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Journal Cover Livestock Science
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   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Comparative study on feeding value of Moringa leaves as a partial
           replacement for alfalfa hay in ewes and goats
    • Authors: Elfadil E. Babiker; Fahad A.L. Juhaimi; Kashif Ghafoor; Khalid A. Abdoun
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 195
      Author(s): Elfadil E. Babiker, Fahad A.L. Juhaimi, Kashif Ghafoor, Khalid A. Abdoun
      A Comparative study on feeding value of Moringa leaves diet (MOD) as a partial replacement for alfalfa hay diet (AHD) in ewes and goats was carried out. Twenty animals from each group were used in a 6-week experiment. Each group of the animals was divided into two groups with 10 animals in each group and arranged in a replicated 2×2 crossover design. Differences in MOD value vs. AHD were analysed by using Student's t-tests. MOD had significantly (p≤0.05) higher ash, fat, nitrogen-free extracts, metabolizable energy, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than AHD. However, crude protein, fibre, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were significantly higher in AHD than MOD. Milk yield was significantly greater when goats and ewes were fed MOD than AHD. Feeding MOD to ewes and goats significantly affected milk composition with higher fat, lactose, and solid non-fat contents than AHD. Milk energy contents and outputs were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in ewes and goats fed MOD than AHD. Goats and ewes fed MOD had significantly lower malondialdehyde (MDA) in their milk and serum than that fed AHD. Catalase content in milk and serum of goats and ewes fed MOD was significantly (p≤0.05) higher than that of animals fed AHD. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and vitamin C were higher in milk and serum of goats and ewes fed MOD than that fed AHD. Lower cholesterol and glucose contents were noted in the serum of goats and ewes fed MOD. Average daily gain by kids and lambs was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in kids and lambs fed MOD than that fed AHD. Replacement of alfalfa with M. oleifera had a positive effect on milk yield, composition and quality of ewes and goats and growth performance of kids and lambs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds: I. Risk factors for abortion
    • Authors: Hamideh Keshavarzi; Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi; Anders Ringgaard Kristensen; Anna Helena Stygar
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 195
      Author(s): Hamideh Keshavarzi, Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Anders Ringgaard Kristensen, Anna Helena Stygar
      Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation is measured as number of 3-week periods in milk (3-WIM) and stage of pregnancy accordingly as number of 3-week periods in pregnancy. After removing the records with missing information, the analysis included 482,071 3-WIM records for 26,289 pregnant cows collected between 2005 and 2014. The investigated factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion was defined as fetal death or return to estrus after confirmed pregnancy between 63 and 252days in pregnancy. The overall rate of abortion, calculated as the number of aborted cows divided by the number of pregnant cows, was 15.4% ranging from 13.6% to 17.4% at herd level. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of abortion differs between herds. Furthermore, all other investigated factors interacted significantly with herd thus illustrating that the effects of risk factors also differ between herds. Other significant risk factors included parity (interacting with pregnancy stage, mastitis, lactation stage and previous abortion), calving month, mastitis (interacting with pregnancy stage), pregnancy stage (interacting with previous abortion and mastitis), lactation stage (interacting with mastitis) and previous abortion. Milk yield was not a significant risk factor for abortion, but due to significant interaction with mastitis it was kept in the final model. In general, it is concluded that inclusion of significant interactions in a risk factor analysis as the present is of paramount importance for a correct quantification of the risk factors for a cow with given characteristics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2016)
  • Recovered energy and efficiency of digestion in sheep and goats fed
           Atriplex nummularia compared to alfalfa hay
    • Authors: A.R. Askar; M.S. Nassar; H.S. Badawy; E.Y. Eid; J.A. Guada; M.F.A. Farid
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): A.R. Askar, M.S. Nassar, H.S. Badawy, E.Y. Eid, J.A. Guada, M.F.A. Farid
      An experiment was carried out to examine differences between sheep and goats in utilizing forages varying in feeding value. Twenty four non-lactating females (Age=3.5 years; Barki sheep, n=12 and Balady goats, n=12) were individually housed in 1.0×1.5m pens with sand floor for a 25-d period and then moved to metabolic cages. Animals of each species were offered either alfalfa hay or Atriplex nummularia foliage as sole diet for ad libitum consumption. Dry matter intake and digestibility were greater (P<0.001) for animals fed alfalfa hay than Atriplex nummularia. Intake of organic matter (g/kg metabolic body weight (BW0.75)/d) and gross energy (kJ/kg BW0.75/d) was greater (P<0.05) for goats than sheep. The significant interaction between forage type and animal species indicated that digestibility (%) of organic matter and energy was only greater for goats than sheep fed Atriplex nummularia, while no significant differences were observed between animal species when fed alfalfa hay. However, NDF digestibility was similar between both animal species fed either roughage. Energy expenditure (kJ/kg BW0.75/d) was similar between goats and sheep, and greater (P<0.001) for animals fed alfalfa hay than Atriplex nummularia. The significant interaction between forage type and animal species indicate that recovered energy (RE, kJ/kg BW0.75/d) was similar for both animal species when fed alfalfa hay, while it was greater for goats than sheep when fed Atriplex nummularia. It is concluded that apparent digestibility and RE were practically similar in sheep and goats when they consumed the high quality forage (i.e. Alfalfa), while low quality forage (i.e. Atriplex nummularia) was better utilized by goats than sheep.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T15:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Ninety one-days-old piglets recognize and remember a previous aversive
    • Authors: Roberta Sommavilla; Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto; Cristiane Goncalves Titto; Maria José Hötzel
      Pages: 7 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): Roberta Sommavilla, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto, Cristiane Goncalves Titto, Maria José Hötzel
      The aim of this study was to determine if 91 days-old piglets can remember a previous aversive handler after three weeks with no contact with this person. For this, 16 piglets from a group of 48 piglets were submitted to an aversive treatment from birth until 70 days of life, made by a woman wearing orange coveralls (AH). AH was noisy, moved harshly and shouted frequently. After day 70, piglets did not have any further contact with AH. At the same time, a new neutral treatment was introduced made by another person (NH – a woman wearing blue coveralls). NH used a soft tone of voice and was careful. The Human Approach Test was applied to measure the avoidance response of piglets to the approach of AH, NH and an unfamiliar handler (UH), at 35 days and at 91 days after birth. Scores ranged from 1 (experimenter could touch piglets) to 4 (piglets escaped as soon as the experimenter moves). On day 35, piglets kept more distance from AH then from the UH (2.37±0.33 and 1.69±0.22 respectively, P=0.04), indicating that they could recognize the aversive handler. On 91 days, piglets still kept more distance from AH then UH and NH (2.75±0.33; 1.31±0.15; 1.25±0.11 respectively, P<0.001), indicating that aversively treated piglets do not avoid an unfamiliar handler, but can remember an aversive handler with whom they had contact early in life. In conclusion, piglets tested at 35 and 91 days of age show different avoidance responses to different humans, according to the quality of their previous interactions. Moreover, they remember a previous aversive handler after at least three weeks with no contact.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T15:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • An investigation of risk factors for two successive cases of clinical
           mastitis in the same lactation
    • Authors: J.C.F. Pantoja; A.P. Almeida; B. dos Santos; R.S. Rossi
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): J.C.F. Pantoja, A.P. Almeida, B. dos Santos, R.S. Rossi
      The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the occurrence of two successive cases of clinical mastitis (CM). Two farms were visited monthly during 10 months. Milk samples were collected from all cases of CM that occurred during the study. Cows were observed prospectively from the beginning of the study and a case cow was defined when she experienced the second case of CM within the same lactation. For each case cow, 3 control cows matched by days in milk (DIM) were randomly selected from the cohort of cows who did not experience CM. On each visit day, a series of udder and teat characteristics were recorded during milking time: teat-end hyperkeratosis scoring, milking ease scoring, teat length and diameter, teat-to-ground distance, and udder position in relation to the hock. A total of 113 case cows and 324 control cows were used for analyses. The median time to occurrence of the first case of CM was 84 DIM and the median interval between the first and second cases of CM was 39 days. Of all second cases, 49.6% (N=55) occurred in the same mammary gland. Of these 55 cases, 29.1% had identical milk culture results from both first and second cases. Most cases of CM were caused by coliforms and environmental streptococci. Teat-to-ground distance, teat-end hyperkeratosis, udder position in relation to the hock, milking ease, parity, and milk production at the first test of lactation were individually associated with the occurrence of two successive cases of CM. Of all explanatory variables, 3 remained in the final multivariable model. The odds of two successive cases of CM were 3.7 times greater for cows who were “very easy to milk”, as compared with cows who were “difficult to milk”. Cows who had their udders below the hock, and those of parity >2 were 3.6 and 2.5 times more likely to experience two successive cases of CM, as compared with cows whose udder was positioned above the hock, and cows of parity 1, respectively. Findings of this study highlight the importance of teat and udder characteristics as risk factors for two successive cases of CM. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the role of the teat canal in preventing mastitis for modern cows that have been selected for increased milk production, shorter teats, and greater milk flow rates.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T15:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Impacts of dietary forage and crude protein levels on the shedding of
           Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria in dairy cattle feces
    • Authors: S. Biswas; M. Niu; J.A.D.R.N. Appuhamy; A.B. Leytem; R.S. Dungan; E. Kebreab; P. Pandey
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): S. Biswas, M. Niu, J.A.D.R.N. Appuhamy, A.B. Leytem, R.S. Dungan, E. Kebreab, P. Pandey
      The shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of ruminants and the consequential risk to the public and environmental health is well reported. However, the influence of dietary manipulation on the shedding of fecal bacteria is not well understood. This study was conducted to improve understanding of the relationship between dietary feed composition and shedding of E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria spp. in dairy feces. Twelve cows were randomly assigned to four treatment diets of two dietary forage levels: low forage (37.4% dry matter, DM) vs. high forage (53.3% of DM) and two dietary crude protein (CP) levels: low protein (15.2% of DM) vs. high protein (18.5% of DM) in a 4×4 replicated Latin square design with four periods each including a 14 d adaptation and 3 d sample collection periods. Generic E. coli was detected in some of the feed ingredients, such as cotton seed, alfalfa hay, almond, and CaCO3, while Listeria was detected in the alfalfa hay and mineral mix. A significant interaction effect was observed between dietary forage and CP on the presence of fecal E. coli O157:H7 (P=0.01) but not with Listeria. On average, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 level (6.6log10 CFU/g of feces) was observed from the high forage and high protein diet and the lowest level was 6.1log10 CFU/g from the low forage and high protein diet. The average Listeria shedding rate was within the range of 1.7–2.3log10 CFU/g among the dietary forage and CP treatments. For the CP treatments, significantly low levels of Listeria were observed from cows fed the high protein (0.9−1.6log10 CFU/g) compared to the low protein (1.3–2.1log10 CFU/g) diet. Considering temporal fluctuations, no significant diurnal pattern was observed for either E.coli O157:H7 or Listeria. In addition, no time of sampling over day by dietary forage or CP content interaction on fecal E.coli O157:H7 or Listeria level was observed. This study showed that diets can influence the shedding of potentially pathogenic bacteria in dairy cow excreta.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T15:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Prediction of desirable genotype patterns in Baladi beef cattle and water
           buffalo by identification of new leptin gene SNPs
    • Authors: M.A. Ghoneim; H.A. Ogaly; E.M. Gouda; A.M. El-Behairy
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 194
      Author(s): M.A. Ghoneim, H.A. Ogaly, E.M. Gouda, A.M. El-Behairy
      The leptin gene is considered to be an excellent candidate gene for predicting desirable economic traits in both beef and dairy cattle. Leptin gene polymorphism has been analyzed in different livestock species and the polymorphic pattern has been demonstrated to be associated with energy balance, milk production, live body weight and reproductive performance. The present study was designed to analyze genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of leptin gene in native beef cattle and water buffalo in comparison to Holstein cattle. A total number of 180 animals (60 animals of each breed) were used for blood sampling and DNA extraction. Target sites in leptin gene (first 94bp fragment of exon 2 and 330bp fragment including first part of exon 3) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two specific primers pairs. Genotyping for R25C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 2 was carried out using the Kpn21-RFLP method. Variations in the exon 3 coding sequence were investigated by PCR-SSCP analysis. Two alleles (C and T) were observed in exon 2 giving rise to three R25C variants (CC, CT and TT). The highest frequency in all populations was the homozygote genotype (CC) where it recorded 91.6%, 98.3% and 100% for Baladi cattle, Holstein cattle and buffalo, respectively. Four alleles (A, B, C and D) and six genotypes (AA, AB, BB, CC, DD and CD) were identified in all studied breeds upon exon 3 analysis. Genotype AA was found to be the most dominant in all studied breeds followed by genotype CC in Holstein and Baladi cattle but followed by AB genotype in buffalo. All observed and expected genotypes were found to be statistically significant (P≤0.05) when subjected to chi-square analysis. Two point mutations have been identified in the first part of exon 3 coding sequence (a3033>t and c3051>t) of Baladi cattle samples. Polymorphisms that were detected in this study indicated that these breeds have high genetic variability in the leptin gene. These results implicate the prospective use of leptin gene polymorphisms for association studies with different productive and reproductive performances and marker assisted selection (MAS).

