4±1.5kg) were allotted to 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal control diet or a diet in which corn and soybean meal was partly replaced by 5% inulin (INU) or carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC). The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy were measured. The VFA concentration was also determined in the ileal and fecal samples. The AID of DM, carbohydrates (CHO), NDF and GE were less (P<0.01) for pigs fed the INU diet than those fed the control and CMC diets. The ATTD and hindgut fermentation of DM, CHO, ADF, NDF, and GE were less (P<0.01) in the CMC diet than in the control diet or the INU diet, whereas, the AID of CP was greater (P<0.05) in the CMC diet than in the other diets. The ATTD of NDF and hindgut fermentation of EE were greater (P<0.01) in the control diet than in the INU diet or the CMC diet. The hindgut fermentation of CHO and GE were greater (P<0.01) in the INU diet than in the control diet or the CMC diet. The total tract flow of nutrients and energy increased (P<0.01) by inclusion of 5% CMC in the diet. There were no differences in ileal VFA concentrations between the diets. The fecal acetate and total VFA concentrations were greater (P<0.01) in pigs fed the INU diet than fed the control diet or the CMC diet.The fecal pH and concentration of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, butyrate, isovalerate, and total VFA were less (P<0.01) in pigs fed the CMC diet than those fed the control diet or the INU diet. In conclusion, addition of 5% inulin into a diet had a low digestibility of nutrients and energy in upper gut and high hindgut fermentation. In contract, the CMC increased the AID of CP and reduced other nutrient and energy digestibility and fermentation.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Genomic selection for boar taint compounds and carcass traits in a
           commercial pig population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Carolina Filardi de Campos , Marcos Soares Lopes , Fabyano Fonseca e Silva , Renata Veroneze , Egbert F. Knol , Paulo Sávio Lopes , Simone E.F. Guimarães
      This study aimed to compare two different Genome-Wide Selection (GWS) methods (Ridge Regression BLUP - RR-BLUP and Bayesian LASSO - BL) to predict the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) of four phenotypes, including two boar taint compounds, i.e., the concentrations of androstenone (andro) and skatole (ska), and two carcass traits, i.e., backfat thickness (fat) and loin depth (loin), which were measured in a commercial male pig line. Six hundred twenty-two boars were genotyped for 2,500 previously selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The accuracies of the GEBV using both methods were estimated based on Jack-knife cross-validation. The BL showed the best performance for the andro, ska and loin traits, which had accuracy values of 0.65, 0.58 and 0.33, respectively; for the fat trait, the RR-BLUP accuracy of 0.61 outperformed the BL accuracy of 0.56. Considering that BL was more accurate for the majority of the traits, this method is the most favoured for GWS under the conditions of this study. The most relevant SNPs for each trait were located in the chromosome regions that were previously indicated as QTL regions in other studies, i.e., SSC6 for andro and ska, SSC2 for fat, and SSC11, SSC15 and SSC17 for loin.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Effect of energy restriction and dietary protein level during the
           Re-alimentation period on feed efficiency in double-muscled Belgian blue
           cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L.O. Fiems , J.L. De Boever , B. Ampe , J.M. Vanacker , S. De Campeneere , B. Sonck
      Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of an energy restriction (80% (ER) vs. 100% (CON) of total energy requirements; 140 days: P1) followed by a re-alimentation (ad libitum intake; 70 days; P2) on feed intake, body weight (BW) change, and feed efficiency in double-muscled Belgian Blue cows. Regression analysis based on feed intake and BW change during P1 was used to deduce energy requirements for maintenance by setting BW change to zero. The diet consisted of maize silage and 0.5kg mineral-vitamin premix in experiment 1, where dietary crude protein (CP) concentration was constant (105g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the whole experiment. A similar diet was fed during the restriction period in experiment 2 with 97g CP/kg DM. Extra soybean meal and urea were fed to all cows during the re-alimentation period of experiment 2, resulting in 198g CP/kg DM. Both experiments showed that BW loss of ER cows during P1 was not compensated during P2, so that BW gain of ER cows during the entire experiment remained lower compared to CON cows (P<0.05). Similar results were obtained for feed intake. Feed conversion ratio was not different between treatments during P2, but it tended to be worse for ER cows vs. CON cows for the entire experiment (P<0.10). Extra dietary crude protein during P2 in experiment 2 did not modify the effect of treatment on animal performance compared to experiment 1. Therefore, feeding double-muscled Belgian Blue cows below their energy requirements for maintenance, and growth in case of first and second-calf cows should be strongly discouraged. Metabolisable and net energy requirements for maintenance were estimated at 0.586MJ and 0.338MJ/kg BW0.75, respectively.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Herbage selection, intake and digestibility in grazing beef cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.F. Reis , G. Huntington , M. Hopkins , S. Whisnant , P.V.R. Paulino
      The objectives of this study were to measure voluntary herbage intake in kg of dry matter (DM) per day and in proportions of plant species and components (leaf, stem, dead material) of nonlactating Angus cows under grazing conditions and compare DM herbage intakes to intakes of the same cows when they were nursing their calves. Twenty nonlactating Angus cows (50±12mo of age, 525±55kg weight) were selected from a larger herd to create 4 groups of 5 cows with average DM intakes that ranged form 11 to 15kg/d during lactation. The cows were allocated for 28d as a group on the pasture that contained 5,540kg DM/ha as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon var. Tifton-85), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and other plants. Pasture composition was measured by visual appraisal and manual separation of pasture clippings. Daily allocations provided approximately 2.5kg DM /100kg BW. Each cow was individually fed 0.82kg supplement DM daily that contained 498mg of the n-alkane dotriacontane (C32) and 448mg hexatriacontane (C36) during the last 14d. Fecal grab samples were collected from each cow during the last 5d. Grazing intake (8.92±1.5kg DM/d) was calculated for each cow from C32 intake and ratios of tritriacontane (C33):C32 in feces and did not differ (P=0.97) among cow groups. Individual cow intakes during lactation and after weaning, during grazing, were not correlated. Measured sward and calculated intake proportions of tall fescue (0.58 and 0.65), bermudagrass (0.38 and 0.33), and red clover (0.02 and 0.01) indicated cows selected slightly more tall fescue and less bermudagrass and red clover than was on offer. Manual separations of sward and calculated intake proportions of dead material and stem (0.89 and 0.95), green leaf (0.10 and 0.02) and other material (0.01 and 0.04) were similar. N-alkanes provided credible calculations of intake by grazing cows. Intakes of lactating cows did not predict their intake after weaning.