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Journal Cover Livestock Science
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3041 journals]
  • Factors influencing Awassi lambs survivorship under fields conditions
    • Authors: Anas Abdelqader; Rabie Irshaid; Mohammad Jihad Tabbaa; Mohannad Abuajamieh; Hosam Titi; Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Anas Abdelqader, Rabie Irshaid, Mohammad Jihad Tabbaa, Mohannad Abuajamieh, Hosam Titi, Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
      The objective of this study was to investigate the pre-weaning survival rates of Awassi lambs and identify the causes of death in extensive and semi-extensive production systems. The study was designed to collect data under field conditions. Data were recorded on 29,290 lambs born alive during lambing seasons from 2011 to 2015. Postmortem autopsy findings were collected from 5448 lambs died during the pre-weaning period. About 63.5% of losses occurred during the first 7 days of life. The overall pre-weaning mortality rates were 19.7% and 16.9% in the extensive and semi-extensive production systems, respectively. Lamb birth weight had a strong effect (P<0.0001) on the pre-weaning mortality rate. The mean mortality rate in lambs weighed <2kg at birth was 45.1%. The proportion of autopsied lambs dying by category was starvation (28.6%), respiratory infections (19.2%), gastrointestinal infections (16.2%), birth injuries (10.2%), hypothermia (8.6%), enterotoxaemia (8.2%), dystocia (4.4%) and predation (2.1%). Explanatory variables best used by Weibull model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of lambs falling into a certain death category were production system, lamb sex, birth type, and lamb birth weight. Lambs born in extensive production system were more (P<0.0001) likely to die from starvation (HR=4.6), gastrointestinal infections (HR=3.2), and hypothermia (HR=2.2), compared with semi-extensive system. Lambs weighed <2kg at birth were more (P<0.0001) likely to die from starvation (HR=5.5), hypothermia (HR=3.6), gastrointestinal infections (HR=2.4) and respiratory infections (HR=2.2), compared with lambs weighed 3–4kg. Triplet lambs were 4.6 more (P<0.0001) likely to die from hypothermia and 4.3 more (P<0.0001) likely to die from starvation. Survival rates of Awassi lambs can be improved by applying appropriate management practices that target intermediate birth weights and minimize the infectious diseases, starvation and cold stress.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Effects of grazing and feedlot finishing duration on the performance of
           three beef cattle genotypes in Uganda
    • Authors: Denis Asizua; Denis Mpairwe; Fred Kabi; David Mutetikka; Torben Hvelplund; Martin Riis Weisbjerg; Jørgen Madsen
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Denis Asizua, Denis Mpairwe, Fred Kabi, David Mutetikka, Torben Hvelplund, Martin Riis Weisbjerg, Jørgen Madsen
      Beef production in Uganda is progressing from the traditional pastoral practices to sedentary semi-intensive systems. Consequently, farmers are continuously crossbreeding the indigenous cattle with exotic genotypes to improve meat yield. This study was conducted on-farm to evaluate the effects of feeding systems and feeding durations on performance of three locally available genotypes. A 2×3×3 factorial experiment was used to randomly allot 108 young bulls (9–15 months old), 36 for each of the three genotypes; Ankole x Holstein Friesian (AXF) (175±22kg), pure Boran (208±34kg) and a composite genotype (212±35kg). The bulls were allotted to two feeding systems and three finishing durations. The feeding systems comprised sole grazing as the control where animals only grazed natural pastures and feedlot finishing where animals were fed a locally formulated total mixed ration containing 200 maize stover, 300 maize bran, 447 brewers’ spent grain, 50 molasses and 3 salt (NaCl) as g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis. The three durations were 60, 90 and 120 days excluding 14 days of adaptation period. Data was collected on feed intake, growth, slaughter and carcass characteristics. The Boran consumed less DM per kg of body weight gain than the AXF and composite. Feed conversion ratio (kg DM/kg body weight gain) ranged between 6.3±0.6 to 8.2±1.5 at the feedlot and 11.1±4.1 to 17±4.0 for all genotypes and all durations. Growth and slaughter characteristics did not vary (P>0.05) between genotypes. However, carcass quality grade scores were higher (P<0.05) in the pure Boran and the composite genotypes than in the AXF crossbreds at 120 days of finishing. Average daily live weight gain (ADG) for all genotypes was approximately twice under feedlot finishing compared to sole grazing while hot carcass weight under feedlot was only higher than that of sole grazing by 30kg in AXF, 37kg in Boran and 45kg in composite genotype at 120 days of finishing. Hot carcass weight and dressing percentages were similar (P>0.05) between genotypes irrespective of the feeding system for all durations but hot carcass weight was higher (P<0.05) at the feedlot for all durations. Therefore, intensification through feedlotting is a viable option for improving beef production. However, understanding the appropriate levels of crossing between genotypes is needed to achieve the desired improvement in productivity from crossbreds.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Effects of feeding time with betaine diet on growth performance, blood
           
    • Authors: Byung S. Park; Sang O. Park
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Byung S. Park, Sang O. Park
      The objective of this study was to determine effect of the diet containing 1200 betaine diet on blood biomarkers, electrolytes, gas and cecum short-chain fatty acid profile in meat ducks exposed to very hot environment (high relative humidity) conditions from d 21–42 (11:00 to 17:00h; 33–43°C; 70% relative humidity). On the day of hatching, a total of 320 meat ducks(average, 48.6g body weight) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 4 pens per treatment and 20 ducks per pen for 42 d. Dietary treatments consisted of: 1) the control diet fed ad libitum, 2) the betaine diet fed ad libitum, 3) the betaine diet fed from 05:00 to 10:00 and 17:00 to 20:00h, and 4) the betaine diet fed from 17:00 to 20:00h. Ducks fed the betaine diets had greater body weight at d 42 than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). The total red blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, platelet count, plateletcrit and mean platelet volume concentration in ducks fed the control diet were lower than those fed the betaine diets (P<0.05). Blood electrolyte concentrations in ducks fed the betaine diet at different feeding times had greater values than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, base excess of extracellular fluid, bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations in ducks fed the control diets were lower than those on the betaine treatments (P<0.05). Respective to ducks fed the betaine diets had greater concentrations of total SCFA, acetic acid, propionic acid in the cecum than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). However, ducks fed the betaine diets had lower levels of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). The body weight, feed intake, sodium, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base excess of extracelluar fluid, mean corpuscular volume in ducks fed the betaine diet from fed 05:00 to 10:00 and 17:00 to 20:00h were greater (P<0.05) than those fed the betaine diet ad libitum and from 17:00 to 20:00h. The results of this study indicated that restricted feeding of the diet with 1200ppm betaine in morning and afternoon can have beneficial effects on meat ducks exposed to the very hot environment (high relative humidity) condition.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Comparing gestating sows housing between electronic sow feeding system and
           a conventional stall over three consecutive parities
    • Authors: J.C. Jang; J.S. Hong; S.S. Jin; Y.Y. Kim
      Pages: 37 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): J.C. Jang, J.S. Hong, S.S. Jin, Y.Y. Kim
      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gestating sows housed in groups with electronic sow feeding (ESF) system over three consecutive parities. A total of 83 pregnant gilts [Yorkshire×Landrace] were housed into ST: gilts housed in individual stalls, and ESF: gilts housed in groups with ESF system on the basis of body weight (BW) and backfat thickness (BFT) in a completely randomized design. Rice hulls were used as bedding material on the group housing floor. The same commercial gestating diet was provided daily at 2.0kg, 2.2kg and 2.4kg/day in the first, second and third parity, respectively, in both treatments. All sows introduced farrowing crates five days before expected farrowing. BW and BFT of the sows were measured at d 35, and 110 of gestation as well as at 12h and d 21 postpartum. Parturition time was recorded during farrowing. Reproductive performance, including total born, stillborn, mummy, born alive, mortality, weaning pigs as well as litter and piglet weight were recorded. Scratch incidence and locomotion scores in sows were assessed at d 36, 70, and 110, respectively. Ten sows in each treatment were randomly selected for blood sampling. Serum samples were analyzed for cortisol and oxytocin levels. In the gestation period, ESF tended to increase BW gain in the second parity (P=0.08), and consistently showed significance during the third parity (P<0.01), resulting in higher BW at d 110 (P=0.10, P<0.03 in parities 2 and 3, respectively). Similarly, BFT gain tended to be higher in ESF than ST (P=0.08, P=0.10 in parity 1 and 2, respectively). Estimated body fat contents changes are also higher in ESF regardless of the parities (P<0.01, P<0.02, P=0.10 in parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively). However, there were no significant differences on sow BW and BFT changes during lactation. There was a tendency of shorten duration of farrowing in the ESF treatment (P=0.07, P=0.09, and P=0.10 in parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively). In reproductive performances, higher piglet stillborn in ST was observed (P=0.06, P=0.07 in parities 2 and 3, respectively). In endocrinal analysis, ST higher serum cortisol was observed at d 110 of gestation (P<0.01 in parity 1), whereas no detectable difference was observed in the serum oxytocin level. Higher incidence of body scratch was scored in ESF treatment in early gestation in all parities (P<0.01). Likewise, ESF treatment were observed higher locomotor disorders in the middle and late gestation periods (P=0.07). In conclusion, our results suggested that the Group housing with ESF system showed higher growth performance and survival rate of piglets. However, more incidences of body scratch and higher locomotion disorder scores observed in the ESF sows was due to the combination of persistent fighting around the ESF machines and inadequate bedding materials. Consequently, it is necessary to consider an adequate space divider or barrier for gestating sows to avoid aggression in the group housing with ESF system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Increase of fat-free mass and low percentage of body fat in Brazilian
           sport horses training under tropical climate
    • Authors: Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha; Ana Cláudia Tavares Miranda; Fernando Queiroz de Almeida; Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
      Pages: 46 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Ana Cláudia Tavares Miranda, Fernando Queiroz de Almeida, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
      This study aimed to determine the subcutaneous fat layer thickness, percentage of body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass of Brazilian sport horses at different levels of training for and competing in eventing and the effects of a tropical climate in the body composition of athletic horses. The study included 17 Brazilian sport horses aged between 4 and 10 years. Group 1 included young horses aged from 4 to 6 years training for Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) one-star events, and group 2 comprised adult horses aged from 7 to 10 years in training for FEI two-star events. The training protocol comprised exercise for 5 days a week for 60min, including flatwork, aerobic conditioning, and jumping, both track and natural obstacles. The equines were weighted, and rump fat layer was determined by measuring the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue at the region of the gluteus medius muscle using ultrasound. The ultrasound evaluation was performed at the end of the equestrian season, which lasted 9 months. An increase in the body weight, fat layer, percentage of body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass was observed in group 2 compared with the overall group and group 1, although the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Despite the important increase in the percentage of body fat between young and adult horses, 4.87±1.22% and 5.64±1.90% found in group 1 and 2, respectively, it did not differ statistically (p=0.3775). This fact may contribute to a decline in their performance because fat can be a key source of energy. Lower mean values of all parameters were observed in group 1 than in group 2. In conclusion, Brazilian sport horses training for and competing in eventing under tropical conditions have the body composition accustomed for this equestrian discipline. Brazilian sport horses training for and competing in eventing have high values of fat-free mass and low percentage of body fat and fat mass, demonstrating the athletic capability of these horses. There were no significant changes in the body condition of young and adult Brazilian sport horses. A hot, humid environment led to an increase of weight and body condition.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Vitrification of immature and in vitro matured bovine cumulus-oocyte
           complexes: Effects on oocyte structure and embryo development
    • Authors: Dowglish F. Chaves; Emilie Corbin; Carmen Almiñana; Yann Locatelli; Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan; Maajid H. Bhat; Vicente J.F. Freitas; Pascal Mermillod