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T07:30:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2015.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 194 (2016)
  • Effect of pomegranate seed oil as a source of conjugated linolenic acid on
           performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats
    • Authors: A. Emami; M.H. Fathi Nasri; M. Ganjkhanlou; L. Rashidi; A. Zali
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Emami, M.H. Fathi Nasri, M. Ganjkhanlou, L. Rashidi, A. zali
      The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil on lactational performance, ruminal fermentation parameters, nutrients digestibility and milk fatty acid (FA) content, particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) and vaccenic acid (VA) of dairy goats. Twenty-four Mahabadi goats in mid lactation were assigned to three dietary treatments: 1- control diet, basal diet without added oil (CON), 2- diet supplemented with 25g/kg pomegranate seed oil (PSO), and 3- diet supplemented with 25g/kg linseed oil (LSO), on a dry matter (DM) basis. Feed intake, milk yield and 4% fat-corrected milk yield were similar for goats fed different diets. Milk fat concentration (P< 0.01) and fat/ protein ratio (P< 0.0001) of goats fed PSO and LSO diets increased, while milk protein, lactose and solid not fat concentrations were not affected by diets (P> 0.05). Addition of vegetable oils to diet had no effect on apparent digestibility of nutrients and ruminal fermentation parameters (P> 0.05). The proportions of VA (P< 0.001) and C18:1 (trans−9 + trans−10, P< 0.01) acids were increased in milk fat from goats fed PSO and LSO diets compared with goats fed CON diet. The concentration of cis−9, trans−11 CLA (rumenic acid) increased with oil supplements (P< 0.0001) and was greatest for goats fed PSO diet. Compared with CON and LSO diets, feeding PSO diet increased cis−9, trans−11, cis−13 C18:3 CLnA (punicic acid) in milk fat (P< 0.0001). The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; P< 0.05), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; P< 0.0001) and n-3PUFA (P< 0.0001) increased and n−6/n−3 PUFA ratio (P< 0.0001) decreased with oil supplemented diets. In conclusion, feeding PSO and LSO to dairy goats was a useful way to increase milk fat, CLA, and VA content of milk and to reduce the n−6/n−3 PUFA ratio without negative effects on intake, milk yield, and nutrients digestibility.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T21:30:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • The role of the level of intensification, productive orientation and
           self-reliance in extensive beef cattle farms
    • Authors: A.J. Escribano; P. Gaspar; F.J. Mesías; M. Escribano
      Pages: 8 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.J. Escribano, P. Gaspar, F.J. Mesías, M. Escribano
      The identification of the livestock production systems (LPS) existing in a given area constitutes the first step to manage farms sustainably, since it improves the knowledge of its operation and subsequently allows for establishing the appropriate managerial strategies for each LPS. It is of great interest, as LPS are key for agro-ecosystem conservation and rural population in many areas. The present study was conducted in light of the importance of the beef cattle sector for one of the oldest and most heavily protected agroforestry systems (‘dehesa’, SW Spain and Portugal). A total of 63 beef cattle farms (including organic and conventional ones) were analysed from the structural and technical-economic points of view, aiming to: (i) improve the knowledge of the dehesa beef cattle sector; (ii) define specific managerial strategies tailored to each typology (LPS) in order to increase their sustainability as well as that of the dehesa ecosystem; (iii) clarify whether there is a relationship between the typologies obtained on the basis of technical-economic indicators and a previous classification of the farms based on their condition of being organic, and their productive and market orientation. For this purpose, the analysis paid special attention to the level of intensification, productive orientation (presence of a calf-finishing period) and self-reliance (related to their dependence on subsidies). The methodology yielded the following four typologies: (i) extensive farms selling at weaning with low productivity; (ii) extensive farms with low productivity and high dependence on subsidies; (iii) calf-finishing farms with average stocking rates and high profitability; (iv) irrigated farms with low presence of livestock, and high fixed capital and economic fluxes. In general terms, management and structure of dehesa beef cattle farms positioned them in a good place regarding CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) trends (mainly in terms of environmental protection). However, the farms studied must improve several aspects. Firstly, they need to increase their degree of self-reliance (reducing their dependence on external workforce and subsidies). Secondly, their productivity and economic performance must also be increased. The latter could be achieved by adding value to the products being sold, i.e. finishing more calves, developing new products and/or participating in marketing. Generally speaking, a close relationship between farm typologies and the previously established groups of farms (Conventional, Organic 1 and Organic 2) has not been observed. This was due to the similarities between organic and conventional farms in the context of the dehesas with regard to indicators used in the present study.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T21:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Efficacy of yeast derived glucomannan or algae-based antioxidant or both
           as feed additives to ameliorate mycotoxicosis in heat stressed and
           unstressed broiler chickens
    • Authors: C. Bortoluzzi; J.M. Schmidt; H.L.F. Bordignon; L.M. Fülber; J.R. Layter; J.I.M. Fernandes
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Bortoluzzi, J.M. Schmidt, H.L.F. Bordignon, L.M. Fülber, J.R. Layter, J.I.M. Fernandes
      Mycotoxin-contaminated corn may negatively affect the growth performance of broiler chickens, which led the feed industry to adopt strategies that could ameliorate the adverse effects of mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the dietary inclusion of an algae-based antioxidant and esterified glucomannan derived from yeast cell wall on broiler chickens affected by mycotoxicosis before and after the exposure to heat stress during the pre-slaughter period. 1,225 one-day old broiler chickens were allocated in 5 dietary treatments (7 replicates each): basal diet formulated with corn classified as uncontaminated (control, CON); basal diet formulated with corn naturally contaminated with mycotoxins (contaminated control, CC); CC + esterified glucomannan; CC + algae based-antioxidant; and CC + esterified glucomannan + algae based-antioxidant. From 42 to 44 d of age all of the remaining broiler chickens were subjected to pre-slaughter heat stress (48h at 32°C). The feed formulation with contaminated corn impaired the feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 0 to 42 d of age (P < 0.05), but the supplementation with antioxidant partially improved the FCR. The mycotoxins itself decreased the b⁎ value of the meat (P < 0.05), which may negatively be affected by other factors, such as pre-slaughter heat stress. High ambient temperature during the pre-slaughter period decreased the water loss after cooking, increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value, and decreased the pH value of the meat in all the times evaluated (0, 6, 12, and 18h after slaughter, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the classification of the corn was an effective strategy to reduce its amount of toxins, and the antioxidant supplementation partially improved the FCR in contaminated corn-fed broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T21:30:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Effects of dietary crude protein levels and exogenous protease on
           performance, nutrient digestibility, trypsin activity and intestinal
           morphology in broilers
    • Authors: X.M. Ding; D.D. Li; Z.R. Li; J.P. Wang; Q.F. Zeng; S.P. Bai; Z.W. Su; K.Y. Zhang
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): X.M. Ding, D.D. Li, Z.R. Li, J.P. Wang, Q.F. Zeng, S.P. Bai, Z.W. Su, K.Y. Zhang
      The experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenous protease in different crude protein (CP) level diets on performance, nutrient utilization, trypsin activity and intestinal morphology in broilers. A total of 1,080 1-d-old Arbor Acres (AA) male broilers were allocated into a 3 × 3 factorial design that included 3 CP levels (CP1, CP starter 21%, grower 19%; CP2, CP starter 20%, grower 18%; CP3, CP starter 19%, grower 17%) and 3 protease levels (0, 150, and 300mg/kg, enzyme activity unit 1 × 105 U/g) for 42 d (starter, d 1 to 21; grower, d 22 to 42). As CP was decreased on d 1 to 21 and from d 1 to 42, body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) of birds were reduced (P ≤ 0.05), whereas the ratio of feed to gain (F/G) was increased (P < 0.05). Protease supplementation significantly improved the F/G of 1 to 21-d-old broilers (P < 0.05), regardless of dietary protein level. The apparent CP digestibility of the CP3 diet was lower than that of the CP1 diet(P<0.05), and protease supplementation significantly improved CP digestibility (P<0.05). When CP levels decreased, the activity of trypsin in the pancreas and duodenum content was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and both the villus height and the villous height and the crypt depth ratio (VCR) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Supplementation with 300mg/kg of protease significantly increased the activity of trypsin in the pancreas (P<0.05) and 21 d villus height and VCR in the duodenum, jejunum (villus height), ileum (VCR). No interaction was observed among growth performance, nutrient digestibility, trypsin activity and the intestinal morphology of the broilers. These results suggest that supplementation with an exogenous protease enhanced endogenous trypsin activity and intestinal morphology regardless of CP levels, which resulted in improved CP digestibility during the starter period.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T21:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources – A New Tact
    • Authors: Samuel Rezende Paiva; Concepta M. McManus; Harvey Blackburn
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Samuel Rezende Paiva, Concepta M. McManus, Harvey Blackburn
      For the past 20 years countries have initiated programs to sustainably conserve farm animal genetic resources. At the same time the growing need for increased animal productivity has emerged. Viewing gene banks and in vivo conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product demand suggests the need for a more efficient use of these mechanisms to support sustainable productivity. Some advances have been made in developing and implementing in-vivo conservation programs, but those efforts appear to be predicated upon various types of government subsidies, which are subject, for example, to policy changes, and their growth has been limited. Given the in-vivo situation, it is suggested conservation efforts shift toward gene banks as the primary conservation mechanism. Globally, national gene banking efforts have increased and they have the capacity and potential to become more dynamic, incorporate different biological materials and facilitate increased use of genetic diversity. The next steps for gene banks are to better utilize information systems to integrate and store data from genetic/genomic assessments, cryopreservation, phenotypes and environmental conditions. These types of benefits plus the reduced conservation costs gene banks can speed the rate of conserving breeds while freeing the livestock sector to increase productivity with the breeds of their choosing.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T09:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • 12S rRNA mitochondrial gene as marker to trace Sicilian mono-species dairy
    • Authors: Lina Tortorici; Rosalia Di Gerlando; Marco Tolone; Salvatore Mastrangelo; Maria Teresa Sardina
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 193
      Author(s): Lina Tortorici, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Marco Tolone, Salvatore Mastrangelo, Maria Teresa Sardina