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Genomic selection strategies to optimize the use of multiple ovulation and
           embryo transfer schemes in dairy cattle breeding programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Bouquet , A.C. Sørensen , J. Juga
      The aim of this study was to assess the impact of varying features of an open multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) nucleus used in a genomic dairy cattle breeding scheme on both genetic gain and inbreeding rates. The Viking Red breeding scheme served as a case study to design scenarios that were stochastically simulated. We analyzed the number of AI sires used in the breeding population, the number of flushed heifers, the number of flushings per heifer and the genotyping capacity allocated to young females. The results supported that setting up a MOET program in a genomic dairy cattle scheme increases genetic gain without increasing inbreeding rates when the MOET nucleus size and the number of AI sires in service are large enough. Secondly, it was shown that increasing the number of genotyped heifers could not compensate the loss in genetic gain caused by closing the MOET nucleus. On the contrary, when extending the flushing capacity of the MOET program, increasing the number of flushings per heifer had a greater impact on genetic gain, but also on inbreeding rates, than increasing the number of flushed females. So, when a constraint applies on the flushing capacity in an open MOET scheme and the achieved inbreeding rate permits it, it seems more relevant to increase the number of flushings per heifer than the number of flushed heifers. Results also indicated that the number of genotypings allocated to females had to be sufficient to get maximal returns from the MOET scheme. In this case study, little extra genetic gain could be obtained by extending the MOET scheme size with the initial genotyping strategy (800 genotyped females). Indeed, the genotyping capacity should permit to genotype all heifers produced in the MOET scheme to discriminate the best heifers within families, and should be also sufficient to identify the best heifers outside the MOET nucleus.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Luteinizing Hormone, testosterone and total estrogens response to
           exogenous GnRH in crossbred bulls with differing semen quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): B.S. Bharath Kumar , Sujata Pandita , B.S. Prakash , Smrutirekha Mallick , T.K. Mohanty , D.K. Mandal , Bhabesh Mili
      The present study aims to investigate the Luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and total estrogens response to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in adult crossbred bulls with differing semen quality. Fourteen adult crossbred bulls of differing semen quality were selected and treated with 10µg of GnRH (Buserelin acetate) intramuscularly. Blood samples of the bulls were collected at an interval of 30min commencing 1h prior to GnRH treatment until 4h post GnRH treatment and thereafter, at an interval of 1h for the next 3h. The endocrine response in terms of peak values, area under the curve, and the time taken to attain peak values for LH, testosterone, and total estrogens were evaluated in all the bulls. The mean±SEM peak levels of LH, testosterone, and total estrogens were found to be 150±24.1, 5.3±0.69, and 0.07±0.01ng/mL, respectively. The mean±SEM area under the curve of LH, testosterone, and total estrogens were found to be 392±51.3, 23.5±3.4, and 0.32±0.04ng/mL × h, respectively. The relationships between hormonal responses (LH, testosterone, and total estrogens) and semen quality were analyzed using the linear regression method, which provided non-significant (P>0.05) results. This study indicated that the gonadal and pituitary hormonal response to single exogenous GnRH treatment may have no relationship with the semen quality of crossbred bulls.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Effects of concentrate supplementation on enteric methane emissions and
           milk production of grazing dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Camila Muñoz , Sara Hube , Jorge M. Morales , Tianhai Yan , Emilio M. Ungerfeld
      Although concentrate supplements in ruminant diets have been recognised as an effective enteric methane mitigation strategy, very few studies have examined the effects of concentrate supplementation on enteric methane emissions under grazing conditions. Twenty four multiparous Holstein Friesian cows were used in a crossover design study to investigate the effects of two concentrate feeding levels across two periods on enteric methane emission and milk production of grazing dairy cows. Each period had a duration of four weeks (three weeks for diet adaptation and one week for measurements) and no interval in between them. Dietary treatments consisted of 2 concentrate feeding levels per cow (1 vs. 5kg; as-fed basis) offered daily in equal meals during milking. Enteric methane emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass pasture were measured during the final week of each period using the sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique. Milk yield and liveweight were determined daily during each methane measurement period, whereas milk composition and body condition score (BCS) were determined weekly. Daily herbage intake by individual cows during methane measurement weeks was estimated using an energy requirement model and animal records and diet composition. In period 1, cows receiving 5kg concentrate supplement were estimated to reduce herbage intake by 1.8kg DM/d compared to cows receiving 1kg of concentrate, whereas in period 2 cows receiving the 5kg concentrate supplementation were estimated to