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Journal Cover Livestock Science
  [SJR: 0.837]   [H-I: 81]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide
           challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae fermentation product
    • Authors: Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez; Jeffery A. Carroll; Paul R. Broadway; Benjamin E. Bass; Jason W. Frank
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeffery A. Carroll, Paul R. Broadway, Benjamin E. Bass, Jason W. Frank
      This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the acute phase response (APR) following an lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2kg BW) were obtained and transported to a nursery facility. Pigs were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were weighed upon arrival and assigned to 1 of 2 treatment diets (n = 10 pigs/treatment) for 18 d: 1) non-medicated starter diet (Control); 2) Control diet + Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (XPC; 2kg/MT; Diamond V Original XPC™). Pigs were anesthetized on d 7 and 14 for insertion of an intraperitoneal (IP) temperature recording device and jugular catheter, respectively. On d 15, pigs were challenged i.v. with LPS (25µg/kg BW). Blood samples were collected at 0.5-h (serum) and 1-h (complete blood cell counts) intervals from −2 to 8h and at 24h relative to LPS challenge at 0h. There was a treatment effect (P ≤ 0.002) for serum TNF-α and IL-6 such that concentrations were greater in XPC-supplemented pigs than Control pigs (116.5 ± 5.0 vs. 90.9 ± 5.2pg/mL TNF-α; 188.3 ± 13.4 vs. 133.4 ± 11.7pg/mL IL-6; respectively) following LPS challenge. Administration of LPS increased IP temperature (P < 0.01), however, there was no effect of treatment (P = 0.12). Thus, feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs increased the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to an LPS challenge.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth performance, meat quality,
           and immune response of male broiler chickens: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mariana A. Pompeu; Luigi F.L. Cavalcanti; Fabio L.B. Toral
      Pages: 5 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): Mariana A. Pompeu, Luigi F.L. Cavalcanti, Fabio L.B. Toral
      The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and immune response of male broiler chickens was studied using a meta-analysis. The database was consisted of 51 scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals. The dependent variables for meta-analysis included final body weight, average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, vitamin E concentration in the muscle, tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration, lipid peroxidation value, post mortem pH, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and total immunoglobulins. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the data. Vitamin E supplementation did not influence growth performance, as the estimated slopes were not different from zero, with P-values equal to 0.92 for final body weight, 0.81 for average daily gain, 0.31 for daily feed intake, and 0.83 for feed conversion ratio. Dietary vitamin E supplementation increased the vitamin E content in the muscle (P = 0.001), did not change the polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration, and decreased the lipid peroxidation (P = 0.01). The immune response was improved, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was constant, and the total immunoglobulins were increased (P = 0.037) by dietary vitamin E supplementation. With regard to broiler chicken performance, there seemed to be no relationship between dietary vitamin E supplementation and growth performance. There is ample indication that meat quality and immune response could be improved by dietary vitamin E supplementation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, digestive enzymes and urinary
           purine derivatives in yaks and Qaidam cattle offered forage-concentrate
           diets differing in nitrogen concentration
    • Authors: J.W. Zhou; H. Liu; C.L. Zhong; A.A. Degen; G. Yang; Y. Zhang; J.L. Qian; W.W. Wang; L.Z. Hao; Q. Qiu; Z.H. Shang; X.S. Guo; L.M. Ding; R.J. Long
      Pages: 14 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 208
      Author(s): J.W. Zhou, H. Liu, C.L. Zhong, A.A. Degen, G. Yang, Y. Zhang, J.L. Qian, W.W. Wang, L.Z. Hao, Q. Qiu, Z.H. Shang, X.S. Guo, L.M. Ding, R.J. Long
      Yaks (Bos grunniens) and Qaidam yellow cattle (Bos taurus) are indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and graze natural pasture all year. Yaks are raised at higher elevations than cattle and are not offered supplementary feed whereas cattle receive supplementary feed and are sheltered at night during winters. We hypothesized that the species differ in metabolism of energy and nitrogen (N) and predicted that the differences would favour yaks to the harsh conditions of the plateau. To test our prediction, we examined nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, digestive enzymes and urinary purine derivatives (PD) in yaks and cattle offered forage-concentrate diets differing in N concentration. Four castrated yaks and 4 castrated cattle of similar ages (2.5 years) and body weights (200kg) were used in two concurrent 4×4 Latin square designs. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between yaks and cattle in apparent digestibilities of dietary nutrients, concentrations of ruminal N components and activities of digestive enzymes (P > 0.05). Crude protein and acid detergent fiber digestibilities increased linearly (P < 0.001) while neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increased dietary N intake for both species. Ruminal concentration of total VFA was greater in yaks than in cattle across diets (P < 0.05), but pH was similar between species (P > 0.05), and both variables were not affected by dietary N content (P > 0.05). As dietary N increased, ruminal concentrations of ammonia, urea and amino acids increased linearly (all P < 0.001), peptides tended to increase (P < 0.10), but soluble protein remained constant (P > 0.10) for both species. The activity of carboxymethylcellulase decreased linearly (P < 0.01) while activities of deaminase and urease increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increased dietary N. Urinary PD and components did not differ between species (P > 0.10); however, the PD nitrogen index (PNI) was greater in yaks than in cattle for the lowest N diets (linear dietary N × species, P < 0.01). With an increase in dietary N, urinary total PD, allantoin and uric acid increased linearly (P < 0.001), as did microbial N synthesis (P < 0.001), whereas PNI decreased linearly (P < 0.001). In addition, microbial N production was greater in yaks than in cattle (P < 0.05). We concluded that energy and nitrogen metabolism were more efficient in yaks than in Qaidam cattle, which enable yaks to better cope with the harsh foraging conditions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 208 (2017)
       
  • Effect of enzymatically hydrolyzed scallop visceral protein powder used as
           a replacement of fish meal on the growth performance, immune responses,
           intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens
    • Authors: R.E. Xing; H.Y. Yang; X.Q. Wang; H.H. Yu; S. Liu; X.L. Chen; P.C. Li
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): R.E. Xing, H.Y. Yang, X.Q. Wang, H.H. Yu, S. Liu, X.L. Chen, P.C. Li