      For a rapid, specific and sensitive identification of cows', ewes' and goats' milk in mono-species Sicilian dairy products, species-specific duplex-PCR protocol was applied. DNA samples from blood and experimental cheeses of Sicilian autochthonous breeds were extracted to amplify the 12S rRNA (and part of 16S rRNA in case of Ovis aries) mitochondrial species-specific gene fragment. The use of species-specific primers for Bos taurus, Capra hircus and Ovis aries species, after electrophoresis on agarose gel, yielded fragments of 256bp, 326bp and 172bp, respectively. Amplification by duplex-PCR of DNA pools from two species showed detection thresholds of 0.1% of “contaminant” DNA in each mixture. Finally, duplex-PCR assay was applied to experimental cheeses in order to detect the minimum threshold of DNA belonging to one species in cheese made with milk of two species. The results showed a sensitive threshold of 0.1% of ewes' milk in cows' and goats' cheeses, 0.1% of cows' milk in ewes' and goats' cheeses, and finally 0.1% of goats' milk in cows' and ewes' cheeses. The proposed assay represents a rapid and straightforward method of species traceability for the detections of adulteration in Sicilian mono-species dairy products.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Methane emissions by beef cattle consuming hay of varying quality in the
           dry forest ecosystem of Costa Rica
    • Authors: J. Montenegro; E. Barrantes; N. DiLorenzo
      Pages: 45 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J. Montenegro, E. Barrantes, N. DiLorenzo
      In livestock production systems, methane (CH4) is produced and released during the digestive process, representing a loss of energy that can be as high as 12% of total intake. In Costa Rica there are not actual in vivo measurements of methane produced from enteric fermentation in the livestock sector. This research represents the first effort to quantify the CH4 emitted by growing beef steers fed three different diets during the dry season in the Dry Tropics ecosystem of Costa Rica, using the SF6 tracer technique. Three diets were evaluated, all of them offered at libitum: 1) Good quality hay of transvala (Digitaria decumbens; GOOD). 2) Low quality Brachiaria tanner hay (POOR). 3) Low quality hay (B. tanner) plus a supplement of 1kg/d of sugar cane molasses mixed with 46g/d of urea (POOR+MU). Nine Brahman steers (329 ± 38kg of body weight) were utilized in a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square for a total of 9 replicates/treatment. Variables measured were in vivo CH4 emissions, feed intake, and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients using indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) as an internal indigestible marker. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater in GOOD (7.9kg/d) compared to the remaining two diets (3.6 and 4.2kg/d for POOR and POOR+MU, respectively). Enteric CH4 emission (g/d) was similar (P > 0.05) for POOR (110.4) and POOR+MU (125.8) but lower (P < 0.0001) than that of GOOD (181.5); when the methane emitted was reported as g of CH4/kg of DMI, greatest (P < 0.0001) emissions were detected with POOR (31.0) and POOR+MU (29.8), and lesser in diet 1 (23.0 ± 1.9). Estimated methane yield (Ym) for GOOD (6.9) was similar to that suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); however, greater values than those reported by the IPCC were obtained for POOR (9.3) and POOR+MU (9.0). In conclusion, CH4 emitted by growing Brahman steers fed hay of varying quality was closely related to daily DMI. Furthermore, when CH4 emission was expressed per unit of DMI, poor quality hay increased emissions intensity, regardless of supplementation with urea and molasses. Supplementing poor quality B. tanner hay with urea and molasses increased hay digestibility but did not alter methane emissions. Feeding good quality D. decumbens hay decreased CH4 emissions (in g/kg of DMI) by 30% relative to those by steers receiving poor quality B. tanner hay during the dry season in Costa Rica.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T21:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • The performance and behaviour of gilts and their piglets is influenced by
           whether they were born and reared in farrowing crates or farrowing pens
    • Authors: Kirsty L. Chidgey; Patrick C.H. Morel; Kevin J. Stafford; Ian W. Barugh
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kirsty L. Chidgey, Patrick C.H. Morel, Kevin J. Stafford, Ian W. Barugh
      The level of maternal care experienced by offspring in early life may influence their future behaviour. If maternal behaviour is influenced by the level of mother-young interaction in early life, this may persist in subsequent generations through altered maternal behaviour of female offspring. In the present study, post-farrowing behaviour of gilts and their piglets was observed in a crossover experiment. Gilts were born and reared in a farrowing crate (C) or in a pen with temporary confinement (P); and were observed after they farrowed in a crate or a pen with temporary confinement. Hence there were four experimental groups: CC (born and reared in a crate, farrowed in a crate, N = 8), CP (born and reared in a crate, farrowed in a pen, N = 6), PC (born and reared in a pen, farrowed in a crate N = 5), and PP (born and reared in a pen, farrowed in a pen, N = 8). Gilts and their piglets were observed for the first three days post-farrowing whilst they were all confined in crates. There were no differences between groups for total born, born alive, weaned per litter, or piglet mortality. Gilts in the PP group interacted more with neighbouring gilts/sows than any other (P < 0.05). Gilts born and reared in pens touched their piglets more (P born = 0.02) and vocalised more towards their piglets (P born = 0.01) than gilts born and reared in farrowing crates. Piglets born to PP gilts spent more time active in the creep area compared to all other groups (P < 0.05). The current study demonstrated that the performance of some piglet-directed behaviour was influenced by the system in which a gilt was born and reared.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Analysis of glucose metabolization capability and breeding value of
           Holstein sires
    • Authors: L. Hanusova; M. Brzakova; A. Mikova; L. Vecerek; B. Hosnedlova; L. Tothova; J. Citek
      Pages: 92 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L. Hanusova, M. Brzakova, A. Mikova, L. Vecerek, B. Hosnedlova, L. Tothova, J. Citek
      The associations between the ability to metabolize glucose measured by the glucose tolerance test (GTT) and the estimated breeding values (EBVs) for milk performance in German Holstein sires were evaluated. The German Holstein sires born 1993 (n=43), 1998 (n=98), 1999 (n=104), 2000 (n=96), 2001 (n=91), 2002 (n=82), and 2003 (n=28) were analysed. The EBVs were taken from Vereinigte Informationssysteme Tierhaltung Verden. Statistical analyses were performed by General Linear Model and MIXED procedures, and phenotypic correlations among GTT and EBVs for milk performance were computed by the Pearson correlations. The sires born in 1993 had some significant (P<0.01) negative correlations between the milk yield and GTT, similarly for protein yield, but the majority of the correlations were non-significant (P>0.05). For the sires born in 1998–2003, the same correlation analysis resulted in non-significant and very low coefficients, few significant (P<0.05) correlations were found only for protein yield in year of birth 2000, protein percentage in year 2003, and for fat percentage and yield in year of birth 2002. GTT may be helpful for studying the metabolic capacity of dairy cattle; however, the possible use of GTT in breeding value prediction must be again clarified.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Veterinary perspectives on cattle welfare challenges and solutions
    • Authors: B.A. Ventura; D.M. Weary; A.S. Giovanetti; M.A.G. von Keyserlingk
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): B.A. Ventura, D.M. Weary, A.S. Giovanetti, M.A.G. von Keyserlingk
      Livestock veterinarians have important roles in advancing animal welfare on farms. In the present study, focus groups were used to engage dairy and beef cattle veterinarians and veterinary researchers based primarily in Europe. Discussions were structured to elicit perceptions of welfare issues on cattle farms, as well as the challenges and desired solutions for change. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and content analysis was used to identify participants’ views on animal welfare challenges and solutions. Participants held multi-dimensional conceptions of animal welfare that included animal health, pain and distress, and behaviour. When asked to discuss animal welfare challenges, participants focused on five primary themes: animal welfare definition and assessment, economic barriers, and farmer, veterinarian, and researcher-related challenges. Participants envisioned the following overarching solutions: 1) research to develop better animal welfare assessment, 2) motivating increased adherence to standards via either voluntary incentives or mandatory regulations, and 3) increased communication linkages between stakeholders, primarily in the form of education to farmers and veterinarians.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Factors influencing estimates of heat energy associated with activity by
           grazing meat goats
    • Authors: M.-E. Brassard; R. Puchala; T.A. Gipson; T. Sahlu; A.L. Goetsch
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 193
      Author(s): M.-E. Brassard, R. Puchala, T.A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, A.L. Goetsch
      Ten yearling Boer goat wethers (45.4±0.92kg) grazed a 0.8-ha grass pasture or were individually confined in a crossover experiment with 3-wk periods to evaluate factors influencing heat energy (HE) associated with activity (AEC) when grazing and to evaluate different methods of estimating the AEC. Fresh forage offered to confined wethers was 15.9% and 13.4% CP and 65.0% and 67.4% NDF in periods 1 and 2, respectively. Based on forage and fecal acid detergent insoluble ash, digestibility of gross energy in forage by confined wethers averaged 67.9% and 56.5% in periods 1 and 2, respectively. From these values and fecal DM, least squares means of ME intake were 405 and 484kJ/kg BW0.75 for confined and grazing wethers, respectively (SE =15.4). HE determined from heart rate (HR) measured over 1d and the ratio of HE to HR estimated earlier was less (P<0.001) for confined than for grazing wethers (482 and 642kJ/kg BW0.75; SE =17.2). The AEC estimated by subtraction from HE of ME required for maintenance (MEm; 427kJ/kg BW0.75), HE expended for tissue energy gain based on recovered energy (RE) when greater than 0, an efficiency of ME use for gain (i.e., [0.0423× forage ME in MJ/kg DM] +0.006; 0.40±0.009), and the same efficiency of use for maintenance (km; [0.019× forage ME in MJ/kg DM] +0.503; 0.68±0.004) of energy from forage and mobilized tissue with RE less than 0 was 39 and 213kJ/kg BW0.75 for confined and grazing wethers, respectively (SE =21.9; Partitioning approach). The AEC determined as the difference between HE by grazing and confined wethers was 165±19.3kJ/kg BW0.75 (Confinement approach), and that based on time spent in different activities (i.e., lying, standing, grazing, and walking) multiplied by corresponding HE and assuming that AEC resulted from HE when standing, grazing, and walking was 46±4.85kJ/kg BW0.75 (Lying approach). In conclusion, method of estimation can have marked impact on the AEC, with a relatively low value for the Lying method because of lower HE while lying when confined than on pasture. Determining the AEC by the Confinement approach relies on similar conditions to minimize confounding, and the Partitioning method is influenced by specific assumptions of energy requirements and efficiencies of use for different physiological functions.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T14:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and/or probiotic Enterococcus faecium as a
           feed supplement for piglets
    • Authors: E. Hanczakowska; M. Świątkiewicz; M. Natonek-Wiśniewska; K. Okoń
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): E. Hanczakowska, M. Świątkiewicz, M. Natonek Wiśniewska, K. Okoń
