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Journal Cover Livestock Science
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • The impact of transdermal flunixin meglumine on biomarkers of pain in
           calves when administered at the time of surgical castration without local
           anesthesia
    • Authors: M.D. Kleinhenz; N.K. Van Engen; J.S. Smith; P.J. Gorden; J. Ji; C Wang; S.C.B. Perkins; J.F. Coetzee
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): M.D. Kleinhenz, N.K. Van Engen, J.S. Smith, P.J. Gorden, J. Ji, C Wang, S.C.B. Perkins, J.F. Coetzee
      Castration is a common husbandry practice performed on cattle worldwide. Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provide analgesia at the time of castration, labor and medicine costs have been cited as reasons for not including analgesic into castration protocols. This study was conducted to assess the impact of transdermal flunixin meglumine on biomarkers of pain in calves when administered at the time of surgical castration without local anesthesia Twenty three Holstein calves were randomly assigned to (1) a flunixin castrated group (CAST + FLU) (n = 8); (2) a placebo castrated group (CAST + PLBO) (n = 8) or (3) a previously castrated, negative control group (SHAM + PLBO) (n = 7). Treated calves received topical flunixin meglumine applied to their dorsal midline at the label dose of 3.33 mg/kg during the surgical castration procedure. Outcomes collected and analyzed included: plasma cortisol, substance P, ocular infrared thermography (IRT), and gait analysis (step force, foot contact area, foot contact pressure, impulse). Biomarkers were statistically analyzed using repeat measures analysis. Plasma cortisol concentrations were higher (P = 0.0016) and the area under the effect curve tended to be higher (P = 0.0979) in the CAST + PLBO. Specifically, the CAST + FLU group had significantly lower cortisol levels compared to CAST + PLBO groups at 2, 3, 4, and 12 h. There were no differences between treatment groups for substance P levels. Mean IRT values tended to be higher for CAST + FLU calves (35.4 °C) compared to CAST + PLBO (34.5 °C) and SHAM + PLBO (34.3 °C) calves (P = 0.06). The total step force applied was similar for all treatment groups. The calves undergoing surgical castration placed more force onto their fore limbs (P = 0.02) indicating a shift in their weight distribution to the front limbs. There were no measured differences in total step contact area and step contact pressure. SHAM + PLBO calves has lower total impulses compared to CAST + FLU and CAST + PLBO (P = 0.004). Transdermal flunixin reduced plasma cortisol concentrations and mitigated the stress response for 8 h when given at the time of castration. Transdermal flunixin provided negligible analgesic effects on the pain biomarkers of substance P, IRT and gait analysis when given at the time of castration. Further research is needed to assessment the impact of transdermal flunixin when administered as part of a multimodal analgesic protocol that includes local anesthesia.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of beef herd responses to unfamiliar humans and potential
           influencing factors: An exploratory survey on French farms
    • Authors: Alexandra Destrez; Emmanuelle Haslin; Gwendoline Elluin; Claire Gaillard; Nathalie Hostiou; Florian Dasse; Céline Zanella; Xavier Boivin
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): Alexandra Destrez, Emmanuelle Haslin, Gwendoline Elluin, Claire Gaillard, Nathalie Hostiou, Florian Dasse, Céline Zanella, Xavier Boivin
      The human-animal relationship plays a major role in animal welfare, production, and farmers’ work safety. However, few on-farm experiments have been conducted with beef cattle to assess the human-animal relationship. This exploratory study on beef cattle farms aimed to investigate relationships between farmers’ practices (herd management), attitudes towards their animals and handling, and animals’ reactions to humans. This study was conducted on 20 French beef cattle farms with a wide range of sizes (utilized agricultural area, permanent pasture area and number of cattle). A semi-structured interview to understand practices related to the human-animal relationship, a questionnaire assessing farmers’ attitudes towards their animals and animal handling, and a behavioral test of animals’ reactions to humans (an avoidance test) were performed. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model was used to analyze relations among data. Farm size characteristics were not related to animal fear responses. Farmers reporting a lack of time for handling their cattle monitored them less frequently (p  < 0.05). Their cattle kept a larger avoidance distance from an unfamiliar human during the avoidance test (p < 0.01). Avoidance distance also tended to be larger for the cattle of farmers who reported not making physical contact with cattle when monitoring them and not including behavior as a genetic criterion for selection (p < 0.1). Making physical contact with cattle during monitoring, monitoring frequently, and including behavior in genetic selection were identified as three “relational practices” (i.e., those that farmers purposely adopt to reduce fear responses and improve the human-animal relationship). This exploratory study was able to reveal significant links between farmers’ reported practices and animals’ behavioral responses.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Variations in nutritional and antinutritional contents among faba bean
           cultivars and effects on growth performance of weaner pigs
    • Authors: E. Ivarsson; M. Neil
      Pages: 14 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): E. Ivarsson, M. Neil
      A total of 84 faba bean samples, 11 of color-flowered and 5 of white-flowered cultivars, were used to investigate variations in nutritional and antinutritional components among faba beans. There were no effects of flower color, but significant effects (P < 0.05) of cultivar within flower color were observed for starch, crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber. The color-flowered cultivars had a greater content of condensed tannins (CT) and the white-flowered cultivars a greater content of vicine and convicine. Within the color-flowered cultivars, Alexia had the greatest (7.68 g/kg DM) and Julia the smallest (6.05 g/kg DM) CT content. The enzymatic in vitro digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and calculated standardized ileal digestibility of CP was greater (P < 0.05) in white-flowered than color-flowered cultivars. However, on a yield per hectare basis, color-flowered cultivars yielded more (P < 0.05) standardized ileal digestible (SID) CP and starch than white-flowered cultivars. Based on these results, 3 cultivars were selected for a growth study with weaner pigs. Gloria (a white-flowered cultivar) and Fuego and Julia (both color-flowered) were selected for deviating content of SID CP, where Julia had more SID CP than Fuego. The control diet contained soybean meal and potato protein as the main protein sources, whereas the experimental diets contained 10 and 20% Julia or Fuego (Julia10, Julia20, Fuego10, Fuego20) and 20% Gloria (Gloria), with a total of 6 experimental diets. The diets were fed to 300 pigs in a randomized complete block design with 5 groups of pigs over time (blocks), with each block comprising 6 pens of 10 piglets. The pigs were weaned at 5 weeks of age and received the experimental diets ad libitum for 27 days, starting immediately after weaning. For the total experimental period, pigs fed Julia10 and Julia20 had the greatest average daily body weight gain (P < 0.05) and pigs fed the control and Fuego20 had the smallest. Average daily feed intake was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed Julia10 and smaller in pigs fed Fuego20 (P < 0.05) than in pigs fed the other diets. Feed efficiency was greatest in pigs fed Julia20 and smallest in pigs fed the control. In conclusion, faba bean is a viable protein source in well-balanced diets to weaner pigs, with cultivar rather than flower color determining the nutritional value.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • The welfare of water buffaloes during the slaughter process: A review
    • Authors: L. de la Cruz; T.J. Gibson; I. Guerrero-Legarreta; F. Napolitano; P. Mora-Medina; D. Mota-Rojas
      Pages: 22 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): L. de la Cruz, T.J. Gibson, I. Guerrero-Legarreta, F. Napolitano, P. Mora-Medina, D. Mota-Rojas
      This paper reviews the scientific literature on water buffalo welfare in all stages of the live animal supply chain from the farm gate to slaughter (loading/unloading, markets, transportation, handling, lairage, stunning and slaughter) with the objective of identifying risk factors and potential mitigation strategies. Although in some countries legislation exists to protect the welfare of farm animals during transport and killing, the handling practices used to load and unload buffaloes and move them in livestock markets and abattoirs are often harsh. This is frequently due to inadequate equipment designed principally for cattle, and the fact that water buffaloes are considered more temperamental than cattle. Additionally, more reactive animals have increased stress responses to handling, which can lead to more negative human interventions with increased numbers of skin lesions and bruises to the carcasses. During transport, buffaloes may suffer periods of thermal stress due to overstocking, inadequate ventilation and because in many tropical climates trips are made during the hottest time of the day. The anatomical and physiological characteristics of water buffalo make them particularly susceptible to thermal stress in the absence of water for wallowing. Although water buffaloes belong to the same Bovidae family as domestic cattle, certain anatomical features of the head make effective stunning very problematic. Buffaloes have extensive sinuses and frontal bones, meaning that the penetrating captive bolt devices recommended for cattle may prove ineffective in reliably inducing unconsciousness. There is a need for further development of procedures, stunning positions and appropriate devices to improve the efficiency of buffalo stunning. Finally, in many parts of the world where buffalo are routinely slaughtered in basic conditions without prior stunning. Slaughter without stunning can result in pain and stress associated with delays in the time to loss of consciousness, pain from the cutting of the neck and potential distress associated with aspiration of blood into the respiratory tract. Specific legislation, guidelines and handler/stockman/operator training programmes should be developed to improve the welfare of buffaloes during all ante mortem stages of loading, unloading, handling, stunning and slaughter.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • A study of associations between gastric ulcers and the behaviour of
           finisher pigs
    • Authors: Kenneth M.D. Rutherford; Carol S. Thompson; Jill R. Thomson; Alistair B. Lawrence; Elisabeth O. Nielsen; M. Erika Busch; Svend Haugegaard; Peter Sandøe
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): Kenneth M.D. Rutherford, Carol S. Thompson, Jill R. Thomson, Alistair B. Lawrence, Elisabeth O. Nielsen, M. Erika Busch, Svend Haugegaard, Peter Sandøe
      Gastric ulcers are a common condition in finisher pigs. A study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that gastric ulceration alters the behaviour of finisher pigs. Two one-hour observations (from video recordings) of home pen behaviour were conducted in finisher pigs, at two farms (one in Denmark and one in Scotland), in the days immediately prior to slaughter. Stomach condition was assessed post mortem according to a pre-established ulcer score index. The behaviour of pigs with healthy stomachs (n = 36) was compared with the behaviour of pigs with deep ulceration of the pars oesophagea (n = 26). Assessment of various predefined postures and behaviours was made by an observer blind to the gastric ulcer status of the observed pigs. Behavioural data from the two sites were combined in a single analysis. Pigs with gastric ulcers tended to spend less time idle (p = 0.081) and less time lying on their left side (p = 0.064), and significantly more time standing (p = 0.009), or walking (p = 0.038) compared to healthy pigs. Pigs with ulcers also showed an increased frequency of posture changes (p = 0.02). A decrease in time spent lying on the left and an increase in standing/walking could both be interpreted as attempts to avoid liquid gastric contents pooling in the cranial region of the stomach. This along with the higher level of posture changes observed may indicate some degree of pain/discomfort associated with the presence of gastric ulcers in pigs. This study is the first to identify apparent behavioural differences between finisher pigs with or without gastric ulcers, and further work is needed to establish to what extent the apparent behavioural differences are a consequence of pain or discomfort for the animals concerned. Since gastro-oesophageal ulceration of pigs is associated with pelleting and fine grinding of feed which in turn is linked to increased growth efficiency there may be a dilemma between on one hand concern for preventing gastric ulcers and on the other hand concern for the efficiency and sustainability of pig production.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Effect of floor type on performance, lying time and dirt scores of
           finishing beef cattle: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Michael P. Keane; Mark McGee; Edward G. O'Riordan; Alan K. Kelly; Bernadette Earley
      Pages: 57 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): Michael P. Keane, Mark McGee, Edward G. O'Riordan, Alan K. Kelly, Bernadette Earley
      Data from individual studies evaluating the effect of housing systems on performance, lying time and dirt scores of finishing beef cattle are conflicting. The objective of this study was to collate the data from previous animal housing studies and quantify, through meta-analysis, the effect of floor type on animal performance, lying time and dirt scores. From 38 peer-reviewed articles, published between 1969 and 2017, 18 were determined to be eligible for meta-analysis. Papers were included in the study if they contained information on the effect of floor surface on animal performance (average daily liveweight gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and carcass weight), lying behaviour or animal cleanliness. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in ADG, FCR or carcass weight between concrete slatted floors (CSF) and CSF overlaid with rubber mats (RM). Using RM had no effect (P > 0.10) on lying duration or dirt scores of cattle. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in the ADG, FCR, carcass weight, lying duration or cleanliness of cattle housed on CSF or straw bedding. It was concluded that using RM or straw instead of CSF had no effect on performance, lying time or dirt scores.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Comparison reproductive, growth performance, carcass and meat quality of
           Liangshan pig crossbred with Duroc and Berkshire genotypes and heterosis
           prediction
    • Authors: Jia Luo; Linyuan Shen; Zhendong Tan; Xiao Cheng; Dongli Yang; Yuan Fan; Qiong Yang; Jideng Ma; Qianzi Tang; An’an Jiang; Dongmei Jiang; Guoqing Tang; Yanzhi Jiang; Xuewi Li; Runlin Yang; Shunhua Zhang; Li Zhu
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): Jia Luo, Linyuan Shen, Zhendong Tan, Xiao Cheng, Dongli Yang, Yuan Fan, Qiong Yang, Jideng Ma, Qianzi Tang, An’an Jiang, Dongmei Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Yanzhi Jiang, Xuewi Li, Runlin Yang, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
      Background The Liangshan breed of pig is well known for its excellent meat quality attributes, but poor carcass quality and growth attributes have limited its economic value. By crossing the Liangshan with western breeds that have strong growth attributes may improve the general performance of the breed. Objectives The objective of this research was to study the effects of slaughter age and cross-breeding on reproduction, growth, carcass, meat quality, and to estimate the heterosis values of the various traits. Materials Samples were taken from 636 pigs of three different genotypes [Liangshan pure breed (LS), Duroc-Liangshan cross (DL), and Berkshire-Liangshan cross (BL)]. Results DL and BL F1 generations showed improved reproductive and growth traits than purebred Liangshan pigs. DL and BL had better carcass quality than LS, with a significant reduction in backfat thickness and sebum rate. Crossbreeds had higher L24 h and shear force, and lower marbling scores than LS. Drip loss in DL was markedly lower than in LS and BL, but BL had the lowest cooking loss, higher L45 min and pH45 min. By estimating heterosis, reproduction traits were significantly improved in both DL and BL. Growth performance showed no significant difference among the breeds. Backfat thickness and loin muscle area was significantly improved in the DL and BL breeds, although there was no difference in lean percentage and sebum rate. BL showed improved heterosis, with excellent intramuscular fat, higher pH45 min, lower L45 min and cooking loss. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that crossing Berkshire with Liangshan pigs could be an alternative genotype in the commercial pork production system.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Calving body condition score combined with milk test data and rectal
           tempreture improved the prognostic value of non-invasive markers for
           infectious diseases in Holestein cows
    • Authors: M. Mansouryar; H. Mirzaei-Alamouti; M. Dehghan Banadaky; M.O. Nielsen
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): M. Mansouryar, H. Mirzaei-Alamouti, M. Dehghan Banadaky, M.O. Nielsen
      Early lactating dairy cows, are predisposed for calving-related diseases. Early prediction of “at risk” animals increases the likelihood of a successful recovery. In this regard, test-days milk data and body condition score (BCS) at calving have been evaluated as potential indicators of cows at-risk, but results were inconclusive. We hypothesised that a combined use of easily accessible data (BCS at calving, net BCS change over the first 2 weeks of lactation, rectal temperature (RT) and first 2 weeks test-days milk data) could improve the prognostic value. A total of 117 multiparous Holstein cows were selected according to their BCS at calving and divided into two experimental groups: a high BCS (HBCS; BCS ≥ 4.0) and a normal BCS group (NBCS from 3.25 to 3.5). The following data were collected and evaluated for each cow: milk yield and composition at the first two milk test-days (week 1 and 2 postpartum), BCS at calving and at the first two milk test-days and RT measured daily from day 1 (parturition) to 14 postpartum. Cows were furthermore monitored for subclinical mastitis (SCM), metritis and endometritis in the postpartum period, and diseases diagnosed using standardized definitions. The predicting value of variables were evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. None of the determined variables provided accuracy individually in prediction of post-partum diseases. Only the mean value of rectal temperature at week 2 (RT2) showed an area under the curve (AUC) higher than 0.60 (AUC = 0.67; P < 0.05); however, with a sensitivity of 0.59 and specificity of 0.81, it cannot be considered a strong predicting marker for endometritis. A combination of markers, which included BCS at calving, net BCS change during first 2 weeks of lactation, milk fat, milk protein, milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) and RT, provided the best accuracy in prediction of SCM and uterine infections. The prediction strength of the combined mode was substantially higher compared to using each of the parameters alone. In conclusion, the combination of easily accessible observational data collected over the first 14 d of lactation, improves the prediction of SCM, metritis and endometritis compared to the prognostic value of the individual markers.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Identifying novel genes for carcass traits by testing G × E
           interaction through genome-wide meta-analysis in Chinese Simmental beef
           cattle
    • Authors: Xiaoqiao Wang; Jian Miao; Jiangwei Xia; Tianpeng Chang; Guangxin E; Jinshan Bao; Shengyun Jin; Lingyang Xu; Lupei Zhang; Bo Zhu; Xue Gao; Yan Chen; Junya Li; Huijiang Gao
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): Xiaoqiao Wang, Jian Miao, Jiangwei Xia, Tianpeng Chang, Guangxin E, Jinshan Bao, Shengyun Jin, Lingyang Xu, Lupei Zhang, Bo Zhu, Xue Gao, Yan Chen, Junya Li, Huijiang Gao
      Over the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have successfully identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with economically important production traits in beef cattle. Environmental factors, such as farm, year, and season, have been included in GWASs to represent systematic effects that can mask environmentally specific genetic effects. Genome-wide gene × environment interaction (GWEI) studies have emerged in recent years, although few have been conducted for livestock because of the considerable associated challenges. Because of the popularity of meta-analyses in GWASs, these analyses have also been applied to detect genotype by environment (G × E) interactions. In this study, we use a meta-analytic approach based on a mixed model to combine five years, which were defined as multiple environments, to identify novel genes involved in G × E interactions for carcass weight (CW) and bone weight (BW) in Chinese Simmental beef cattle. We found two and five novel candidate genes for CW trait and BW trait, respectively. These genes were RIMS2, PRKAR2B, GPR133, AKAP1, PCDH10, and AADAT, with PRKAR2B overlapping for the two carcass traits.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Sward structure and herbage intake of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piatã in a
           crop-livestock-forestry integration area
    • Authors: Eliana Vera Geremia; Steben Crestani; Jorge Daniel Caballero Mascheroni; Roberta Aparecida Carnevalli; Gerson Barreto Mourão; Sila Carneiro da Silva
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 212
      Author(s): Eliana Vera Geremia, Steben Crestani, Jorge Daniel Caballero Mascheroni, Roberta Aparecida Carnevalli, Gerson Barreto Mourão, Sila Carneiro da Silva
      Forage species tolerate varying degrees of shading. In agrosilvopastoral systems, forage plants are able to adjust and partially compensate growth reduction under light stress. These adjustments change morphological proportions and composition along the vertical profile of the sward. Sward morphological composition is directly related to animal intake behavior and performance. One objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different tree shading levels on sward vertical structure of Piatã palisadegrass cultivated in a crop-livestock-forestry integration area. Another objective was to identify the relationship between sward vertical structure and herbage intake by cattle (Boss pp.). Three experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate three shading levels: 1. Full sunlight (FS); 2. Moderate shade (MS; 338 trees.ha−1); and Intense shade (IS; 714 trees.ha−1). Evaluation was performed during three periods in which total rainfall during the experimental period corresponded to 86, 12 and 2% (periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Pastures were rotationally stocked and grazed at 95% canopy light interception (LI) during regrowth (95% LI). Two strategies for taking the reference readings of LI were tested in IS paddocks: LI reading inside (under the tree canopy) and outside (under full natural light) the experimental area. The IS had greatest forage height and proportion of stems, both pre- grazing and post-grazing. Consequently, animals under IS had decreased bite mass and intake rate, pre- and post-grazing except for period 3. There was an effect of shading level on herbage crude protein (CP) concentration. Greatest CP concentrations were observed on IS areas. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) did not vary with shading levels. Herbage dry matter digestibility varied with evaluation period, and lowest values were recorded during period 3. Greater herbage intake was observed on FS and MS relative to IS, due to greater leaf proportion in sward herbage mass. Moderate shading is not so detrimental to system's productivity, highlighting the importance of adequate choice of tree species, plant density and arrangement.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 212 (2018)
       