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Dowglish F. Chaves, Emilie Corbin, Carmen Almiñana, Yann Locatelli, Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan, Maajid H. Bhat, Vicente J.F. Freitas, Pascal Mermillod
      This study aimed to verify the effects of cryoprotectant and Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification on ultrastructural changes in bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, the cryoprotectant exposure was analyzed by distributing immature and matured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in groups: control immature, immature and exposed to one vitrification solution (IVS1), immatured and exposed to two vitrification solutions (IVS1-2), matured and exposed to one vitrification solution (MVS1), matured and exposed to two vitrification solutions (MVS1-2), control matured, IVS1 post in vitro maturation (IVS1 post IVM) and IVS1-2 post in vitro maturation (IVS1-2 post IVM). In experiment 2, immature and matured COCs were distributed in: control and vitrified by OPS using VS1-2. Sample COCs from both experiments were evaluated for mitochondrial distribution, nuclear lamins (immature COCs) and meiotic spindle (matured COCs). In both experiments, COCs were in vitro matured and fertilized. In experiment I, nuclear lamins in immature COCs exhibited higher proportion of structures with irregular shape when treated with VS1 and VS1-2. Immature and matured COCs treated with VS1-2, and matured COCs treated with VS1 had lower (P<0.05) blastocyst development (29%, 20% and 8%, respectively) than control and immature COCs treated with VS1 (51% and 41%, respectively). In experiment 2, immature oocytes exhibited more (P<0.05) structures with irregular lamin (72%) than control (9%). Vitrification of matured COCs did not induce abnormalities of meiotic spindle, compared to control matured (25% and 37%, respectively) (P>0.05). The cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in matured vitrified than immature vitrified group (19% vs. 8%). In conclusion, immature COCs were more tolerant to cryoprotectant exposure. However, matured oocytes showed better embryo development (cleavage) after vitrification.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Reasons and risk factors for on-farm mortality in Estonian dairy herds
    • Authors: Kaari Reimus; Toomas Orro; Ulf Emanuelson; Arvo Viltrop; Kerli Mõtus
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kaari Reimus, Toomas Orro, Ulf Emanuelson, Arvo Viltrop, Kerli Mõtus
      Mortality of dairy cattle causes financial loss for the farmer and reflects animal welfare status. The aim of this study was to determine the on-farm mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia), reasons, as well as risk factors for on-farm mortality in Estonian dairy cattle. Data of years 2013 and 2014 about all cattle from dairy herds in Estonia was collected from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board. The dataset included records of 363,380 animals from 2,616 herds. Multivariable Weibull proportional hazard models with herd as random effect were composed for detecting significant associations between potential risk factors and on-farm mortality (composed outcome including unassisted death and euthanasia). Data from Estonian Livestock Performance Recording Ltd was used to determine the reasons for on-farm mortality. The overall mortality rate (MR) including unassisted death and euthanasia was 6.95 per 100 animal-years. Mortality was highest in male (MR = 55.96 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 54.53; 57.42) and female (MR = 27.70 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 26.99; 28.43) calves up to three months old and lowest in female cattle aged 12–18 months (MR = 0.99 per 100 animal-years, 95% CI 0.89; 1.10). The main farmers´ stated reasons for dairy cow mortality were ‘Metabolic and digestive disorders’ and ‘Feet/claw disorders’. The main reasons for on-farm mortality among youngstock were ‘Metabolic and digestive disorders’, ‘Respiratory and infectious diseases’ and ‘Other reasons’. The risk factor analysis was carried out in three age categories: <3 months, 3–23 months and ≥24 months. Estonian Holstein breed was associated with significantly higher risk of mortality compared to Estonian Red breed cattle in every age group. The hazard of on-farm mortality was significantly higher for herds with over 400 animal-years compared to smaller herds in all age groups. Regional differences in mortality hazard were present in the model of youngstock over 3 months and adult cattle. Seasonal differences in mortality rate were present and differed by age groups. This is the first study revealing the on-farm mortality and related risk factors in Estonian dairy cattle population.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Genome-Wide Association study for Milk Production in Egyptian Buffalo
    • Authors: Nermin El-Halawany; Hamdy Abdel-Shafy; Abd-El-Monsif A. Shawky; Magdy A. Abdel-Latif; Ahmed F.M. Al-Tohamy; Omaima M. Abd El-Moneim
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Nermin El-Halawany, Hamdy Abdel-Shafy, Abd-El-Monsif A. Shawky, Magdy A. Abdel-Latif, Ahmed F.M. Al-Tohamy, Omaima M. Abd El-Moneim
      With the aim of characterizing the genetic background of Egyptian buffalo and identifying genomic regions and potential causative mutations associated with milk yield, we performed a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in Egyptian buffalo using Axiom Buffalo Genotyping Array 90K. This study was carried out with 250 buffalo cows using 89,069 daily milk records. After quality control, a total of 42,269 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained for further analysis. Genome-wide analysis was performed in the way of SNP-by-SNP, through regressing the observations of an average daily milk yield deviations on SNP alleles. Several genomic regions were detected with suggestive signals of association on chromosomes BTA1, BTA5, BTA6, and BTA27. The most significant SNP (Affx-79526274) was located on chromosome BTA27. The convincingly associated SNPs were located within or close to several candidate genes. A GO analysis ranked immune response at the top of all biological process associated with those genes. This is the first GWAS in Egyptian buffalo. Although a small sample size was used in this study, several suggestive genomic loci associated with daily milk production were detected. Further work is required on a larger sample size with fine mapping of identified QTL to detect potential candidate regions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Impact of total dissolved solids in drinking water on nutrient utilisation
           and growth performance of Murrah buffalo calves
    • Authors: Amit Sharma; S.S. Kundu; Hujaz Tariq; N. Kewalramani; R.K. Yadav
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Amit Sharma, S.S. Kundu, Hujaz Tariq, N. Kewalramani, R.K. Yadav
      This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of total dissolved solids (TDS) in drinking water on nutrient intake, utilisation and performance of growing Murrah buffaloes under tropical climatic conditions (maximum ambient temperature (Tmax) = 10 to 42.6°C; relative humidity (RH) = 10 to 100%). Twenty male Murrah buffalo calves were divided according to body weight (BW = 220 ± 36kg) into 5 groups viz. 557, 2571, 4467, 6113 and 8789 which were offered water containing TDS 557, 2571, 4467, 6113 and 8789mg/L, respectively for a period of 165 days. Animals in all groups were offered a total mixed ration (crude protein = 10.3% and metabolisable energy = 8.6 MJ/kg dry matter) prepared from green oats, concentrate mixture and wheat straw in 20:35:45 proportion daily. Results revealed an increase in the concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) ions with increasing levels of TDS in drinking water. Daily drinking water (L/100kg BW) and dry matter intake (kg/100kg BW) decreased (P < 0.05) by 36.1 and 17.2% in group 8789 as compared to group 557. Similarly, average daily gain (g/d) and nitrogen intake (g/d) was lower (P < 0.05) in groups 6113 and 8789 in comparison to all other groups. However, nutrient digestibility and concentration of major minerals (Na, Ca, K and Mg) in plasma showed non significant differences among the groups. Overall it can be concluded that TDS level >4500mg/L in drinking water adversely affected water and feed intake which ultimately resulted in reduced growth performance of Murrah buffalo calves.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and
           intestinal morphology of growing turkeys fed diet supplemented with
           arginine
    • Authors: A.O. Oso; G.A. Williams; O.O. Oluwatosin; A.M. Bamgbose; A.O. Adebayo; O. Olowofeso; V. Pirgozliev; A.A. Adegbenjo; S.O. Osho; J.O. Alabi; F. Li; H. Liu; K. Yao; W. Xin
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.O. Oso, G.A. Williams, O.O. Oluwatosin, A.M. Bamgbose, A.O. Adebayo, O. Olowofeso, V. Pirgozliev, A.A. Adegbenjo, S.O. Osho, J.O. Alabi, F. Li, H. Liu, K. Yao, W. Xin
      A 8-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Arg on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and intestinal morphology of growing turkeys. A total of one hundred and eighty 56-d-old male grower turkeys were weighed individually and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens and 10 turkeys per pen in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, and 1.0g Arg/kg. Growth response was measured during the grower (d 56 to 84) and finisher (d 84 to 112) phases, while nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and intestinal morphology were measured at d 84 and 112. Arginine supplementation had no effect on growth response during the grower phase. During the finisher phase, feed conversion ratio decreased initially as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 0.5g/kg, but it increased with the 1.0g Arg/kg (quadratic, P = 0.028). At d 84, grower turkeys fed diets supplemented with 1.0g Arg/kg had greater (linear, P < 0.001) apparent dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract digestibility. At d 84, greatest apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy, and true metabolizable energy values were obtained with grower turkeys fed diet supplemented with 0.5g Arg/kg (quadratic, P < 0.001). At d 84, duodenum, and ileum villus height in grower turkeys increased linearly, and quadratically (P < 0.001) with increasing Arg supplementation. Dietary supplementation with Arg reduced the apical widths in duodenum (linear, P = 0.003; quadratic, P < 0.001), jejunum (linear and quadratic, P < 0.001), and ileum (linear, P = 0.010; quadratic, P = 0.004) of grower turkeys. At d 112, jejunum villus height (quadratic, P = 0.042), and ileum villus height (linear, P = 0.022; quadratic, P = 0.042) of finisher turkeys increased, while duodenum apical widths reduced (quadratic, P = 0.033) with increasing Arg supplementation. In conclusion, Arg supplementation showed a linear improvement in nutrient digestibility of grower turkeys at d 84, increased nutrient absorption in grower, and finisher turkeys as indicated by increased intestinal villus height at d 84, and 112. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with 0.5g Arg/kg promoted a quadratic improvement in feed conversion ratio of finisher turkeys, and metabolizable energy values of grower turkeys at d 84.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effect of the gestation and lactation on fiber diameter and its
           variability in Peruvian alpacas
    • Authors: Alan Cruz; Renzo Morante; Isabel Cervantes; Alonso Burgos; Juan Pablo Gutiérrez
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Alan Cruz, Renzo Morante, Isabel Cervantes, Alonso Burgos, Juan Pablo Gutiérrez
      A study was conducted to know the influence of the pregnancy and lactation states on the fiber performance in alpacas at Pacomarca experimental farm in the Peruvian highlands. Records obtained from the regular performance recording software of the farm were used, gathering 8648 records of 1541 females and 366 males of Huacaya ecotype, and 2410 records of 374 females and 132 males of Suri ecotype, registered from 2001 to 2015 and belonging to animals of three or more years. A mixed linear model for fiber diameter, standard deviation and coefficient of variation fitted the physiological state with five categories (milking, pregnant, milking and pregnant, open females and males) as an effect jointly with others such as year of recording, age from 3 to 9 or more years old and coat color. Huacaya and Suri ecotypes were independently analyzed. All the effects included in the model appeared as highly significant, being the paired differences less significant in Suri because of the lower number of records. Lactation physiological state appeared as an important effect affecting fiber performance, explaining a difference of 1.2 and 1.0µm of differences in respectively Huacaya and Suri pregnant females, while pregnancy appeared with a much less relevant influence. Other factors greatly influenced the fiber diameter. Thus, age had a very important effect increasing 3.71µm from 3 to 9 years of age in huacaya and 4.52µm en Suri. A difference of 3.09µm in huacaya and 5.93µm in Suri was found between dark and white coat colored alpacas. These results recommend modifying the genetic evaluation model by fitting the physiological state of females to increase the accuracy of the breeding values used to select animals in the breeding scheme of the farm.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary levels of chito-oligosaccharide on ileal digestibility
           of nutrients, small intestinal morphology and crypt cell proliferation in
           weaned pigs
    • Authors: Sureerat Suthongsa; Rath Pichyangkura; Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong; Boonrit Thongsong
      Pages: 37 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sureerat Suthongsa, Rath Pichyangkura, Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong, Boonrit Thongsong