      The effect of supplements of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and/or probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on piglet performance, intestine structure, and microbiology was estimated on 271 piglets (24 litters) of Polish Landrace. Piglets were allocated to three groups with eight litters in each, kept in group pens, and fed the standard feed mixture (negative control, group I). The same mixture supplemented with 0.3% of caprylic (octanoic—C8) or 0.3% of capric (decanoic—C10) acids was given to groups II and III, respectively. In each group, half the animals received Cylactin® added in the amount of 0.35 × 109 CFU per kg feed. The feed and water were available ad libitum. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of life. At 60 days of life, 6 piglets from each subgroup were slaughtered and their intestines were investigated. Digesta from digestive tract was removed and the length and weight of particular parts of intestines were measured. The structure of the ileum mucosal epithelium was examined. Acidity of digesta and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content of chyme from jejunum and cecum were analyzed. Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens counts in these parts of intestines were also estimated. Capric acid improved piglet body weight gain after the 28th day of life. Probiotic lowered the weight gain from 28th to 56th day but increased it later. There was no difference in feed intake, and feed utilization was improved only by probiotic in the last period of the experiment. Probiotic increased pH in the small intestine and colon and significantly increased the amount of acetic acid in cecum. Capric acid reduced the total length of the intestines. Probiotic had no effect on intestines’ mass and length, but it increased villi width and crypt depth in the epithelium of small intestine. MCFA had no effect on these qualities. Both supplements had strong antibacterial activity: acids against E. coli and probiotic against C. perfringens.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Effect of crude glycerine in supplement on the intake, rumen fermentation,
           and microbial profile of Nellore steers grazing tropical grass
    • Authors: Elias San Vito; Juliana D. Messana; Pablo S. Castagnino; Yury T. Granja-Salcedo; Erick E. Dallantonia; Telma T. Berchielli
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Elias San Vito, Juliana D. Messana, Pablo S. Castagnino, Yury T. Granja-Salcedo, Erick E. Dallantonia, Telma T. Berchielli
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine (CG) inclusion in feed supplement (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280g/kg DM basis of supplement) on the forage intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation parameters, kinetics of fibre degradation, and rumen microbial profile of Nellore steers grazing on tropical grass. Ten ruminally cannulated Nellore steers [490kg ± 47 body weight (BW)] were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Steers were individually supplemented at the rate of 300g/100kg of BW. Inclusion of CG in the supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) dry matter intake, apparent total tract digestibility, ruminal pH (P = 0.784) or total ruminal VFA (P = 0.291), but linearly decreased the NH3-N concentration (P = 0.021). The inclusion of CG in the supplement linearly increased (P < 0.001) the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate; linearly decreased the acetate (P = 0.007) concentration, thus reducing the acetate to propionate ratio (P < 0.001); and did not affect the molar proportions of propionate and isobutyrate. Inclusion of GC had a quadratic effect (P = 0.010) on the in situ potential degradable fraction of NDF and rate of fibre degradation (P = 0.006). Addition of CG linearly decreased the number of protozoa of the genera Entodinium (P = 0.015) and Isotricha (P = 0.058) and the relative proportions of Ruminococcus albus (P = 0.047) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in the rumen (P = 0.036), but did not affect Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.420) or the methanogens (P = 0.150). The inclusion of CG in the supplement up to 280g/kg DM altered ruminal fermentation and negatively affected in situ fibre degradation and the gram-positive cellulolytic bacterial population, but did not affect intake and apparent total tract digestibility for Nellore steers grazing tropical grass.

      PubDate: 2016-08-19T16:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Changes in body weight and fatness of sows during reproductive activity
           depending on LEPR and MC4R genes polymorphism
    • Authors: Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza; Katarzyna Ropka-Molik; Katarzyna Piórkowska
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna Piórkowska
      The use of genetic markers in selection of maternal breed gilts for reduced feed intake and fatness of pigs, may impact on their reproductive performance in subsequent breeding. The objective of the study was to analyse changes, over three consecutive lactations, in condition (body weight and fatness) and reproductive performance of Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) sows of known genotype at leptin receptor (LEPR) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) loci. The study involved 58 PLW and 65 PL gilts. Gilts and subsequently sows were monitored for body weight (BW) and backfat thickness (P2) over three reproductive cycles, and their litters were analysed for the number and body weight of the piglets. A total of 168 litters of PLW pigs and 186 litters of PL pigs were evaluated. It is concluded that over the three reproductive cycles, PLW sows exhibited higher weight gains and lower fatness compared to PL sows. The interaction between LEPR and MC4R genes had a significant effect on changes in body weight of the gilts, subsequently on changes in the condition of sows (BW and P2) during consecutive reproductive cycles, and on the average weight of piglets born. Heterozygous sows of LEPR AB /MC4R AG genotype were characterized during that time by the highest weight gains and backfat thickness at P2, and their the piglets born had low birth weight. Over the three reproductive cycles, sows of LEPR AA /MC4R GG and LEPR AB /MC4R GG genotypes produced piglets with significantly higher birth weight compared to sows of LEPR AB /MC4R AG , LEPR BB /MC4R AA and LEPR BB /MC4R GG genotypes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T19:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Management routines influencing piglet survival in loose-housed sow herds
    • Authors: Ellen Marie Rosvold; Camilla Kielland; Marko Ocepek; Tore Framstad; Bente Fredriksen; Ina Andersen-Ranberg; Geir Næss; Inger Lise Andersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ellen Marie Rosvold, Camilla Kielland, Marko Ocepek, Tore Framstad, Bente Fredriksen, Ina Andersen-Ranberg, Geir Næss, Inger Lise Andersen
      Piglet mortality is still a significant welfare and ethical matter in pig production, as well as an economical challenge for the farmer. Most of the mortality occurs early after farrowing, and previous studies have shown that the farm's management routines, especially around farrowing, are important factors to reduce it. When sows are loose-housed at farrowing and in the following lactation period, it puts higher demands on management input from the farmer to keep piglet mortality low. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of different management routines around the time of farrowing, and other farm qualities for piglet survival in loose-housed herds. To study risk factors for herd piglet mortality, a cross-sectional field survey was carried out in Norway in the year 2013, and included 52 commercial herds with hybrid LY sows (Norwegian Landrace x Swedish Yorkshire). The farms were visited once, and the farmers answered a questionnaire about their management practices. The outcome was the average herd pre-weaning mortality in the years of 2012–2013. To include as many management factors as possible into the multivariable linear regression model, we generated a new variable based on 4 management routines: 3 routines at farrowing (presence at 80–100% of the farrowings, drying newborn piglets, and practice split suckling), and one concerning farmer´s contact with the sows. This variable was called “Management type” (M), and were divided into 4 categories with increasing effort; M1 herds without any of the 4 mentioned routines, M2 had contact with sows >2 times per day, M3 performed the 3 routines at farrowing, and M4 combined the high sow contact and the 3 routines. The predicted values of mean herd piglet mortality for M1, M2, M3 and M4 were 20.1%, 17.0%, 16.2% and 13.3% respectively. The farmer's increased management effort was associated with lower piglet mortality (P<0.05). The farmer's effort at critical times together with systematic and important routines, and having frequent contact with the sows, makes a huge difference for piglet survival. The farmers are credited for this work by having lower piglet mortality as a result.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.12.001
  • Effect of Bacillus subtilis supplementation and dietary crude protein
           level on growth performance and intestinal morphological changes of meat
           type chicken
    • Authors: K.Z. Mahmoud; B.S. Obeidat; M.Z. Al-Sadi; Sh.R. Hatahet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): K.Z. Mahmoud, B.S. Obeidat, M.Z. Al-Sadi, Sh.R. Hatahet
      A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic to decrease crude protein (CP) requirement of broiler chicks. Growth performance, carcass, and meat quality characteristics, digestive tract development and ileal digestibility of CP were investigated using a total of 720 one-day-old commercial mixed sex broiler chicks. The recommended CP (CP100) or 2% below the recommended CP (CP98) were tested in the presence or absence of 0.2g/kg of B. subtilis (0.8×109 cfu/g) in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design. Broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 30 broiler chicks per pen. Basal diets of starter, grower, and finisher were formulated according to the recommendations for commercial broiler chicks. Bacillus subtilis supplementation did not affect growth performance of broiler chicks. However, dietary CP level decreased (P<0.05) body weight gain and feed efficiency. Broiler chicks supplemented with B. subtilis had a greater (P<0.05) fillet weight with no differences observed for other carcass characteristic measurements. Adding B. subtilis had no effect on the meat quality measurements; however, dietary CP reduced (P<0.05) meat water holding capacity. Also, B. subtilis deepened (P<0.05) jejunum crypts and improved (P<0.05) ileal CP digestibility. The results obtained from this study have enough evidence to assume that B. subtilis supplementation had beneficial effect on jejunum morphology and can reduce the adverse effect of dietary CP reduction. It may be concluded that the alteration in gastrointestinal morphological characters because of probiotic use was positively reflected on better CP ileal digestibility and the improved feed efficiency.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.015
  • Overview of conjugated linoleic acid formation and accumulation in animal
    • Authors: Sun Jin Hur; Hyeong Sang Kim; Young Yil Bahk; Yeonhwa Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sun Jin Hur, Hyeong Sang Kim, Young Yil Bahk, Yeonhwa Park
      In this review, we provide an overview of the methods used to enhance conjugate linoleic acid (CLA) in animal products and the mechanisms through which CLA is synthesized or accumulated in animal products. Linoleic acid is the key precursor of CLA; thus, CLA can be synthesized through conversion of linoleic acid by ruminal bacteria (Propionibacterium) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) with biohydrogenation. Accordingly, it is possible to increase the CLA concentrations in meat, milk, or eggs from animals through feeding of a polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich diet, e.g., a diet containing linoleic acid. Dietary green grass enhances the growth of specific rumen bacteria that are responsible for the synthesis of CLA in animals. CLA or linoleic acid intake increases CLA concentration in dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt. In order to increase CLA status in humans, probiotic bacteria that can be used to convert dietary linoleic acid to CLA. However, it is unclear how much CLA needs to be consumed to have appropriate benefit on human health. Thus, future research is needed to establish methods for controlling the amounts of CLA and CLA isomers in animal products and to determine the exact mechanisms of CLA consumption on human health.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:01:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.016
  • Effect of different early weaning regimens for calves on adipogenic gene
           expression in Hanwoo loin at the fattening stage