  • Comparative nutrient digestibility in different ingredients fed to Duroc
           × Landrace × Yorkshire and Duroc × Berkshire × Jiaxing growing barrows
           
    • Authors: J.B. Zhao; G. Zhang; L. Liu; Y.Q. Chen; A.M. Jin; G.L. Liu; K.Z. Li; D.F. Li; S. Zhang
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): J.B. Zhao, G. Zhang, L. Liu, Y.Q. Chen, A.M. Jin, G.L. Liu, K.Z. Li, D.F. Li, S. Zhang
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in nutrient digestibility between Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) and Duroc × Berkshire × Jiaxing (DBJ) growing pigs when fed conventional ingredients. A number of 14 DLY and 14 DBJ growing barrows, surgically fitted with T-cannula in the distal ileum, were allotted to a 14 × 3 Youden Square Design with 7 experimental diets and 3 periods, respectively. Each diet was fed to 2 pigs in each breed, and each period lasted for 15 days, including 10 days for diet adaptation, 3 days for fecal collection and 2 days for digesta collection. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in corn and barley were calculated using the direct method, while those in wheat middlings, rice bran and alfalfa meal were calculated using the difference method. Hindgut disappearance was calculated as the difference between the AID value and ATTD value. Results showed that the AID of ether extract (EE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in corn and barley were greater (P < 0.05) in DLY pigs than those in DBJ pigs. The ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and EE and the hindgut disappearance of gross energy (GE), DM and OM in barley were greater (P < 0.05) in DBJ pigs than those in DLY pigs. DBJ pigs had greater (P < 0.05) AID of histidine, lysine and phenylalanine, and greater (P < 0.05) SID of arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine and valine in corn and barley compared to DLY pigs. DBJ pigs also had greater (P < 0.05) SID of arginine, phenylalanine and valine compared to DLY pigs when fed wheat middlings. In conclusion, the differences in IAA and nutrient digestibility between DBJ and DLY pigs were affected by feed ingredient type. DBJ growing pigs showed significant greater ileal digestibility for most IAAs compared to DLY pigs when fed corn and barley diets.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Blood biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in cows and calves kept in
           a beef suckler system during the early postpartum period
    • Authors: Lana Vranković; Jasna Aladrović; Blanka Beer Ljubić; Ivana Pipal; Nikica Prvanović-Babić; Tomislav Mašek; Zvonko Stojević
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): Lana Vranković, Jasna Aladrović, Blanka Beer Ljubić, Ivana Pipal, Nikica Prvanović-Babić, Tomislav Mašek, Zvonko Stojević
      The early lactation and early neonatal period are characterised by intense changes in bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood biochemical parameters of bone metabolism during early lactation in cows and neonatal calves. The study was carried out on 13 Simmental cows and 13 beef suckler calves in cow-calf operations. Blood samples were obtained at 6 time points: 6, 12 and 48 h and 7, 14 and 30 d postpartum (pp). An increase in the concentration of total calcium (tCa) of cows 14 d pp (P = 0.04), an increase in the concentration of inorganic phosphorus (iP) 12 and 48 h pp (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, respectively), an increase in bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration 7 d pp (P = 0.02, P = 0.02, respectively) and a decrease of total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) activity during the first 14 d pp (P < 0.05) indicated that the early puerperium in cows is an intense period of change in bone and mineral metabolism. An increase of iP and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in calves at 48 h pp (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively), a decrease in BALP concentration at 48 h pp (P = 0.01), higher TALP activity at 30 d pp (P = 0.02) and decreased PTH at 7 d pp (P = 0.04), indicated bone formation and growth in calves. Our results in cows indicated increased bone resorption and Ca loss through milk production. In neonatal calves we demonstrated high bone turnover during the period of intensive growth and development. The results contribute to a better understanding of bone metabolism in the early postpartum period of cows and neonatal period of calves, and also towards the elucidation of disorders of bone metabolism after calving.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Long term differentiated phosphorus supply from below to above requirement
           affects nutrient balance and retention, body weight gain and bone growth
           in growing-finishing pigs
    • Authors: K.U. Sørensen; A.-H. Tauson; H.D. Poulsen
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): K.U. Sørensen, A.-H. Tauson, H.D. Poulsen
      Dietary phosphorus (P) supply has attained increased interest in farm animal production during the last decades due to environmental concern and to limited global phosphate resources. The objective was to study the long-term effect of low (LP; 4.1 g/kg dry matter (DM)), medium (MP; 6.2 g/kg DM) or high dietary P (HP; 8.9 g/kg DM) on the absorption, retention and utilisation of P, calcium (Ca), and protein [N (nitrogen) x 6.25] during the growing-finishing phase (40–100 kg BW) in addition to daily weight gain, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration in serum, and bone length and weight at slaughter. All pigs were subjected to three balances and most traits (daily feed intake, P and Ca but not N balances) were significantly affected by the interaction between diet and balance (P < 0.001). Low dietary P caused reduced feed intake compared to the MP diet. The Ca, P and N absorption, excretion and retention were lower in pigs fed the LP diet compared to pigs fed the MP and HP diets. Oppositely, HP caused increased retention and excretion of P and Ca compared to the MP fed pigs. The absorptive capacity of P, Ca and N increased with age whereas the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P, Ca and N remained constant irrespective of P supply. The length and wet weight of humerus and femur were not affected by dietary P supply, though the defatted dry bone weight was significantly reduced in the LP fed pigs, but similar in the MP and HP fed pigs (P < 0.01). A dietary ratio of 1.4:1 may be tentatively suggested as a proper dietary Ca:P based on both digestible P and Ca and not total P and Ca. The ratio between P:N (retained) of 1:4 along with Ca:N (retained) of 1:3 may also be valuable indicators of sufficient daily P supply in pigs fed adequate protein and amino acids. In conclusion, a daily supply of about 4.6 and 6.7 g digestible P seems to be sufficient to fulfil the physiological need for P to sustain a growth rate of 800–1100 g/day in lean young and growing-finishing pigs, respectively. Deficient as well as excessive P supply resulted in low P utilisation and a relatively higher total P excretion compared to the sufficient dietary P supply. The relative distribution of P excreted through the urine or the faeces depended on the dietary P content.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Effects of perilla frutescens seed supplemented to diet on fatty acid
           