reduce herbage intake by 4.4kg DM/d, compared to cows receiving 1kg of concentrate. In both periods, milk yield increased with increasing concentrate level, with an average milk response to concentrate supplementation of 0.68kg milk DM / kg concentrate DM over the two periods. Concentrate feeding level had no effect on milk fat, protein or total solids contents. In period 2, lactose content increased in cows offered 5kg/d concentrate. Increasing concentrate feeding level increased liveweight and BCS in period 1, but not in period 2. Feeding 5kg of concentrate supplement increased enteric methane emission by 34g/d in period 1 (323 vs. 357g/d) and 41g/d in period 2 (349 vs. 390g/d) compared to 1kg of concentrate supplement. However, enteric methane emission per unit of estimated feed intake (dry matter or gross energy) or milk output (gross or energy corrected) was not affected by level of concentrate supplementation. It was concluded that under generous grazing conditions (high allowance of good quality herbage) a moderate increase in concentrate supplementation resulted in a simultaneous increase in milk yield and enteric methane emission, so that enteric methane emission per unit of milk yield was unaffected. Thus, a moderate level of concentrate supplementation of dairy cows grazing pastures of high digestibility would not be an effective enteric methane mitigation strategy.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Corrigendum to: The effect of lysine restriction during grower period on
           productive performance, serum metabolites and fatness of heavy barrows and
           gilts [Livest. Sci. 171C (2015) 36–43]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J. Suárez-Belloch , J.A. Guada , M.A. Latorre



      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from beef production systems in Denmark and
           Sweden
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L. Mogensen , T. Kristensen , N.I. Nielsen , P. Spleth , M. Henriksson , C. Swensson , A. Hessle , M. Vestergaard
      The purpose of the study was to define and describe typical beef production systems in Denmark and Sweden and estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions including contribution from soil carbon changes and land use change (LUC) in a life cycle perspective (LCA). Five typical Danish (DK) and four typical Swedish (SE) systems were identified; hereof three systems with beef from beef breed cattle and six systems with beef from bull calves derived from dairy production system (including steers). The beef breed systems include an extensive system (DK) and two intensive systems (SE, DK). In the systems with beef from dairy bull calves, the bull calves were slaughtered at different ages; 9.0 months (SE), 9.4 months (DK), 11.5 months (DK), 19.0 months (SE) and at 25.0 months in the two systems with steers (DK, SE). Feed use and carbon footprint (CF) per kg meat were positively correlated. Beef from dairy bull calves slaughtered between 9.0 and 19.0 months had the lowest CF (8.9–11.5kg CO2/kg carcass) and feed use (7.3–11.1kg DM/kg carcass). The steer systems had a CF of 16.6–17.0kg CO2/kg carcass and feed use of 13.2–15.5kg DM/kg carcass. The highest CF and feed use were seen for beef breed systems at 23.1–29.7kg CO2/kg carcass and 20.9–29.8kg DM/kg carcass, respectively. The GHG contribution from LUC was positively correlated to the use of arable land. Beef from dairy bull calves had the lowest LUC contribution (1.3–1.6kg CO2 /kg carcass) from a land use of 9.4–11.5m2/kg carcass. The highest LUC contribution (2.5–3.5kg CO2/kg carcass) and land use of 17.3–24.7m2/kg carcass was seen for beef from beef breed systems, the Swedish dairy bull calf slaughtered at 19 month, and the Danish steer. Besides arable land, the beef breed systems also used permanent pastures that were assumed not to contribute to LUC. Carbon (C) sequestration from crop residues and use of manure had a mitigating effect on GHG emission in all beef systems. The lowest C sequestration was seen for systems with beef from dairy bull calves slaughtered between 9 and 19 months, making up 0.2–0.9kg CO2/kg carcass, and the highest C sequestration was for the steer production and the beef breed systems, contributing between 2.3 and 4.8kg CO2/kg carcass. The present study supports the hypothesis that feed use per kg carcass weight is a main driver for variation in greenhouse gas emission, land use change and soil carbon changes for beef meat sourced from different beef production systems. For the carbon footprint per kg carcass there was a positive correlation with feed use and therefore also the lowest carbon footprint per kg carcass in systems with the lowest feed intake, such as bull calves from dairy production.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T03:40:19Z
       
  • In vitro screening of lactic acid bacteria for multi-strain probiotics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): O. Pringsulaka , K. Rueangyotchanthana , N. Suwannasai , R. Watanapokasin , P. Amnueysit , S. Sunthornthummas , S. Sukkhum , S. Sarawaneeyaruk , A. Rangsiruji
      The aim of this research was to screen and evaluate some probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from 150 animal fecal samples, such as cows, pigs, chickens, and ducks. To achieve an objective, 81 isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity, tolerance to bile salts and acid, potential adhesion to cell surface, and in vitro adhesion. The results of the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria showed that, out of 81 isolates, 61, 59, 43, 78, and 79 isolates had antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Kiebsiella sp., respectively. Most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were tolerant to 1.0% bile salts and were able to survive at pH 3.5 for 3h. Twelve isolates were then evaluated on their hydrophobic character. Five isolates with probiotic properties were subsequently selected. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated that 2 isolates belong to L. reuteri (strains P8 and P30), 2 to L. plantarum (strains P6 and P31), and another one to L. paraplantarum (strain P25). To assess their viability in broiler chicken diets, 3 strains, L. plantarum (strain P6), L. paraplantarum (strain P25), and L. reuteri (strain P30), containing 108 cfu/g were inoculated into a commercial chicken diet in the form of single strain and multi-strain preparations. We found that in all of the treatments, the numbers of viable cells of LAB (cfu/g of diet) were decreased below 107 cfu/g after 3d of incubation. Therefore, based on our study, the single- and multi-strains may have a potential use as novel probiotics in broiler chicken diets.