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using dietary supplemental enzymatically hydrolyzed scallop visceral protein (EHSVP) and scallop visceral protein (SV) to replace fishmeal with regard to the growth performance, carcass characteristics, immune response, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 300 1-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 5 cages per treatment and 10 broiler chickens per cage. The broiler chickens received a basal diet supplemented with 3% fishmeal or different concentrations of EHSVP (1%, 2%, and 3%) and SV (2% and 3%) treatments until d 42. Broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation exhibited a greater average daily weight gain (P < 0.05) and lower feed conversion ratio. The carcass yield, eviscerated yield, and leg muscle yield of broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation were increased (P < 0.05) and the abdominal fat rate was decreased compared with broiler chickens fed fishmeal diet (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens fed a diet with 2% EHSVP supplementation were increased the activities of digestive enzymes (P < 0.05); moreover, it inhibited colonization of E. coli and Salmonella pathogenic bacteria and increased the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05). For EHSVP and SV supplementation, especially 2% EHSVP, the length of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum as well as the weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa immune organs were increased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 2% EHSVP supplementation increased the villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio and decreased the crypt depth (P < 0.05), thereby improving intestinal development. In conclusion, as a fishmeal replacement, EHSVP supplementation can significantly improve growth performance, carcass characteristics, and weight of immune organs as well as promote the development of the small intestine. At the same time, supplementation can also significantly improve gut health and the intestinal microbial environment in broiler chickens. A diet with EHSVP supplementation is more effective in improving the growth performance, carcass characteristics, immune response, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens than SV. Therefore, fishmeal can be partially replaced by EHSVP.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • The repeatability of individual nutrient digestibility in pigs
    • Authors: W. Ouweltjes; L.M.G. Verschuren; J. Pijlman; R. Bergsma; D. Schokker; E.F. Knol; P.J. van der Aar; F. Molist; M.P.L. Calus
      Pages: 63 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): W. Ouweltjes, L.M.G. Verschuren, J. Pijlman, R. Bergsma, D. Schokker, E.F. Knol, P.J. van der Aar, F. Molist, M.P.L. Calus
      Digestibility of nutrients in pig diets is an important component of overall feed efficiency. Targeted improvement of digestibility is currently mainly achieved by optimization of pig diets, based on information generated from digestibility trials that aim to establish fecal digestibility coefficients of different nutrients across a variety of ingredients. Genetic selection for nutrient digestibility is hampered by shortage of data on individual digestibility, but might help to further improve efficiency of pork production. The present study aimed to estimate the repeatability of fecal digestibility in pigs, as a first step to judge the perspectives for a breeding approach of nutrient digestibility. To achieve this, data was accumulated across nine digestibility trials, containing 1150 digestibility records of 416 growing pigs, measured across the trials. The data was analyzed with a model estimating variances for trial, diet, common litter, and individual animal effect for digestibility of Dry Matter, Ash, Organic Matter, Crude Protein, Crude fat and Non-Starch Polysaccharides. The factors diet and trial together explained the majority of the phenotypic variance, due to the design of the trials. Within diet and trial, common litter and individual animal effect contributed 0–10% of the phenotypic variance. The repeatability estimates ranged from 7% for Ash to 16% for Crude Protein, which suggests there may be genetic variation between pigs in digestibility. In conclusion, the repeatability estimates indicate it is worthwhile to collect phenotypic data that enable the estimation of genetic parameters for digestibility, if these data can be obtained at reasonable cost.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • Energy and protein requirements for maintenance of Southern Yellow cattle
           fed a corn silage or straw-based diet
    • Authors: M. Wei; L. Chen; X.M. Lian; Z.Q. Chen; P.S. Yan
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): M. Wei, L. Chen, X.M. Lian, Z.Q. Chen, P.S. Yan
      The objective of this study was to estimate the net energy and net protein requirements for maintenance (NEm and NPm) of Southern Yellow cattle in China. A database involving 175 cattle with body weight (BW) ranging from 211 to 454kg was obtained from a series of calorimetry experiments. The diets offered to cattle consisted of proportionately corn-soybean meal concentrate and roughage containing corn silage, rice straw and wheat straw. Linear regression equations of the logarithm of heat production (HP) and retained energy (RE) against metabolizable energy intake (MEI) were developed to predict the maintenance requirements for metabolizable energy (MEm) and NEm. The combined data indicated that the MEm and NEm were 522 and 348 MJ/kg0.75 of BWd−1, respectively. In addition, the partial efficiency of use of ME for maintenance was 0.66, and the partial efficiency for growth was 0.51. Similarly, there was also a linear relationship between retained nitrogen (RN) and nitrogen intake (NI). The pooled data provided a NPm of 2.63g/kg0.75 of BWd−1 and a metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance (MPm) of 3.93g/kg0.75 of BWd−1 for Southern Yellow cattle. In conclusion, our estimate of NEm was extremely similar to the value of the AFRC nutritional system, whereas it was slightly greater than that recommended by the NRC nutritional system. Additionally, the MPm value obtained in the current study was in agreement with the NRC recommendation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • Effect of candidate genes for maternal ability on piglet survival and
           growth
    • Authors: E. Jonas; L. Rydhmer
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): E. Jonas, L. Rydhmer
      Our study aimed to test if genes related to maternal ability can be used as genetic markers to improve piglet production. We considered polymorphisms in the oxytocin gene and other loci related to metabolic oxytocin levels and maternal behavior. We hypothesized that genetic variants in these genes can be used to select sows with good mothering ability, expressed as the ability to raise many fast-growing piglets. We identified polymorphisms in candidate genes and used additional closely located known polymorphisms to genotype sows and to test the association of the polymorphisms. Nine genes, oxytocin (OXT), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST), paternally expressed gene 3 (Peg3), growth factor receptor-bound substrate 10 (Grb10), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FOSB), cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38), neurohypophyseal hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) and protein kinase C, gamma (PRKCG) were selected for analysis. We identified four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), while 23 SNP identified using sequencing were already reported in a public database. Sows were genotyped using SNP identified using sequencing and from a public database, and a total of 30 out of 65 SNP segregated in the population. We tested the association of 20 markers with traits from up to 164 sows, including number and weight of piglets born and weaned and growth rate of piglets until week 5. Polymorphisms in or close to genes FOSB, PRKCG, Grb10, OXTR, and AVP showed significant associations (after Bonferroni correction, P < 0.00256) with mean birth weight, piglets stillborn of total born and