    • Authors: Kaiping Deng; Tiewei Ma; Zhen Wang; Wenjing TanTai; Haitiao Nie; Yixuan Guo; Feng Wang; Yixuan Fan
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): Kaiping Deng, Tiewei Ma, Zhen Wang, Wenjing TanTai, Haitiao Nie, Yixuan Guo, Feng Wang, Yixuan Fan
      The objective of this study was to determine the effect of perilla (perilla frutescens L.) seed (PFS) supplementation on serum lipids metabolism, intramuscular adipocyte size, fatty acid composition and lipogenic genes expression in muscle and liver of Hu lambs. Sixty male Hu lambs (23.02 ± 1.36 kg body weight and approximately 3 months of age) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments receiving diets containing 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% perilla seed (CD, 5%PFSD, 10%PFSD and 15%PFSD, respectively). During the 84 days experimental period, these groups were fed the assigned diets ad libitum. Compared with CD group, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in the serum significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the supplementation of PFS to lamb diets. The supplementation of PFS promote intramuscular adipocyte hypertrophy (P < 0.05). Adding PFS rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) increased the contents of ALA, vaccenic acid (VA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), in longissimus muscle and liver (P < 0.05). However, the contents of C18:1cis9, linoleic acid (LA), and total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and n-6 to n-3 ratio decreased in muscle and liver in PFS groups compared with CD group (P < 0.05). The supplementation of PFS significantly increased PPARα and PPARγ expression and significantly decreased LPL, ACC, FASN, SCD, FADS1, and FADS2 expression (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PFS supplementation in lambs’ diets can influence the metabolism of lipids and promotes intramuscular adipocyte hypertrophy and deposition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in muscle and live tissues.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • The economic value of information provided by milk biomarkers under
           different scenarios: Case-study of an ex-ante analysis of fat-to-protein
           ratio and fatty acid profile to detect subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy
           cows
    • Authors: C. Rojo-Gimeno; V. Fievez; E. Wauters
      Pages: 30 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): C. Rojo-Gimeno, V. Fievez, E. Wauters
      Monitoring systems (MS) provide additional information that many developers and researchers expect will reduce the uncertainty surrounding decision-making in livestock production and therefore enhance management decisions. However, the actual economic value of the information (VoI) yielded by MS has hardly been investigated. The aim of this study was to fill that void based on two objectives. The first is to estimate the VoI of MS prior to implementation using decision analysis based on scarce data from different sources. The second objective is to identify which factors most influence the VoI of MS and to develop recommendations about the focus of future MS development. To illustrate our objectives, we used a case study of two milk biomarkers used to monitor subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows: fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) and the fatty acid profile (FAP). FPR is presently used to monitor SARA, while FAP is a newly developed test, currently in the pre-commercial phase, with reports of better accuracy than FPR. A stochastic decision tree model was used to estimate the expected monetary value of three levels of information with regards to SARA: (i) no monitoring, monitoring (ii) with FPR or (iii) with FAP. The VoI of FPR and FAP were calculated as the difference in expected monetary value of monitoring with FPR and FAP as compared with no monitoring, respectively. Several scenarios were modeled using sensitivity and elasticity analyses. The aim was not only to compensate for the scarcity of data for some variables, but also to identify under which conditions decisions based on FAP monitoring were indeed the best. In all the scenarios, monitoring SARA with FPR had the lowest expected monetary value. No monitoring was a better decision in 70% of the iterations in the scenario that described the most probable situation. The VoI of FAP was positive when SARA prevalence was between 0.21 and 0.79 with its maximum value at 0.61, when the treatment costs were lower than €116/case/year and when the disease costs were higher than €260/case/year. Moreover, an increase of specificity of the FAP to 0.95 yielded a positive VoI, whereas an increase of its sensitivity to 1.0 still yielded a negative VoI, suggesting that developers of the FAP should focus on improving its specificity rather than its sensitivity. To avoid suboptimal use of finite resources while developing MS, we recommend ex-ante investigation of the VoI of the MS under development.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Genomic regions associated with performance in racing line of Quarter
           Horses
    • Authors: G.L. Pereira; L.A. Chardulo; J.A.IIV. Silva; R. Faria; R.A. Curi
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): G.L. Pereira, L.A. Chardulo, J.A.IIV. Silva, R. Faria, R.A. Curi
      Quarter Horses breed for rancing are able to run short distances faster than any other breed. Although in Brazil the effective number of animals in the racing line is relatively smaller compared to the other lines, its economic importance is substantial. Despite economic and scientific interest in this athletic trait, few efforts have been made to better understand the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying this trait. The objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Quarter Horses of the racing line using equine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping chips for prospecting chromosome regions, genes and polymorphisms related to maximum speed index. Genotypic and phenotypic data from 305 horses genotyped with the 54 k or 65 k chip were used. Additional 187 not genotyped animal with SI record were added in the study, for a total of 492 animals and 620 horses in the pedigree used for the GWAS analysis GWAS was performed by the single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) method using two approaches: ssGWAS1 in which only SNP effects are recalculated at each iteration, and ssGWAS2 in which SNP effects are recalculated from updated genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) at each iteration. Twenty-one regions that explained more than 1% of the total genetic variance (gVar) in the maximum speed index were identified by ssGWAS1 and 12 by ssGWAS2. More than 40% of gVar was explained by these regions in ssGWAS1 and about 30% in ssGWAS2. Among chromosomes that explained more than 1% of genetic variance, five were common to both methods (equine autosomal chromosomes 3, 10, 15, 22, 25). The capacity to capture the largest number of small-effect quantitative trait loci was greater for ssGWAS1 than ssGWAS2. A total of 108 genes were identified with the first approach and 59 with the second approach. The present results show that the racing performance of Quarter Horses, given by the maximum speed index, is a quantitative trait and that no major genes exist. In general, the genes identified by enrichment analysis are related to the neuromotor system, bone and tendon development, hormonal responses, muscle contraction, and energy and sterol metabolism. These functions are considered important for the trait studied, corroborating these genes as candidates for racing performance in the Quarter Horse breed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Effect of lipid sources on fatty acid profiles of meat from pasture- and
           feedlot-finished Nellore bulls
    • Authors: G. Fiorentini; M.O. Santana; J.D. Messana; A.L.S. Valente; C.J. Härter; C.H.S. Rabelo; R.P. Barbero; D.P.D. Lanna; R.A. Reis; T.T. Berchielli
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): G. Fiorentini, M.O. Santana, J.D. Messana, A.L.S. Valente, C.J. Härter, C.H.S. Rabelo, R.P. Barbero, D.P.D. Lanna, R.A. Reis, T.T. Berchielli
      We aimed to compare the influence of two lipid sources (soybean grain [SG], and protected fat [PF, Lactoplus], based on soybean oil) with a control diet (no lipid supplementation) on the fatty acid (FA) profile (longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat) of beef cattle finished on grazing pasture or at a feedlot. The study was arranged in a complete randomized design, using 2 × 3 factorial scheme that combined 2 finishing systems and 3 diets. Seventy-eight young Nellore bulls (323.8 ± 25.4 kg body weight [BW] and 21 ± 3 months of age) were divided at random into two finishing systems: 1) pasture-finishing and 2) feedlot-finishing. The diet containing PF increased CLA in the muscle (P = 0.0002). Pasture-finished bulls fed lipid-supplemented diets had significantly more (P = < 0.0001) subcutaneous saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, whereas the PUFA concentration of PF-fed bulls was highest (P = < 0.0001) in subcutaneous fat. The highest (P = 0.0090) concentration of Omega-6 (n6) was observed in the muscle tissue of pasture-finished animals supplemented with SG. However, the lowest concentration (P = 0.0010) of n6 FAs in subcutaneous fat was more evident in pasture-finished animals receiving the control diet. The concentration of C20:5 n3 (EPA) was significantly higher (P = 0.040) in the muscle tissue of animals receiving the control diet in pasture and deposition of EPA was greater (P = 0.0020) in the subcutaneous fat of pasture-finished animals. The highest concentrations (P = < 0.0001) of n3 were observed in the muscle tissue of pasture-finished animals. Animals receiving the control diet in both finishing systems had a lower (P = 0.0051) n6:n3 ratio in muscle tissue. By comparison, feedlot-finished animals showed a higher (P < 0.01) n6:n3 ratio in muscle tissue, and the highest (P = 0.0190) n6:n3 ratio in subcutaneous fat was observed in pasture- and feedlot-finished animals supplemented with PF compared to the control diet. The muscle and subcutaneous fat tissues of feedlot-finished bulls fed the control and SG diets had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) Δ9-desaturase C16 index. The lowest (P = 0.0010) elongase concentrations were observed in the muscle tissue of PF-fed bulls, regardless of finishing system. Overall, bulls finished on grazing pasture had a more desirable FA composition.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Genetic association between mature weight and early growth and heifer
           pregnancy traits in Nellore cattle
    • Authors: B.C. Abreu Silva; J.P. Eler; M.L. Santana; E.C. Mattos; I.R. Menezes; J.B.S. Ferraz
      Pages: 61 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): B.C. Abreu Silva, J.P. Eler, M.L. Santana, E.C. Mattos, I.R. Menezes, J.B.S. Ferraz
      In order to determine whether selection for traits included in the selection index used in a breeding program would increase the mature weight (MW) of females, this study analyzed the association between MW and four traits composing the index: weaning weight (WW), post-weaning weight gain in 345 days (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and muscling score (MUSC). Additionally, the genetic relationship of MW with probability of pregnancy at 14 months (PP14) was analyzed to evaluate the association between MW and sexual precocity. The database included 480,000 Nellore animals from Agropecuária CFM born between 1984 to 2012 on farms in the states of São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás. The heritability for the six traits and the correlations between them were estimated, with special importance being given to the correlation of MW with the other five traits. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The heritability coefficients were 0.22 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.01, 0.50 ± 0.01, 0.22 ± 0.01 and 0.50 ± 0.01 for WW d , PWG, SC, MUSC and PP14, respectively. The genetic correlations between MW and the growth traits were positive: 0.55 ± 0.04 (WW d ), 0.68 ± 0.03 (PWG), 0.07 ± 0.02 (SC), and 0.46 ± 0.01 (MUSC). Selection for WW, PWG and MUSC might be related to an increase in MW of cows. The correlation between MW and PP14 was negative and of low magnitude (−0.03). However, selection for increasing MW in this population of Nellore cattle should not cause genetic change in fertility. The scientific literature on correlation estimates between MW and the PP14 are scarce. Further investigation on the same topic, using different data sets and other approaches are recommended.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Expected value of crossbred dairy cattle artificial insemination breeding
           strategies in virgin heifers and lactating cows
    • Authors: Jorge A. Barrientos-Blanco; Nathanael M. Thompson; Nicole J. Olynk Widmar; Christopher A. Wolf; Lori Unruh Snyder
      Pages: 66 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): Jorge A. Barrientos-Blanco, Nathanael M. Thompson, Nicole J. Olynk Widmar, Christopher A. Wolf, Lori Unruh Snyder