      PubDate: 2015-02-09T02:56:24Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Application of a nonlinear optimization tool to
           balance diets with constant metabolizability” [Livest. Sci. 158
           (1–3) (2013) 106–117]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Júlia Gazzoni Jardim , Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira , Alberto Magno Fernandes , Raphael Pavesi Araujo , Leonardo Siqueira Glória , Nardele Moreno Rohem Júnior , Norberto Silva Rocha , Matheus Lima Corrêa Abreu



      PubDate: 2015-02-09T02:56:24Z
       
  • Effects of rare earth elements-enriched yeast on growth performance,
           nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta
           microflora in broiler chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): L. Cai , Y.S. Park , S.I. Seong , S.W. Yoo , I.H. Kim
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of rare earth elements-enriched yeast (RY) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora in broiler chickens. A total of 765 ROSS 308 one-day-old broilers with an average initial body weight of 49.0±0.1g were used in this 4-wk feeding study containing the starter period (d 1 to 14) and the grower period (d 15 to 28). Dietary treatments include: (1) basal diet, free of antibiotics [negative control(NC)], (2) NC+500mg/kg of RY (RY500), (3) NC+1000mg/kg of RY (RY1000), (4) NC+1500mg/kg of RY (RY1500), and (5) antibiotics diet, NC+1000mg/kg of tiamulin [positive control (PC)]. Broiler chickens were allotted to 5 treatments with 9 replicates (17 broiler chickens/replicate) in a completely randomized design. At the end of the experiment, digestibility of dry matter was increased in broiler chickens fed RY1500 (linear, P=0.011) and PC (P=0.035) diets by 3.7 and 3.9%, respectively, compared with NC diet. The digestibility of gross energy was increased (linear, P=0.019) by 4.4% when broiler chickens were fed RY1500 diet compared with those fed NC diet. Yellowness of breast muscle (linear, P=0.003) was increased by 10.7% in broiler chickens fed RY1500 diet compared with the NC group. However, there was no significant influence on growth performance, relative organ weight, and excreta microflora. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrated that nutrient digestibility and meat quality were improved slightly in the broiler chickens supplemented with RY.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Effects of nitrate and fumarate in tree leaves-based diets on nutrient
           utilization, rumen fermentation, microbial protein supply and blood
           profiles in sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): K. Pal , A.K. Patra , A. Sahoo , N.M. Soren
      This experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrate and fumarate on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation and blood biochemical profile in sheep fed on tree leaves-based diet. Thirty two matured male Chokla breed of sheep (2–3 years old and 46.9±0.95kg average body weight) were equally distributed in a randomized block design in four groups with similar average age and mean body weight. All groups were fed diets containing roughage and concentrate in a 70:30 ratio. Control group (C) was fed with cenchrus (Cenchrus ciliaris) straw as an only roughage source, whereas other three groups (T1, T2 and T3) were fed with cenchrus straw, ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) leaves and khejri (Prosopis cineraria) leaves (50:25:25) as roughage sources. Animals in the T1 group were not supplemented with any feed additive; whereas, animals in the T2 and T3 groups were added with 2% potassium nitrate of the concentrate mixture and 2% fumarate of the dry matter (DM) intake, respectively. There were no effects (P>0.10) of any treatments on DM intake, BW change or nutrient utilization. N retention increased in treatment groups compared with control due to greater amount of N intake. Concentrations of glucose, haemoglobin, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and different blood enzyme concentrations were not affected (P>0.10) by any treatments, but concentrations of total protein, globulin and cholesterol in blood were higher for T1 and T3 than for C and T2 treatments. Microbial N supply in terms of digestible OM intake or digestible OM retained in the rumen did not differ among treatments. Total amylase and carboxymethyl cellulase concentrations were similar among the groups. However, total xylanase activity increased in T3 group than other groups. A reduction in average propionate concentration (P=0.020) was observed for the T2 treatment in comparison with the C and T1 groups. Concentrations of ammonia N, total N and trichloroacetate-perceptible N were lower in control than other treatments, but concentrations of soluble N were not affected (P>0.05) by any treatments. In conclusion, fumarate (2% of DM) may be included in the diet of sheep fed with ardu–khejri leaves without affecting nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation, whereas ardu–khejri leaves diet containing nitrate (0.6% of DM) may affect rumen fermentation.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Analysis of candidate SNPs affecting milk and functional traits in the
           dual-purpose Italian Simmental cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Stefania Chessa , Ezequiel Luis Nicolazzi , Letizia Nicoloso , Riccardo Negrini , Rosanna Marino , Daniele Vicario , Paolo Ajmone Marsan , Alessio Valentini , Bruno Stefanon
      A total of 113 DNA polymorphisms in 32 candidate genes were pre-screened to assess their variability in 32 Italian Simmental bulls. A total of 64 variants successfully genotyped and having a minor allele frequency (MAF) higher than 0.03 were then analyzed in 477 Italian Simmental bulls. Among these 37 had a MAF ≥0.05 and were investigated for association with milk production and functional traits. Daughter yield deviations (DYD) were available for milk, protein and fat yield (MY, PY and FY, respectively), somatic cell count (SCC), udder score (US), feet and legs score (FLS), while for protein percent (PP), calving ease direct effect (CED), fertility (FE) and milkability (MA) associations were computed using (EBVs). Twelve SNPs were significantly associated with at least one trait (P≤0.05). The strongest association (P=0.0009) was found between rs385640152 in the growth hormone receptor gene (GHR) and PP. Also marker rs42714483 in the thyroid hormone responsive gene (THRSP) was associated with PP (P=0.004). Pleiotropic effects were detected only for β-lactoglobulin (LGB or PAEP progestagen-associated endometrial protein) polymorphisms on. SNP rs29004488 in the leptin gene (LEP) and rs41974998 in milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 protein gene (MFGE8) were associated with MY (P=0.043 and P=0.033, respectively). Suggestive associations with functional traits were also detected: rs43347906 in the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) with US (P=0.029), rs29004485 in LEP with FLS (P=0.049), rs41703837 in the v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (SRC) with CED (P=0.021) and rs109019599 in the oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 gene (OLR1) with MA (P=0.024). Our results both provide loci newly associated with functional traits and confirm associations already detected in Italian Holstein and Italian Brown breeds.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Association of wool growth with gut metabolism and anatomy in sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. De Barbieri , R.S. Hegarty , L. Li , V.H. Oddy