relative weight change of the sow during lactation. We identified some effects (P < 0.05) of SNP close to or within OXT, MEST, FOSB, AVP and PRKCG on number of piglets dead or stillborn from total or live born. Birth weight and piglet growth were slightly (P < 0.05) influenced by polymorphisms in or close to genes Grb10, Peg3 and PRKCG. Two markers in the regions of genes MEST and Grb10 showed an effect (P < 0.05) on the relative fat and weight change of the sow during lactation, respectively. Most of the associations were either identified in the first or second parity, indicating strong differences between the traits across these early parities. Future studies should investigate the correlation between maternal behavior traits and the traits investigated here and test the effect of the investigated loci on behavior in sows. If these genes are associated with favorable maternal behaviors in pigs and if they are useful indicators of the maternal ability, they could be used to identify sows with high genetic ability to raise many fast growing piglets. Implications The survival of piglets is one important measure of successful pig production and the sow plays a major role for the survival of piglets. Selection of maternal lines focusses on maternal ability as it is relevant for piglet survival. We found some associations between candidate gene markers and maternal ability traits. But since the associations were not consistent from the first to the second parity, the markers seem to be less valuable for breeding.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • Effect of wheat as a feedstuff in starter diets on nursery pig growth
           performance and digestibility
    • Authors: D.J. Bloxham; C.R. Dove; M. Azain
      Pages: 98 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): D.J. Bloxham, C.R. Dove, M. Azain
      Two studies were conducted to determine if corn can be replaced by wheat and if wheat can be combined with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and a commercial carbohydrase in phase 2 and 3 nursery diets. In Exp. 1, 144 pigs were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% wheat replacing corn. In Exp. 2, 210 pigs were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments: control diet (CO); 30% wheat (W); wheat with carbohydrase (W + Enz); 30% wheat with 30% corn DDGS (WCD); and WCD with carbohydrase (WCD + Enz). In both experiments, pigs were fed a standard phase 1 diet from d 0 to 7 post-weaning. In both experiments, TiO2 was used as an indigestible marker to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N, ether extract (EE), gross energy (GE), P, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In Exp. 1, there was a quadratic effect of increasing wheat on overall (d 0–35) average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.05). There was a linear effect of increasing wheat on gain to feed ratio (G:F, P < 0.05). Overall there were no changes in average daily feed intake (ADFI). Apparent digestibility of N, P, and ADF increased with increasing wheat in phase 2 (P < 0.05). The digestibility of N, EE, GE, P, and NDF increased linearly with increasing wheat in phase 3 (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, the ADG of pigs fed W did not differ from the control, while those fed WCD had greater gain (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the diets supplemented with carbohydrase had reduced ADG (P < 0.05) compared to the unsupplemented diets. There was an increase in N, P, and GE digestibility with DDGS diets in phase 2 (P < 0.001). Carbohydrase supplementation increased N, EE, ADF, and NDF digestibility in phase 2 (P < 0.01), and ADF and NDF digestibility in phase 3 (P < 0.01). In phase 3, P digestibility increased and GE digestibility decreased when DDGS was added. The results demonstrate that wheat can be fully or partially substituted for corn in nursery diets. In this study, the addition of carbohydrase enzymes improved nutrient digestibility, but resulted in poorer growth performance.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • Gastrointestinal microbial diversity and short-chain fatty acid production
           in pigs fed different fibrous diets with or without cell wall-degrading
           enzyme supplementation
    • Authors: Y.J. Zhang; Q. Liu; W.M. Zhang; Z.J. Zhang; W.L. Wang; S. Zhuang
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): Y.J. Zhang, Q. Liu, W.M. Zhang, Z.J. Zhang, W.L. Wang, S. Zhuang
      The microbial diversity and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in pigs fed different fibrous diets with or without cell wall-degrading enzyme (phytase, cellulase and xylanase) supplementation were compared using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique. Eight growing castrated pigs fitted with a T-shaped cannula at the terminal ileum were randomly assigned to four diets, i.e., wheat bran-based diet (WB), enzyme-supplemented WB, soybean hull-based diet (SH), and enzyme-supplemented SH, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The ileal digesta and feces were collected after 15 days of adaptation in each period. The WB diet increased (P < 0.05) the abundances of Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Ruminococcaceae compared to SH diet, whereas the SH diet led to a higher (P < 0.05) abundances of Streptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Treponema and Methanobrevibacter than that of WB diet. Adding exogenous cell wall-degrading enzyme selectively altered the relative abundance of bacteria in both dietary groups. The SH promoted (P < 0.01) the concentrations of acetate, propionate and total SCFA in the ileal digesta and feces, and enzyme supplementation led to similar results for SCFA production (P < 0.01) but not for acetate in the feces compared to that of WB. These results may provide valuable information on how to utilize fibrous feedstuffs efficiently in animal production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation with Pleurotus ostreatus on growth
           performance and meat quality of Japanese quail
    • Authors: R.D. Vargas-Sánchez; G.R. Torrescano-Urrutia; F.J. Ibarra-Arias; J.J. Portillo-Loera; F.G. Ríos-Rincón; A. Sánchez-Escalante
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): R.D. Vargas-Sánchez, G.R. Torrescano-Urrutia, F.J. Ibarra-Arias, J.J. Portillo-Loera, F.G. Ríos-Rincón, A. Sánchez-Escalante
      Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom that possesses antioxidant potential. The effect of dietary supplementation with Pleurotus ostreatus on performance, carcass, and meat quality attributes of Japanese quail was investigated. The experiment involving a total of 288 quails 1-d-old, which were fed diets supplemented with P. ostreatus (0, 10 or 20g/kg of diet) for 35 d, with feed and water for ad libitum consumption. Total polysaccharide (TP), total phenolic and flavonoid content (TPC and TFC), antiradical DPPH• and ABTS•+ activity, as well as polyphenols compositions of P. ostreatus extract were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pH, color (L*, a* and b*), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss weight (CLW), texture and oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; total phenolic content, TPC; antiradical DPPH• and ABTS•+ activity) were measured in breast meat during storage (0, 5, 10 and 15 d; 4°C without illumination). Statistical differences were not detected on growth performance expressed as body weight gain 228.3g, feed intake 467.9g, feed conversion ratio 2.0, feed efficiency 0.49, live weight at the slaughter of the birds 217.2g, as well as carcass weight 133.0g and yield 61.3g of the quail breast (P > 0.05). At day 15 of meat storage, the pH24 (9.0%), a* (14.7%), b* (9.3%), WHC (7.2%), TPC (40.0%), DPPH• (11.0%) and ABTS•+ (33.0%) values were increased in quails fed with P. ostreatus in comparison with the control group; while parameter L* (9.0%), CLW (21.4%), texture (30.7%) and lipid oxidation-TBARS (33.5%) values were reduced (P < 0.05), which could be associated with the presence of polysaccharide and phenolic constituents in this edible mushroom. In conclusion, this edible mushroom has the potential for use in the feed of Japanese quail to improve meat quality and to serve as an antioxidant that reduces lipid oxidation during storage.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • Using kinematics to detect micro-behavioural changes relative to ovulation