      Research on sexed semen breeding techniques has largely focused on purebred cattle production systems and little work has been done evaluating sexed semen use in crossbred dairy cattle. Complementing a crossbreeding reproduction strategy with sexed semen artificial insemination (AI) has the potential to increase profit potential of sexed semen technology in the short and long run. The objective of this project was to estimate and compare the expected net present value (NPV) of reproduction management programs considering several conventional and sexed semen breeding strategies, cow ages, and breed compositions. While the potential benefits of sexed semen are varied, it is important to note that the focus of this study is on the economic returns to the breeding program. This is not a life-cycle analysis, and therefore, only the sexed semen costs and returns that directly impact the returns to the breeding program are considered. Specifically, a NPV model that incorporates dystocia and stillbirth costs, in addition to improved fertility of crossbred cattle (over purebred cattle), directly into the expected NPV calculation is developed. Increased use of crossbred dairy cattle in the United States make this research particularly timely and relevant. Consistent with previous research, results indicate that pure conventional semen AI and a mixed strategy with one sexed semen AI followed by conventional semen were generally the preferred breeding strategies in terms of expected NPV across all breeds and dam ages evaluated. Similarly, our results also support previous findings that the expected NPV of breeding programs for virgin heifers were consistently higher than lactating cows. In terms of breeds, the crossbreed scenarios generally produced higher expected NPV than scenarios for purebred Holsteins. The most influential factors resulting in these higher returns were the higher cumulative pregnancy rates associated with the crossbreds. Reproductive benefits of crossbred dairy cattle may be able to alleviate some economic pressure currently associated with poor dairy reproduction with AI breeding strategies (especially those incorporating sexed semen). However, it is important to note the likely tradeoffs associated with improvements in fertility (e.g., reduced milk production), the consideration of which is necessary to maximize whole farm profitability.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Benchmarking Bayesian genome enabled-prediction models for age at first
           calving in Nellore cows
    • Authors: Rodrigo Reis Mota; Fabyano Fonseca e Silva; Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães; Ben Hayes; Marina Rufino Salinas Fortes; Matthew John Kelly; José Domingos Guimarães; Jurandy Mauro Penitente-Filho; Henrique Torres Ventura; Stephen Moore
      Pages: 75 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): Rodrigo Reis Mota, Fabyano Fonseca e Silva, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Ben Hayes, Marina Rufino Salinas Fortes, Matthew John Kelly, José Domingos Guimarães, Jurandy Mauro Penitente-Filho, Henrique Torres Ventura, Stephen Moore
      Cow fertility traits are key factors that influence beef production profitability, and is particularly important in tropical environments where achieving high reproductive rates is challenging. Genomic selection (GS) has the potential to improve genetic gain rates for reproduction, if genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for these traits are sufficiently accurate. Several Bayesian models have already been proposed for GS, but the benchmarks used to compare them are still scarce, mainly for age at first calving (AFC) in Nellore cattle. A total of 714 AFC records of Nellore cows and 70 K SNPs were used to compare five models, Bayes A (BA), Bayes B (BB), Bayes Cπ (BCπ), Bayesian LASSO (BL) and Bayesian Ridge Regression (BRR). These models were compared by cross validation, randomly partitioning the whole population into 7 subsets (7-fold) and replicated 15 times. The prediction accuracy were 0.24 (0.11), 0.23 (0.11), 0.33 (0.13), 0.24 (0.11) and 0.38 (0.13), for BA, BB, BCπ, BL and BRR, respectively. Thus, BRR resulted in 14%, 15%, 5% and 14% additional prediction accuracy compared to BA, BB, BCπ and BL, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correlations between GEBVs obtained from BRR and BB models were, 0.97 and 0.94, respectively. It suggested that little difference in terms of animal selection would result from these methods. A more parsimonious model, such as BRR, can be successfully used in breeding programs to generate GEBVs which further enable consistent selection decisions. Although moderate accuracies of GEBV for AFC can be achieved, we found low efficiency of GS for AFC in the present population due to the small sample size and low heritability, reinforcing that GS efficiency is highly dependent upon these factors.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Bamboo vinegar powder supplementation improves the antioxidant ability of
           the liver in finishing pigs
    • Authors: Lihuai Yu; Zhong Peng; Li Dong; Shunan Wang; Luoyang Ding; Yongjiu Huo; Hongrong Wang
      Pages: 80 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): Lihuai Yu, Zhong Peng, Li Dong, Shunan Wang, Luoyang Ding, Yongjiu Huo, Hongrong Wang
      Bamboo vinegar, a natural liquid manufactured from bamboo, has been regarded as a potential antibiotic substitute in animal production. In this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanism of bamboo vinegar powder (BVP) on the antioxidant ability of pigs. A total of 40 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire healthy pigs (80.88 ± 0.82 kg) were selected and randomly allocated into 5 different groups: control group (CG, fed with basal diets); antibiotic group (AG, fed with antibiotic-supplemented diets); 0.5% BVP group (0.5% BVG, fed 0.5% BVP-supplemented diets); 1.0% BVP group (1.0% BVG, fed with 1.0% BVP-supplemented diets) and 1.5% BVP group (1.5% BVG, fed with 1.5% BVP-supplemented diets). With the BVP-supplemented diets, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood increased (P < 0.05), the activities of GSH-Px and catalase (CAT) in the liver also increased (P < 0.05), the activity of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) increased both in the liver and blood (P < 0.05), but the activity of iNOS in the liver and blood decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, the gene expressions of Nuclear related factor 2 (Nrf2), catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1(NQO1), heme oxygenase 1(HO1), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT) in the liver were also increased due to the addition of BVP (P < 0.05). In conclusion, BVP supplementation improved the antioxidant ability of the liver in finishing pigs by increasing the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and decreasing the activity of oxidative stress enzymes. These changes may be due to the activation of the Nrf2-Are pathway.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • A whole-genome association study for litter size and litter weight traits
           in pigs
    • Authors: S. Metodiev; D.M. Thekkoot; J.M. Young; S. Onteru; M.F. Rothschild; J.C.M. Dekkers
      Pages: 87 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): S. Metodiev, D.M. Thekkoot, J.M. Young, S. Onteru, M.F. Rothschild, J.C.M. Dekkers
      A whole-genome association study was performed using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and Bayesian statistical method Bayes B for litter size and litter weight traits in sows from a divergent selection experiment for residual feed intake. A total of 12 traits of litter size and litter weight at birth and weaning were included for the first two parities. We report associations of informative QTL and genes associated with each trait. Different QTL and genes had impact on traits in first and second parity. Most of the important multiple trait genomic regions in first parity were found to be associated with litter weight traits at birth. Genes in the identified regions are involved in implantation and placenta (e.g. PPP3CA, ARHGEF17, KLF17 and RNU5A-1) and in energy metabolism (e.g., UCP2/3, MRPL48, GLO1, and MKK6). The QTL associated with litter size at birth and weaning contained genes involved in embryo development and energy balance during lactation (e.g. SCO1, SEMA5A, and ABHD5). Most of the important multiple trait genomic regions for second parity were found to be associated with litter size traits at birth. The regions contain genes for endometrium, placenta and embryonic development (e.g. ZCCHC7, RG9MTD3, LRIG3, TIGD1, and TCP-1). The QTL that contained genes related to placenta, embryonic development and long-term stress (e.g. FTL, NT5C3, and AVL9) were associated with litter weight traits at birth. Further validation studies on larger populations will improve our understanding of the complex genetic basis of litter size and weight traits.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Access to outdoor swimming pond during summer season improved Muscovy
           ducks performance and health status
    • Authors: Mohamed F.A. Farghly; Usama T. Mahmoud
      Pages: 98 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): Mohamed F.A. Farghly, Usama T. Mahmoud
      This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different outdoor swimming durations on the performance and health status of Muscovy ducks raised during the hot summer season in Egypt. One hundred and eighty (180) one-month old Muscovy ducks were randomly allotted to four treatments based on the outdoor swimming duration offered to birds as following control group (C) where birds were raised by using indoor system without outdoor water pond access. While, birds of the other 3 groups had an access to outdoor swimming pond as follow: birds of treatment one (T2h) had access to outdoor swimming pond for 2 h/day (10:00–12:00 h), birds of treatment two (T4h) had access to outdoor swimming pond for 4 h/day (10:00–14:00 h) and birds of treatment three (T6h) had access to outdoor swimming pond for 6 h/day (10:00–16:00 h). Each treatment includes forty five birds which divided into five replicates of 9 birds each. The results indicated that the different durations of outdoor swimming significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved the growth performance, dressed carcass, abdominal fat, meat quality (color, and flavor), lymphocyte, H/L ratio, body temperature, plumage conditions, keal bone length, body depth, breast blisters score and mortality rate of Muscovy ducks. Moreover, the effects of accessing Muscovy ducks to outdoor swimming pond for 4 h/day during hot summer were more significant than the others experimental durations. However, no significant differences in feed consumption, giblets, meat juiciness, shank length, hock discoloration and blood hematocrit values were recorded between different treatments. In conclusion, accessing Muscovy ducks to outdoor swimming pond for 4 h/day may be a good strategy to improve the ducks’ health status during the harmful hot summer conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Age-related changes of bone ultrasound measurements and metabolic
           indicators in the young horse
    • Authors: M.J. Fradinho; L. Mateus; R.J.B. Bessa; R.M. Caldeira; G. Ferreira-Dias
      Pages: 104 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 211
      Author(s): M.J. Fradinho, L. Mateus, R.J.B. Bessa, R.M. Caldeira, G. Ferreira-Dias
      A longitudinal field study was performed in order to characterize age-related changes of ultrasound measurements, biochemical markers, growth factors and other metabolic variables related with bone metabolism in the young horse. Twenty-seven Lusitano foals (11 colts, 16 fillies), born and raised on four stud-farms, were periodically assessed from birth to 36 months of age. Quantitative ultrasound measurements were performed on the mid-section of the right third metacarpal bone (dorsal and lateral regions) and blood samples were collected for determination of osteocalcin (Oc), bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), leptin, insulin, glucose, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus and magnesium plasma concentrations. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures model that includes the fixed effects of time (days of age), time × time, sex, foaling season, their interactions, and the farm as a random effect. Speed of sound values increased with age (P < 0.001) for both bone regions, but this increase was more pronounced in colts than in fillies (age × sex interaction, P < 0.01). Bone biochemical markers, IGF-I, leptin, glucose and plasma mineral concentrations changed markedly with age (P < 0.01), and a statistically significant age × sex interaction was also observed for leptin (P < 0.01). Leptin and Oc plasma concentrations were negatively correlated (r = −0.098; P < 0.05). In this longitudinal analysis, insulin and PTH concentrations were not specifically influenced by age, sex or foaling season. The present study provided information on a sequence of physiologic events throughout the first three years of life of young horses, under field conditions. Therefore, this detailed characterization of variables involved in skeletal development during such a long period, may become useful for further investigation, even in other breeds.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 211 (2018)
       