      There is continued need for novel agents to improve intestinal function in weaned pigs. Some evidence suggests that chito-oligosaccharide (COS) supplements may enhance pigs’ intestinal function after weaning. The present study was designed to examine the effect of COS supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and small intestinal functions in weaned pigs as an effective alternative to antibiotic addition in post-weaning diets. For the experiment, weanling pigs were divided into 5 groups (13–14 animals per group) and received either a basal diet, a supplemented diet with 75, 150 or 225mg/kg COS, or a supplemented diet with 110mg/kg lincomycin for 56 days. Growth, feed efficiency, hematological and biochemical profiles, nutrient's ileal digestibility, small intestinal morphology and crypt cell proliferation were measured at 28 and 56 days of the experiment. Pigs supplemented with 150mg/kg COS or lincomycin showed: (i) consistently more digestible ileal contents (e.g. crude protein, crude fat, ash, calcium, and phosphorus), (ii) increased absorption capacity (e.g. increased villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio for three intestinal segments) on day 28 of the experiment and (iii) more active cell division (as indicated by Ki-67 marker of duodenal and jejunal crypt cells) on day 56 of the experiment (P< 0.05, respectively). These data suggest that 150mg/kg COS might be a useful dietary supplement to promote nutrient absorption and digestibility efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Impacts of reduction of phosphorus in finishing diets for Holstein ×
           Zebu steers
    • Authors: D. Zanetti; S.C. Valadares Filho; L.F. Prados; E. Detmann; M.V.C. Pacheco; L.A. Godoi; L.N. Rennó; T.E. Engle
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Zanetti, S.C. Valadares Filho, L.F. Prados, E. Detmann, M.V.C. Pacheco, L.A. Godoi, L.N. Rennó, T.E. Engle
      In Brazil, commonly males of dairy herd are destined to beef production. However, little is known about the mineral requirements for dairy males. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the calcium (Ca) requirements of Holstein × Zebu steers by determining Ca body tissue concentrations, true absorption and retention coefficients, as well as the requirements for maintenance and weight gain of steers fed diets containing or not containing dicalcium phosphate. Twenty-eight Holstein × Zebu steers with an average initial body weight of 377.5 ± 49.4kg were utilized. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 1) two concentrate levels (30 or 60%); and 2) two levels of dicalcium phosphate (DP), 0 or the amount necessary to attend the estimated dietary requirements. Absorption and retention coefficients, maintenance and gain requirements were estimated. The feedstuffs, refusals, feces, urine, blood and bone were sampled for Ca and phosphorus (P) analysis. Phosphorus intake was improved by the addition of concentrate and presence of DP. There were no variations in the daily fecal and urinary phosphorus excretion as a function of DP. The serum level of inorganic phosphorus was lower in non-supplemented animals, although it was within adequate concentrations for all treatments. Dry matter and organic matter intake, organic matter digestibility, performance, and efficiency were not affected by treatment. Absorption and retention coefficients, and the net requirements for maintenance are similar across treatments. Therefore, the lack of inorganic supplementary Ca and P in diets of feedlot finishing cattle does not change the concentrations of these minerals in bone. The dietary requirements of calcium and phosphorus obtained for cattle were lower than those described by the nutritional requirement systems from Brazil, USA, and UK.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Genetic contribution of cytoplasmic lineage effect on feed efficiency in
           Nellore cattle
    • Authors: L. Grigoletto; B.C. Perez; M.H.A. Santana; F. Baldi; J.B.S. Ferraz
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): L. Grigoletto, B.C. Perez, M.H.A. Santana, F. Baldi, J.B.S. Ferraz
      This study estimated the genetic contribution to genetic variance components and genetic parameters from cytoplasmic lineage effects through the transmission of cytoplasmic components, mainly, the mitochondrial genome evaluated from feed efficiency indicators. Records on 1569 Nellore males (castrated and young bulls) and females (heifers) were used for the following traits, dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). Genetic variances were estimated by the bayesian approach using Gibbs2f90 program in two univariate animal models. General model (Mgen) which included the direct additive genetic variance as the random effect and the cytoplasmic lineage model (Mlc) included besides the direct additive genetic variance also the cytoplasmic lineage as random effects. Direct heritability estimates by Mgen for DMI, ADG, FCR and RFI were 0.42±0.09, 0.37±0.09, 0.17±0.06 and 0.30±0.10, respectively, while, the direct heritability coefficients estimated by Mlc were 0.41±0.09, 0.35±0.09, 0.15±0.06 and 0.27±0.10. The percentage of cytoplasmic lineage as the proportion of total phenotypic variance ranged from 1.1% to 2.1% for the feed efficiency traits. However, this percentage increase to 14.5% for RFI, if the cytoplasmic effect was take into account as proportion of the additive genetic variance. These results indicate that genetic improvement in feed efficiency can be achieved through selection and the traits analyzed showed enough genetic variability, thus the inclusion of feed efficiency in animal breeding programs of Nellore cattle is feasible. The inclusion of cytoplasmic lineage effect to evaluate feed efficiency indicator traits has not produced substantial gains to the genetic evaluation, as it does not improve the prediction ability of the models by deviance information criteria for Bayesian models. However, on a long-term basis, the identification of the best cytoplasmic lineages in the population may help to assure continuous improvement for the traits of interest.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation with arginine on haematological indices,
           serum chemistry, carcass yield, gut microflora, and lymphoid organs of
           growing turkeys
    • Authors: A.O. Oso; G.A. Williams; O.O. Oluwatosin; A.M. Bamgbose; A.O. Adebayo; O. Olowofeso; V. Pirgozliev; A.A. Adegbenjo; S.O. Osho; J.O. Alabi; F. Li; H. Liu; K. Yao; W. Xin
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.O. Oso, G.A. Williams, O.O. Oluwatosin, A.M. Bamgbose, A.O. Adebayo, O. Olowofeso, V. Pirgozliev, A.A. Adegbenjo, S.O. Osho, J.O. Alabi, F. Li, H. Liu, K. Yao, W. Xin
      A 8-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Arg on haematological indices, serum chemistry, carcass yield, gut microflora, and lymphoid organ weights of growing turkeys. A total of one hundred and eighty 56-d-old male grower turkeys were weighed individually and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens, and 10 turkeys per pen in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, and 1.0g Arg/kg. Haematological indices and serum chemistry were measured at 84 and 112 d of study. Carcass yield, relative weights of retail cuts, organ weights, and gut microflora were measured at d 112. Except eosinophil, no effect of Arg supplementation was obtained on haematological indices at d 84. At d 112, finisher turkeys fed the diet supplemented with 0.5g Arg/kg had the greatest red blood cell (quadratic, P < 0.001), lymphocyte (linear, P = 0.011; quadratic, P < 0.001), and basophil counts (quadratic, P < 0.001). In grower turkeys at d 84, total serum protein (quadratic, P = 0.030), and serum globulin concentrations (quadratic, P = 0.043) increased initially as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 0.5g/kg, but decreased with the 1.0g Arg/kg. Uric acid concentration and alanine aminotransferase activity reduced as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 0.5g/kg, but increased with the 1.0g Arg/kg (quadratic, P = 0.002). In finisher turkeys at d 112, total serum protein (linear, P = 0.004; quadratic, P = 0.002), serum globulin (linear, P = 0.008; quadratic, P = 0.030), serum albumin (linear, P = 0.012; quadratic, P = 0.040), and triodosterine concentrations (linear, P = 0.025; quadratic, P = 0.033) increased with increasing Arg supplementation. At d 112, spleen weights increased linearly (P = 0.006), while thymus weights increased quadratically (P = 0.003) with increasing dietary Arg supplementation. Salmonella counts in the small intestinal content of turkeys at d 112 reduced quadratically as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 1.0g/kg (P = 0.029). In conclusion, Arg supplementation increased packed cell volume of finisher turkeys, improved serum chemistry of grower, and finisher turkeys as indicated by increased total serum protein, and reduced serum enzymes with appreciable improvement obtained when included at 0.5g Arg/kg. Arginine supplementation enhanced the relative weights of thymus, spleen, and reduced Salmonella counts in small intestine of turkeys.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Development of an Index for the Assessment of Welfare of Finishing Pigs
           from Farm to Slaughter Based on Expert Opinion
    • Authors: P. Brandt; T. Rousing; M.S. Herskin; E.V. Olsen; M.D. Aaslyng
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): P. Brandt, T. Rousing, M.S. Herskin, E.V. Olsen, M.D. Aaslyng
      For pigs, the day of slaughter involves potential animal welfare threatening elements at different stages such as pick-up pens, loading, transport, unloading, lairage and race. At present no tool for asessing the welfare of finishing pigs from farm exit to stunning is available. The present study builds on a protocol for assessment of animal welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter, a protocol which was based on the structure of the Welfare Quality® protocol for finishing pigs at an abattoir. The present study aimed to develop an animal welfare index (AWI) for the day of slaughter by aggregating 25 primarily animal-based measurements based on 38 experts opinion on inter-measurement and inter-stage weights. AWIs were calculated on animal level as the weighted sums of prevalence of the measurements, and were calculated for each of the six stages: pick-up pen, loading, transport, unloading, lairage and race (AWIStage) and across the stages (AWIOverall). The AWIs were tested in 5 farms including a total of 45 fattening pigs delivered to two Danish abattoirs. Possible inter-relations between the AWI and heart rate measurements were examined. For each welfare measurement within stage, significant differences between the mean expert scores were found. However, no difference between stage weights was found. Statistically significant differences in average heart rate between stages were found: 123a (pick up pen), 139b (loading), 120a (transport), 132d (unloading), 114c (lairage) and 134bd (race) bpm, respectively, (different letters indicate differences of P<0.05). No significant relationship between the score assigned by the expert panel per stage and the average heart rate within stage (r=0.61, P=0.19) or between AWIStage and heart rate (r=0.43, P=0.40) was found. In conclusion, this work has suggested a potential model for the aggregation of animal welfare measurements into animal welfare indexes for slaughter pigs on the day of slaughter. Further validation may allow simple comparison of the level of welfare between lorries, days, abattoirs etc. and may be used for future development of a feedback mechanism for optimization of the welfare of the pigs as well as for marketing.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of an accelerated growth program for pre-weaned Shall lambs-
           short communication
    • Authors: Ehsan Mahjoubi; Mehdi Hossein Yazdi; Omid Afsarian; Kimberly A. Vonnahme
      Pages: 72 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ehsan Mahjoubi, Mehdi Hossein Yazdi, Omid Afsarian, Kimberly A. Vonnahme
      In order to evaluate the effect of source and amount of milk delivered to lambs on their performance, thirty newborn Shall male lambs (4.76 ± 0.31kg) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: 1) conventional whole milk feeding program at 10% of body weight (CWM); 2) conventional milk replacer feeding at 10% of body weight and 17.1% milk solid (MRC); 3) accelerated milk replacer feeding program at 20% of body weight and 21% milk solid (MRA). Lambs were weaned at 56 d of age and the experiment finished 2 week after weaning. Milk and solid feed intakes were individually recorded on a daily basis. As the experiment advanced, the solid feed consumption (P < 0.01) and average daily gain (ADG; P < 0.01) increased, but MRC fed lambs had a decreased ADG compared to CWM or MRA groups in the pre-weaning (94g/day vs. 140 and 155g/day, respectively), but not in post-weaning, phase. The accelerated program led to decreased solid feed intake in the MRA group while the other lambs had similar starter intake, though total dry matter intake was greater in MRA compared with others. The CWM group had the best gain:feed ratio, resulting in similar final body weights as the MRA group and greater body weights compared with MRC lambs. Circulating β-hydroxy butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) in MRA lambs compared with lambs on the traditional program during pre-weaning, but not post-, weaning period. In conclusion, it appears that lambs can be artificially reared on very low fat MRA program with greatly improved ADG during the first month of life, but, without altering final performance.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Impact of incomplete pedigree data and independent culling level
           pre-selection on the genetic evaluation of livestock: a simulation study
           on lamb growth
    • Authors: Samir Id-Lahoucine; Joaquim Casellas
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Samir Id-Lahoucine, Joaquim Casellas