           in naturally cycling tie-stall dairy heifers
    • Authors: M.J. Guesgen; C.J. Bench
      Pages: 126 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): M.J. Guesgen, C.J. Bench
      Estrus detection rates can be as low as 35% in Canadian tie-stall dairy herds. Low efficacy in tie-stalls is likely due to difficulties in detecting visual signs of estrus because cow movements are more restricted compared with free access stall systems. The overt, obvious behaviours an animal exhibits can be defined as its “macro-” behavioural repertoire, that is, behaviour which can be observed by the naked eye or ‘standard’ visual observation. In addition, an animal may also display more subtle “micro-” behaviours or “fidgets” which cannot be easily observed or measured through visual observation alone. Three-dimensional kinematics is one way to detect these micro-behavioural changes as kinematics characterizes movement in a very precise way. The objective of this proof of concept study was to investigate, using 3D kinematics, whether tie-stall dairy heifers showed micro-behavioural changes relative to ovulation. Fourteen Holstein heifers were recruited into the study at 43d in milk and underwent kinematic assessment from 14d after a first observed ovulation until 2d after a second ovulation. Kinematic assessment involved placing seven markers on strategic bony landmarks on each heifer's spine and hips. Each heifer was filmed for 15min daily using six Vicon motion capture cameras as it stood tethered in a tie-stall. The middle 5min of each 15min assessment clip was analyzed to control for fidgeting due to novelty of the test environment or boredom. Data for each heifer were standardized to the day of second ovulation. The hip and spine segments for each heifer were reconstructed and labelled digitally using Nexus software (v 2.3). Frequency data were collected for nine behaviours: Macro- (movements > 100mm), Mid- (40–100mm), Min- (20–40mm) and Micro- (10–20mm) shifts forward and back, and left and right as well as hip tilts. Heifers shifted a distance of 10–40mm forward and back (Min- F(4,55) = 5.22, P = 0.001, Micro- F(4,55) = 5.17, P = 0.001) and side to side (Min- F(4,55) = 3.69, P = 0.01, Micro- F(4,55) = 4.92, P = 0.002) and tended to tilt their hips (F(4,55) = 2.15, P = 0.08) more frequently relative to ovulation. Micro-behaviours were most frequent within a 24h window before the day of ovulation. This proof of concept study is the first to demonstrate that tie-stall dairy heifers show subtle micro-behavioural fidgets relative to ovulation which can be detected using 3D kinematics.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • Culling vs. emergency vaccination: A comparative economic evaluation of
           strategies for controlling classical swine fever in the EU
    • Authors: Verena Otter; Maria Näther; Ludwig Theuvsen
      Pages: 133 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 207
      Author(s): Verena Otter, Maria Näther, Ludwig Theuvsen
      Outbreaks of epidemic animal diseases, especially classical swine fever (CSF), are associated with high costs for livestock-producing regions like the European Union (EU). Alternative and complimentary measures exist for dealing with epidemics of animal diseases such as CSF: culling, quarantine, emergency vaccination, preventive vaccination and disease monitoring. In the EU culling in combination with quarantine has remained the only strategy to handle CSF outbreaks. Due to member states’ concerns about the tradability of vaccinated pigs and products from vaccinated animals, recent EU decisions have not considered emergency vaccination an appropriate alternative measure although modern DIVA vaccines allow the distinction between infected and vaccinated animals. Concurrently, the potential contribution of DIVA vaccines to the reduction of economic damages of CSF outbreaks has not been thoroughly addressed so far. This research gap motivates to compare the costs of culling and emergency vaccination for the latest outbreak of CSF in the EU exemplarily by applying a self-developed comprehensive simulation tool (TEUS) on the 2006 CSF epidemic in Germany. The results reveal that emergency vaccination involves lower direct costs but higher indirect costs than culling. Especially political interventions by the European Commission, the governments of its member states and the governments of non-EU member states are considered to make an emergency vaccination in case of an CSF outbreak economically unattractive under current conditions. This outcome implies the request for more emergency vaccination friendly EU regulations and OIE requirements.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 207 (2017)
       
  • In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate increases hatching weight, growth
           performance, and muscle growth but has no effect on meat quality in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: M.M. Zhao; D.Q. Gong; T. Gao; L. Zhang; J.L. Li; P.A. Lv; L.L. Yu; F. Gao; G.H. Zhou
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.M. Zhao, D.Q. Gong, T. Gao, L. Zhang, J.L. Li, P.A. Lv, L.L. Yu, F. Gao, G.H. Zhou
      To investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on growth performance, muscle growth, and meat quality of broiler chickens, 960 eggs were randomly allocated into 3 treatments: (1) non-injected control, (2) saline treatment injected with 0.6mL 0.75% physiological saline, and (3) CrPyr treatment injected with 0.6mL 0.75% physiological saline containing 12mg CrPyr/egg on 17.5d of incubation. After hatching, 120 male chickens per treatment were selected and randomly assigned to 8 cages for a 42-d feeding trial. The selected chickens had body weight close to the average of their pooled group. No difference in hatchability was observed among treatments, whereas the hatching weight, body weight gain, and feed intake in CrPyr treatment were greater than those of the control and saline treatments (P<0.05). The broiler chickens in CrPyr treatment gained greater total and relative weight, myofiber diameter, and cross-sectional area of pectoral muscle on 21 and 42d (P<0.05). However, there were no differences on the concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine in pectoral muscle of broiler chickens on 21 and 42d, as well as the meat quality among treatments. In conclusion, IOF of CrPyr improved the hatching weight, growth performance, and pectoral muscle weight of broiler chickens. Nevertheless, IOF of CrPyr did not affect the meat quality of pectoral muscle of broiler chickens on 42 d post-hatch.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Maternal genetic diversity and phylogeography of native Arabian goats
    • Authors: Nasser Ali Al-Araimi; Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat; Osman Mahgoub Gaafar; Raquel Vasconcelos; Agusto Luzuriaga-Neira; Mohamed Osman Eisa; Nadir Amir; Mohammed Hocine Benaissa; Abdulbari Abbas Alfaris; Riyadh Saleh Aljumaah; Sayed M. Elnakhla; Mohamed M.I. Salem; Ibrahim A. Ishag; Mohammed El Khasmi; Albano Beja-Pereira
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 206
      Author(s): Nasser Ali Al-Araimi, Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Osman Mahgoub Gaafar, Raquel Vasconcelos, Agusto Luzuriaga-Neira, Mohamed Osman Eisa, Nadir Amir, Mohammed Hocine Benaissa, Abdulbari Abbas Alfaris, Riyadh Saleh Aljumaah, Sayed M. Elnakhla, Mohamed M.I. Salem, Ibrahim A. Ishag, Mohammed El Khasmi, Albano Beja-Pereira