      The hypothesis tested by this study was that sheep with divergent estimated breeding values (EBV) for fleece weight differ in gut metabolism and anatomy; regardless of the level of intake. Adult Merino wethers with contrasting EBVs for fleece weight were fed at two levels of intake in two 7-week periods in a crossover design, where wool growth, gut metabolism and anatomy of the sheep were evaluated. Regardless of the level of intake, wool genotype affected wool growth (P<0.05); however, rumen metabolism and gut anatomy did not differ between wool genotypes (P>0.05). Increases in the level of intake increased the supply of nutrients to the animal and the measured end-products of the process (wool production, live weight, methane) independent of wool genotype. The results obtained in this study indicate that differences in gut fermentation and anatomy are not a major cause of differences in wool production among sheep of different estimated genetic merit for fleece weight when fed restricted intakes.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • The effect of different dietary energy levels during rearing and
           mid-gestation on gilt performance and culling rate
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): Signe Lovise Thingnes , Elin Hallenstvedt , Ellen Sandberg , Tore Framstad
      In an effective pig production, proper feeding management during rearing and first gestation is important to ensure a good lifetime performance in terms of a high number of weaned pigs per sow lifetime. Dietary energy levels offered during these periods may effect the body compositional development of gilts and their productive and reproductive performance. The aim of the current study was to compare the development and productive performance of gilts when fed the commercial recommendations of dietary energy levels during rearing and mid-gestation with an increased dietary energy level. A total of 500 Norwegian Landrace×Yorkshire (LY) gilts were followed from 25kg live weight (LW) and until rebreeding or culling after weaning of their first litter. The gilts were offered two dietary energy levels during rearing; 13.2–29.0MJ NE/d (High) or 10.6–22.9MJ NE/d (Norm), and two dietary energy levels during mid-gestation (day 42–94); 27.3MJ NE/d (High) or 22.3MJ NE/d (Norm). This gave four gilt development strategies, High/High (HH), High/Norm (HN), Norm/High (NH), and Norm/Norm (NN). Data collection included individual gilt weight, age, backfat, number of piglets born and weaned, litter weights at birth and weaning, and weaning-to-service interval (WSI). At selection for mating (110kg LW), gilts reared on the higher energy diet were younger (P<0.001) and had more fat reserves (P<0.0001) compared to the norm energy reared gilts. Three weeks before expected parturition the NN gilts were older (P<0.001), lighter (P=0.075) and leaner (P=0.013) compared to the HH gilts, with the HN and NH gilts at intermediate levels. The productive and reproductive performance was not affected by gilt development strategy. Removal reasons did not differ between dietary treatments, but the probability of removal tended to be higher among the norm energy reared gilts compared to the higher energy reared gilts (P=0.056), and lower among the HH gilts compared to the other three gilt development strategies (P=0.033). In conclusion, although maternal performance was not affected, gilt development strategy affected both development and survival probability.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Potential of cereal grains and grain legumes in modulating pigs׳
           intestinal microbiota – A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): Tobias Aumiller , Rainer Mosenthin , Eva Weiss
      Dietary modulation seems to be a promising tool to promote growth and activity of the beneficial members of the indigenous intestinal microbiota in monogastric animals such as pigs. Several approaches, including the use of various feed additives such as pro- and prebiotics have proven to be efficient in modulating pigs׳ intestinal microbiota. Furthermore, ingredients of a typical pig diet such as cereal grains contain considerable amounts of fermentable carbohydrates including e.g. resistant starch, mixed-linked β-glucan or arabinoxylan, which can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, research has been increasingly focusing on the potential of fermentable carbohydrates present in cereal grains to steer intestinal microbial activity and composition in a beneficial way. In this review, special interest will be directed to wheat and barley due to their frequent use as main ingredients in pig diets, in addition to rye and oat, as these grains are known to contain considerable amounts of fermentable carbohydrates. Furthermore, the potential of grain legumes including peas, faba beans and lupins in beneficially modulating pigs׳ intestinal microbiota and activity will also be assessed as these feed ingredients contain not only varying amounts of protein but also different contents of various fermentable carbohydrates. This review includes a comparison of studies, in which either whole cereal grains and grain legumes or purified carbohydrate fractions manufactured from these grains were included in pigs׳ diets to study their effect on intestinal microbiota and metabolic activity. It also takes into account variations between several cereal genotypes, as content and composition of fermentable carbohydrates may not only vary between grains, but also between different genotypes of the same grain species. Finally, results of in vitro studies will be presented to assess the potential of fermentable carbohydrates originating from cereal grains and grain legumes in modulating microbial composition activity in a beneficial and health promoting way.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Validation of the 13C-bicarbonate tracer technique for determination of
           CO2 production and energy expenditure in ponies by indirect calorimetry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Rasmus Bovbjerg Jensen , Caroline Larsson , Peter Junghans , Anne-Helene Tauson
      Four Shetland ponies were used to validate the 13C-bicarbonate technique (13C-BT) against indirect calorimetry (IC) for determination of CO2 production and estimation of short term energy expenditure (EE), when a single bolus of 13C-bicarbonate was given either as an oral or intravenous (IV) dose. The study was divided into two experiments. In experiment 1 the ponies were placed in respiration chambers making it possible to compare the 13C-BT with IC, and to find a suitable respiratory quotient (RQ) and recovery factor (RF) of 13C in breath CO2 needed for the calculations of EE. In experiment 2 the ponies were measured in the stall and breath samples were collected with a mask and breath bags. There was no effect of the methods used in experiments 1 and 2 (IC, 13C-BTIC or 13C-BTstall) on the measured CO2 production (P>0.05) and the estimated EE (P>0.05). There was no effect (P>0.05) of administration route (IV or oral) on the RQ-value (RQ=0.794), but there was an effect (P=0.026) of route on the RF (RFIV=0.690; RFOral=0.760). The average RQ and the respective RF for IV and oral administration of 13C-bicarbonate were used for the calculations. This validation study against IC showed that the 13C-BT can be used to determine CO2 production for estimation of EE under resting conditions in ponies, independent of administration route of 13C-bicarbonate. The results from IC were similar to measurements performed in the stall under normal resting conditions, where samples were taken with a mask and breath bags.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Effects of Withania coagulans fruit powder and vitamin C on growth