      Incomplete pedigree data due to multiple-sire mating systems is an issue for extensive sheep livestock production systems that leads to inefficiency in genetic selection programs. Although paternity testing technologies can deal with this challenge, their costs prevent the systematic testing of all offspring born, often being restricted to the replacement breeding stock (i.e., a non-random sample of individuals). This may result in important biases during genetic evaluations for traits expressed early in life, where animals can be pre-selected on the basis of their phenotypic performance, and poor performing individuals (most of them with poor genetic merit), are preferentially discarded. The potential bias due to the joint impact of this pre-selection and the specific cohort of lambs tested for missing paternity data was evaluated on simulated lamb growth data. Genetic evaluations where performed on different scenarios depending on the pre-selection criterion for the replacement breeding stock (>150, >200, >250 or >275g/d) and availability of pedigree data. The results suggested a relevant impact on the ability of genetic evaluation models to capture the additive genetic variance (simulated heritability, h2 = 0.2), and h2 moved from slight (h2 = 0.225 ± 0.004) to severe overestimations (h2 = 0.618 ± 0.002) when pre-selection criterion rose from 150g/d to 275g/d and with sire data restricted to the replacement breeding stock. This impact was attenuated when sire data was unknown for all individuals (h2 < 0.25), low levels of pre-selection, or when recovering sire data for 10 to 20% of discarded lambs (additional increases marginally attenuated the bias and improvements were almost absent from ~50% of the lambs). The complete loss of sire data impaired genetic evaluations and revealed moderate-to-low accuracies (r a ) for predicted breeding values. Scenarios with both moderate and high pre-selection criteria on lamb growth reported remarkable reductions on r a when sire data was only available for replacement individuals. When sire data was also available for a percentage of discarded lambs, r a increased, although the marginal benefit was almost negligible when paternity testing was applied to at least half of the discarded lambs. The expected genetic gain exhibited a similar behavior. As a whole, if sire data is only available for replacement individuals, pre-selection criterion must be minimal to avoid relevant biases during genetic evaluation. If not, the statistical performance of genetic evaluation procedures without sire data was similar or even better than the one obtained with sire data restricted to the replacement breeding stock.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Excretion of faecal, urinary urea and urinary non-urea nitrogen by four
           ruminant species as influenced by dietary nitrogen intake: A meta-analysis
           
    • Authors: J. Schuba; K.-H. Südekum; E. Pfeffer; A. Jayanegara
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J. Schuba, K.-H. Südekum, E. Pfeffer, A. Jayanegara
      The quantification of faecal nitrogen (FN) and of urinary urea-N (UUN) and urinary non-urea-N (UNUN) excretion at varying N contents in ruminant rations is an important tool in assessing endogenous N turnover via the rumino-hepatic cycle. Using a statistical analysis based on an extensive database, the aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate correlations derived previously by deduction. The data were categorised into dairy cattle, growing cattle (bulls and heifers), sheep and goats. Data from 50 publications were considered. The independent variable was the daily N intake (NI, g/day). The dependent variables were the daily quantities (g/day) of FN, urinary N, UUN, UNUN and N retention. The NI influenced FN to differing extents in goats, dairy cattle, growing cattle and sheep (listed in descending order of influence). Except in sheep, the effect was statistically significant. The influence on UN varied in the order goats, growing cattle, dairy cattle and sheep; the effect was statistically significant only for dairy cattle and growing cattle (P<0.001). The UUN was influenced in the order sheep, goats, dairy cattle and growing cattle (P<0.05). The UNUN could be assessed only in dairy cattle, growing cattle and sheep and was not influenced by NI. The UUN is therefore more strongly dependent on NI than is UNUN and can therefore continue to be seen as obligatory. The FN is indeed influenced by NI but, as a result of higher digestibility of the total ration with increasing crude protein content, an improvement in microbial crude protein synthesis can also be assumed, which is reflected in higher FN levels.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Anti-Müllerian hormone and antral follicular count in early and delayed
           pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers
    • Authors: K.M. Kavya; R.K. Sharma; A. Jerome; S.K. Phulia; I. Singh
      Pages: 89 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): K.M. Kavya, R.K. Sharma, A. Jerome, S.K. Phulia, I. Singh
      The present study was designed to determine the relationship between Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicular count (AFC) and body weight (BW) in early and delayed pubertal buffalo heifers. Out of 72 heifers screened ultrasonographically, 19 heifers were selected based on age, BW and attainment of puberty for the present investigation. They were divided into two groups (Group I, n=12; Group II, n=7). Group I heifers (age: 30–40 months; BW: 370–468kg) showed no signs of puberty whereas Group II heifers (age: 18–29 months, BW: 279–318kg) attained puberty. Total number of all visible antral follicles >1mm were counted and cyclicity status was monitored at monthly interval. Single blood sample was collected for estimation of serum AMH concentration once the heifers were adjudged cyclic by the presence of corpus luteum. We found lower AMH concentration in delayed pubertal heifers (0.099±0.006ng/ml) as compared to early pubertal heifers (0.17±0.03ng/ml) but, difference was not significant (p=0.0788). Likewise, AMH showed non-significant correlation with AFC and BW in both groups. But, there was significant relationship between BW and AFC in delayed (r=0.79; p=0.00) and early (r=0.86; p=0.01) pubertal heifers. In conclusion, this study indicates non-significant difference between AMH and AFC in early and delayed pubertal heifers. Moreover, AMH had no correlation with AFC and BW, but BW was highly correlated with AFC in both study groups.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T12:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Analysis of selected rumen microbial populations in dairy heifers limit
           fed diets varying in trace mineral form and starch content
    • Authors: Kristina Kljak; Felipe Pino; Kevin J. Harvatine; Arlyn J. Heinrichs
      Pages: 93 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kristina Kljak, Felipe Pino, Kevin J. Harvatine, Arlyn J. Heinrichs
      Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers were used to explore the effect of trace mineral form and diet starch content on selected ruminal microbial populations under limit feeding conditions. Heifers were subjected to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design with 19-day periods. Trace mineral form [organic proteinates (OTM) or inorganic sulfates (ITM)] was the whole-plot factor, and starch content (3.5, 12.9, 22.3, and 31.7% DM) was the sub-plot factor. Rumen samples were collected 3h after feeding on day 18 of each period, and DNA was extracted. Relative abundances of 6 well-studied bacterial taxa, total anaerobic fungi, ciliate protozoa, methanogenic Archaea and bacteria were determined using validated primer sets by real-time quantitative PCR. Targeted populations had relative abundances comparable to those previously reported. Of the microbial populations measured, trace mineral form influenced only Prevotella bryantii, which was increased by OTM. Increasing dietary starch concentration linearly decreased methanogenic Archaea, total bacteria, Prevotella spp., and Prevotella bryantii, and tended to linearly decrease fungi and protozoa. In conclusion, contrary to the starch content, trace mineral form had limited impact on the abundance of selected microbial populations in limit fed heifers 3h after feeding. The unexpected effect of starch content on bacterial populations and protozoa could be the result of different eating patterns of heifers fed diets varying in starch content.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Heat exposure alters the mRNA expression of growth- and stress-related
           genes in chicks
    • Authors: Hirofumi Okuyama; Md. Sakirul Islam Khan; Akira Tsukada; Tetsuya Tachibana
      Pages: 97 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Hirofumi Okuyama, Md. Sakirul Islam Khan, Akira Tsukada, Tetsuya Tachibana
      High ambient temperature, a major stressor, impairs the growth of chickens. In this study, we examined the effect of heat exposure on the mRNA expression of various growth related genes, such as growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and somatostatin (SST) in layer-type chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) at an early age. In addition, we examined the reactivity of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) system, one of the stress-regulating pathways, to heat exposure and its role in altering the growth related genes. Four-day heat exposure reduced the body weight gain, feed intake, and feeding efficiency and increased the rectal temperature of chicks (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of pituitary GH, liver IGF1, and diencephalic GHRH decreased with heat exposure (P < 0.05) whereas the levels of TRH or SST did not change. Heat exposure also reduced the diencephalic mRNA expression level of CRH and increased pituitary CRH receptor-2 mRNA and the plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration (P < 0.05), suggesting that heat exposure affected the hypothamic-pituitary adrenal gland (HPA) axis. Similar to the heat-exposure study, subcutaneous injection of CORT for 4 days decreased body weight, and the mRNA expression of pituitary GH and liver IGF1 (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated that heat exposure reduced the mRNA expressions of pituitary GH and liver IGF1, and suggested that the change in mRNA expression may have been partly caused by CORT.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence of production disease related indicators in organic dairy herds
           in four European countries
    • Authors: M. Krieger; K. Sjöström; I. Blanco-Penedo; A. Madouasse; J.E. Duval; N. Bareille; C. Fourichon; A. Sundrum; U. Emanuelson
      Pages: 104 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Krieger, K. Sjöström, I. Blanco-Penedo, A. Madouasse, J.E. Duval, N. Bareille, C. Fourichon, A. Sundrum, U. Emanuelson
      The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of production disease related indicators on 192 organic dairy farms in Germany, Spain, France and Sweden. The following indicators were used: raised somatic cell count (>100,000 cells/ml, subclinical mastitis), high fat/protein ratio (risk of ketosis), low milk fat (risk of acidosis), prolonged calving interval, clinical lameness, and mortalities of calves and cows. Prevalence of the assessed indicators varied widely between farms and countries. The median prevalence (interquartile range) were 51.3% (15.4) for subclinical mastitis, 10% (7.7) for risk of ketosis, 3.2% (4.7) for risk of acidosis, 42% (20.7) for prolonged calving interval, and 14.2% (20.4) for clinical lameness. The incidence risk of calves dying between 1 and 90 days of age was 0.002 (0.043) per month of risk. Cow mortality was 0.026 (0.048) per year at risk. The assessment has shown that a comprehensive set of indicators can be calculated from readily available data, sparing the need to establish new and costly procedures. Future research should focus on strategies for using the information most effectively to reduce the level of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T12:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • The relationship between water buffalo cow temperament and milk yield and
           quality traits
    • Authors: Monique Valéria de Lima Carvalhal; Aline Cristina Sant’Anna; Adriano Gomes Páscoa; Jens Jung; Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
      Pages: 109 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): Monique Valéria de Lima Carvalhal, Aline Cristina Sant’Anna, Adriano Gomes Páscoa, Jens Jung, Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
      The aims of this study were to assess the relationship between reactivity during milking and daily distances traveled by lactating water buffalo cows and to assess the association of these behavioral traits with milk yield and quality traits. Reactivity during milking was measured as a 4-point milking reactivity score (MRS, N=114 cows) where 1=stands quietly, 2=slight hind leg movements, 3=vigorous hind leg movements, and 4=continual vigorous hind leg movements or the stockperson ties the animal. Cows were classified according to their consistency for MRS within each month as 1) inconsistent (same MRS in fewer than 50% of observations), 2) moderately consistent (same MRS in 50–74.9% of observations), or 3) consistent (same MRS in at least 75% of observations). GPS collars were used to calculate the average daily distance traveled (DDT) by each cow (N=36). Milk yield and quality traits (fat, protein and lactose content, as well as somatic cell count) were measured once a month during the three months of the study. Results showed that DDT was not related to MRS (F=0.78, P=0.47). Furthermore, MRS was negatively associated with milk yield (F2,66=3.75; P=0.02), fat content (F2,71=3.34; P=0.04), and linear somatic cell score (LSCS) (F2,69=4.06; P=0.02). Reactive cows (MRS 3+4) had lower daily milk yield than MRS 1 cows, with lower fat content and higher LSCL than MRS 2 cows. On the other hand, DDT was not associated with milk yield or any quality traits (P>0.05) other than LSCS (R2=0.60; P<0.05). Since MRS and DDT were not correlated, we conclude that these traits reflect distinct aspects of water buffalo cows’ temperament. Milk yield and quality were not related to DDT, indicating that only MRS was associated with the productive traits in lactating water buffalo cows.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Feeding behaviors, metabolism, and performance of primiparous and
           multiparous dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets
    • Authors: S.M. Nasrollahi; G.R. Ghorbani; A. Zali; A. Kahyani
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.M. Nasrollahi, G.R. Ghorbani, A. Zali, A. Kahyani