    • Authors: Kondreddy Eswar Reddy; JinYoung Jeong; Sung Dae Lee; Youl-Chang Baek; YoungKyun Oh; Minseok Kim; Kyung Min So; Dong Woon Kim; jae Hwan Kim; Sungkwon Park; Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, JinYoung Jeong, Sung Dae Lee, Youl-Chang Baek, YoungKyun Oh, Minseok Kim, Kyung Min So, Dong Woon Kim, jae Hwan Kim, Sungkwon Park, Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Early weaning (EW) of calves using a high energy diet to encourage a higher carcass yield through early postnatal metabolic imprinting events may be used as a feeding strategy to improve beef quality. To better understand the importance of nutritional feeding in EW calves, 2-week-old Korean calves were fed with different diets for 10 weeks. After this period, all calves were fed with the same diet for 22 months and then biopsied. We used the RNA-seq technique to investigate the genes and gene networks involved in these treatments. A total of 32,226 fragments were sequenced among the treatments. Overall, 102, 181, and 191 genes showing differential expression levels for T1 (milk replacement + concentrate), T2 (milk replacement + concentrate + roughages), and T3 (milk replacement + concentrate + 30% starch) treatments were identified, respectively (FDR < 0.05). In GO enrichment analysis, many biological pathways, including cellular processes, biological regulation, and metabolic processes, were found to be significantly enriched with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in groups T2 and T3. Many DEGs from T2 and T3 groups were highly enriched in various gene ontology terms related to developmental processes. KEGG pathway analysis found the following: T2 showed changes in the PPAR signaling pathway, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and WNT signaling pathway, whereas T3 showed changes in the tight junction, insulin signaling, mTOR signaling, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathways, with both groups showing changes in the adipocytokine signaling pathway. A group of 10 genes strongly associated with adipogenesis and muscle development showed greatly different expression in qRT-PCR, particularly in the T2 and T3 dietary groups. The results suggested that feeding concentrate and roughages (T2) as well as a high starch diet (T3) after EW enhanced the fat content in loin muscle. These results allowed us to identify the nutrition metabolic imprinting effects that cause energy utilization and fat accumulation in loin muscle and give valuable information about the importance of nutrition in the EW stage of calves.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T07:30:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.014
  • Evidence for gene-gene epistatic interactions between susceptibility genes
           for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle
    • Authors: Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga; Patricia Vázquez; Mikel Iriondo; Carmen Manzano; Mikel Aguirre; Joseba M. Garrido; Ramon A. Juste; Andone Estonba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga, Patricia Vázquez, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano, Mikel Aguirre, Joseba M. Garrido, Ramon A. Juste, Andone Estonba
      Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), with a particularly negative impact on the economy of the dairy industry. In recent years, several whole genome and candidate gene association studies have been published reporting MAP susceptibility genes, but the putative interaction between them remains unknown. Here, twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine SLC11A1, NOD2, SP110, TLR2, TLR4, and CD209 genes, previously related with paratuberculosis disease, have been analyzed. Several significant (P < 0.05) pair-wise genetic interactions were detected: CD209-TLR4, CD209-TLR2, TLR4-TLR2, SP110-SLC11A1, SP110-TLR2, and SP110-NOD2. The statistical interaction described here between bovine CD209 and TLR4 genes may be indicative of the biological interaction between their protein products upon infection by mycobacteria, as has been reported to occur in humans. Overall, this is the first evidence of epistasis among bovine innate immunity genes affecting susceptibility to MAP infection, corroborating, in turn, their implication in the disease.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.012
  • Effects of early intervention with sodium butyrate on lipid
           metabolism-related gene expression and liver metabolite profiles in
           neonatal piglets
    • Authors: Ren Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Yu, E. Ren, J. Xu, Y. Su, W. Zhu
      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of early intervention with sodium butyrate on the lipid metabolism and liver metabolite profiles in neonatal piglets. Ten litters of newborn crossbred Duroc × Landrace × Large White piglets were randomly assigned to the control or sodium butyrate treatment with 5 litters per treatment. Piglets in the sodium butyrate treatment were orally administered with 7 to 13mL sodium butyrate solution (150mmol/L) per day from d 0 to 6, whereas the piglets in the control treatment were treated with the same dose of physiological saline. At the age of 7 and 21 d, 1 piglet from each litter was sacrificed. The liver, backfat, and loin muscle of piglets were collected for gene expression or metabolome analysis. The results showed that sodium butyrate treatment had no effect on the growth performance of piglets. Sodium butyrate decreased the concentration of cholesterol (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.079) in the serum on d 7, while there was no difference in serum metabolites between 2 treatments on d 21. Real-time PCR assay showed that sodium butyrate down-regulated the mRNA expression of lipogentic genes sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthetize in the liver on d 7 (P < 0.05). Adipocyte markers leptin, fatty acid binding protein 4, and peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor γ expression in backfat were up-regulated (P < 0.05) by sodium butyrate treatment on d 7. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed that sodium butyrate mainly affected liver glycolysis metabolism and gluconeogenesis metabolism of piglets on d 7 and 21. These results indicate that early oral administration of sodium butyrate could change the lipid metabolism by decreasing fatty acid synthesis, and modulate hepatic metabolite profiles.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
  • Energy and protein requirements for Angus and Nellore young bulls
    • Authors: Rafael Aparecido Gomes; Karina Costa Busato; Marcio Machado Ladeira; Kristen A. Johnson; Matheus Castilho Galvão; Aline Castro Rodrigues; Mario Luiz Chizzotti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Rafael Aparecido Gomes, Karina Costa Busato, Marcio Machado Ladeira, Kristen A. Johnson, Matheus Castilho Galvão, Aline Castro Rodrigues, Mario Luiz Chizzotti
      Thirty-two animals with initial body weight (BW) of 380±5.2 kg were used to determine energy and protein requirements of Nellore and Angus young bulls using the comparative slaughter technique. Four animals per breed were slaughtered at beginning of the experiment. The remainder were housed in individual stalls, where eight animals per breed were fed ad libitum a silage/concentrate (SC) diet (300 g/kg of silage and 700 g/kg of a concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, DM basis). Another 4 animals per breed were fed the SC diet at 55% of their dry matter intake adjusted for the metabolic BW of animals that received the SC diet ad libitum. Intake was measured daily and a metabolism trial was conducted with total collection of feces and urine. The data were used then to estimate the metabolizable energy intake. After 84 d of growth the cattle were slaughtered.The data were analyzed using the GLM and NLIN procedures of SAS adopting significance level of 0.05. The metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance differed between Angus and Nellore: 0.580 versus 0.456 MJ/kg BW0.75•d-1 when calculated by logarithm model and 0.559 versus 0.483 MJ/kg BW0.75•d-1 when calculated by nonlinear model. There was no difference between breeds in the nutritional requirements for growth. Our results support that Zebu bulls have lower net energy requirements for maintenance than Bos taurus taurus bulls.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T16:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.011
  • Increase in dietary arginine level could ameliorate detrimental impacts of
           coccidial infection in broiler chickens
    • Authors: M. Laika; R. Jahanian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Laika, R. Jahanian
      The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Arg on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and morphological indices of jejunal epithelial cells in coccidia-challenged broiler chickens. A total of 288 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly distributed among 3 experimental treatments with 8 replicate pens of 12 broiler chickens each. Experimental treatments consisted of the graded levels of dietary Arg (100, 105, and 110% of the standard recommendations during different growth periods). From 16 to 20 d of age, half of the replicate pens of each dietary Arg level were orally challenged with a mixture of Eimeria species (acervulina, tenella, maxima, and necatrix). Results showed that dietary Arg had no marked effect on average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain (ADG) during the starter (0 to 14 d of age) and grower (14 to 28 d of age) periods. Although ADFI wasn’t affected by coccidial challenge, ADG of Eimeria-challenged broiler chickens were lower (P < 0.05) than those of uninfected ones during both grower and finisher periods. Dietary supplementation of 105 and 110% of Arg, however, prevented depressed ADG in coccidia-infected broiler chickens during the finisher period (28 to 42 d of age) compared with 100% of Arg (Arg × coccidiosis, P < 0.05). Coccidial challenge increased (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio (FCR), while 110% of Arg supplementation improved (P < 0.05) FCR values during both grower and finisher periods. Although coccidial challenge increased FCR value in control broiler chickens (100% of Arg), dietary Arg supplementation of 105 and 110% improved FCR values during the grower period, resulted in an Arg × coccidiosis interaction (P < 0.01). Subjecting the broiler chickens to coccidiosis reduced liver weight (P < 0.001) and carcass yield (P < 0.05). Dietary Arg supplementation increased (P < 0.001) villi height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio. On the other hand, both VH and VH to CD ratio were decreased (P < 0.001) in coccidial-infected broiler chickens. Although subjecting the broiler chickens to coccidiosis increased (P < 0.001) muscular layer thickness (MLT) of jejunum, supplemental Arg of 110% resulted in a decrease (P < 0.01) in jejunal MLT. In addition, supplemental Arg reduced (P < 0.05) fecal oocyst count, with the lowest count assigned to the broiler chickens fed 110% of Arg. Dietary Arg supplementation of 110% improved morphological indices in coccidia-challenged broiler chickens, while it had no obvious impact in untreated ones, resulted in the Arg × coccidiosis interactions (P < 0.05). The present findings showed that supplementing the diets with Arg above the recommended values could ameliorate negative effects of Eimeria on growth performance and morphological indices of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.002
  • Effect of swine based probiotic on performance, diarrhoea scores,
           intestinal microbiota and gut health of grower-finisher crossbred pigs
    • Authors: Runjun Dowarah; A.K. Verma; Neeta Agrawal; B.H.M. Patel; P. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Runjun Dowarah, A.K. Verma, Neeta Agrawal, B.H.M. Patel, P. Singh
      The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of host specific probiotic on growth performance, diarrhoea scores, intestinal microbiota and gut health of grower-finisher pigs. A feeding trial (180 days) was carried out with 36 early weaned piglets (28 days) divided into three dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., T0 (basal diet alone, control), T1 (basal diet + probiotic of dairy origin, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC-15) and T2 (basal diet + probiotic of swine origin, Pediococcus acidilactici strain FT28). The probiotics were fed as fermented feed @ 200g/pig/day. At the end of the trial, six pigs from each group were sacrificed to determine the intestinal morphology. Daily feeding of probiotics from weaning to market age showed positive (P<0.05) impact on average daily gain (ADG), average dry matter intake (ADMI) and gain: feed ratio (G: F). The fecal count of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria were increased (P<0.001), whereas, E. coli and clostridia population decreased (P<0.001) in both probiotics fed groups compared to control. The lactic acid concentration in feces was highest (P=0.003) in T2 group; whereas, ammonia nitrogen and pH were observed to be lower (P<0.05) in treatment (T1 and T2) groups compared to control. Probiotic supplementation (dairy and swine origin) lowered (P<0.05) diarrhoea scores after weaning, however P. acidilactici strain FT28 was more effective in decreasing (P<0.05) diarrhoea scores than L. acidophilus NCDC-15. The villi height (V) and crypt depth (C) was increased (P<0.05) with decreased (P<0.05) V: C ratio in both probiotic fed groups. In conclusion, probiotics supplementation in basal diet improved growth performance, fecal microbial count and intestinal morphology in grower-finisher pigs. Whereas, P. acidilactici strain FT28 was more effective in reducing diarrhoea scores and maintaining acidic environment of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) indicating a synergistic probiotic effect along with gut microbiota for promotion of gut health of the animal.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.006