           performance and some blood components in heat stressed broiler chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Alba , O. Esmaeilipour , R. Mirmahmoudi
      This study was conducted to study the effect of Withania coagulans (WC) fruit powder and vitamin C (VC) on growth performance and some blood components in heat stressed broilers. The experiment was conducted as a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 concentrations of VC (0 and 250mg/kg of diet) and 3 concentrations of WC (0, 2.5, and 5g/kg of diet). Each of 6 dietary treatments was fed to 4 replicate pens (9 broiler chickens/pen) from 25 to 42d of age. The house temperature was set at 34°C±2 (from 0900 to 1700h) throughout the experiment. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), and feed to gain ratio (F:G) were calculated at the end of the experiment. At d 42 of age, the blood samples were collected from 1 broiler chicken per pen, and glucose and cholesterol concentrations, white blood cell (WBC) count, and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were determined. The FI and BWG increased by 5.5% and 12.7%, respectively, and F:G decreased by 6.5% with VC supplementation (P≤0.01). As dietary inclusion of WC increased from 0 to 5g/kg, both FI and BWG increased by 5.6% (linear, P≤0.023). The activity of GPX increased (P≤0.05) by 20.57% with addition of VC to the diet, whereas no effect of WC was observed. Neither VC nor WC had effect on blood cholesterol and glucose concentrations, WBC counts, relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and liver, and relative length of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of 250mg VC/kg or 5g WC fruit powder/kg improved the growth performance of heat stressed broiler chickens.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Sow and piglet productivity and sow reproductive performance in farrowing
           pens with temporary crating or farrowing crates on a commercial New
           Zealand pig farm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kirsty L. Chidgey , Patrick C.H. Morel , Kevin J. Stafford , Ian W. Barugh
      The use of a pen during lactation provides sows with more space so they can turn around freely. They are an alternative to the physically and behaviourally more restrictive farrowing crates. Previous studies have compared data from multiple pork production units using different farrowing accommodation types. This study was carried out on one commercial pig farm using two lactation systems. The objective was to examine the effect that the accommodation (pens with temporary crating until 4 days postpartum, or farrowing crates for the duration of lactation) had on the productivity of sows and piglets. Performance data was obtained from 394 sows (4706 live born piglets) in combination pens, and 338 sows (3987 live born piglets) in crates over 14 farrowing batches. Pre-weaning piglet mortality (PWM%) was significantly higher in the pen system (10.23%) than in the crate system (6.10%) (P<0.0001). Penned sows were released from the temporary crate on the fourth day of lactation. A greater proportion of piglets died in the combination pens (38.8%) than in the crates (30.43%) during the period extending from the fourth day of lactation until weaning (P<0.0001). Total pigs weaned per litter differed (P=0.0024) between pen (10.54±0.052) and crate systems (10.76±0.065). The accommodation in which a sow farrowed and lactated had no significant effect on subsequent reproductive performance.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Lysine requirements of laying hens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): E.P. Silva , E.B. Malheiros , N.K. Sakomura , K.S. Venturini , L. Hauschild , J.C.P. Dorigam , J.B.K. Fernandes
      This experiment aimed to model the responses of laying hens to lysine intake (Lys) using three mathematical models. The design used was completely randomized, with eight treatments, six repetitions with eight hens per experimental unit, and three periods of 28 days for each period, using 384 Dekalb White hens. Statistical analyses were performed for treatments, repetitions and period using the procedure of repeated measures in time. The responses for EM and FCR for the different intakes of Lys were adjusted using the models broken line (BL), quadratic polynomial (QP) and reading model (RM). There was an effect of Lys levels and period and an interaction between the levels of Lys and period. The models were adjusted for each experimental period. The biological optimal level of Lys intake was obtained using a combination of the models BL and QP, which was close to the estimate of RM of 707, 660 and 669mg/bird per day, which allows to meet the requirement of approximately 97% population in the periods of 37–40, 41–44 and 45–48 weeks old. For the cost of L-Lysine HCl and for egg price variation, the economic optimum intake was estimated at 699, 658 and 667mg of Lys/bird per day for the referred periods.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Evaluation of secondary stress biomarkers during road transport in rabbit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2015
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): F. Fazio , S. Casella , E. Giudice , C. Giannetto , G. Piccione
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of road transport, excluding the effect of cages, on rectal temperature (RT), glucose, lactate, packed cell volume (PCV) and total proteins (TP) in rabbits. The animals were divided into three groups of 10 subjects: Group A was transported into plastic transport crates by road for 2h over a distance about 160km with an average speed of 80km/h, Group B was untransported and placed into plastic transport crates and Group C was untransported and placed into battery-style cages. RT, glucose, lactate, PCV and TP were measured before (T0) and after the road transport (T2) as well as after 6 (T6) and 24h (T24) rest time in Groups A–C. The GLM (General linear model) Repeated Measures procedure, followed by Duncan multiple post-hoc comparison test, showed statistically significant differences among the Groups A–C (P<0.0001) and a significant effect of sampling time (P<0.0001) on RT, glucose, lactate and PCV in Group A. The results suggest that in rabbits, the changes of rectal temperature, together with the secondary stress markers, play an important role in providing complementary information for the assessment of transportation stress suggesting that these modifications are useful not only for monitoring stressful conditions but also for evaluating health and animal welfare.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Gene expression of beta-adrenergic receptors and myosin heavy chain
           isoforms induced by ractopamine feeding duration in pigs not carrying the
           ryanodine receptor mutation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): V.V. Almeida , A.J.C. Nuñez , A.P. Schinckel , M.G. Ward , C. Andrade , M. Sbardella , B. Berenchtein , L.L. Coutinho , V.S. Miyada