      Currently, there is a trend in management practices to feed a high concentrate diet to sustain a high level of milk production. The objective of this study was to identify the differences between primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet on feed intake and behavior, rumen pH and rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, inflammation, and milk production and efficiency. Twenty-four PP (DIM = 114 ± 20; 43.2 ± 10.6kg/d of milk; mean ± SD) and fifty-four MP (DIM = 99 ± 30; 53.2 ± 13.6kg/d of milk) cows were fed a high-concentrate diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix. The study lasted for 24 d, which consisted of 14 d of environmental adaptation followed by 10 d of data collection. Rumen pH was measured via rumenocentesis for all cows and reticuloruminal pH was measured for a subset of animals (4 PP and 10 MP) using indwelling oral-administered sensors. The PP cows had greater sorting against long particles during the daytime, but greater sorting in favor of long particles at night. The dry matter intake (DMI) between 0 and 4h after the morning feeding was not affected by parity, whereas PP cows had greater DMI from 4 to 6h post-feeding and MP cows had greater DMI from 6 to 24h post-feeding. Total 24-h intake was greater (25.1 vs. 22.4kg/d) in MP than in PP. Rumen pH and fermentation profile were not affected by parity. Duration of rumen pH <5.8 measured 750 and 570 ± 231min/d for PP and MP cows, respectively, which indicates that cows experienced rumen acidosis with respective coefficients of variation measuring approximately 8.2 and 10.8%, respectively. Primiparous cows produced less milk (−6.3kg/d), 3.5% fat corrected milk (−4.2kg/d), milk protein (−0.160kg/d), and lactose (−0.230kg/d). The PP cows, despite lower production, had greater concentrations in plasma of cholesterol, ß-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA), and blood urea nitrogen and a trend for greater triglyceride than MP cows. Primiparous cows also had lower feed efficiency compared with MP (1.88 vs. 2.03). We conclude from these results that under conditions of the present study, PP dairy cows responded with lower feed efficiency and greater concentration of cholesterol, BHBA, and urea nitrogen in the blood.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T12:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Stakeholder involvement and the management of animal genetic resources
           across the world
    • Authors: G. Leroy; R. Baumung; D. Notter; E. Verrier; M. Wurzinger; B. Scherf
      Pages: 120 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): G. Leroy, R. Baumung, D. Notter, E. Verrier, M. Wurzinger, B. Scherf
      The sustainability of activities related to animal genetic resources (AnGR) management depends largely on the participation of a range of stakeholders, both public and private. In this study, we investigated factors explaining differences in stakeholder involvement in AnGR management across countries, based on an historical perspective and an analysis of the 128 official country reports provided during preparation of The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Results of principal component analyses indicated that countries differed in the involvement of stakeholders in AnGR management, generally with greater involvement of livestock breeders and their organizations in developed countries. Developing countries tended to be divided into two groups, those with little involvement by stakeholders and those with high involvement by government/research organizations. Depending on the country, the involvement of government/research organizations versus breeders/livestock keepers organizations and commercial companies also differed, which could be linked to some extent to their historical background. The level of involvement of breeders ‘associations or cooperatives was positively correlated (r=0.68) to the general extent of AnGR activities within the country. Our results underline the importance of involving breeders and livestock keepers in the development of management activities, while public support is required as well, especially in the early stages of capacity development. In developing countries, development policies relative to AnGR management should therefore seek to promote coordination among livestock keepers through creation and empowerment of cooperatives, associations or community-based approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Usefulness of multi-breed models in genetic evaluation of direct and
           maternal calving ease in Holstein and Belgian Blue Walloon purebreds and
           crossbreds
    • Authors: S. Vanderick; A. Gillon; G. Glorieux; P. Mayeres; R.R. Mota; N. Gengler
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): S. Vanderick, A. Gillon, G. Glorieux, P. Mayeres, R.R. Mota, N. Gengler
      The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of a joint genetic evaluation system for calving ease trait of Belgian Blue (BBB) and Holstein (HOL) Walloon cattle based on data of purebred and crossbred animals. Variance components and derived genetic parameters for purebred BBB and HOL animals were estimated by using single-breed linear animal models. This analysis showed clear genetic differences between breeds. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities (±standard error) were 0.34 (±0.02) and 0.09 (±0.01) for BBB, respectively, but only 0.09 (±0.01) and 0.04 (±0.01) for HOL, respectively. Moreover, a significant negative genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects was obtained in both breeds: −0.46 (±0.04) for BBB and −0.29 (±0.11) for HOL. Variance components and derived genetic parameters for purebred BBB and HOL and crossbred BBB × HOL cattle were then estimated by using two multi-breed linear animal models: a multi-breed model based on a random regression test-day model (Model MBV), and a multi-breed model based on the random regression multi-breed model (Model MBSM). Both multi-breed models use different functions of breed proportions as random regressions, thereby enabling modelling different additive effects according to animal's breed composition. The main difference between these models is the way in which relationships between breeds are accounted for in the genetic (co)variance structure. Genetic parameters differed between single-breed and multi-breed analysis, but are similar to the literature. For BBB, estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities (±SE) were 0.45 (±0.07) and 0.08 (±0.01) by using Model MBV, and 0.45 (±0.08) and 0.09 (±0.02) for Model MBSM, respectively. For HOL, these estimates were 0.18 (±0.04) and 0.05 (±0.01) using Model MBV, and 0.16 (±0.04) and 0.05 (±0.01) for Model MBSM, respectively. Reliability gains (up to 25%) indicated that the use of crossbred data in the multi-breed models had a positive influence on the estimation of genetic merit of purebred animals. A slight re-ranking of purebred sires and maternal grandsires was observed between single-breed and multi-breed models. Moreover, both multi-breed models can be considered as quasi-equivalent models because they performed almost equally well with respect to MSE and correlations, for purebred and crossbred animals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Comparisons of extracellular matrix-related gene expression levels in
           different adipose tissues from Korean cattle
    • Authors: Jin Young Jeong; Muhammed Ibrahim; Min Ji Kim; Kyungmin So; Yong Dae Jeong; Sungkwon Park; Minseok Kim; Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): Jin Young Jeong, Muhammed Ibrahim, Min Ji Kim, Kyungmin So, Yong Dae Jeong, Sungkwon Park, Minseok Kim, Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Adipose tissues are related to the meat quality and economic value of cattle. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important factor that influences adipose tissue remodeling. The objective of this study was to measure the expression levels of ECM-related genes in different adipose tissues from bulls, cows, and steers of Korean cattle (Hanwoo). The sample tissues were separated from omental (OM), subcutaneous (SC), and intramuscular (IM) adipose tissues. The expression levels of 24 ECM-related genes and proteins were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. We also observed that castration resulted in increased (P<0.05) expression of 17 genes, whereas it caused decreased (P<0.05) expression of COL1A2, MMP1, MMP3, MMP7, and VCAM1 in the OM adipose tissue of cows and steers compared to bulls. The mRNA levels of 24 ECM-related genes were similar between IM and SC adipose tissues. Furthermore, except for ITGB1 (IM), ICAM1 (IM), and COL1A1 (OM), the expression levels were generally similar between cows and steers compared to bulls. The FN1, MMP7, and LOX mRNA levels exhibited significantly strong (P<0.001) positive correlations (r=0.74, r=0.73, and r=0.74, respectively) with the marbling score. The protein levels can reflect the mRNA levels. Therefore, our findings suggest that castration affects the expression levels of ECM-related genes, which is in accordance with different fat depots.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effects of partial versus complete separation after weaning on plasma
           serotonin, tryptophan and pituitary-adrenal pattern of Anglo-Arabian foals
           
    • Authors: G. Bruschetta; E. Fazio; C. Cravana; A.M. Ferlazzo
      Pages: 157 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): G. Bruschetta, E. Fazio, C. Cravana, A.M. Ferlazzo
      The study investigated the effect of partial and complete separation after weaning on circulating serotonin, tryptophan, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol concentrations of foals. Twenty Anglo-Arabian colts, aged 24 weeks, were submitted to partial or complete separation from their mother at the same time. The subjects were divided in two groups on the basis of different separation programs. Foals were randomly assigned to one of two groups based on different treatments: group A was designated as partial separation and included 10 colts; group B was designated as complete separation, and included other 10 colts. The foals were evaluated 21 days before separation (T0), at 10min before separation (T1), and 30min (T2), 24h (T3), 48h (T4), and 30 days (T5) after separation. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant timing effect in group B for serotonin (P = 0.002), tryptophan (P < 0.0001), adrenocorticotropic hormone (P = 0.0024) and cortisol (P = 0.003) concentrations. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant separation effect (P < 0.0001) in group B compared to group A, with higher tryptophan concentrations after every post-separation times (T2-T5), and higher cortisol concentrations shortly after separation times (T2-T4). A significant positive correlation between adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol values (r = 0.67; P < 0.05) was observed in group B at T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The results support the effects of partial and complete separation in modulating the neuroendocrine response of Anglo-Arabian foals, providing additional knowledge of serotoninergic and pituitary-adrenal involvement. These findings indicate that complete separation already at 30min causes higher neuroendocrine responses than partial separation during weaning of foals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Inducing sub-luteal circulating concentrations of progesterone and
           persistent follicles in Holstein heifers and non-lactating cows using a
           modified CIDR device
    • Authors: Aijaz Ali Channa; João Paulo N. Martins; Fermin Jimenez-Krassel; J. Richard Pursley
      Pages: 191 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): Aijaz Ali Channa, João Paulo N. Martins, Fermin Jimenez-Krassel, J. Richard Pursley
      Reducing progesterone from Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) devices may allow for the comparison of contrasting steady state concentrations of progesterone (P4) in non-lactating dairy cows and heifers. This technical study was designed to determine if circulating P4 concentrations from the CIDR device could be reduced in cattle via ethanol extraction, and if reduced steady state concentrations of P4 would increase the percent of cows and heifers that developed a persistent follicle. Holstein heifers and non-lactating cows were treated with Ovsynch (100μg GnRH, 7 d later, 25mg dinoprost tromethamine, 2 d later, 100μg GnRH) to initiate a new cycle. Only heifers and cows that synchronized were included in this study. On d 7 of the newly induced estrous cycle, animals were assigned to three treatments all treated with new CIDRs as follows: CIDR-N, CIDR that was not manipulated; CIDR-W, CIDR immersed in water, or CIDR-E, CIDR immersed in a mixture of equal parts water/ethanol. All heifers and cows received 25mg dinoprost tromethamine at time of treatment to ensure regression of the d 7 corpora lutea (CL). Only data from heifers and cows having morphological CL regression observed with ultrasonography on d 1 and 2 following treatment, and with basal P4 concentrations (<0.15ng/mL) on d after CIDR removal, were considered in the final analyses (n =30). CIDR-E had lower circulating concentrations of P4 during the treatment period compared to CIDR-N and CIDR-W in cycling heifers and non-lactating cows and a significant interaction of treatment x d from CIDR insertion was observed. CIDR-W had lower P4 compared to CIDR-N in heifers, but not in cows. With the three treatments combined, non-lactating cows had lower circulating concentrations of P4 than heifers. The 1st wave dominant follicle became atretic followed by a new wave of follicles in 4 of 5 non-lactating cows and heifers treated with CIDR-N compared to 1 of 12 in the CIDR-E and 3 of 13 in CIDR-W treatments during the 7 d treatment period. In summary, reduced steady state serum concentrations of progesterone from a CIDR device resulted in continued growth of persistent follicles in cows and heifers compared to a non-manipulated CIDR device.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Butyrate concentration before and after calving is not associated with the
           odds of subclinical mastitis in grazing dairy cows