  • Prospecting genes associated with navel length, coat and scrotal
           circumference traits in Canchim cattle
    • Authors: Andrea Renata da Silva Romero; Fabiane Siqueira; Gustavo Garcia Santiago; Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano; Maury Dorta de Souza Júnior; Roberto Augusto de Almeida Torres Júnior; André Vieira do Nascimento; Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
      Pages: 33 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Andrea Renata da Silva Romero, Fabiane Siqueira, Gustavo Garcia Santiago, Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano, Maury Dorta de Souza Júnior, Roberto Augusto de Almeida Torres Júnior, André Vieira do Nascimento, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
      The aim of this work was to identify genomic regions and genes in association with the navel length, coat and scrotal circumference traits of Canchim breed of cattle, using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Imputed data from single nucleotide polymorphism type markers were used, with accuracy greater than 95%. The analyses of genome-wide association were conducted by the Bayes B method, implemented in the GenSel program. Non-overlapping windows that explained at least 0.19% of the additive genetic variance were considered as significant, this value corresponds five times the expected for 1 Mb size windows. GWAS indicated 31 regions in association with navel length, one coat region, and four SC-related regions. In these regions, 4 quantitative loci (QTLs) related to navel length and 5 with SC were identified, as for the coat, the QTLs detected did not present previously described relation with this trait. Among the candidate genes in the associated regions, 7 genes were cited in previous studies, with biological functions related to navel length, one for coat and three for SC. The candidate genes TMEM176A and TMEM176AB, which are orthologous in humans, are in association with navel's trait and compose the Androgen Induced 1 cluster. The identification of genes and QTLs, with a function related to the studied traits, previously described in the literature, reinforces the evidence that the found regions are associated with navel length, coat and SC. This information may contribute to the understanding of the genetic architecture involved with of these traits, to guiding genetic validation studies, gene introgression and contribute to include information concerning molecular markers in genetic evaluation of animal improvement programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • The effect of a commercial feed additive on the immune-metabolic axis,
           liver function and predicted carcass quality in purebred Angus steers
    • Authors: S.A. Armstrong; D.J. McLean; G. Bobe
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): S.A. Armstrong, D.J. McLean, G. Bobe
      To determine the effect of the commercial feed additive OmniGen-AF® on immune, physiological, and carcass ultrasound variables in steers during backgrounding, transition, and finishing phases, nine purebred Angus half-sibling steers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Control (n = 4) and OmniGen-AF (OG; n = 5). Cattle were offered 0 (Control) or 56 g daily of OG throughout a 28-d backgrounding period (limit-fed a predominantly forage diet), a 14-d transition period, and a 56-d finishing period on a high concentrate diet (104 days total). During the three feeding periods, whole blood and serum was collected to evaluate markers of immune function and physiology, respectively. Across basal diet phases, OG supplementation increased serum chloride (P = 0.02) and haptoglobin (P = 0.03) concentrations and decreased serum NEFA (P = 0.001) concentrations. At the end of the high-concentrate finishing period, OG supplementation vs. Control attenuated the decrease in serum paraoxonase and the increase in AST concentrations, a marker of liver cell necrosis. Carcass prediction measurements, collected in 30-day intervals during the finishing phase, indicated lower predicted numerical yield grades (P = 0.03) due to higher REA (P = 0.009) and a tendency for less 12th rib fat (P = 0.06) in Control vs. OG steers. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, and predicted quality grades did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, OG may act on the immune-metabolic axis across the three studied basal diet phases to support healthier livers and improved predicted yield grades in Angus steers by decreasing fat deposition and increasing REA.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Effects of feeding systems on rumen environment, degradability and passage
           kinetics in Ankole × Friesian crossbred steers
    • Authors: Denis Asizua; Denis Mpairwe; Fred Kabi; David Mutetikka; Felix Budara Bareeba; Torben Hvelplund; Martin Riis Weisbjerg; Jørgen Madsen
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Denis Asizua, Denis Mpairwe, Fred Kabi, David Mutetikka, Felix Budara Bareeba, Torben Hvelplund, Martin Riis Weisbjerg, Jørgen Madsen
      Natural pastures constitute a large proportion of the feed resource base for meat and milk production in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is increasing use of agro-industrial by-products, especially those that are cereal-based as supplementary feedstuff to grazing animals and in diets under semi-intensive and intensive production systems. This study evaluated the influence of feeding systems on rumen environment, degradability and passage kinetics. Six Ankole x Friesian F1 crossbred steers weighing 339 ± 29 kg (about two years of age), each fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (ns = 2). Two steers were allocated per period to one of three feeding systems i.e. (1) sole grazing (control), (2) control plus concentrate supplement (composition g/kg DM: 375 maize bran, 559 brewer's spent grain, 62.5 molasses and 3.75 NaCl), and (3) feedlot systems where steers were fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising g/kg DM: 200 maize stover, 300 maize bran, 447 brewers’ spent grain, 50 molasses and 3 NaCl. Data was collected on rumen pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Rumen pH was lowest (P < 0.001) at feedlot (5.3) but highest (P < 0.001) under sole grazing (6.2). Rumen NH3-N ranged between 62.8 and 120 mg/l and was higher (P < 0.001) in sole grazing than in grazing but supplemented steers and those at the feedlot. Total VFA concentration for sole grazing steers (124 mmol/Mol) was higher (P < 0.05) than values observed under feedlot (102 mmol/Mol) while grazing but supplemented steers showed an intermediate value (108 mmol/Mol), not differing significantly from the two other systems. Molar proportion of acetate was higher (P < 0.001) in grazing steers compared to values for either grazing but supplemented or those under feedlot while the reverse was true for propionate. The degradation characteristics of DM, CP and NDF were generally higher in sole grazing steers. Although, in most cases, the influence of feeding system on degradability was dependent on the type of feedstuff, feeding systems did not influence total mean retention time. The high extent of DM, CP and fiber degradation in grazing steers compared to supplemented and feedlot steers demonstrates that forage diversity under grazing positively influences degradability. However, attention to the nature and fermentation characteristics of proteins and carbohydrate sources and how they modify rumen environment in different production systems is needed to improve utilization of supplements and TMR.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Risk factors for pre-slaughter mortality in fattening and breeding rabbits
    • Authors: Claudia Caucci; Guido Di Martino; Katia Capello; Matteo Mazzucato; Angela Trocino; Gerolamo Xiccato; Nadia Lago; Michele Brichese; Lebana Bonfanti
      Pages: 55 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Claudia Caucci, Guido Di Martino, Katia Capello, Matteo Mazzucato, Angela Trocino, Gerolamo Xiccato, Nadia Lago, Michele Brichese, Lebana Bonfanti
      Pre-slaughter transportation of rabbits under commercial conditions may influence their mortality, routinely recorded at the slaughterhouse as DOA (‘dead-on-arrival’ rate). The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for DOA, including batch size (number of rabbits loaded), season, stocking density, and transport and lairage duration. A retrospective analysis of 6411 fattening rabbit and 450 breeding rabbit batches transported in a 3-year period to a major abattoir of Northeast Italy was performed. At least one dead animal was recorded in 62% of fattening batches and 14% of breeding batches. Average DOA was 0.08% for fattening rabbits, but in transports with at least one dead rabbit the average DOA was 0.13%. For fattening rabbits, significantly increased DOAs were observed in batches with < 1201 or > 3508 rabbits, mainly during the summer, and at a stocking density higher than 29.3 kg/crate. The highest number of batches at high stocking density was found in winter (61% of all batches). Batches with high stocking density showed a higher DOA even in winter, suggesting that the reduction of space availability does not protect against low temperatures. Regarding travel duration, transports longer than 3 h increased significantly DOA by ≈ 40% compared to transports shorter than 1 h. A lairage longer than 7 h doubled the DOA compared to a lairage shorter than 2 h. The interaction between travel and lairage duration showed that a journey shorter than 1 h can significantly reduce DOA associated with a long lairage. For breeding rabbits, the average DOA in batches with at least one dead rabbit (n = 65), was 1.79%; no significant association with variables was detected.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Reproductive performance, offspring characteristics, and injury scores
           according to the housing system of gestating gilts
    • Authors: Evandro César Pereira Cunha; Tila de Alcantara Menezes; Mari Lourdes Bernardi; Ana Paula Gonçalves Mellagi; Rafael da Rosa Ulguim; Ivo Wentz; Fernando Pandolfo Bortolozzo
      Pages: 59 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): Evandro César Pereira Cunha, Tila de Alcantara Menezes, Mari Lourdes Bernardi, Ana Paula Gonçalves Mellagi, Rafael da Rosa Ulguim, Ivo Wentz, Fernando Pandolfo Bortolozzo
      The time of mixing is a key factor that influences the success of group housing system for gestating swine females. This study compared the effects of three gestation housing systems for gilts on body injuries, locomotion problems, farrowing rate and litter characteristics. The gilts were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments: STALL = gilts housed in individual stalls throughout gestation; PEN7 = gilts group-housed in pens at 7 d after breeding, and PEN30 = gilts group-housed in pens at 30 d after breeding. Farrowing rate was different (P = 0.04) between STALL and PEN7 (89.7% and 83.2%, respectively) whereas an intermediate farrowing rate was observed in PEN30 (84.9%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy maintenance from 28 d to 55 d after AI or from 28 d till farrowing and, as well, the parameters such as the total number of piglets born, born alive, birth weight, the coefficient of variation of birth weight within the litter, and the proportion of piglets weighing less than 1000 g also remained unchanged. The gilts in the STALL group had greater weight and gained more weight up to 107 d of gestation compared to those in PEN7 and PEN30 groups (P < 0.001). A greater chance of increased injury score for skin and claws was observed at 3, 12, and 23 d after housing in PEN7 and PEN30 than in STALL. At 107 d of gestation, PEN7 and PEN30 groups had greater odds for skin injuries, claw lesions, and lameness compared to STALL (P < 0.001). There was no increase in the chance of lameness in STALL but PEN7 and PEN30 groups had greater odds (122.2 and 76.4, respectively) of lameness (P < 0.001) at the end (4.9%, 39.2%, and 26.7%) than at the onset of gestation (3.1%, 0.5%, and 0.5% for STALL, PEN7, and PEN30, respectively). The culling rate as manifested by locomotor problems was found to be greater in PEN7 group than in PEN30 and STALL groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, mixing gestating gilts at 7 d after breeding compromised farrowing rate; however, mixing gilts on day 30 post-breeding did not impair reproductive performance or litter characteristics. Regardless of the mixing time (7 or 30 d after breeding), more sow injuries (skin lesions and lameness) were observed in the ESF system compared to the individual housing in stalls.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Comparison of two herbal essential oils, probiotic, and
           mannan-oligosaccharides on egg production, hatchability, serum
           metabolites, intestinal morphology, and microbiota activity of quail
           breeders
    • Authors: M. Hajiaghapour; V. Rezaeipour
      Pages: 93 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 210
      Author(s): M. Hajiaghapour, V. Rezaeipour
      The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 essential oils, including ajwain essential oil (AEO; Trachyspermum ammi L.) and dill essential oil (DEO; Anethum graveolens L.), compared with probiotic (Pro) and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) on the productive performance, egg traits, serum metabolites, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in quail breeders. A total of 250 female and 50 male Japanese breeder quails at age of 8 wk were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 5 replicate cages per treatment and 10 females and 2 males per cage. The experimental diets were a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with Pro (150 mg/kg), MOS (2 g/kg), AEO (250 mg/kg), and DEO (250 mg/kg). During the 10-wk experiment period, productive performance and egg quality were recorded. At the end of the experiment, serum biochemical metabolites, intestinal morphometric indices, and microbiota counts were determined. The dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, egg mass, daily production, feed intake, chick's weight, and hatchability in quail breeders. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved in quail breeders fed dietary AEO supplement (P < 0.05). Feeding diets containing DEO and AEO resulted in a decrease in blood serum concentration of cholesterol at the end of the experiment (P < 0.05). The quail breeders fed the diet with AEO had a greater number of Lactobacilli in the ileo-cecal region (P < 0.05). The dietary AEO, Pro, and MOS increased villus width and height in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the AEO supplementation had a positive effect on the FCR and microbiota counts of breeder quails. In addition, supplementation of MOS, Pro, and AEO in quail breeder diet improved the intestinal morphology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Urea nitrogen induces changes in rumen microbial and host metabolic
           profiles in dairy cows
    • Authors: D. Jin; S.G. Zhao; N. Zheng; D.P. Bu; Y. Beckers; J.Q. Wang
      Pages: 104 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Jin, S.G. Zhao, N. Zheng, D.P. Bu, Y. Beckers, J.Q. Wang
      Urea has been used in diets of cattle as a non-protein nitrogen source. It is hydrolyzed to ammonia, which can be used for microbial protein synthesis. Use of metabolomics methodologies to study the rumen microbial and host blood metabolic profiles induced by urea nitrogen has not been previously characterized. The objective of this study was to identify changes in rumen microbial and plasma metabolite profiles in dairy cows after urea supplementation using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based untargeted quantitative metabolomic approach. Six dairy cows with rumen fistulas were randomly assigned to two groups used in a two period cross-over trial and each experimental period lasted 21 days. All the cows were fed the same total mixed rations, but were intraruminally supplemented with 180g urea per cow daily or not during the experimental period. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of variance. Differences in rumen and plasma metabolite concentrations in cows from the two groups were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis and identified by searching against related databases. Concentrations of valine, aspartate, glutamate, and uracil in the rumen, and urea and pyroglutamate in the plasma, were higher (P < 0.05) in the urea-supplemented group than in the control group. Metabolic pathway analysis of the affected metabolites revealed that pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, beta-alanine metabolism, valine, leucine, and isoleucine metabolism in the rumen, and urea and glutathione metabolism in the plasma were significantly increased by urea nitrogen. The levels of aspartate and glutamate in the rumen correlated strongly (P < 0.01) with the level of urea in plasma. These findings provided novel information to aid understanding of the metabolic pathways affected by urea nitrogen in dairy cows, and could potentially help to guide efforts directed at improving the efficiency of urea utilization in the rumen.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of Enterococcus faecium on growth
           performance, intestinal morphology, and selected microbial populations of
           piglets
    • Authors: Y.H. Xie; C.Y. Zhang; L.X. Wang; Q.H. Shang; G.G. Zhang; W.R. Yang
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Y.H. Xie, C.Y. Zhang, L.X. Wang, Q.H. Shang, G.G. Zhang, W.R. Yang
      The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of E. faecium on growth performance and intestinal health of 35- to 70-d-old piglets. Two hundred fifty-five 35-d-old crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) piglets were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 3 replicates of 17 pigs per pen. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (8mg flavomycin and 90mg arsanilic acid/kg), and basal diet supplemented with E. faecium preparation (2 × 1010 cfu E. faecium/g) at the dose of 100, 300, and 500mg/kg diet. The average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain to feed ratio (G:F), and diarrhea index were determined during the entire experimental period. At the end of the experiment, 6 pigs from each treatment (2 per pen) were euthanized, and the gastrointestinal pH, small intestine morphological traits, and selected intestinal microbiota populations were determined. The ADG and ADFI tended to be improved with the increasing doses of supplemented E. faecium or the added antibiotics (P = 0.053 and 0.072, respectively), while G:F was linearly or quadratically improved (P<0.05) and the diarrhea index was linearly or quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) as E. faecium supplemented increased. Furthermore, the pH in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and cecum decreased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically as E. faecium supplemented increased. The villus height and villus-to-crypt ratio (V:C) of jejunum were increased (P <0.05) in piglets receiving E. faecium preparation in diet than those fed the basal diet and antibiotic supplemented treatments. Supplementation with E. faecium in basal diet increased (P <0.05) the counts of Lactobacillus spp. in comparison with that of control treatment or antibiotic treatment, while tended to decrease the populations of E. coli and aerobes in small intestine relative to those in control treatment. Thus, inclusion of E. faecium preparation in basal diet could improve G:F and reduce the piglets’ diarrhea index. These effects might be ascribed to the improvement of intestinal health condition, including the improved gut internal acid environment (pH values), increased beneficial selected microbial populations, and better intestinal morphology. Considering all the determined variables, the optimum dietary E. faecium concentration preparation seemed to be about 500mg/kg in piglet's diet.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 210 (2018)
       