  • Review: The mechanism of blood coagulation, its disorders and measurement
           in poultry
    • Authors: M. Buzala; A. Słomka; B. Janicki; M.B. Ponczek; E. Żekanowska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Buzala, A. Słomka, B. Janicki, M.B. Ponczek, E. Żekanowska
      Intensive genetic selection has improved productive traits in poultry and contributed to changes in systemic metabolism; however, their blood coagulation processes have received little study. The precise physiological mechanisms of haemostasis in birds remain poorly understood, but blood clotting is believed to be governed by an extrinsic tissue factor-dependent pathway, with some residual intrinsic pathway serving an ancillary function. Disorders of haemostasis are a common pathology in poultry rearing, manifested by bleeding, which most often occurs in the muscles, intramuscular fat, connective tissue and internal organs. Efficient diagnosis of haemostatic disorders in poultry remains an ongoing problem. The diagnostic methods currently in use in veterinary medicine are inadequate for evaluating haemostatic disorders. The optimisation of coagulometric methods and the availability of species-specific reagents remain significant obstacles. Furthermore, although vitamin K is essential for the synthesis of extrinsic coagulation factors and interacts with vitamin D in bone formation, it is frequently deficient in birds. The objective of the paper is to present the current state of knowledge of haemostatic disorders in poultry, and to stress the need to develop more detailed laboratory procedures and methods of producing species-specific reagents for determination of haemostatic parameters to deepen the understanding of blood clotting in birds.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.009
  • Effect of pre-partum dam supplementation, creep-feeding and post-weaning
           feedlot on age at puberty in Nellore heifers
    • Authors: Delci de Deus Nepomuceno; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Marcos Vinicius de Castro Ferraz Junior; Marcos Vinicius Biehl; Jose Renato da Silva Gonçalves; Elizangela Mirian Moreira; Michael Lee Day
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Delci de Deus Nepomuceno, Alexandre Vaz Pires, Marcos Vinicius de Castro Ferraz Junior, Marcos Vinicius Biehl, Jose Renato da Silva Gonçalves, Elizangela Mirian Moreira, Michael Lee Day
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three nutritional strategies and its interactions on age at puberty in Nellore heifers. The treatments were arranged in factorial design (2 × 2 x 2), including three periods of supplementation: Period I – Pre-partum dam supplementation with protein (n = 122; 0.5kg soybean meal/cow, daily) during the last trimester of gestation or no supplementation (n = 115); Period II – Creep-feeding (n = 120; 22% CP and 72% TDN) to heifer calves for 95 d before weaning or no creep-feeding (n = 117); and Period III – Post-weaning feedlot from 7 to 11 month of age (n = 117; 15% CP and 56% TDN) or no feedlot (n = 120; only pasture). There was no interaction among periods of supplementation. At weaning, pre-partum dam supplementation (P = 0.91) and creep-feeding (P = 0.89) did not affect BW of heifer calves. At the end of the post-weaning feedlot (Period III) BW was greater (P < 0.01) in the heifers supplemented (234.1 ± 2.2kg) than in pasture (187.2 ± 2.1kg) treatment and this difference was maintained through 26 month of age. The age at puberty was not influenced by pre-partum dam supplementation (P = 0.88) or creep-feeding (P = 0.57). However, the post-weaning feedlot treatment anticipated (P = 0.06) the age at puberty. At 18 month of age, the percentage of pubertal heifers was increased by post-weaning feedlot (31.7 vs. 13.3%; P < 0.01) and led to an increase of 10% in pregnancy rate at the same age. In conclusion, neither the cow supplementation nor creep feeding used in the present study anticipated puberty in Nellore heifers. However, enhanced nutrition during the post-weaning period was an effective method to anticipate puberty.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.008
  • Functional claw trimming improves the gait and locomotion of sows
    • Authors: A.K. Tinkle; K.J. Duberstein; M.E. Wilson; M.A. Parsley; M.K. Beckman; J. Torrison; M.J. Azain; C.R. Dove
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.K. Tinkle, K.J. Duberstein, M.E. Wilson, M.A. Parsley, M.K. Beckman, J. Torrison, M.J. Azain, C.R. Dove
      Within the swine industry, lameness is one of the leading causes of culling and euthanasia of sows. Lameness negatively affects sow productivity and reproduction, both of which are major factors leading to culling sows. Claw lesions are one of the leading causes of sow lameness, specifically caused by overgrown claws or dewclaws. The objective of this study was to discern the difference in sow gait, pre- and post-functional trimming. In this study, 52 sows were functionally trimmed to a claw length of 5.5cm from the coronary band, and were videotaped using two high-speed cameras at three time points: pre trim (PRE), one hour post (POST1) and 48hours post (POST48) trimming. Videos were analyzed to measure the following spatiotemporal values: stance duration, swing duration, stride duration, stride length, limb velocity, breakover duration, and duration of three-limb support phases. Sows showed significant improvement in gait from PRE to POST48 in response to claw trimming including a decrease in swing and stride duration, decreased breakover, and increased swing:stance ratio, and velocity (P < 0.05). These changes signify more forward movement, which may indicate increased efficiency of gait following claw-trimming.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.013
  • The effect of coated sodium butyrate supplementation in sow and nursery
           diets on lactation performance and nursery pig growth performance
    • Authors: Y.D. Jang; M.D. Lindemann; H.J. Monegue; J.S. Monegue
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Y.D. Jang, M.D. Lindemann, H.J. Monegue, J.S. Monegue
      Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of coated sodium butyrate (CSB) supplementation to peripartal and lactating sows and nursery pigs on lactation performance and nursery growth performance. In Exp. 1, a total of 43 gestating sows (d 81–92 of gestation) were allotted to 0 (n=15), 500 (n=16), or 1,000 (n=12) ppm of CSB supplementation based on breed, parity and body weight (BW), and then fed treatment diets until weaning. In Exp. 2 and 3, a total of 144 weanling pigs (72 pigs for Exp. 2 and 3, respectively) from 0 or 1,000 ppm CSB sow treatments in Exp. 1 were allotted within the sow treatment to 0, 500, or 1,000 ppm of CSB supplementation in nursery diets based on breed and BW in a split plot design for a 35-d growth study. All pigs in Exp. 2 were injected with ovalbumin at weaning and d 14 postweaning as an immune challenge. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in sow BW, litter size, litter weight, lactation feed intake or milk composition among treatments. However, colostral IgG (P = 0.06) and IgA (P = 0.09) concentrations tended to increase quadratically as CSB supplementation levels increased. In Exp. 2, pigs from the 1,000 ppm CSB sow treatment had greater BW at d 35 (P < 0.01), average daily gain (ADG; P < 0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI; P < 0.01) and feed to gain (F:G) ratio (P = 0.07) than those from the 0 ppm CSB sow treatment. For the nursery treatments, ADG (P < 0.05) and ADFI (P = 0.06) during the 35-d period increased linearly as CSB supplementation levels increased whereas F:G ratio had a negative quadratic response (P = 0.10). In Exp. 3, F:G ratio for d 0–14 postweaning tended to be lower (P = 0.09) in pigs from the 1,000 ppm CSB sow treatment compared with those from the 0 ppm CSB sow treatment whereas BW, ADG, and ADFI (P < 0.05) during the 35-d period decreased linearly as CSB supplementation levels increased in the diets. In conclusion, CSB supplementation tended to increase colostral IgG and IgA concentrations in sows and improved growth performance of nursery pigs under an immune challenge when supplemented in the nursery diet.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.005
  • Productive performance and cecal microbial counts of floor housed laying
           hens supplemented with dry whey powder alone or combined with Pediococcus
           acidilactici in the late phase of production
    • Authors: C. Pineda-Quiroga; R. Atxaerandio; I. Zubiria; I. Gonzalez-Pozuelo; A. Hurtado; R. Ruiz; A. Garcia-Rodriguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Pineda-Quiroga, R. Atxaerandio, I. Zubiria, I. Gonzalez-Pozuelo, A. Hurtado, R. Ruiz, A. Garcia-Rodriguez
      Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been proposed as safe additives in animal feeding. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of supplementing corn-soybean diets of laying hens with dry whey powder (prebiotic), Pediococcus acidilactici (probiotic), and the combination of both (synbiotic) on the productive performance, egg quality traits, and cecal microbial counts. A total of 300 laying hens, 57 wk of age, were randomly allocated to floor pens for 70 d. Pens were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets with 5 pens per treatment and 15 laying hens per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of inclusion of dry whey powder (WP, 0 and 60g/kg of diet) and 2 levels of P. acidilactici (PA, 0 and 2g/kg of diet). Cecal counts of Bifidobacterium spp. were increased with the addition of WP (8.4 vs. 6.5 log10 cfu/g cecal content, P = 0.012). An interaction between levels of WP and PA was found on egg production (P = 0.008) and on cecal counts of Clostridium perfringens (P = 0.047), so that the addition of WP increased egg production (82.5 vs. 75.6%) and reduced Clostridium perfringens colony counts (4.3 vs. 5.8 log10 cfu/g cecal content) only when PA was not used. In conclusion the joint addition of WP and PA in hens’ diets during the late stage of production did not improve productive performance or change the cecal microbial population. However, the addition of WP increased Bifidobacterium spp. cecal counts and only reduced the Clostridium perfringens counts together with an increase on egg production, when PA was not added.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.007
  • Associations of blood parameters with age, feed efficiency and sampling
           routine in young beef bulls
    • Authors: S.L. Bourgon; M. Diel de Amorim; S.P. Miller; Y.R. Montanholi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.L. Bourgon, M. Diel de Amorim, S.P. Miller, Y.R. Montanholi
      Utilization of blood parameters as proxies for feed efficiency is an avenue to maximize profitability of the beef industry. Among other factors, age and sampling routine may impact the reliability of potential proxies for residual feed intake (RFI). Thus, the objectives were to assess associations of blood parameters with age and RFI under two sampling routines. Thirty-two crossbred bulls with an average body weight (BW) of 633 ± 93kg and 369 ± 29 days of age were studied. Residual feed intake was calculated using average daily gain, BW and ultrasound traits for body composition. Seven blood samples for each bull were collected during a 33-day on-station sampling period and an additional sample was collected at slaughter for analysis of blood metabolites and hormones. Bulls were classified as younger (342 ± 17 days of age) and older (395 ± 4 days of age) and into efficient (-0.55 ± 0.70kg DM/day) and inefficient (RFI = 0.55 ± 0.29kg DM/day). Means of blood parameters were compared between age and feed efficiency groups using a mixed model for on-station sampling and a general linear model for slaughter sampling. During the on-station sampling, glucose (P = 0.01), potassium (P = 0.01) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (P = 0.01) were lesser in older bulls while urea (P = 0.05), acetate (P = 0.01), osmolality (P = 0.01), testosterone (P = 0.01) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH; P = 0.04) were greater in older bulls. At slaughter, carbon dioxide (P = 0.01), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (P = 0.05) and FSH (P = 0.01) were greater in older bulls. Over the on-station sampling, osmolality (P = 0.05) was greater in inefficient bulls while leptin (P = 0.01) was greater in efficient bulls. On the day of slaughter, cholesterol (P = 0.04) and alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.04) were lesser in efficient bulls. Age and RFI classes interaction was observed for T3 (P = 0.01) during the on-station sampling where lesser T3 blood levels where observed in efficient bulls within the younger group (P = 0.01) and in older bulls within the inefficient group (P = 0.05). Overall, these results support the association of blood parameters with variation in age and RFI and illustrate the impact of sampling routine on components of intermediary metabolism in yearling bulls, providing information to the development of proxies for RFI.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T16:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.003