    • Authors: N.A. Villa-Arcila; P.C. Duque-Madrid; S. Sanchez-Arias; J.C. Rodriguez-Lecompte; M.H. Ratto; J. Sanchez; A. Ceballos-Marquez
      Pages: 195 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): N.A. Villa-Arcila, P.C. Duque-Madrid, S. Sanchez-Arias, J.C. Rodriguez-Lecompte, M.H. Ratto, J. Sanchez, A. Ceballos-Marquez
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration around calving and the odds of developing an intramammary infection (IMI) in the first month of lactation in Holstein and Normande grazing dairy cows. In total, 208 cows were selected from five Colombian dairy herds. Two composite milk samples were collected from each cow at drying-off, and every week during the first month in milk. One sample was used for the analysis of somatic cell count (SCC), and the other for bacteriological culture. An IMI was defined as the situation in which an elevated SCC (≥100,000 cells/mL for primiparous and ≥200,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows) was followed by the isolation of a mastitis pathogen in the same sample. Blood samples from each cow were also collected at drying-off, one week before calving, and then weekly for one month after calving. Serum samples were analysed for BHB concentrations. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to establish the association of the prevalence of IMI around calving with the BHB concentration one week before the expected date of calving. The arithmetic average of SCC at drying-off was higher than the average in the first month of lactation. The most common isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), and Streptococcus uberis. The incidence risk of hyperketonemia (i.e. serum BHB >1.2mmol/L) was 12% around calving. There was no association between serum BHB concentration and the probability of having an IMI after calving. Our results suggest that subclinical mastitis around calving was not associated with the energy balance, evaluated by serum BHB concentration one week before the expected date of calving.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effects of light regimen and nutrient density on growth performance,
           
    • Authors: Y.Y. Sun; S. Tang; Y. Chen; D.L. Li; Y.L. Bi; D.K. Hua; C. Chen; Q.Y. Luo; L. Yang; J.L. Chen
      Pages: 201 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): Y.Y. Sun, S. Tang, Y. Chen, D.L. Li, Y.L. Bi, D.K. Hua, C. Chen, Q.Y. Luo, L. Yang, J.L. Chen
      The present study was conducted to examine the main and interactive effects of 4 light regimens [16h light (L):8h darkness (D), 23L:1D, decreasing-increasing (Dec-Inc), and intermittent lighting (3L:1D)], and 3 dietary nutrient densities (low-, medium-, and high-density) on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and health of slow-growing broiler chickens (Beijing-You). A total of 14401-d-old broiler chickens were assigned to light regimens and nutrient densities in a 4×3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 4 pens per treatment and 15 males and 15 females per pen. Body weight and accumulated feed intake were determined on d 28, 56, and 91. The gait score (GS) was recorded to assess leg health on d 91. Two males and 2 females from each pen were randomly selected and processed to determine the weight of eviscerated carcass, breast muscle, thigh muscle, and abdominal fat. Meat quality was determined using the breast fillet. The ovary, testis, and comb were weighed, and the serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone concerntration were determined for females and males, respectively. There was no interaction for any of the response criteria except for feed conversion ratio (FCR) from d 0 to 28 (P=0.014). The ADFI from d 56 to 91 of broiler chickens under 16L:8D regimen were greater than other 3 regimens (P<0.05), and they had larger testis and comb percentage and greater testosterone concentration than those under 23L:1D regimen (P<0.05). The broiler chickens under Dec-Inc regimen deposited less abdominal fat than those under 3L:1D and 23L:1D regimens (P<0.05), and they had larger testis and comb percentage and greater testosterone concentration than those under 23L:1D regimen (P<0.05). The ADFI and FCR from d 0 to 91 were affected by diet nutrient density, with medium- and high-density resulted in lower ADFI and FCR (P<0.05). The females fed the medium- and high-density diets also had greater ovary percentage and FSH concerntration (P<0.05). These results indicated that medium-density diet is the most appropriate for slow-growing broiler chickens. The 23L:1D regimen did not show any superiority on the improvement of feed conversion or meat quality. The Dec-Inc regimen improved feed conversion and carcass traits and enhanced the development of sex characteristics. Therefore, the medium-density diet and Dec-Inc regimen are suggested for the slow-growing broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Genetic and environmental factors influencing gestation length and
           parturition conception interval in Hanoverian warmblood
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Anna Christmann, Harald Sieme, Gunilla Martinsson, Ottmar Distl
      The present study has the objectives to analyse effects influencing the gestation length (GL) and the parturition conception interval (PCI) in Hanoverian warmblood horses and subsequently to estimate heritabilities for the GL and the PCI. Data comprised artificial insemination records of the years 2008–2014 from the National State Stud Celle, Germany, and corresponding foaling data from the Hanoverian Breeding Society, Germany. A total of 19,315 seasonal records including 10,294 mares and 276 stallions were available for GL and 10,244 records for PCI with 5881 mares and 234 stallions. The average GL was 341.7±10.7 days. The fixed effects of the year and month of insemination, the age of the mare at the time of insemination, whether the mare had a foal with her from the previous season, the sex of the foal and the random effects of the mare and the stallion had a significant effect on the GL. For the effect of the month of insemination the GL was longest in the months of December to February and shortest in July and August. It was shortest in 2–4-year old mares and longest in mares >19 years. Also GLs were longer if the mare did not have a foal at foot from the previous season than in mares with a foal with her. Pregnancies with colts were longer than those with fillies. The average PCI was 38.1±25.9 days. Year and month of insemination, the age of the mare at the time of insemination and the mare as well as the stallion had a significant effect on the PCI. PCI was shortest in the months of December to February and increased until July and August. The PCI was longest in the youngest and the oldest age class of the mares. Heritabilities were estimated in linear animal models. A model including the maternal and paternal genetic effect resulted in heritabilities of 0.234 for the mare and 0.024 for the stallion for GL and 0.026 and 0.013 respectively for the PCI. Heritabilities for GL in a model including the maternal and direct genetic effects were 0.269 for the mare and 0.066 for the embryo. Mare-related effects seem to have the largest impact on GL, whereas environmental effects like a good post-parturition management highly influence the PCI.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Selecting random regression models under different minimum number of test
           day records
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Alessandro Haiduck Padilha, Cláudio Napolis Costa, José Braccini Neto, Darlene dos Santos Daltro, Jaime Araújo Cobuci
      The objective of this study was to compare EBVs, reliability and genetic parameters in random regression models with Legendre polynomials using structures of data sets with different minimum number of test days in lactation. The original data base was edited in order to prepare for subsets by deleting cows that did not have at least 4, 6, 8 or 10 test day (TD) records in lactation. The original intervals between monthly TD were used. Random regression models with third (M3), fourth (M4) and fifth-order (M5) Legendre polynomial were used. The lowest values of AIC, BIC, −2LogL and RV was found in the models with highest Legendre polynomials orders within structure with 6, 8 and 10 TD and lowest in structure with 4 TD. The eigenvalues indicated models with lowest Legendre polynomial orders as M3 and M4 in all structures. Heritability on days in milk ranged from 0.24 to 0.48 for M3 and from 0.17 to 0.31 for M4 and M5. Spearman correlations of EBVs of bulls and cows between M3, M4 and M5 were higher than 0.99 in all structures. Average reliability of EBVs of a group of bulls in common was around 0.82, 0.82, 0.80 and 0.63 in structures with at least 4, 6, 8 and 10 TD, respectively. Results indicate M3 and M4 as sufficient for genetic evaluations in all data sets of Holstein cattle. Random regression models will have similar reliability and ranks of EBVs in data sets with a minimum of 4, 6 or 8 TD.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • A comparative study on the efficacy of Garlicon and monensin
           supplementation on blood metabolites and performance of fattening lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Ehsan Anassori, Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh, Mohammad Valizadeh-Keshmeshtappeh, Shoja Jafari
      In this study, the effects of Garlicon (GLC) (vegetable oil from garlic and onion family) were evaluated in comparison to monensin (MON) on blood metabolites and performance of fattening lambs. Thirty-five four to five-month-old lambs in five groups (seven lambs in each group) were confined in individual boxes. The experimental diets were offered as: basal diet without additives (Control); basal diet supplemented with 33mg MON/kg DM (positive control), and three other groups, including basal diet with 0.03 (GLC1), 0.06 (GLC2) and 0.09 (GLC3) ml of GLC/l of drinking water. Rumen pH increased and the rumen ammonia concentrations decreased significantly with both monensin and Garlicon supplementations. The MON and, to a lesser extent, GLC had similar effects on the molar ratio of volatile fatty acids. The observed changes in the concentrations of VFAs and ammonia in the rumen liquid could be considered as a favorable outcome of GLC supplementation. These findings were associated with significant reduction in blood NEFA and BHB concentrations. MON and GLC had no effects on feed intake (P>0.05). Values for average daily gain in lambs supplemented by MON and GLC indicated an improved energy intake efficiency. In conclusion, this study found that the most prominent effects of MON and GLC supplementations were increased ruminal propionate concentrations, propionate to acetate ratios, and decreased serum NEFA and BHB concentrations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Early dietary amino acid restrictions and flaxseed oil supplementation on
           the leanness of pigs and quality of pork: Growth performance, serum
           metabolites, carcass characteristics, and physical and sensory
           characteristics of pork
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): C.K. Adhikari, L.I. Chiba, S.D. Brotzge, M.S. Vieira, C. Huang, W.G. Bergen, C.L. Bratcher, S.P. Rodning, E.G. Welles
      A total of 64 pigs (Yorkshire) were used to investigate the effect of early dietary amino acid (AA) restrictions [100 or 80% of the 2012 NRC standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys requirements during the grower and finisher-1 phases] and flaxseed oil supplementation [0 or 3% (+2% poultry fat)] in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments on grower-finisher pigs. At 24.7±0.5kg body weight (BW), pigs were randomly assigned to 4 grower diets with 4 gilt and 4 castrated male pens/treatment and 2 gilts or 2 castrated males/pen, and switched to fnisher-1 diets when they reached 51.2±0.3kg. Pigs were offered common finisher-2 diets after 80.0±0.4kg, and those received 0 or 5% lipids during the grower and finisher-1 phases were continued to receive 0 or 5% lipids. Ultrasound backfat measurements and blood samples were collected at the end of the grower, finisher-1, and finisher-2 phases, and pigs were harvested at 110.5±0.5kg to assess carcass traits and physical and sensory characteristics of pork. During the grower phase, although pigs consumed less feed, SID Lys, and digestible energy (DE; P <0.015), their average daily BW gain was not really depressed by the dietary AA restrictions. During the finisher-1 phase, however, pigs fed the AA restricted diets had greater BW gain (P =0.042) and utilized SID Lys more efficiently (P <0.001) for BW gain than those fed the unrestricted diets. Pigs fed the diets supplemented with lipids had lower feed intake (P =0.007) but greater BW gain (P =0.03) during the grower phase, and their BW gain:feed (P <0.045) was improved during the all phases of production. Overall BW gain was not affected by the early dietary AA restrictions, but overall efficiency of feed, SID Lys, or DE utilization for BW gain (P <0.005) was improved by the AA restrictions. Similarly, the early dietary AA restrictions had no effect on fat-free lean (FFL) gain but increased FFL gain:SID Lys (P<0.001) and tended to increase FFL gain:DE (P =0.095). Serum urea-N (P <0.026) at the end of the grower and finisher-1 phases was reduced, and serum glucose (P =0.027) at the end of the grower phase was increased by the dietary AA restrictions. The dietary lipids tended to increase and increased serum triglycerides at the end of the grower (P =0.075) and finisher-1 and 2 (P <0.018) phases, respectively, and reduced urea-N (P =0.037) at the end of the finisher-2 phase. At the end of the finisher-1 phase, the dietary lipids increased serum cholesterol in pigs fed the unrestricted diet but had no effect on those fed the AA restricted diet (AA restrictions x lipid supplementation, P =0.029). The dietary AA restrictions tended to reduce the initial tenderness (P <0.057) and reduced flavor intensity (P =0.048) of pork slightly. Belly firmness (P <0.001) was reduced and off-flavor (P =0.007) was increased slightly by the dietary lipids. There was no effect of dietary treatments on ultrasound backfat. In conclusion, the dietary lipids improved BW gain:feed but reduced belly firmness and increased off-flavor slightly. The dietary AA restrictions had no effect on overall BW gain or FFL gain but improved overall efficiency of AA and DE utilization for BW gain and FFL gain.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Comparison of fatty acid profiles and volatile compounds among quality