  • Genomic diversity and autozygosity within the SA Drakensberger beef cattle
           breed
    • Authors: S.F. Lashmar; C. Visser; E. van Marle-Köster; F.C. Muchadeyi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.F. Lashmar, C. Visser, E. van Marle-Köster, F.C. Muchadeyi
      The SA Drakensberger, as a Sanga beef breed, is a composite of Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Variation within admixed genomes will influence downstream applications such as imputation and genomic selection (GS). Being an indigenous breed with unique characteristics, such as the black coat, within-breed selection of the SA Drakensberger has focused on maintaining breed purity, which furthermore predisposes the breed to inbreeding. This study aimed to primarily identify possible patterns of variation in population-specific parameters such as minor allele frequency (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) that might influence the accuracy of future genomic applications. Second, the study investigated possible patterns of genomic uniformity using runs of homozygosity (ROH) as a measure of inbreeding. Average genome-wide MAF was 0.26 with chromosome-specific MAF ranging from 0.24 (Bos Taurus Autosome; BTA14) to 0.28 (BTA21). The proportion of low-MAF (<5%) SNPs supported average estimates, ranging from 6.6% for BTA23 to 16.0% for BTA14. The r 2 measure of LD was 0.14, 0.17 and 0.22, respectively, when SNPs separated by ≤1Mb, ≤0.1Mb and ≤0.05Mb were considered. LD was generally low, ranging from r 2=0.11 (BTA28) to r 2=0.17 (BTA14) for SNPs separated by ≤1Mb and r 2=0.20 extended only up to <30kb. LD was weaker between SNP pairs including low-MAF SNPs. The ROH identified were predominantly shorter in length, with more than 50% (54.5%) of ROH falling within the <4Mb length interval. Consensus ROH segments were identified and the most prevalent of these occurred on BTA14 and was identified in ∼23% of the sampled population. All coefficients of inbreeding indicated low levels of inbreeding, which corresponded to 3% (F PED), 1% (F SNP) and 7% (F ROH>1Mb). Correlations of F PED with F SNP and F ROH>1Mb were moderate equating to values of ∼0.63 and ∼0.64 (P<0.001), respectively. Such moderate correlations could be attributed to the incompleteness of pedigree records. The direct impact of MAF, LD and relatedness on the accuracy of within-breed genetic improvement strategies and its accompanying methodologies, such as imputation, may influence how different chromosomes are treated or accounted for in future genomic endeavors.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.04.006
       
  • Effect of protein restriction of bovine dams during late gestation on
           offspring postnatal growth, glucose - insulin metabolism and IGF-1
           concentration
    • Authors: S. Maresca; S.O. Lopez Valiente; A.M. Rodriguez; N.M. Long; E. Pavan; G. Quintans
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Maresca, S.O. Lopez Valiente, A.M. Rodriguez, N.M. Long, E. Pavan, G. Quintans
      The objective of this study was determine whether the amount of protein provided to cows during late gestation would affect postnatal growth and lead to changes on glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor concentrations. At 121 d prepartum, 68 multiparous Angus cows were blocked by BW and expected calving date and randomly assigned to low protein level (LP, 6% CP) or high protein level (HP, 12% CP) and were allotted in 12 pens per treatment. At calving, cows were managed together on improved pastures until weaning. Calves were weighed and body measurements were recorded at birth. Blood samples were taken at birth and each 30 d until weaning at 180 d of age. Body weight at birth on HP progeny tended to be great than LP progeny (P =0.06). At birth, calves from LP dams had greater head circumference (P < 0.01), heart girth (P =0.01) and cannon bone circumference (P =0.02). However, head circumference /birth BW ratio (P =0.04), heart girth /birth BW ratio (P =0.01), body length /birth BW ratio (P =0.05) and height /birth BW ratio (P =0.01) was greater on LP calves. Body mass index was greater in HP calves (P =0.04). No differences were found on BW of calves at weaning, adjusted 205d BW and ADG during lactation (P > 0.10). Glucose concentrations were greater on LP calves than HP calves from birth to weaning (81.0 ± 1.5 vs. 76.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl; P < 0.001) without any change in insulin concentrations during preweaning growth (LP= 1.61 ± 0.04 ng/ml; HP= 1.61 ± 0.04 ng/ml; P > 0.10). Insulin-like growth factor concentrations was less on LP calves at birth (P < 0.05) and similar to HP calves during postnatal growth (P > 0.10). These data demonstrate that low protein during late gestation in bovine dams may affect fetal growth with proportional increasing of head circumference and low body mass index. Level of protein compromised glucose regulation in early life and affected the IGF-I concentration of newborn calves.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.04.009
       