  • Effect of Silybum marianum herb on the productive performance, carcass
           traits and meat quality of growing rabbits
    • Authors: M. Cullere; A. Dalle Zotte; C. Celia; A.L. Renteria-Monterrubio; Zs. Gerencsér; Zs. Szendrő; M. Kovács; M.L. Kachlek; Zs. Matics
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Cullere, A. Dalle Zotte, C. Celia, A.L. Renteria-Monterrubio, Zs. Gerencsér, Zs. Szendrő, M. Kovács, M.L. Kachlek, Zs. Matics
      The present study aimed to test the effect of a dietary supplementation with Silybum marianum (SM), an herbaceous Mediterranean plant traditionally used to treat liver and gastrointestinal diseases and with antioxidant properties, on the productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits. With this purpose, at weaning (5 weeks of age), a total of 144 Pannon Large rabbits were allocated to three experimental groups. The control group (C, n=51) was fed with a basal diet, whereas the other groups received the basal diet supplemented with SM herbal powder at two concentrations: 5g/kg (SM1, n=48) and 10g/kg (SM2, n=45). Rabbits were housed in wire-mesh cages (3 rabbits/cage) and fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Productive performance and mortality were recorded weekly. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11 weeks of age, carcasses were dissected, and hind leg (HL) and Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) meat were analysed for meat quality (oxidative status, pHu and L⁎, a⁎, b⁎ colour) traits. In addition, a sensory analysis on the LTL meat was carried out by a trained panel. Mortality was significantly reduced in SM treatments compared to C group from week 6 to 7 (10.4 and 11.1 vs. 17.7%, for SM1, SM2 and C groups, respectively; P<0.05), and in SM2 compared to C and SM1 considering the whole productive cycle (5–11 weeks). The dietary inclusion of SM did not affect carcass traits and did not change neither colour nor oxidative status of LTL muscle. Differently, SM diet increased pHu of LTL muscle (5.98 vs. 6.03 vs. 6.10 in C, SM1 and SM2, respectively; P<0.05). The sensory traits of LTL meat were affected by SM dietary inclusion: a higher herbaceous odour was observed in SM2 compared to C and SM1 (P<0.001) treatments, whereas rabbit odour followed an opposite trend with C receiving a higher score compared to SM1 and SM2 (P<0.05). Panelists also perceived a stronger rabbit flavour in C than in SM1 and SM2 meat (2.40 vs. 1.90 and 1.70, P<0.05; P<0.001). Silybum marianum seems to be a promising natural feed additive to improve the health condition of growing rabbits. Differently, the antioxidant activity of Silybum marianum was not confirmed when considering fresh meat of rabbits supplemented with the inclusion levels of the present experiment. The dietary supplementation with Silybum marianum changed then sensory characteristics of rabbit loin thus, in the future, consumer acceptability should be also carefully assessed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T15:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.012
  • Review: The effect of grass and herbs in organic egg production on egg
           fatty acid composition, egg yolk colour and sensory properties
    • Authors: Marianne Hammershøj; Niels Finn Johansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Marianne Hammershøj, Niels Finn Johansen
      In organic egg production it is required that the hens have access to pasture or forage material, which offers a wide range of various plant material. In the temperate climate, grasses, herbs and legumes are cultivated in the pasture for the hens, or the forage material may be fed as silage or dried. The effects of grasses and herbs consumed by the egg laying hen on the egg quality parameters of fatty acid composition, yolk colour and carotenoid content, and the sensory properties are elucidated. Forage material of grasses and herbs typically affects the egg yolk fatty acid composition towards a relative higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular n-3 fatty acids, which decreases the ratio of n-6/n-3 from 11–19 in eggs from hens without access to pasture or forage material to ~5 in eggs from hens on grass pasture. The egg yolk colour is highly affected by plant material type and intake of the hen, where different carotenoids of different herbs are reflected in the yolk carotenoids. Pastures of grass, alfalfa silage and stinging nettle are plant sources with high potential of affecting the egg yolk to a more reddish and yellow colour. Sensory properties of eggs from hens fed forage material or on pasture appear to be affected in some experiments, however, not as a general result. The amount of intake of the forage materials is essential for its impact on the egg quality, and the presently reported intakes span from 6g/hen/day to 126g/hen/day, which depend on both the forage material as well as the hen. In summary, the egg quality parameters of fatty acid composition and yolk colour are highly affected by grass and herbs, whereas the sensory properties are less predictable to reflect the grass and herb intake by organic egg layers.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T15:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.11.001
  • Retelling the recent evolution of genetic diversity for Guzerá:
           inferences from LD decay, runs of homozygosity and Ne over the generations
    • Authors: Pablo Augusto de Souza Fonseca; Fernanda Caroline dos Santos; Izinara Cruz Rosse; Ricardo Vieira Ventura; Frank Ângelo Tomita Brunelli; Vânia Maldini Penna; Rui da Silva Verneque; Marco Antônio Machado; Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva; Maria Raquel Santos Carvalho; Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Pablo Augusto de Souza Fonseca, Fernanda Caroline dos Santos, Izinara Cruz Rosse, Ricardo Vieira Ventura, Frank Ângelo Tomita Brunelli, Vânia Maldini Penna, Rui da Silva Verneque, Marco Antônio Machado, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Maria Raquel Santos Carvalho, Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto
      Genetic diversity is the one of the most important issues in conservation studies of livestock breeds or endangered species. In the present study, we tested the feasibility of describing the recent evolution in genetic diversity through genome-wide SNP genotyping and estimates of linkage disequilibrium decay patterns, effective population size, inbreeding coefficient based on runs of homozygosity and population structure. We choose the bovine indicine breed Guzerá because it has suffered recent bottlenecks which have been registered historically. A sample of 1,036 females was genotyped using Illumina BovineSNP50. A resampling strategy was applied to correct for sampling biases caused by the population structure in herds, and by the extensive use of some sires for artificial reproduction. A subsample of 210 animals and 32,806 markers with MAF>0.01 was used. Very low linkage disequilibrium was detected for distances greater than 120Kb between two markers. Furthermore, three points of decrease in effective population size between generations were detected, which coincide with the historically registered bottlenecks. The inbreeding coefficient, based on runs of homozygosity, confirmed a strong contribution of the last 20–30 generations to current inbreeding. In the population structure analysis, the most probable number of sub-populations is 2, reflecting selection purpose (beef or dual-purpose). Taken together, these results allow a retelling of the recent evolution of this breed. The strategy described here will be useful for other breeds or even species for which a careful historical registry is not available for conservation proposals.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T14:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.006
  • Validation of a noseband sensor system for monitoring ruminating activity
           in cows under different feeding regimens
    • Authors: I. Kröger; E. Humer; V. Neubauer; N. Kraft; P. Ertl; Q. Zebeli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. Kröger, E. Humer, V. Neubauer, N. Kraft, P. Ertl, Q. Zebeli
      Monitoring of ruminating activity in cows can help detecting deficiencies in structural fibre in the diet and also identifying related rumen disorders at an early stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate a noseband sensor system (NSS; “RumiWatch”, Itin + Hoch GmbH, Liestal, Switzerland) under variable feeding regimens. Visual and electronic measurements of ruminating activity were compared in eight Holstein cows fed either roughage-only diet, transition diet from roughage to concentrate, or constant feeding of 65% concentrate (dry matter basis). Increasing the concentrate amount in the diet lowered (P < 0.01) all ruminating parameters, regardless of the measurement method. The analysis showed that NSS overestimated (P ≤ 0.01) several chewing variables such as ruminating chews per minute, chews per bolus and ruminating chews per 10minutes; however, total duration of rumination did not differ (P = 0.49) between visual and NSS method. Also, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis, representing the reproducibility of the NSS measurements, revealed a substantial agreement between visually observed and with NSS recorded values for ruminating chews per 10min (CCC = 0.92) and a high agreement for the number of boli per 10minutes (CCC = 0.82). In contrast, the reproducibility of NSS was moderate (CCC = 0.67) for chews per bolus and low (CCC = 0.36) for chews per min. In conclusion, the NSS is a suitable device to replace time-consuming visual observations for measuring total rumination time in cows under variable feeding conditions. However, specific NSS measurements such as chews per minute, chews per bolus, and the number of boli need further adjustements.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T14:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.007
  • Copy number variation of bovine MAPK10 modulates the transcriptional
           activity and affects growth traits
    • Authors: Mei Liu; Bo Li; Yongzhen Huang; Mingjuan Yang; Xianyong Lan; Chuzhao Lei; Weidong Qu; Yueyu Bai; Hong. Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mei Liu, Bo Li, Yongzhen Huang, Mingjuan Yang, Xianyong Lan, Chuzhao Lei, Weidong Qu, Yueyu Bai, Hong. Chen
      Beef production is an economically important sector of animal husbandry and much attention has been paid on the identification of molecular markers associated with gene expressions and growth traits. The aim of this study was to search for potential effects of a novel copy number variation (CNV) located in intron 10 of bovine Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10 (MAPK10) on phenotypic variation. Cattle of nine Chinese domestic breeds were included: Qinchuan (QC), Nanyang (NY), Xianan (XN), Jiaxian (JX), Jinnan (JN), Qinghai (QH), Dzomo (DZ), Fu (FU) and Chinese Holstein cattle (CH). In total, genomic DNA of 455 female cattle and RNA of 27 fetal and/or adult tissues of QC cattle were used. Methods of Real-time quantitative PCR, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ANOVA were applied to evaluate the copy number distributions and their effects on genes’ transcriptional levels and growth traits. Substantial genetic differences between NY cattle and other four breeds (XN, QH, DZ and FU) were observed (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Negative correlations between copy numbers and transcript levels of MAPK10 / MYOG were shown in fetal skeletal muscle (P<0.01). Statistical analysis between CNV and growth traits revealed that the NY cattle with copy number gain type showed better traits, including body weight (P<0.05), body height and chest girth (P<0.01). These results suggested that this CNV locus could modulate the transcriptional activity and thereby affect the phenotypic traits. Our study firstly indicated that the CNV at MAPK10 locus was a promising genetic marker to improve meat production in beef cattle breeding.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.014