      To evaluate the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) feeding duration on mRNA abundance of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of pigs not carrying the ryanodine receptor type I (RyR1) mutation, 80 finishing barrows (initial body weight=69.4±7.87kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed a corn–soybean meal-based diet with no added RAC (control) or with 10mg/kg RAC fed for 7, 14, 21, or 28d before slaughter. On d 28, hair root samples were collected for RyR1 genotyping and LD muscle samples were collected to measure β-AR (β1- and β2-subtypes) and MyHC isoforms (Iβ, IIa, IIx/d, and IIb) gene expression using the quantitative real-time PCR method. Six heterozygous negative pigs for the RyR1 mutation were detected, and therefore not considered for statistical analysis. Increasing RAC feeding duration did not affect the abundance of β1-AR mRNA, but resulted in a tendency (P=0.073) towards a linear decrease in β2-AR mRNA abundance. Even though MyHC Iβ mRNA abundance was linearly decreased (P=0.002) with increasing RAC feeding duration, both MyHC IIa and IIx/d gene expressions were not affected by the RAC treatment. There was a linear increase (P=0.029) in MyHC IIb mRNA abundance as RAC feeding duration was increased. In conclusion, RAC feeding alters gene expression of β2-AR and MyHC isoforms in the LD muscle of pigs not carrying the RyR1 mutation in a time-dependent manner.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Potassium diformate influences gene expression of GH/IGF-I axis and
           glucose homeostasis in weaning piglets
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): Yali Zhou , Xihui Wei , Zhenghao Zi , Bingjie Zou , Shuangshuang Xia , Naisheng Lu , Hulong Lei , Yang Lu , Nahid Parvizi , Dong Xia
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium diformate (KDF) on growth performance of weaning piglets and genes expression related with growth axis and hepatic gluconeogenesis. A total of 180 piglets weaned at 28d of age were allocated randomly into two groups, with 6 pens in each group and 15 piglets in each pen. Piglets in the control group were fed basal diet, whereas the KDF-treated group was fed basal diet supplemented with 10g/kg KDF. After 5 weeks feeding, KDF-treated piglets showed higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily bodyweight gain (ADG) than those of the control (P<0.05), whereas the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower than that of the control (P=0.02). The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of the KDF-treated group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.01). KDF treatment did not change the blood indices level of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and blood glucose (BG) in plasma. KDF treatment did not influence the mRNA expression of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS) in hypothalamus, and the levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA in pituitary. Whereas, it increased the abundance of GH mRNA in pituitary, and the mRNA of GHR, IGF-I, IGF-IR, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) in liver (P<0.05). Furthermore, KDF treatment increased the concentration of IGF-I peptide in liver (P=0.000). These results suggest that, the beneficial effect of KDF on the growth performance may relate to the regulation of the GH axis and glucose homeostasis in piglets.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Efficacy of an herbal granule as treatment option for neonatal Tibetan
           Lamb diarrhea under field conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): Shengkun Li , Dongan Cui , Shengyi Wang , Hui Wang , Meizhou Huang , Zhiming Qi , Yongming Liu
      Diarrhea is the leading cause of death in neonatal lambs. Herbal remedies are believed to address the conditions. We tested whether an herbal granule had a beneficial efficacy on neonatal lamb diarrhea in this study. The herbal granule was extracted from a combination of Coptis chinensi, Magnolia officinalis, Atractylodes lancea, Prunus mume and Poria cocos with a concentration of 1.0g crude herb/g. Two hundred and sixty-six 3–10 day old lambs within 24h from their first onset of diarrhea were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals receiving either herbal granule orally in group A (n=117) or oxytetracycline and pepsin orally in group B (n=109) two times daily for a maximum of 5 days at which time lambs were eligible for exit. Thirty lambs with no clinically visible pathological conditions and with no diarrhea diagnosis were availed as the normal controls (group C) to evaluate the growth performance of lamb herds during the 45-days following the treatment. Although statistically non-significant (P=0.063), more lambs (103/117) recovered from diarrhea in group A than in group B (85/109). We found that lambs treated with the herbal granule experienced reduced days to recovery from diarrhea (3.1±0.8 vs. 3.5±0.6 days, P<0.01), reduced the diarrhea-associated mortality (5.1% vs. 13.8%, P<0.05), and reduced recurrence rate (8.7% vs. 24.4%, P<0.01) during the diarrhea episode compared to the controls in group B. The live body weight of lambs were higher in group A than in group B at days 15 (4.1±0.9 vs. 4.1±1.1 kg, P<0.05), 30 (6.8±1.0 vs. 6.3±1.3kg, P<0.01) and 45 (10.7±1.3 vs. 8.7±1.7kg, P<0.01) following the treatment. Additionally, the live body weight of lambs at days 45 (10.7±1.3kg vs. 10.6±1.2kg, P>0.05) following the treatment were higher in group A than in group C. Herbal granule used in this study might have a beneficial clinical effect under these study circumstances. Thus, herbal granule could represent a potential effective treatment strategy for neonatal lamb diarrhea.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Physiological responses and blood gas exchange following long-distance
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): R. Martínez-Rodríguez , P. Roldan-Santiago , H. Orozco-Gregorio , M. Trujillo-Ortega , P Mora-Medina , M. González-Lozano , M. Sánchez-Hernández , H. Bonilla-Jaime , R. García-Herrera , E. Hernández-Trujillo , D. Mota-Rojas
      This study investigated the physiological changes associated with the prolonged transport of piglets weaned at three different ages: 10 (W10), 15 (W15) and 21(W21) days under two experimental conditions: over an unpaved (UPR) vs. a paved road (PR). During the experiment the piglets were exposed to two stressors simultaneously: weaning and transport in a vehicle to the farm. The duration of each trip was approximately 6h. The stress responses to weaning and transport were determined using blood physiological and metabolic profiles. Four blood sampling procedures were performed with all groups: 24h before weaning while the piglets were at rest inside the piglet boxes (baseline levels); immediately after weaning but before transport; the third sample was collected upon the arrival of each group of piglets at the farm (PT0); and final sample was collected 15min after the arrival of each group (PT15). In groups W10, W15 and W10, lactate concentrations at weaning-induced stress increased (P<.05) by almost 50% with respect to baseline levels (P<.05). At 15min after arrival at the farm in W10 lactate concentrations increased by approximately 60% in the piglets transported via UPR, compared to PT0 (P<.05). During weaning and the evaluation carried out immediately after transport, no significant changes in pH were observed in any of the three experimental groups. Later, however, pH decreased in group W10 after the PT15 stage compared to the PT0 stage in the piglets transported by PR. Similar to the lactate levels, glucose concentrations in the piglets in the three age groups increased at the moment of weaning with respect to baseline levels (P<.05). However, glucose decreased in the PT0 stage vs. weaning-induced stress only in groups W10 and W15 under both conditions, UPR and PR (P<.05). In relation to the PT15 stage for the three groups of piglets transported over the UPR, glucose increased with respect to the PT0 stage (P<.05). These results indicate that the weaning process in piglets alters their acid–base balance by increasing lactate and glucose concentrations regardless of age at weaning. This hyperlactataemia is accentuated when the animals are transported for 6h immediately post-weaning at 10 and 15 days of age, regardless of the conditions of the roadway used. The effects were the same in 21-day-old piglets but only when they were transported on the UPR.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Optimizing feed efficiency and nitrogen excretion in growing rabbits by