           grades and their association with carcass characteristics in longissimus
           dorsi and semimembranosus muscles of Korean cattle steer
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): Min Yu Piao, Hae In Yong, Hyun Jung Lee, Dilla Mareistia Fassah, Hyun Jin Kim, Cheorun Jo, Myunggi Baik
      This study was performed to compare the content and composition of fatty acids (FA) and volatile compounds among four quality grades (QG1++, 1+, 1, and 2), and to understand their association with carcass characteristics in longissimus dorsi (loin) and semimembranosus (rump) cuts of Korean cattle steers. QG1++ and QG2 loins showed the highest (P<0.05) and lowest percentages of oleic acid (C18:1n9) and monounsaturated FA, respectively. QG1++ loins had greater (P<0.05) percentages of volatile hydrocarbons, including n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2-butene, and these compounds were positively correlated (0.56≤ r ≤0.81; P<0.001) with QG and crude fat content (g/100g meat). Percentages of loin acetonitrile (r =0.74, P<0.01) and butanal (r =0.71, P<0.01) were positively correlated with flavor, whereas those of loin 2-methyl-2-propanol (r =−0.62, P<0.05) and 3-methyl-2-butanone (r =−0.60, P<0.05) were negatively correlated with flavor. In conclusion, loin FA percentages, especially C18:1n9 and monounsaturated FA, tended to be higher with increasing QG. Loin volatile compounds, including n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2-butene, were also higher with increasing QG.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Changes of serum free amino acids in eventing horses at rest and during
           exercise in response to dietary protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C.A.A. Oliveira, L.A.M. Keller, M.T. Ramos, V.P. Silva, C.D. Baldani, F.Q. Almeida
      Although there are published expertise about serum free amino acids, to the knowledge of the authors no data were reported on eventing horses. In this way, it is important to study the concentrations of dietary protein and serum free amino acids during exercise in order to improve nutritional strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of the serum free lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) of eventing horses fed diets with different levels of protein at before and during exercise. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses trained for eventing were used in a randomized block design with 4 diets (7.5, 9.0, 11.0 and 13.0% of CP) and 6 repetitions (blocks). Horses were blocked according to their experience in competitions. The test protocol consisted of a warm up of walking and trotting and then a gallop starting at 6.0m/s with increases in speed of 1m/s every minute up to 10m/s. Venous blood samples were collected before the test and during exercise. Concentration of Lys, Thr, Leu, Ile and Val from diets and serum free were determined by HPLC analysis. Total intake values of Lys, Thr, Leu, Ile and Val were affected by dietary protein levels. A daily intake of Lys was deficient in the 7.5% CP experimental diet. Differences on the serum free concentrations of Lys, Leu, Ile and Val as a function of the sampling time were observed. The Lys requirement for athletic horses appear to be lower than what is currently proposed. Moreover, the effect of exercise on serum free Lys, Leu, Ile and Val concentration, may be interpreted as an indicator of these amino acids metabolic response.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Effects of gender and age on energy use by young Boer goats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. Tovar-Luna, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, A.L. Goetsch
      Boer goats (7/8 and 1/8 Spanish breed) were used to characterize effects of gender and age on the ME requirement for maintenance (MEm). There were eight animals of each gender, doelings, intact males, and wethers castrated at 2 mo of age. Kids were weaned at 3.7 mo and thereafter consumed a 50% concentrate pelleted diet ad libitum while in group pens at most times. Measurement periods consisted of three segments of 12, 10, and 4 days with consumption ad libitum and near MEm and while fasting, respectively. Maintenance segment measures began at 4.9, 7.8, 11.7, and 14.8 mo of age in periods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Feed intake data, feces and urine collections, and a calorimetry system were used to determine ME intake and heat energy (HE). The MEm estimate was based on fasting HE and the slope (km) of the regression of recovered energy (RE) against ME intake with intake near MEm and while fasting, and kg was RE with ad libitum intake relative to ME intake above MEm. BW (kg) during the maintenance segment was 20.6, 30.8, 46.5, and 57.1 for doelings, 25.9, 40.1, 67.3, and 76.9 for males, and 23.1, 35.1, 53.9, and 65.0 for wethers in periods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (SE = 1.85). km was similar among genders and periods (P > 0.05; 70.2, 69.5, and 69.7% for doelings, males, and wethers, respectively; SE = 1.25). Fasting HE and MEm were affected by gender × period interactions (P < 0.001). Fasting HE (kJ/kg BW0.75) was 277, 272, 281, and 281 for doelings, 288, 327, 334, and 398 for males, and 274, 303, 274, and 305 for wethers (SE = 10.1); MEm (kJ/kg BW0.75) was 382, 390, 399, and 420 for doelings, 412, 469, 492, and 569 for males, and 384, 417, 426, and 439 for wethers in periods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (SE = 14.2). kg tended (P = 0.067) to vary among genders (61.5, 48.1, and 52.7% for doelings, males, and wethers, respectively; SE = 3.91). In conclusion, MEm was not greatly different between doelings and wethers and increased for both as the study progressed, whereas that for males was greater, with the difference increasing considerably as age rose.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Longitudinal genetic dissection of feed efficiency and feeding behaviour
           in MaxGro pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Shirali, P.F. Varley, J. Jensen
      The aim of this study was to examine the genetic characteristics of feed efficiency and feeding behaviour traits longitudinally along with their associations. Data were available on 3027 purebred MaxGro pigs from 52 (11, SD) to 110 (11, SD) Kg BW in 7 weeks on test. Longitudinal phenotypes of average daily feed intake (FI), occupation time in automatic feeder (OT), number of visit (NV) and feeding rate (FR) were obtained per each week on test. Feed intake and behaviour records were obtained by electronic feeder (IVOG) under ad libitum feeding condition and all traits were expressed as weekly averages. To obtain genetic association of feed efficiency and feeding behaviour traits, residual feed intake (RFI) was estimated as FI adjusted phenotypically for ADG of the entire test period and lean meat percentage (LMP) at end of the test. Data were analysed using random regression model containing animal genetic effect, permanent environmental effect of each pig and contemporary group using Legendre polynomials of weeks on test along with heterogeneous residual variances. Furthermore, the covariance function was used to estimate the genetic parameters of above traits at different weeks on test. Posterior mean of heritability estimates of FI and RFI showed quadratic changes during test period with lowest in week one (0.15 (standard deviation, 0.03) and 0.07 (0.02), respectively) to highest in week three (0.31 (0.03) and 0.24 (0.04), respectively). Posterior mean of heritability estimates of weekly OT (0.32 (0.04) to 0.37 (0.04)), NV (0.17 (0.03) to 0.22 (0.03)) and FR (0.26 (0.05) to 0.31 (0.04)) were consistent at different stages of growth. Posterior mean of genetic correlations among RFI estimates dropped by increase in weeks on test to −0.06 (0.16) between first and last weeks on test. However, positive large genetic correlations were observed among OT (0.79 to 0.99), NV (0.77 to 0.99) and FR (0.87 to 0.99). Furthermore, RFI showed varying genetic correlations with feeding behaviour traits of OT, NV and FR with early stages having (0.17, −0.23 and 0.38, respectively) and late stages showing (0.72, 0.25 and −0.07, respectively). Modelling the dynamics of feed efficiency may enhance the genetic improvement of feed efficiency due to considering the change in feed intake capacity of pigs. Inclusion of feeding behaviour traits to pig breeding programs may further improve the genetic progress of feed efficiency due to their larger heritability estimates than RFI and their existing correlations with feed efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Molecular diversity and phylogenetic analysis of domestic and wild
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Li Yi, Yisi Ai, Liang Ming, Le Hai, Jing He, Fu-Cheng Guo, Xiang-Yu Qiao, Rimutu Ji
      In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 126 samples representing 14 Bactrian camel populaitons from different localities using the mitochondrial ATP8 and ATP6 genes. A total of 842bp of the complete ATP8/6 sequences of all Bactrian camel samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The ATP8/6 sequences were analyzed by MEGA6.0 and DnaSP v5.10, and the function of nucleotide substitutions was predicted by PolyPhen2 and Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) programs. The haplotype network and phylogenetic tree were constructed by Network 5.0 and MEGA6.0, respectively. The analysis generated 16 haplotypes that were divided into the wild haplogroup (H1) and the domestic haplogroup (H2–H16). Haplotypes H2, H4–H6 were shared among 13 populations of domestic Bactrian camels, which indicated that there were little geographical structuring and genetic differences among different domestic Bactrian camel populations compared with those from different localities. The phylogenetic tree showed the same pattern as the haplotype network profile. Our results are in general agreement with those of previous reports that wild and domestic Bactrian camels evolved from two distinct ancestors. The present study provides useful genomic information about genetic diversity in domestic and wild Bactrian camels.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Foxtail grass (Setaria viridis)-induced ulcerative stomatitis-gingivitis
           resembling viral vesicular stomatitis in horses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): O. Kutasi, E. Andrasofszky, O. Szenci, A. Bersenyi, I. Siller, T. Abonyi
      Physical trauma, dietary factors, toxins, immune-mediated disorders, and viral infections are known causes of equine stomatitis. There are also few reports of grass awn-associated stomatitis in horses. Movement of 323 horses was restricted at a Hungarian racetrack because of a suspected vesicular stomatitis (VS) outbreak. Many horses were affected at the same time, and an infectious disease or common offending source was suspected. To establish the nutritional origin of the feed, botanical examination and a food provocation test were carried out. Two healthy adult horses were fed exclusively with the hay of concern for a two-week period. All horses at the racetrack and the experimental horses were clinically examined daily and tested for VS, viral arteritis, glanders, and equine herpesviruses. Biopsy samples were taken from the oral lesions to characterize the histological alterations. Botanical analysis revealed that more than 15% of the forage was foxtail grass (Setaria viridis). The nutrient content of the forage was adequate for horse maintenance, while its mold and yeast counts were below the reference limits. Competition horses showed signs of depression, decreased appetite, and drooling and ulceration of the lips, tongues, and gingiva after four hours of exposure to the tested forage or hay. The horses in the feeding trial showed the first clinical signs of oral papules on day four, and then showed rupturing pustules, ulcers, and extensive granulation tissues on day seven. Experimental horses did not show signs of depression or loss of appetite. Stomatitis healed spontaneously when the hay was changed. Results of the serological tests, hematological tests, biochemical analysis, and gastroscopy did not show significant alterations. Biopsy samples from both the competition and the experimental horses invariably showed grass awns surrounded by reactive mixed inflammatory cells and granulomatous inflammation. Since differential diagnosis of ulcerative stomatitis include highly contagious viral diseases like VS, quarantine measurements are necessary during stomatitis outbreaks. Differentiation based exclusively on clinical signs is not recommended, although wedged plant particles along the periodontal gingival sulcus might be indicative of inappropriate forage source. Evaluation of the feed in case of a stomatitis outbreak should be immediately performed. In case of grass awn-associated stomatitis, differences are noticed in the severity of lesions possibly based on plant types and plant percentage in the hay. As such, the extent to which foxtail grass-contaminated hay causes ulcerative gingivitis may be increasing because of recent changes in climate.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
       
  • Technical Note: A comparison among adipogenic induction protocols for
           dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells obtained from subcutaneous fat of pigs
    • Authors: R. Bueno; C.F. de Campos; R. Veroneze; W. Silva; L.M.P. Sanglard; L. Alcantara; N.V.L. Serão; G.J. Hausman; M.V. Dodson; M.S. Duarte; S.E.F. Guimarães
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R. Bueno, C.F. de Campos, R. Veroneze, W. Silva, L.M.P. Sanglard, L. Alcantara, N.V.L. Serão, G.J. Hausman, M.V. Dodson, M.S. Duarte, S.E.F. Guimarães