      The ability to adapt to harsh environments and thrive with minimal food and water input, places goats among the most popular livestock species in Arab countries. However, little is known about the historical and contemporary genetics of most Arabian goat breeds and populations. In this study, we genetically analyzed 617 individuals (126 from this study and 491 from published sources) representing 18 Arabian goat populations by evaluating variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop). Our data were also combined and compared with those from 339 Asian, African, European and Canarian populations. We found 186 different polymorphic sites, which allowed us to identify 453 different haplotypes belonging to three maternal haplogroups: A, B and G. Haplogroup A is the most represented among Arabian goats and highly widespread among Arab countries, whereas B group is rare. Haplogroup G is the second most frequent haplogroup and also the most diverse among Arabian goats. Measurements of nucleotide and haplotype diversity and the mean number of pairwise differences in the 18 populations yielded values of 0.025, 0.998 and 10.586, respectively. These results show that the diversity of native Arabian goat populations is high and similar to that of populations at the center of origin. Based on estimated population structures, comparison of pairwise F ST and AMOVA values between Arabian populations indicated low genetic differentiation. In addition, median-joining network analysis results provide very little evidence of a previous connection between Arabian goats and regions of historical Arab influence were once installed (Iberian Peninsula and Southern Europe). Finally, the same thin evidence was also found between extant Arabian and Canarian goats, which might have partially originated due to commercial trade or during the migratory movements of ancient humans.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T13:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Responses of broilers to the near-continuous lighting, constant 16-h
           lighting, and constant 16-h lighting with a 2-h night interruption
    • Authors: Y.Y. Sun; Y.L. Li; D.L. Li; C. Chen; H. Bai; F.G. Xue; J.L. Chen
      Pages: 135 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 206
      Author(s): Y.Y. Sun, Y.L. Li, D.L. Li, C. Chen, H. Bai, F.G. Xue, J.L. Chen
      Manipulation of lighting regimens is an effective way to improve the broiler production. The growing health and welfare concern for the livestock animals has raised new requirements for lighting management. In the present study, the overall responses including growth, carcass composition characteristics, health and welfare, and behavior of broilers to 3 lighting regimens (near-continuous lighting (23h light (L):1h darkness (D)), constant 16-h lighting (16L:8D), and constant 16-h lighting with a 2-h night interruption (16L:2D:2L:4D) were estimated, aiming at providing an optimal regimen required for both good welfare and production. A total of 360day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) obtained from a commercial hatchery were used. The chicks were randomly divided into 3 treatments, which were replicated for 4 times. The 3 lighting regimens aforementioned were initiated on d 8 and ended on d 42. For the whole study period (d 0–42), the feed conversion ratios of broilers under 16L:8D and 16L:2D:2L:4D did not differ, while the broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D had higher feed intake and BW gain (P < 0.05). The broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D had similar feed intake as those under 23L:1D, while the BW gain was higher (P < 0.05) and the feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05). Slaughtered on d 42, the breast muscle yield of broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D was similar to those under 23L:1D, but higher than those under 16L:8D (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat weight of broiler chickens under 16L:2D:2L:4D was similar to those under 23L:1D, but lower than those under 16L:8D (P < 0.05). The eyeball weight and size of broilers under 16L:2D:2L:4D were smaller than those under 23L:1D (P < 0.05). As a contributor of feeling of well-being, the serum serotonin level did not differ for the broiler chickens from the 3 lighting regimens. The serum melatonin of broilers under the 16L:8D was higher than other 2 regimens (P < 0.05). Behavior observation on d 30 indicated that the broiler chickens under the 23L:1D regimen spent more time feeding than those under 16L:8D, but exhibited comfort behaviors less extensively than other 2 regimens (P < 0.05). It was concluded from this study that the 16L:2D:2L:4D regimen improved the growth, feed efficiency, carcass composition characteristics, ocular and leg health and welfare of male Cobb broilers due to the dark period and a 2-h night interruption.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Different sources of calcium for starter pig diets
    • Authors: A.L.A. Santana; P.L. de O. Carvalho; N.T.E. de Oliveira; A.C. Gonçalves Junior; A.P. Gazola; D.E. de S. e Castro; S.T. Carvalho; A. da C. Oliveira
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 206
      Author(s): A.L.A. Santana, P.L. de O. Carvalho, N.T.E. de Oliveira, A.C. Gonçalves Junior, A.P. Gazola, D.E. de S. e Castro, S.T. Carvalho, A. da C. Oliveira
      The study was conducted to determine the true Ca absorption coefficients and growth performance of piglets fed diets containing different sources of Ca. In the metabolism study, 30 piglets uncastrated, with initial weight averages of 20.52 ± 1.84kg, were assigned to 5 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet was formulated to meet the piglets nutritional requirements, except to Ca (0.09%), and was supplemented with different source of Ca (limestone, monodicalcium phosphate, calcined bone meal, and oyster meal) to provide 0.64% total Ca. A low-Ca diet (0.018%) and 6 additional piglets were used to estimate the endogenous Ca excretion in the feces. Total feces and urine were collected to determine the apparent and true absorption of Ca. After the adaptation period (7 d), the excreted feces were collected twice daily, weighed, stored in plastic bags in freezer (−18°C) until the end of the collection period (5 d). The volume of the urine collected for 24h was measured and a 20% aliquot was stored in glass containers in refrigerator (3°C) until the end of the collection period (5 d). Experimental diets, feces and urine were analyzed for Ca. To determine the effect of different Ca sources on the growth performance, 160 piglets were assigned, to 2 sexes (males intact and females) and 4 sources of Ca (the same ones used in the metabolism study), in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement and randomized complete block design with 4 pens per treatment and 5 intact males or 5 females per pen. At the end of the study (22 d), blood samples were collected of the all piglets and 5 piglets per treatment were selected randomly regardless of sex to collect samples of organs. All samples were stored at −18°C. Response criteria were: weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, Ca deposition in organs, bone strength, weight and size of the third metatarsal bone, and serum in Ca. The sources of Ca and direct or indirect collection method did not affect the absorption coefficients. There was no interaction among the sources of Ca and sex of the piglets for the performance variables. The piglets growth performance was similar among treatments. Calcined bone meal and oyster meal resulted in a greater content of mineral matter in the kidney (P = 0.013). The bone meal resulted in a greater Ca concentration in the piglets hearts (P < 0.001). The sources are equally effective as a source of Ca for young piglets.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 206 (2017)
       
  • Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by lactic acid bacteria and hydrated sodium
           calcium aluminosilicate in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Ning Liu; Jinquan Wang; Qingqing Deng; Kuntao Gu; Jianping Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ning Liu, Jinquan Wang, Qingqing Deng, Kuntao Gu, Jianping Wang
      Aflatoxin contamination is very common in feedstuffs across the world and finding an ideal detoxifier is urgent because of the toxic action on animals and negative effects on foods, humans, and the environment. To thoroughly eliminate the toxin, a detoxification method has changed from physical to biological. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) on detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by assessing growth performance, digestibility, immune function, and AFB1 residues in tissues and excreta of broiler chickens from d 0 to 21. A total of 480 female broiler chicks on d 0 were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 cages of 20 chicks each for diets: positive control (PC, undetectable AFB1), negative control (NC, PC + 40µg AFB1/kg), LAB (NC + 1.5 × 1010 cfu LAB/kg), and HSCAS (NC + 3.0g HSCAS/kg). Results showed that the NC treatment reduced (P < 0.05) average daily gain and feed efficiency, and LAB or HSCAS supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the growth performance of broiler chickens, and the effect of LAB was greater than HSCAS. The LAB and HSCAS increased (P < 0.05) the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, and digestible energy by 4.0 to 15.0%, and improved (P < 0.05) immune function by modulating the relative weights of immune organs, lymphocyte percentages, and immunoglobulin contents. Additionally, residual AFB1 in serum and organs in LAB treatment was lower (P < 0.05) than HSCAS. The results indicate that LAB and HSCAS can detoxify AFB1 in the diet of broiler chickens, and LAB is more effective than HSCAS in partial biodegradation of AFB1.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.005
       
  • Meat and fat quality traits of grazing steers supplemented with corn grain
           and increasing amounts of flaxseed
    • Authors: M.M. Della Rosa; L.B. Pouzo; E. Pavan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M.M. Della Rosa, L.B. Pouzo, E. Pavan
      To evaluate the effect of corn and flaxseed supplementation at finishing on longissimus thoracis color and shear-force and on subcutaneous fat color, forty-eight angus steers were assigned to four dietary treatments (DIET): no-supplement, supplemented with 0.7% live weight (LW) of cracked corn grain plus 0.0%, 0.125% and 0.25% LW of whole flaxseed in two finishing trials (Trial-1, early spring and Trial-2, late spring). None of the evaluated variables were affected by DIET in either trial, nor in a combined statistical analysis of the pooled data. The lack of DIET effect observed on muscle color and shear-force, are in agreement with the similar longissimus muscle pH@45min, temp@45min, pH@24h, and glycogen content at slaughter observed between DIET. Lack of shear force difference between supplementation treatments is in agreement with their similar muscle sarcomere length, total and soluble collagen content and proportion of intact troponin-T. Subcutaneous fat color was also similar between supplementation treatments. Corn or flaxseed supplementation of steers grazing a high-quality pasture did not improve meat or subcutaneous fat color and meat shear force.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.004
       
  • Comparative nutrient digestibility in different ingredients fed to
           Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire and Duroc×Berkshire×Jiaxing growing barrows
    • Authors: J.B. Zhao; G. Zhang; L. Liu; Y.Q. Chen; A.M. Jin; G.L. Liu; K.Z. Li; D.F. Li; S. Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.B. Zhao, G. Zhang, L. Liu, Y.Q. Chen, A.M. Jin, G.L. Liu, K.Z. Li, D.F. Li, S. Zhang
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in nutrient digestibility between Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) and Duroc×Berkshire×Jiaxing (DBJ) growing pigs when fed conventional ingredients. A number of 14 DLY and 14 DBJ growing barrows, surgically fitted with T-cannula in the distal ileum, were allotted to a 14 × 3 Youden Square Design with 7 experimental diets and 3 periods, respectively. Each diet was fed to 2 pigs in each breed, and each period lasted for 15 days, including 10 days for diet adaptation, 3 days for fecal collection and 2 days for digesta collection. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in corn and barley were calculated using the direct method, while those in wheat middlings, rice bran and alfalfa meal were calculated using the difference method. Hindgut disappearance was calculated as the difference between the AID value and ATTD value. Results showed that the AID of ether extract (EE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in corn and barley were greater (P < 0.05) in DLY pigs than those in DBJ pigs. The ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and EE and the hindgut disappearance of gross energy (GE), DM and OM in barley were greater (P < 0.05) in DBJ pigs than those in DLY pigs. DBJ pigs had greater (P < 0.05) AID of histidine, lysine and phenylalanine, and greater (P < 0.05) SID of arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine and valine in corn and barley compared to DLY pigs. DBJ pigs also had greater (P < 0.05) SID of arginine, phenylalanine and valine compared to DLY pigs when fed wheat middlings. In conclusion, the differences in IAA and nutrient digestibility between DBJ and DLY pigs were affected by feed ingredient type. DBJ growing pigs showed significant greater ileal digestibility for most IAAs compared to DLY pigs when fed corn and barley diets.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.001
       
  • Impacts of using a precision livestock system targeted approach in
           mountain sheep flocks
    • Authors: Claire Morgan-Davies; Nicola Lambe; Harriet Wishart; Tony Waterhouse; Fiona Kenyon; Dave McBean; Davy McCracken
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Claire Morgan-Davies, Nicola Lambe, Harriet Wishart, Tony Waterhouse, Fiona Kenyon, Dave McBean, Davy McCracken
      Although mountain sheep systems suffer from climatic and environmental handicaps that constrain productivity and economic viability, they have an important economic role, maintain habitats and species of high nature conservation value and support the provision of a range of ecosystem services of benefit to society. Using Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) in extensive mountain sheep systems could bring benefits for animal performance, economical performance and labour. This paper presents results from a 3 year experiment where PLF principles were implemented on an extensive mountain sheep farm and an assessment made of whether or not such an approach could benefit more marginal sheep systems. A 900 ewe flock (600 Scottish Blackface ewes, 300 Lleyn ewes) was divided equally into two separate systems, one where the flock was managed conventionally (CON) at group level, and the other where the individuals in the flock were subjected to a PLF management protocol where electronic weighing, recording and drafting equipment were used, linked to the electronic identification (EID) tags of the animals. Two main management strategies were compared and contrasted; one relating to winter feeding of the pregnant ewes, the other relating to anthelmintic treatment of lambs during the summer. Yearly labour profiles were created by measuring the time spent