           increasing dietary energy with high-starch, high-soluble fibre,
           low-insoluble fibre supply at low protein levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): M. Tazzoli , A. Trocino , M. Birolo , G. Radaelli , G. Xiccato
      A total of 282 crossbred rabbits of both genders were divided into six experimental groups and fed ad libitum six diets formulated in a 2×3 factorial arrangement based on three dietary energy levels (low, approximately 8.45MJ/kg; medium, 9.9MJ/kg: and high, 11.5MJ/kg) and two crude protein levels (15% and 17%). The increase of dietary energy was obtained by a simultaneous increase of dietary starch (9.1%, 13.7%, and 17.9%) and soluble fibre (4.8%, 7.1%, and 9.4%) at the expense of acid detergent fibre (23.0%, 18.0%, and 13.5%). Growth performance and nitrogen excretion from weaning until slaughter, and digestive traits were monitored. The increase of dietary energy enhanced the apparent digestibility of dry matter (50.8%, 60.5%, and 71.5%; P<0.001), gross energy (50.3%, 59.7%, and 70.7%; P<0.001), soluble fibre (73.1%, 77.8%, and 82.9%; P<0.10), and neutral detergent fibre (16.1%, 29.0%, and 48.1%; P<0.001). In the caecum, the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) content increased (63.0, 79.2, and 78.5mmol/L; P<0.05), and the propionate rate decreased (4.0%, 4.2%, and 3.5% mol VFA; P<0.05); in the jejunum, the villi-to-crypt ratio tended to decrease (4.18, 3.89, and 3.57; P<0.10). The increase of dietary energy supply decreased feed intake (181g/d, 157g/d, and 135g/d; P<0.001), which improved feed conversion ratios (3.98, 3.40, and 2.87; P<0.001), and decreased nitrogen excretion (3.15g/d, 2.56g/d, and 1.93g/d; P<0.001). The increase of dietary energy significantly decreased mortality (15.8%, 4.9%, and 4.9%; P<0.05). When dietary crude protein increased from 15% to 17%, apparent digestibility increased for dry matter, crude protein, total dietary fibre, and gross energy (P<0.01). Growth performance during the trial was not affected, but nitrogen excretion decreased significantly (2.73g/d vs. 2.37g/d; P<0.001). In conclusion, the increase of dietary energy by the simultaneous increase of dietary starch and soluble fibre to replace insoluble fibre optimized feed efficiency and controlled nitrogen excretion in growing rabbits with positive effects on digestive traits and health. The reduction in dietary protein level was determined to be an useful strategy to reduce farm nitrogen excretion.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Carcass quality and uniformity of heavy pigs fed restrictive diets with
           progressive reductions in crude protein and indispensable amino acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): L. Gallo , G. Dalla Montà , L. Carraro , A. Cecchinato , P. Carnier , S. Schiavon
      This study investigated the effects of four dietary treatments characterized by 0 to 20% progressive reduction of the dietary crude protein (CP) and indispensable amino acid (AA) contents on carcass quality and uniformity of pigs fed restrictively and slaughtered around 165kg body weight (BW). Carcass data from 233 pigs from a feeding study that involved 3 batches of 80 crossbred pigs each were used. Pigs, offspring of 12 boars, were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 pigs per pen, gilts and barrows, and 2 pens per treatment in each batch) with diets formulated to contain 146 to 117 and 133 to 108g/kg of CP and 7.3 to 5.8 and 5.7 to 4.7g/kg of total Lys in early (90 to 130kg BW) and late (130 to 165kg BW) finishing, respectively. After slaughter, the carcasses were processed and the weight of the commercial lean (neck, loin, shoulder, and ham) and fat cuts (backfat, belly, and jowl) was recorded. The coefficient of variation was used to describe uniformity of the most important carcass traits, and the corresponding confidence intervals were computed to make comparisons across dietary treatments. Carcass weight and midline backfat thickness averaged 137kg and 31mm, respectively, and were not affected by diets. Diets did not influence the weight of commercial cuts and their proportion on carcass weight, with the sole exception of loins. Pigs fed diets containing the 2 lowest CP content had a slight lower proportion of loins in the carcass compared with pigs fed the conventional CP diet (P<0.05). Most carcass traits were affected by sex and by sire effects, but interactions between diet and sex or sire was only episodic. Uniformity of carcass weight, backfat thickness, and weight of loins and dressed hams was not influenced by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, the content of CP, Lys, and other indispensable AA of conventional diets for finishing heavy pigs may be reduced by 20% without impairing the weight of carcass and primal cuts and the yields of dressed hams. This feeding strategy will contribute to the heavy pig industry by reducing feed costs (i.e., decreasing the dietary provision of soybean meal and crystalline AA) and minimizing the nitrogen excretion, without affecting carcass quality.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • A novel 12bp deletion in the ITGB5 gene is strongly associated with
           Escherichia coli F4ac adhesion and increased susceptibility to infection
           in pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172
      Author(s): Y. Liu , W.X. Fu , W.W. Wang , C.L. Zhou , X.D. Ding , Q. Zhang
      The bacterial strain enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing F4 fimbriae is the major pathogen causing potentially fatal diarrhoea in neonatal and recently-weaned piglets. Our previously published results from a genome wide association study (GWAS) of the pig genome identified a promising candidate gene (ITGB5) for predicting the susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection, the gene encoding the integrin beta 5 (ITGB5) receptor. We report here the assembly and cloning of the complete porcine ITGB5 gene based on the latest reference sequence for swine, as well as our results following analysis of the coding regions of ITGB5 from a sample of pigs that included both resistant and susceptible animals. We identified a novel 12bp deletion in the 5′ UTR region of the gene that correlates perfectly with increased ETEC F4ac adhesion in pig gut epithelial cells, in sample of 335 pigs from 3 different breeds. These results indicate that the ITGB5 gene is an important adhesion molecule for E. coli F4ac, and that the 12bp deletion could serve as a genetic marker for selecting against susceptible pigs in breeding programs.


      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 172




      PubDate: 2015-02-02T23:02:57Z
       
 
 
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