  • Teeth clipping, tail docking and toy enrichment affect physiological
           indicators, behaviour and lesions of weaned pigs after re-location and
           mixing
    • Authors: Lingling Fu; Bo Zhou; Huizhi Li; Allan P. Schinckel; Tingting Liang; Qingpo Chu; Yuan Li; Feilong Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Lingling Fu, Bo Zhou, Huizhi Li, Allan P. Schinckel, Tingting Liang, Qingpo Chu, Yuan Li, Feilong Xu
      Re-location and mixing after weaning increase the risk of aggression in weaned pigs. To quantify the effects of tail docking, teeth clipping and toy enrichment on the growth performances, behaviour, lesions, and physiological indicators of weaned pigs after re-location and mixing, a total of 262 weaned pigs from four pig processing treatments were selected and regrouped to two enrichment treatments within each processing treatment. The experimental newborn piglets from 24 litters were treated tail docking and teeth clipping at 3 d of age and weaned at 24 d of age. At 30 d of age, pigs in each treatment were weighed, re-located to a nursery room and mixed into 2 pens. Eight rubber toys were installed in one of two pens in each group. The behaviour of weaned pigs was recorded and observed at 1, 2 and 3 d after mixing. At 3 and 6 d before mixing and 1, 3 and 6 d after mixing, lesions on the body and tail, body surface temperature (BST), respiration rate (RR) and salivary cortisol concentrations were determined. At 85 d of age, all experimental pigs were weighed again. Mortality rate, average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency of pigs were recorded. Pigs with clipped teeth performed less negative social behavior (aggressive attacks/fight) (P < 0.05) and more positive social behavior (non-aggressive social interactions) (P < 0.01) than pigs with intact teeth. Pigs with docked tails performed more positive social behaviour (P < 0.01) than pigs with intact tails. Toy enrichment decreased (P < 0.05) lesions on the ear and front body of pigs, and pigs with docked tail got fewer lesions on the tail (P < 0.01). Intact teeth increased (P < 0.01) RR, while toy enrichment decreased (P < 0.05) RR of pigs. Teeth clipping, tail docking and toys had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG, body weight and mortality rate of pigs from 30 to 85 d of age. These results indicate that toy enrichment and pig processing treatments have positive effects on weaned pigs after re-location and mixing.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.04.005
       
  • Identification, characterization and selection of autochthonous lactic
           acid bacteria as probiotic for feedlot cattle
    • Authors: Natalia C. Maldonado; Cecilia Aristimuño Ficoseco; Flavia I. Mansilla; Constanza Melián; María Elvira Hébert; Graciela M. Vignolo; Maria E. Fátima Nader-Macías
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Natalia C. Maldonado, Cecilia Aristimuño Ficoseco, Flavia I. Mansilla, Constanza Melián, María Elvira Hébert, Graciela M. Vignolo, Maria E. Fátima Nader-Macías
      Livestock microbiota is becoming a focus of interest for veterinaries, animal nutritionists and microbiologists in view to select beneficial bacteria with impact in health and animal productivity. As resident adapted microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, identified and characterized from the homologous host to promote their permanence/efficiency acting as additives in feedlot cattle feeding. Cultivable LAB numbers from cattle feces (CF), pens soil (PS) and feed rations (FR) ranged from 5 to 6 log CFU/g during feedlot permanence. Isolates (500) were identified by (GTG)5-PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, being represented by Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella genera and 20 different species. Genetic mapping showed that predominant LAB species in CF and PS samples were Lactobacillus (Lb) mucosae (34%), Enterococcus (E) hirae (26%) and E. faecium-durans (20%), while in FR E. faecium-durans (46%), Pediococcus (P). pentosaceous, P. acidilactici (17%) and Lb. acidophilus (11%) were mainly isolated. Surface characterization showed most of LAB as high hydrophilic, however several strains from CF and PS revealed strong hydrophobic and auto-aggregative character with a positive correlation between both superficial properties. Adhesion to polystyrene displayed variable biofilm formation patterns for Enterococcus and Lactobacillus strains depending on the presence of Tween in MRS medium. When antagonistic activity of isolated LAB against bovine relevant pathogens was evaluated, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide production were mostly responsible for inhibition; bacteriocin production was shown only by a Lb. mucosae strain. In addition, tolerance to acid and bile salts showed lactobacilli to withstand GIT conditions, while enterococci were more sensitive to low acid environment. On these bases, several Lactobacillus strains may be selected to explore their potential use as direct fed bacteria in feedlot cattle.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.04.003
       
  • The effects of feeding monensin on rumen microbial communities and
           methanogenesis in bred heifers fed in a drylot
    • Authors: E.A. Melchior; K.E. Hales; A.K. Lindholm-Perry; H.C. Freetly; J.E. Wells; C.N. Hemphill; T.A. Wickersham; J.E. Sawyer; P.R. Myer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): E.A. Melchior, K.E. Hales, A.K. Lindholm-Perry, H.C. Freetly, J.E. Wells, C.N. Hemphill, T.A. Wickersham, J.E. Sawyer, P.R. Myer
      Drylot beef cow-calf systems are viable alternative management systems to traditional forage-based systems. In such confinement, adding ionophores such as monensin to the diets of beef cattle is common, and has been shown to improve feed efficiency and increase average daily gain. The addition of monensin is also commonly utilized as a strategy for methane mitigation, as this ionophore class antimicrobial acts to interfere with ion flux primarily within Gram-positive cells through its action as an ion carrier. It is widely accepted that suppression of these ruminal organisms results in the reduction of substrates for rumen methanogenic archaea, reducing methane production. However, several studies have indicated that cattle may adapt to monensin, and within weeks of feeding, may return to prior levels of methane production. Our hypothesis is that feeding monensin to bred beef heifers in confinement will temporarily decrease methane production from shifts in the methanogenic archaeal and bacterial communities. Sixteen fall-born bred heifers were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (n=8 per treatment) and were fed a control diet or a diet containing monensin for 70 days using headgates. In vivo gas exchange of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide and methane production were measured for 24-hour periods throughout the trial using individual calorimeter head boxes. Rumen content sampling was conducted on day 0, 18 and 53 of the trial through oral lavage. Upon completion of sampling, DNA was isolated for ruminal bacteriome composition utilizing deep, next-generation sequencing of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S bacterial rRNA gene. Level of methanogen 16S rRNA was quantified using qPCR. There was a significant reduction in phylum SR1 (P < 0.05). The abundance of several OTUs was reduced between treatment with monensin, including Anaerofustis (P < 0.0001), Shuttleworthia (P < 0.0001) and Order Bacteroidales (P = 0.003). No significant shifts in key ruminal methanogenic archaeal groups as a percentage of total methanogen 16S rRNA occurred (P > 0.05). Heifers fed monensin did not produce significantly less methane than the control (P > 0.05) on a liters per day basis, which was consistent throughout the study. These data suggest methane production is not reduced long-term when animals are fed monensin in confinement. Additionally, the data suggest that monensin supplementation does not suppress all classical Gram-positive populations, rather it influences finer shifts in bacterial species that may be key in ruminant function. Determining the stability of the ruminal microbiome over time in heifers fed monensin may provide further insights to long-term methane mitigation in cow-calf systems.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.019
       
  • Use of different wood types as environmental enrichment to manage tail
           biting in docked pigs in a commercial fully-slatted system
    • Authors: Jen-Yun Chou; Rick B. D'Eath; Dale A. Sandercock; Natalie Waran; Amy Haigh; Keelin O'Driscoll
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jen-Yun Chou, Rick B. D'Eath, Dale A. Sandercock, Natalie Waran, Amy Haigh, Keelin O'Driscoll
      Provision of adequate environmental enrichment on pig farms is a legal requirement under current EU legislation and also alleviates the risk of tail biting. Wood is an organic alternative where loose bedding, which has been identified as the optimal enrichment, is not possible on fully-slatted floors since it may disrupt the slurry system. The study compared four different wood types (beech (Fagus sylvatica), larch (Larix decidua), spruce (Picea sitchensis), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)) as enrichment, taking into account the qualities of the wood, economic considerations, and effectiveness at reducing damaging behaviours and lesions. A total of 800 tail docked finisher pigs on an Irish commercial farm were used. Eight pens were provided with each wood type (25 pigs/pen), and the study was conducted over 2 replicates in time. In each pen a single wooden post was presented to the pigs in a metal dispenser with two lateral chains during the finisher period (12 to 22 weeks of age). The rate of wear, moisture content, and hardness of the wood along with lesion scorings and behavioural observation on pigs were monitored. Spruce was consumed more quickly than other wood types in terms of weight loss and reduction in length (P<0.001), resulting in a greater cost per pig. Pigs were observed interacting with the spruce more frequently than the other wood types (P<0.05). Pigs also interacted with the wood more often than the chains in spruce allocated pens (P<0.001). Overall the interaction with wood posts did not decline significantly across time. However, there was no difference in the frequency of harmful behaviours (tail/ear/flank-biting) observed between wood types, and also no difference in the effectiveness of the different types of wood in reducing tail or ear damage. There was a positive correlation between ear lesion and tear-staining scores (rp=0.286, P<0.01), and between tail lesion and tail posture scores (rp=0.206, P<0.05). Wood types did not affect visceral condemnation obtained in the slaughterhouse. Wood is a potentially suitable enrichment material, yet the wood species could influence its attractiveness to pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.04.004
       
  • Regulation of pancreas development and enzymatic gene expression by
           duodenal infusion of leucine and phenylalanine in dairy goats
    • Authors: Y.C. Cao; X.J. Yang; L. Guo; C. Zheng; D.D. Wang; C.J. Cai; J.H. Yao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Y.C. Cao, X.J. Yang, L. Guo, C. Zheng, D.D. Wang, C.J. Cai, J.H. Yao
      This study aimed to investigate the effect of a duodenal infusion of leucine and phenylalanine on pancreatic development and enzyme gene expression in dairy goats. Sixteen healthy yearling Guanzhong dairy goats of similar weights (29.7 ± 1.4 kg) had surgical duodenal intubation, and were used in a completely random design in this experimental. The animals were randomly divided into the 4 treatment groups, with 4 goats in each group: control, 3 g/d leucine (3 Leu), 9 g/d leucine (9 Leu) and 2 g/d phenylalanine (2 Phe), dissolved in and infused into the duodenum for 21 days. The goats were fed twice daily (0800 and 1800) with 350 g (dry matter) of total mixed rations, and were all slaughtered on the last day of the experimental period for pancreatic tissue sampling. The results showed that leucine and phenylalanine infusion did not affect pancreas weight or protein concentration (P>0.05). However, 9 Leu treatment reduced pancreatic DNA concentration, and both 9 Leu and 2 Phe treatments increased the pancreatic protein:DNA ratio (P<0.05). Leucine and phenylalanine infusions increased pancreatic amylase activity (P<0.05), whereas had no effect on the total trypsin and lipase activities (P>0.05). Treatment with 9 Leu and 2 Phe increased amylase mRNA levels (P<0.05), and 2 Phe increased lipase mRNA levels (P<0.05). Trypsin mRNA levels were unaffected by leucine and phenylalanine infusion (P>0.05). The phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 was increased by leucine infusion (P<0.05), but not by phenylalanine infusion (P>0.05). Leucine infusion also increased the free leucine concentration in the pancreas (P<0.05), and had no effect on glucose concentrations (P>0.05). In conclusion, duodenal infusion of an appropriate amount of leucine and/or phenylalanine can effectively improve the expression and secretion of pancreatic amylase in goats, which is important for improving intestinal starch digestion in ruminant animals. The regulation of the pancreatic amylase expression by leucine and phenylalanine mainly occurs at the transcriptional and/or translational level in goats.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.03.010
       