doing individual tasks associated with the two management systems. Net margins (£/ewe) were calculated for the two systems. Additionally, the yearly labour profiles were scaled-up using commercial data to quantify potential labour savings on more traditionally managed mountain farms if PLF principles were adopted. Analyses indicated that the two different management systems did not result in any significant difference in terms of ewe weights, mid-pregnancy scanning figures, ewe and lamb mortality rates, or lamb weight post-weaning. However, the proportion of lambs needing anthelmintic treatment was significantly reduced by 40% between the CON and the PLF, resulting in a reduction of 46% in the amount of anthelmintic used. Over a whole year, the total amount of labour required in the PLF management system was reduced by 36%. Across the 3 years, the net margin for the two systems showed an average difference of £3/ewe higher in the PLF. For a more traditional farm embracing a PLF approach, analyses suggested labour reduction of 19%, equating to £1.60/ewe savings. This study shows that it is beneficial for farmers to consider managing a mountain ewe flock at an individual rather than at flock or batch level using PLF technology.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.002
       
  • New genes involved in the Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis in
           commercial broilers
    • Authors: Bruna Petry; Igor Ricardo Savoldi; Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli; Ediane Paludo; Jane de Oliveira Peixoto; Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch; Diego de Córdova Cucco; Mônica Corrêa Ledur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Bruna Petry, Igor Ricardo Savoldi, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli, Ediane Paludo, Jane de Oliveira Peixoto, Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch, Diego de Córdova Cucco, Mônica Corrêa Ledur
      Locomotor problems have a great economic impact on world poultry production, because difficulty of locomotion leads to a decrease in animal performance and an increase in partial or total carcass condemnation. In addition, locomotor problems greatly affect the chicken welfare. Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) or Femoral Head Necrosis (FHN) is responsible for altering the bone tissue degenerating the cartilage and femoral epiphysis. Despite its not well known etiology, it is believed that this disorder causes a decrease in tissue vascularization, interfering with blood flow and affecting the angiogenesis processes, predisposing broilers to bone problems. Genetic factors associated to rapid growth rate of the modern broilers are pointed out as predisposing chickens to BCO. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of 13 functional candidate genes in femur samples of normal and BCO-affected commercial broilers at 35 days of age to clarify the genetic mechanisms involved in the BCO in chickens. From the 13 genes studied, 10 were differentially expressed (DE) between groups: ADIPOQ, PRRX1, ANGPTL5, GFRA2, SFRP5, COL14A1, ABI3BP, ANGPTL7, COL8A1 and SLC30A10, which were downregulated in broilers affected by BCO, except for the SLC30A10, which was upregulated in the affected chickens. Although their functions are not well established in chickens, these genes participate in important biological processes in mammals, such as osteogenesis, formation of connective tissue and collagen production, and general bone development. The genes expression pattern, their functions and interactions, altogether, pointed out those DE genes as strong candidates to be involved with BCO in broiler chickens. The DE genes evaluated in this study might contribute to tissue necrosis, which could lead to the development of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in chickens. Those should be further investigated aiming to reduce this bone anomaly in broilers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.12.003
       
  • Changes in the vaginal microbiota in ewes after insertion of intravaginal
           sponges at different stages of the oestrous cycle
    • Authors: Jorgelina Manes; María A. Fiorentino; Silvina San Martino; Rodolfo Ungerfeld
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jorgelina Manes, María A. Fiorentino, Silvina San Martino, Rodolfo Ungerfeld
      The aims of this study were to determine if the ewe’ vaginal bacterial load differs according to the stage of the oestrous cycle; and thus, if the stage of the oestrous cycle when intravaginal sponges (IS) used for oestrous synchronisation are inserted influences the vaginal bacterial biota present at sponge withdrawal. During the breeding season, 45 Texel ewes were detected in oestrus and randomly allocated to one of three treatments of 15 ewes each according to the stage of the oestrous cycle when the IS were inserted. Intravaginal sponges were inserted: the day of oestrus (GOes), or 2 (GMet) or 8 (GDie) days after oestrus. Samples for bacterial analysis were collected the day of IS insertion (Day 0), at sponge withdrawal (Day 12), 24h (Day 13) and 48h (Day 14) after sponge withdrawal. Vaginal bacteria amount increased at sponge withdrawal in all treatment (p<0.0001). The number of different types of colonies was greater in GMet group than in GDie at sponge insertion (p<0.05), without difference with GOes. At sponge insertion, the presence of Staphylococcus spp. was greater in GMet than in GOe and GDi (p<0.05); the presence of Trueperella pyogenes and Haemophilus somni was greater after sponge withdrawal than before sponge insertion (p<0.001), but without difference between days 12, 13 and 14. Overall, we concluded that in ewes the normal vaginal bacterial load differs according to the stage of the oestrous cycle. The continuous presence of the IS homogenised the vaginal bacterial microbiota at withdrawal, with only slight and transient differences observed on day 13.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:37:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.023
       
  • Impact of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone on gelatinase expression
           and steroidogenesis in the newly formed corpus luteum in sows
    • Authors: Zhuang Qian; Huaisen Zhu; Yingjun Lv; Honglin Liu; Endong Bao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Zhuang Qian, Huaisen Zhu, Yingjun Lv, Honglin Liu, Endong Bao
      The development and sustained function of the corpus luteum (CL) after ovulation are important for embryo implantation and early pregnancy maintenance in mammals. Sows raised in commercial group-housing systems are vulnerable to stress and have elevated blood cortisol levels; therefore, it is pivotal to study the influence of increased cortisol levels in circulation on the reproduction of sows. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether stress induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration before estrus affected either the development or the functions of the newly formed CL in sows. The results showed that the gene expression levels of the P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) proteins of newly formed CLs were lower in the ACTH-treated sows than in the controls, whereas the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). Moreover, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)164 gene expression levels were significantly lower in the ACTH group than in the controls (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that ACTH-induced stress impairs vascularization, and affects the steroidogenesis of newly developed CLs in sows.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.012
       
  • Genetic and Phenotypic Parameters for Feed Efficiency in Indigenous
           Chicken in Kenya
    • Authors: Sophie Miyumo; Chrilukovian B. Wasike; Alexander K. Kahi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sophie Miyumo, Chrilukovian B. Wasike, Alexander K. Kahi