      In the current study we have performed two experiments to evaluate the effects of adipogenic induction media on dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells redifferentiation into mature adipocytes. In experiment 1, we aimed to evaluate whether it is necessary to use insulin in the induction media to allow DFAT cells differentiation into mature adipocytes by establishing two experimental treatments where insulin was either withdrawn from the culture medium, after 72h of a normal induction period (Treatment 1: Insulin-) or kept in culture media (Treatment 2: Insulin+) for 16 d. In experiment 2, we aimed to evaluate if the lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) in the induction medium would affect the differentiation of DFAT cells into mature adipocytes. For that, DFAT cells were induced to differentiate into lipid assimilating adipocytes using an induction medium containing IBMX (Treatment 1: IBMX+) or without IBMX (Treatment 2: IBMX-) during the first 72h of induction. In both experiments we have evaluated the mRNA expression of lipid metabolism markers and cell morphology through Oil-Red staining as indicators of differentiation of DFAT cells into lipid-assimilating cells. The results of Experiment 1 revealed no differences in mRNA expression for any of the lipid metabolism markers with exception of GLUT4 (P = 0.02), which was greater in Insulin- compared to Insulin+ treatment. Similarly, no differences were observed for mRNA expression of adipogenic markers between IBMX+ and IBMX- treatments with exception of FABP4 (P = 0.01), which was greater for the IBMX- compared to IBMX+ treatment. In both experiments we did not observed any differences in cell morphology among treatments. Our results suggest that neither insulin nor IBMX are required to accelerate redifferentiation process of pig-derived DFAT cells.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.009
       
  • Characterizing body temperature and activity changes at the onset of
           estrus in replacement gilts
    • Authors: Jay S. Johnson; Kevin A. Shade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jay S. Johnson, Kevin A. Shade
      Accurate estrus detection can improve sow conception rates and increase swine production efficiency. Unfortunately, current practices based on individual animal behavior may be inefficient due to large sow populations at commercial farms and the associated labor required. Therefore, the study objective was to characterize body temperature and activity changes in replacement gilts at the onset of estrus in order to provide initial data to develop a remote estrus detection system for commercial swine operations. Twelve replacement gilts (130.2 ± 1.9kg BW) were administered altrenogest to synchronize estrus, and data loggers that detect vaginal temperature (TV) and quantify total activity 24h/d in 5min intervals were attached to a blank controlled internal drug release device and inserted intra-vaginally for 7 d prior to expected estrus. Activity was quantified as counts per minute (cnt/min) using an internal accelerometer. During the 7 d of monitoring, gilts were checked for estrus twice daily (0800 and 1500h) by two trained individuals. To standardize data, only the day of estrus detection (dE) and the 3 d prior (d−3, d−2, d−1, n = 4 total days) were used in the final analysis since gilts came into estrus on different days. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure in SAS 9.4. Overall, TV was reduced (P < 0.01; 0.26°C) on dE compared to the previous 3 d; however, no differences were detected between d−3, d−2, and d−1. Activity was increased (P < 0.01; 37.8%) on dE compared to d−3 and d−2, but no differences were detected between dE and d−1. In summary, TV was reduced and activity was increased at the onset of estrus in replacement gilts.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.004
       
  • Effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid on ruminal
           biohydrogenation and transfer of fatty acids to milk in dairy goats
    • Authors: P. Schmidely; S. Ghazal; V. Berthelot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): P. Schmidely, S. Ghazal, V. Berthelot
      The objective of the study was to evaluate ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and apparent transfer of long-chain (FA) from duodenum into milk in dairy goats fed Ca salts of palm oil (CaS, 45g/d) or lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acids (LE-CLA, 45g/d providing 4.5g trans-10,cis-12 C18:2/d and 4.5g cis-9,trans-11 C18:2/d). Twelve lactating multiparous dairy Saanen or Alpine goats (65 ± 3 days in milk) were randomly allocated to two experimental treatments (CaS vs LE-CLA) for a 3 wks experiment. The goats were fitted with a ruminal cannula and a T-type duodenal cannula for the measurement of duodenal flow by supplying 2.4g of Cr2O3/d through the rumen cannula during 3 wks: the first one was for reaching steady-state concentration of this marker in the digestive tract, the second wk was for measuring the daily flow of faecal chrome and nutrient faecal digestibility, and the third wk was for the duodenal sampling. LE-CLA did not affect intake, duodenal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and starch. Compared to CaS, LE-CLA tended to decrease total digestibility of DM and NDF whereas total digestibility of starch was not affect by dietary treatments. The duodenal flow of FA was higher than FA intake in goats fed CaS or LE-CLA. LE-CLA increased the duodenal flows of C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, leading to a calculated 16% protection from BH for both FA. The LE-CLA treatment tended to decrease the duodenal flows of C18:2 cis-9,trans-12 and C18:2 trans-9,cis-12. The ruminal biohydrogenation of C18:1 cis-9, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12, and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 was not affected by the LE-CLA treatment. Average apparent transfer between the duodenum and milk fat was 22%, 44%, 36% and 22% for C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 + C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15, respectively. Apparent transfer efficiency of long-chain FA was not affected by LE-CLA treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.005
       
  • Effect of solid-state fermentation with Arxula adeninivorans or Hypocrea
           jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) on hygienic quality and in-vitro
           digestibility of banana peels by mono-gastric animals
    • Authors: Constantine B. Katongole; Albina Bakeeva; Volkmar Passoth; Jan Erik Lindberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Constantine B. Katongole, Albina Bakeeva, Volkmar Passoth, Jan Erik Lindberg
      This study evaluated the effectiveness of solid-state fermentation with Arxula adeninivorans or Hypocrea jecorina to improve hygienic quality and digestibility of banana peels by mono-gastric animals. Green peels of cooking bananas (Musa AAA-group) were solid-state fermented in ziploc plastic bags for 14 d either non-inoculated or inoculated with A. adeninivorans or H. jecorina. Colonies of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds were enumerated. In-vitro digestibility (total tract and pre-caecal) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) was also determined. Solid-state fermentation significantly improved (P < 0.05) in-vitro total tract digestibility (9.9% for DM and 10.1% for OM), and in-vitro pre-caecal digestibility (25.0% for DM, 30.9% for OM and 74.5% for CP); however, no significant effect (P > 0.05) due to inoculation was observed. Conversely, inoculation (with A. adeninivorans or H. jecorina) significantly improved (P < 0.05) the hygienic quality; with lower (P < 0.05) aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and mould counts than the non-inoculated treatment. However, H. jecorina triggered a significantly superior (P < 0.05) improvement in both hygienic quality and in-vitro pre-caecal digestibility than A. adeninivorans.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.002
       
  • Comparable cortisol, heart rate and milk let-down in nurse sows and
           non-nurse sows
    • Authors: C. Amdi; V.A. Moustsen; L.C. Oxholm; E.M. Baxter; G. Sørensen; K.B. Andersen; L.H. Diness; M.F. Nielsen; C.F. Hansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Amdi, V.A. Moustsen, L.C. Oxholm, E.M. Baxter, G. Sørensen, K.B. Andersen, L.H. Diness, M.F. Nielsen, C.F. Hansen
      Increasing litter size in hyperprolific sows has led to the need for management systems for surplus piglets, one of which is the use of nurse sows. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in salivary cortisol, heart rate and number of milk let-downs in nurse sows compared to non-nurse sows. Sows were divided into three treatments: 1) control (non-nurse) sows nursed their own piglets until weaning at 26 days of age; 2) nurse1 sows had their own piglets removed and replaced with newborn piglets (between 6 − 24h old) at Day 7, these were weaned at Day 33 of the sow's lactation period and 3) nurse2 sows weaned their own piglets at Day 21 and received a litter of 7day old piglets from a nurse1 sow. These new piglets were weaned at Day 40 of the nurse2 sow's lactation period. Saliva samples were collected for cortisol analyses and the sows were fitted with pulse belts to monitor heart rate. Cameras were placed above the pens to record milk let-downs. Overall, there was no influence of treatment on salivary cortisol, heart rate or the number of milk let-downs/h. There was an effect of time as cortisol levels fell throughout lactation (P<0.001), and heart rate increased (P<0.001). Nurse1 sows had a lower cortisol concentration on Day 31 compared to Day 24 (P<0.028). The same was found for nurse2 sows, where the salivary cortisol concentration on Day 31 and Day 38 was significantly lower than on Day 24 (P<0.001). The present study found no differences in short-term (when the sows received new piglets) or long-term (throughout the lactation period) cortisol and heart rate measurements between different treatments. In addition, the frequency of milk let-down/h was the same for nurse sows as for non-nurse sows.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.024
       
  • The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with reduced dietary protein
           levels on performance, carcass traits, meat quality and environmental
           impacts
    • Authors: A.N.T.R. Monteiro; T.M. Bertol; P.A.V. de Oliveira; J.-Y. Dourmad; A. Coldebella; A.M. Kessler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.N.T.R. Monteiro, T.M. Bertol, P.A.V. de Oliveira, J.-Y. Dourmad, A. Coldebella, A.M. Kessler
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing dietary nutrient content for pigs from 25 to 130kg live weight, on performance, carcass traits, meat quality and environmental impact. Forty gilts and 40 barrows were distributed in a randomized block design with two treatments and 10 replications per treatment, with four animals per experimental unit. The feeding program was in four phases. Two diets were formulated for each feeding phase. One was adjusted using the InraPorc® model to minimize crude protein, amino acid and phosphorus excess (LN), and the other (ST) was formulated with standard Brazilian recommendations. No differences were found on performance. The mean ADG and ADFI were 0.919 and 2.46kg/day, respectively. Carcass characteristics and meat quality were also not affected by the experimental diets. The average total feed cost was 6.8% lower (P<0.05) for animals fed the LN diets. For nitrogen and phosphorus balance, there was no statistical difference in retention, but the nitrogen and phosphorus intake were 15.8% and 9.42% lower for pigs fed LN diets, respectively, and the excretion levels were 24.1% and 14.6% lower for pigs fed LN diets, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that LN strategy can reduce the environmental impacts of climate change and terrestrial ecotoxicity by about 4%, acidification and eutrophication by 8% and 10%, respectively, and land occupation by 9%. Data suggest that nutritional adjustment is a valuable alternative to standard formulations, without affecting performance, but lowering costs and reducing environmental burdens.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T12:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.014
       
  • Effects of instantaneous stocking rate, paddock shape and fence with
           electric shock on dairy cows’ behaviour
    • Authors: Dayane Lemos Teixeira; Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho; Maria José Hötzel; Daniel Enríquez-Hidalgo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Dayane Lemos Teixeira, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho, Maria José Hötzel, Daniel Enríquez-Hidalgo
      We assessed the effect of high instantaneous stocking rate, paddock shape and fence with electric shock on dairy cows’ behaviour under rotational grazing system. Twelve Holstein Friesian lactating cows were used in two consecutive experiments. Experiment 1 used a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 two-day periods and 4 treatments: 2 paddock shapes (rectangular and square) and 2 instantaneous stocking rates (500 and 200 cows/ha). For Experiment 2, cows were divided in 4 groups of 3 cows and submitted to two treatments – smooth wire fence with electric shock (4,000 V) and smooth wire fence without electric shock – in a cross-over experimental design with two replicates. Data were analysed in PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. The models included treatments as fixed effects and the group as the experimental unit. Cows in higher instantaneous stocking rate performed less grazing behaviour (P ≤ 0.05). This finding was expected, as larger area per animal increase the herbage allowance for grazing, and thus grazing time. These same animals also performed more aggressions, but less idling behaviours (P ≤ 0.05). Cows in paddocks without electric shock performed almost 15% more grazing behaviour than cows in paddocks with electric shock (P ≤ 0.05), which indicates that they may have recognized the absence of shock, hence not avoiding being close to the fence. Paddock shape did not affect any of the behaviours analysed (P > 0.05). The results from this study reinforce the importance of paddock characteristics on dairy cows’ behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T12:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.007
       
 
 
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