  • Colostral immunoglobulin concentration and milk production of ewes fed
           salt tolerant forages as alternatives to berseem hay
    • Authors: A.S. Morsy; M.M. Eissa; M.M. Anwer; H. Ghobashy; S.M.A. Sallam; Y.A. Soltan; A.M. Saber; E.A. El-Wakeel; W.M. Sadik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.S. Morsy, M.M. Eissa, M.M. Anwer, H. Ghobashy, S.M.A. Sallam, Y.A. Soltan, A.M. Saber, E.A. El-Wakeel, W.M. Sadik
      Feeding transition ewes on salt tolerant forages was proposed to enhance the immune response and milk production. Forty pregnant Barki ewes were assigned to four experimental diets (n=10 each): i.e. control [40% berseem hay (Trifolium alexandrinum) and 60% concentrate mix] or salt tolerant forage diets [40% either cassava (Manihot esculenta), acacia (Acacia saligna) or atriplex (Atriplex nummularia) and 60% concentrate mix)] for a period of 4 weeks before the expected lambing date until 8 weeks of lactation. Feeding with cassava resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) overall means of IgG and IgM in colostrum and lamb serum compared to other diets throughout the first 24h after birth. Both cassava and control groups showed similar ewe serum glucose concentration, while cassava enhanced (P < 0.05) the milk protein and yield compared to control. Lambs raised by cassava group had the highest (P < 0.05) daily gain compared to other groups. In conclusion, our results suggested that the bioactive components of salt tolerant forages may enhance the immune response and milk production during early lactation period.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.012
       
  • Teat number parameters in Italian Large White pigs: Phenotypic analysis
           and association with vertnin (VRTN) gene allele variants
    • Authors: Stefania Dall'Olio; Anisa Ribani; Giulia Moscatelli; Paolo Zambonelli; Maurizio Gallo; Leonardo Nanni Costa; Luca Fontanesi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Stefania Dall'Olio, Anisa Ribani, Giulia Moscatelli, Paolo Zambonelli, Maurizio Gallo, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Luca Fontanesi
      Teat number (TN) is a major determinant of the mothering ability of sows that in turn influences their reproductive efficiency. Even if the total number of teats is routinely recorded in many pig breeding programmes, its individual side count is not commonly recorded and just few investigations have evaluated the bilateral symmetry of this morphological trait. Several studies in pigs have identified genes or genomic regions affecting teat traits. For example, polymorphisms in the vertnin (VRTN) gene have been associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae and with TN in a few pig breeds. In this study, we evaluated the phenotypic variability of traits related to teat count including number of teats on the left (LTN) and right (RTN) side, TN, maximum number of teats between the two sides (MAX) and teat asymmetry traits (signed and absolute difference between RTN and LTN) in 793 Italian Large White heavy pigs. Furthermore, we genotyped these pigs for the AB554652:g.20311_20312ins291 VRTN gene polymorphism and evaluated its effect on the recorded teat parameters. This polymorphism was significantly associated (P<0.0001) with all investigated traits, except the asymmetry traits. The estimated additive effects were 0.35 for TN, 0.19 for RTN, 0.16 for LTN and 0.17 for MAX, with a favourable effect of the mutated Q allele (the allele derived by the inserted 291bp fragment). Selection for the VRTN Q allele could expedite the genetic progress for teat number and thus might be important to improve reproduction performances of the Italian Large White heavy pig breed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.020
       
  • An evaluation of metabolizable energy content of main feed ingredients for
           growing pigs when adding dietary lysophospholipids
    • Authors: M.J. Kim; A.R. Hosseindoust; Y.H. Choi; A. Kumar; S.M. Jeon; S.H. Lee; B.Y. Jung; B.J. Chae
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.J. Kim, A.R. Hosseindoust, Y.H. Choi, A. Kumar, S.M. Jeon, S.H. Lee, B.Y. Jung, B.J. Chae
      The present study was conducted to test whether the dietary supplementation of lysophospholipids (LPL) affects digestible energy (DE) content of feed ingredients, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance of growing pigs. In Exp. I, 8 growing pigs were alternatively used for 8 dietary treatments including 4 feed ingredients (corn, soybean meal, distiller's dried grains with solubles, and animal fat), and 2 LPL concentrations (0 and 0.1%) in 6 periods to determine DE and metabolizable energy (ME) content. In Exp. Ⅱ, 200 growing pigs were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of body weight with 2 concentrations of fat (high and low) and 2 concentrations of LPL (0 and 0.1%). The experimental diets were fed for 42 d in 2 phases. In Exp. I, gross energy (GE) digestibility, feed DE, and ME were increased in animal fat when LPL were added to the diet. In Exp. II, the pigs fed LPL showed greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of EE, GE, crude protein (CP), and DM In phase II. Pigs fed a high-fat diet had greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of EE, and GE. Gross energy retention was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the high-fat diet compared with those fed the low-fat diet in phase II. During phase I, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs fed the high-fat diet was greater (P < 0.05) than that for pigs fed the low-energy diet. During the second phase, ADG was increased in LPL and high-fat diets (P < 0.05). The overall results showed that pigs fed the LPL or high-fat treatments had greater ADG and feed to gain ratio (F/G). Considering the 2 experiments, it can be concluded that LPL increase the ME of animal fat and improves ADG and F/G in pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.014
       
  • Exploring the association between polymorphisms at 3’UTR SLC11A1 gene
           microsatellites and resistance to tuberculosis: A case-control study in
           Bos taurus dairy cattle
    • Authors: Flavia C. Hasenauer; Sergio G. Garbaccio; Maria E. Caffaro; Carlos Garro; Pablo Huertas; Mario A. Poli; Carlos A. Rossetti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Flavia C. Hasenauer, Sergio G. Garbaccio, Maria E. Caffaro, Carlos Garro, Pablo Huertas, Mario A. Poli, Carlos A. Rossetti
      Bovine tuberculosis is a contagious infectious disease that causes significant economic impact in dairy and meat farms throughout the world. Multiple factors, including host genome, determine the outcome of the infection. Several studies have associated polymorphisms at the two microsatellites (Ms) -Ms1 and Ms2- at the 3´unstranslated (UTR) region of the SLC11A1 bovine gene with innate resistance or susceptibility to some facultative intracellular bacterial infections, such as Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Today, the few studies that investigated the association of those polymorphisms with innate resistance or susceptibility to tuberculosis in cattle, have shown opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role, if any, of the Ms1 and/or Ms2 polymorphisms at the 3´UTR of the SLC11A1 gene in Mycobacterium bovis infection phenotypes in Bos taurus dairy cattle. Jersey (n=149) and Holstein (n=427) cattle under risk of natural M. bovis infection were classified like controls (n=326) and cases (n=250) based on the response to caudal fold tuberculin skin test. Cattle population was genotyped by capillary electrophoresis based on polymorphisms in Ms1 and Ms2 at the 3´UTR SLC11A1 gene. The results presented here showed a lack of association (p > 0.05) between polymorphisms at the 3´UTR SLC11A1 gene and the response to tuberculin skin test in dairy Bos taurus cattle. Further studies are necessary to establish robustly genes or genome regions determining the innate R/S phenotype to Mycobacterium bovis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.012
       
  • Effects of modified montmorillonite adsorbent on performance, egg quality,
           serum biochemistry, oxidation status, and immune response of laying hens
           in late production
    • Authors: X.Y. Qu; J.F. Chen; C.Q. He; F. Chi; S.L. Johnston
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): X.Y. Qu, J.F. Chen, C.Q. He, F. Chi, S.L. Johnston
      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with calcium montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) on layers’ oxidation status, immune response, serum biochemistry, performance, and egg quality. A total of four hundred-eighty 75-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 12 hens in each replicate. The hens were fed the basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, or 1.2g Ca-MMT/kg for 70 d. The Ca-MMT supplementation linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05) increased yolk index, serum total superoxide dismutase activity, and interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G concentrations at d 35, and shell thickness, and serum and liver glutathione peroxidase activity at d 70. With increasing supplementation of Ca-MMT in the basal diet, serum activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased both linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05) at d 35, and alanine aminotransferas activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration decreased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05) at d 70. The evidence indicates that increasing Ca-MMT concentration improved certain quality measurements, and partially enhancing hens’ antioxidant capability and immune function.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.021
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms within rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
           fatty acids binding protein 4 (FABP4) are associated with meat quality
           traits
    • Authors: Ł. Migdał; K. Kozioł; S. Pałka; W. Migdał; A. Otwinowska-Mindur; M. Kmiecik; A. Migdał; D. Maj; J. Bieniek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ł. Migdał, K. Kozioł, S. Pałka, W. Migdał, A. Otwinowska-Mindur, M. Kmiecik, A. Migdał, D. Maj, J. Bieniek
      Fatty acids binding protein 4 (FABP4; a-FABP) belongs to a family of proteins interacting with fatty acids and influencing lipid metabolism. Thus it may play an important role in rabbit fatness traits. The work was aimed at identifying SNPs within the rabbit FABP4, and their association with fatness traits. Panel of 20 animals’ DNA with varying content of intramuscular fat were sequenced. Alignment of the sequences obtained revealed seven polymorphic sites within the rabbit FABP4: four silent (g.97156738G>A/ rs880004109; g.97156696A>G/ rs880004111; g.97156168G>A/ rs88000411 and g.97156084G>A/ rs880004114), two located in introns - g.97156187A>C/ rs880004112 and g.97156025G>A/ rs880004115, and one missense mutation g.97156692C>A/ rs880004110 (D77Y). A pool of data from 320 F2 crossbreds Belgian Giant Grey x New Zealand White rabbits was used for association analysis. The Bonferroni adjustment was applied for correction for multiple testing. Statistical analysis showed association for g.97156025G>A for L⁎45 (P= 0.0001) and L⁎24 (P= 0.0001) values after slaughter of m. longissimus lumborum. Moreover correlations between analyzed traits were calculated. We conclude that SNPs within the rabbit FABP4 gene are associated with fatness and meat traits and therefore they have potential use in breeding programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.018
       
  • BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS REDUCES MILK YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURN
    • Authors: J.L. Gonçalves; C. Kamphuis; C.M.M.R. Martins; J.R. Barreiro; T. Tomazi; A.H. Gameiro; H. Hogeveen; M.V. dos Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.L. Gonçalves, C. Kamphuis, C.M.M.R. Martins, J.R. Barreiro, T. Tomazi, A.H. Gameiro, H. Hogeveen, M.V. dos Santos
      The effect of different pathogens was studied by evaluating the contralateral (healthy and infected) mammary quarters of 146 lactating cows. The impact of SM on economic return (quarter milk yield × milk price) was determined by applying milk payment estimates on milk collected from healthy vs. infected glands. Cows were considered infected when they had at least 2 out of 3 weekly composite SCC results > 200×103 cells/mL and a microbiological culture (MC) positive result from composite foremilk samples, collected in the third week of sampling. Infected cows were evaluated a second time within 15 days and had milk yield measured at the quarter level and foremilk samples collected by aseptic technique for analysis of MC, milk composition and SCC. Of the 611-composite milk samples, 397 (65%) were culture-negative, and 214 (35%) were culture-positive and the most frequent isolated bacteria were Corynebacterium spp. (7.9%), coagulase negative staphylococci (5.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.3%), Streptococcus uberis (4.6%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.9%), other environmental streptococci (2.4%), Gram-negative isolates (2.4%), Enterococcus spp. (1.4%) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.7%). A total of 55 pairs of healthy contralateral quarters (control) were compared, and no difference was observed between them when evaluating SCC, milk yield, fat and protein concentration and economic return. A total of 124 pairs of healthy had lower SCC (274.9×103 cells/mL) than infected contralateral quarters (SCC of 1,038.5×103 cells/mL). At the quarter level, IMI caused by minor pathogens had no effect on SCC, milk yield and economic return. Subclinical mastitis caused by contagious and environmental pathogens increased SCC and decreased milk yield when compared with healthy contralateral quarters. Moreover, quarters infected by contagious pathogens had increased concentrations of milk protein and fat when compared with healthy contralateral quarters. Therefore, the milk economic return was lower in quarters with SM caused by environmental pathogens (US$ 0.18/quarter.milking) and contagious (US$ 0.22/quarter.milking) when compared with healthy contralateral quarters. The milk losses ranged from 0.07kg/quarter.milking to 1.4kg/quarter.milking and the economic losses ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.4/quarter.milking according to the pathogen causing SM.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2018.01.016
       
 
 
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