  • Molecular diversity between two cohorts of six Spanish riding-horse
           breeds: impact of selection in Crossbred vs Purebred populations
    • Authors: S. Negro; M. Solé; R. Pelayo; M.D. Gómez; P.J. Azor; M. Valera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Negro, M. Solé, R. Pelayo, M.D. Gómez, P.J. Azor, M. Valera
      The genetic structure and level of diversity were assessed across 6 riding-horse breeds raised in Spain and born between 1989 and 2012 (Anglo-Arab, AA, Arab Purebred, PRA; Spanish Purebred, PRE; Menorca Purebred, PRMe; Spanish Sport horse, CDE; Spanish Trotter horse, TRO). The impact of selection on molecular diversity over time looking at 2 different cohorts in Crossbreds (AA, CDE and TRO) vs Purebreds (PRA, PRE and PRMe) has been also analysed. A total of 17 microsatellite loci were analysed in 2,530 horses from the cohort 1 (C1, born between 1989 and 2000) and 10,102 horses from the cohort 2 (C2, born between 2001 and 2012). The mean number of alleles per locus was the highest in C2 of TRO horses (11.76) and the lowest in C1 of PRMe breed (7.71). The lowest global values for the expected heterozygosity were found within Purebreds (0.71 − 0.76) compared to Crossbreds (0.76 − 0.78). For C2, the effective population size values based on linkage disequilibrium (from 4.9 in PRA to 668.3 in PRE) were higher than those computed for C1 (from 3.3 in PRA to 204.1 in CDE). Genetic distances and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained due to an increase in the genetic uniformity across generations in Pure and Crossbreds. PRA, CDE and AA breeds seem to be the most genetically related, and for PRE, PRMe and TRO, both cohorts appeared closely related. In all populations, the genetic variability and effective population size have increased over time. Thus breeding policies have been properly managed to preserve diversity levels. Regarding the intense impact of selection in Purebreds across generations shown through the differences in the structure of the populations, no loss of genetic variability is expected in a short-term, although an extremely high degree of similarity and homogeneity between individuals of Purebreds compared to Crossbreds was shown.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.013
  • Application of the Welfare Quality® protocol in pig slaughterhouses
           of five countries
    • Authors: Antoni Dalmau; Alexandre Nande; Madalena Vieira-Pinto; Silvia Zamprogna; Guido Di Martino; Juliana C R Ribas; Mateus Paranhos da Costa; Katri Halinen-Elemo; Antonio Velarde
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Antoni Dalmau, Alexandre Nande, Madalena Vieira-Pinto, Silvia Zamprogna, Guido Di Martino, Juliana C R Ribas, Mateus Paranhos da Costa, Katri Halinen-Elemo, Antonio Velarde
      The objective of the present study is to assess the variability of the measures used in the welfare quality (WQ) protocol for pigs among slaughterhouses in five different countries and to propose alarm and critical thresholds for the calculation of scores for future development of an animal welfare certification scheme. The WQ protocol was applied in 52,468 pigs in 42 slaughterhouses in 5 countries (Portugal, Italy, Finland, Brazil and Spain). The welfare assessment started in the unloading area, where measures of general fear, thermoregulation, slipping and falling, lameness, sickness and mortality were taken. Concerning lairage, space allowance, drinking points, thermoregulation and mortality were considered, and the human-animal relationship was assessed by means of high-pitched vocalisations when pigs were moved from lairage to the stunning system. Finally, stunning effectiveness, skin lesions and presence of pneumonia, pleurisy, pericarditis and white spots on the liver were assessed in the stunning area and after slaughtering the animals. There was a large degree of variability among slaughterhouses for measurements made. For instance, the percentage of animals slipping ranged from 0.4% to 57%. Pigs with signs of recovery after stunning ranged from 0% to 90% and the percentage of carcasses that were severely damaged with skin lesions ranged from 0% to 48%. The data obtained can be useful to establish some thresholds for future uses of the WQ protocol. Electric stunning was associated with more animals recovering consciousness than from CO2.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.001
  • Two tagSNPs in the prolactin receptor gene are associated with growth and
           litter traits in Boer and Macheng Black crossbred goats
    • Authors: Qi Xiong; Jin Chai; Xiaofeng Li; Xiaojun Suo; Nian Zhang; Hu Tao; Yang Liu; Qianping Yang; Siwen Jiang; Mingxin Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Qi Xiong, Jin Chai, Xiaofeng Li, Xiaojun Suo, Nian Zhang, Hu Tao, Yang Liu, Qianping Yang, Siwen Jiang, Mingxin Chen
      Boer and Macheng Black goat breeds were used to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene for the prolactin receptor (PRLR) by DNA sequencing. Thirteen mutations (seven in the exon, four in the intron, and two in the 3′ UTR) were found. We performed comprehensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analyses of the 13 SNPs of PRLR and found that the SNPs were in two LD blocks in 300 F2 hybrids of Boer × Macheng Black goats. Analyses of the tag SNPs indicated that the g.184822G/A and g.185275C/T SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits, and individuals with the combinative genotype GGTT had the lowest levels of some growth traits. Moreover, Individuals with genotype GA had stronger offspring than did individuals with genotype GG at the g.184822G/A locus. This study revealed that PRLR is a promising candidate for the selection of both growth and litter traits in these goats.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.002
  • Moderately increased energy intake during gestation improves body
           condition of primiparous sows, piglet growth performance, and milk fat and
           protein output
    • Authors: Jun Wang; Mei Yang; Meng Cao; Yan Lin; Lianqiang Che; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi; Zhengfeng Fang; Shengyu Xu; Bin Feng; Gang Liu; De Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jun Wang, Mei Yang, Meng Cao, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Gang Liu, De Wu
      This study determined the effect of dietary energy allowance during gestation on reproductive performance, blood metabolites, and milk composition in primiparous sows. Forty-four Landrace × Yorkshire gilts were randomly assigned to receive one of four dietary energy allowances (n = 11): low (L), medium (M), high (H), and extremely high (EH). The gilts in L, M, H, and EH treatments were provided 75, 100, 125, and 150% of the energy requirement for maintenance from 0 to 30 d of gestation, respectively. Compared to d 0 to 30 of gestation, dietary energy allowances in each group increased by 20% from d 30 to 90 of gestation and increased by 50% from d 90 of gestation to parturition. After parturition, all primiparous sows received the same diet and fed ad libitum during lactation. The results showed that dietary energy linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) sow body weight and backfat thickness at d 0 and 28 of lactation. Dietary energy linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) sow body weight gain and backfat gain from d 0 of gestation to d 0 of lactation. With increasing dietary energy allowance, there were linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in sow body weight loss and backfat loss during lactation, and linear and quadratic decreases (P < 0.01) in average daily feed intake during lactation. However, with increasing dietary energy allowance, individual birth and weaning weight linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05), and litter weight quadratically increased at birth (P < 0.05) and tended to increase at weaning (quadratic, P = 0.06). The greatest individual weight and litter weight at birth and weaning was observed when sows were provided the H energy allowance. The number of total born and born alive was not influenced by dietary energy. With increasing dietary energy allowance, the fat and protein content linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) in colostrum, and the fat and protein content quadratically increased (P = 0.01) in mature milk. The greatest fat and protein content in mature milk was observed when sows were provided the H energy allowance. The results indicated that providing 125, 150, and 187.5% of the energy requirement for maintenance during early, mid, and late gestation was beneficial in maintaining optimal body condition of primiparous sows, as well as improving piglet growth performance and milk fat and protein output.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.012
  • Effects of Acremonium terricola culture on growth performance, antioxidant
           status and immune functions in weaned calves
    • Authors: Yang Li; Yi-zhen Wang; Xue Ding; Yong-gen Zhang; Shi-chong Xue; Cong Lin; Wen-bin Xu; Xiu-Jing Dou; Li-Yang Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yang Li, Yi-zhen Wang, Xue Ding, Yong-gen Zhang, Shi-chong Xue, Cong Lin, Wen-bin Xu, Xiu-Jing Dou, Li-Yang Zhang
      This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Acremonium terricola culture (CAT) on growth performance, antioxidant status and immune responses of weaned calves. Twenty-four weaned female Holstein calves of the same age and with a similar genetic background were randomly assigned to one of two treatments for a 40 d feeding period. Treatments consisted of feed supplemented with (1) nothing (i.e., the control group) or (2) 50mg CAT/kg of body weight (BW). Feed, fecal and blood samples were collected on days 0, 20 and 40. The seventh day after weaning was defined as Day 0. The results demonstrated that CAT supplementation increased body weight, feed efficiency and average daily weight gain compared to the control group. Supplementation with 50mg of CAT/kg of BW significantly increased concentrations of immunoglobulins A, M, and G, interleukin-4, as well as the ratio of soluble CD4/soluble CD8, activities of total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase in plasma. In contrast, CAT supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in the concentrations of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor - alpha, cortisol and malondialdehyde in plasma. These results suggested that supplementation with 50mg of CAT/kg of BW may enhance growth performance and antioxidant and immune functions in weaned calves.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.009
  • A good taste in the meat, a good taste in the mouth – animal welfare as
           an aspect of pork quality in three European countries
    • Authors: Cecilie A.H. Thorslund; Peter Sandøe; Margit Dall Aaslyng; Jesper Lassen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Cecilie A.H. Thorslund, Peter Sandøe, Margit Dall Aaslyng, Jesper Lassen
      Welfare standards for farm animals in Europe are managed by two main strategies: a legislative and a market-driven strategy. The former imposes common minimum standards of animal welfare; it offers little or no help for consumers favoring welfare initiatives above the legal requirements. The latter can be used as a lever for improving welfare beyond baseline standards through initiatives supporting ‘welfare-friendly’ products that are sold at a premium. However, if this second strategy is to be successful the higher levels of welfare secured will need to reflect what consumers think is important. Using focus group interviews in three European countries, the study presented here looks at the way consumers perceive meat and meat consumption practices in relation to animal welfare. Regarding animal welfare as a quality attribute – something worth paying a premium for – the analysis shows that animal welfare is definitely a quality for which some consumers are prepared to pay as such, but that other consumers do not regard welfare as an important quality attribute. Another group of consumers consider welfare important and valuable given its positive link with attractive quality attributes such as taste. The results points to some striking national differences: little concern or action linked to animal welfare was expressed by English consumers; their Swedish counterparts displayed more concern and action; consumers in Denmark were similar to those in Sweden, but showed more variation in their attitudes and an awareness of barriers.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.007
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