      This study aims to determine the genetic and phenotypic parameters of net feed efficiency (NFE) traits namely Residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG), and residual intake and gain (RIG) along the growth curve of indigenous chicken in Kenya. Feed intake and body weight data was collected on 107 experimental birds on a daily and weekly basis, respectively from 77 days to 140 days of age. Random regression sire model was used for analysis, fitting Legendre polynomials as basis function. Sex, hatch group and interaction between sex and cluster constituted fixed effects in the model while additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted as random variables. A heteroscedastic residual variance was modelled by grouping the test period into nine classes. The orders of polynomial fit for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects in the model were 4 and 5; 3 and 4; and 5 and 5; for RFI, RG and RIG, respectively. The additive genetic variances for RFI and RG were higher at the beginning of the trajectory but declined as the test period progressed while their respective phenotypic and permanent environment variances increased with age. Consequently, moderate (0.34) and high (0.77) heritability estimates for RFI and RG, respectively, were observed during the early test period and thereafter decreased to 0.03 for RFI and 0.01 for RG. Additive genetic variance for RIG increased across the test period while phenotypic and permanent environment variances declined. This resulted in high estimates of heritability and permanent environmental variance as a proportion of phenotypic variance of 0.69 and 0.98, respectively, at the extremes of the trajectory. At mid-point of test period, low estimates of heritability and permanent environmental variance as a proportion of phenotypic variance of 0.13 and 0.19, respectively were observed. The heritability estimates indicate possible selective breeding for NFE given the moderate estimates (0.23 to 0.34) for RFI, moderate to high estimates (0.30 to 0.77) for RG and high estimates (0.49 to 0.98) for RIG. However, caution has to be taken when selecting for RG and RIG given the extreme heritability estimates resulting from statistical and biological factors. Genetic correlations were high to moderate and positive (0.99 to 0.32) between records at early and mid-ages (77 to 105 days), but high and negative (−0.99 to −0.45) between early (77 days) and late ages (112 to 140 days). Selection for NFE at growth inflection point (77 days) would result in a favourable correlated response at point of maximum growth (105 days) but would be associated with unfavourable response at point of asymptotic growth (140 days) as birds are approaching sexual maturity. Given the high standard errors for the genetic parameters estimates in this study, there is need for further analyses prior to selection for feed efficiency indigenous chicken.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T08:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.011
       
  • Impact of breed on the rumen microbial community composition and methane
           emission of Holstein Friesian and Belgian Blue heifers
    • Authors: Thijs De Mulder; Nico Peiren; Leen Vandaele; Tom Ruttink; Sam De Campeneere; Tom Van de Wiele; Karen Goossens
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Thijs De Mulder, Nico Peiren, Leen Vandaele, Tom Ruttink, Sam De Campeneere, Tom Van de Wiele, Karen Goossens
      Intensive dairy and beef cattle farming contribute significantly to the emissions of greenhouse gases from Belgian agriculture. Two main breeds dominate the Belgian cattle livestock; Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle and double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) beef cattle. The aim of our study was to quantify and compare methane emissions of both breeds under conditions of equal diet composition, environment and physiological stage (using heifers of the same age). The methanogen and bacterial communities were thoroughly investigated using metabarcoding to correlate taxonomic compositions with breed and methane emission levels. HF heifers had significantly higher absolute enteric methane emissions as compared to DMBB heifers. Methane production was positively correlated to the dry matter intake (DMI). Due to the significantly higher DMI and energy intake of HF heifers, methane yield per DMI was not significantly different between breeds. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed between the gross feed efficiency (GFE) of both breeds, but the DMBB heifers demonstrated significantly lower CH4:CO2 ratios (mole-to-mole ratio), suggesting a more efficient fermentation by the rumen microbial ecosystem. Although both breeds accommodated a common core of taxonomic groups, the bacterial communities also showed a breed specific composition due to differential abundance of specific species belonging to the main taxonomic groups and the presence of a few species of minor taxonomic groups that were significantly associated with one of both breeds. In contrast to the bacterial communities, the methanogen community was consistent and stable between breeds and at different sampling times. Our results suggest that breed related factors influence the bacterial community composition, while the variation in methane emission levels can be attributed mainly to the feed intake of the animals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.009
       
  • Liquid storage of ram semen for 96hours: effects on kinematic parameters,
           membranes and DNA integrity, and ROS production
    • Authors: L. Falchi; G. Galleri; M.T. Zedda; S. Pau; L. Bogliolo; F. Ariu; S. Ledda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L. Falchi, G. Galleri, M.T. Zedda, S. Pau, L. Bogliolo, F. Ariu, S. Ledda
      A complete assessment of morphological and functional characteristics of ram semen during refrigeration is necessary to optimize the process of semen manipulation and storage. The aim of this study was to describe changes in main predictive parameters of ram semen diluted in a commercial soy lecithin-based extender (OVIXcell), during long term liquid storage at 4°C. Ejaculates of 5 Sarda rams were collected, pooled and diluted in OVIXcell. Samples were cooled at 4°C and stored at this temperature until 96h. At 0–24-48–72-96h semen samples were analysed for the following parameters: motility [computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA)]; integrity of cytoplasm membrane and acrosome (PI/PSA staining); DNA fragmentation index [DFI(%); sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA)]; levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2DCFDA staining). Effect of time of storage on main parameters and correlations among them were assessed respectively by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Primary and secondary motility parameters were significantly affected by time of storage (P<0.05) decreasing throughout 96h. Integrity of cytoplasm membranes was preserved for the first 24h and decreased by around 10% from 48 to 96h (P<0.05). No effects on acrosomes were observed (P>0.05). Long term storage did not affect the levels of DFI(%) (P>0.05) while ROS production significantly increased from 48 to 96h (P<0.05). Weak negative correlations were found among DFI(%), ROS, and kinematic parameters. In conclusion, long term liquid storage of ram semen at 4°C induces progressive detrimental effects on the main predictive quality parameters of sperm, especially from 24hours onwards, but does not compromise DNA integrity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.001
       
  • MicroRNA expression patterns in tail fat of different breeds of sheep
    • Authors: Yangyang Pan; Jiongjie Jing; Junxing Zhao; Xiali Jia; Liying Qiao; Lixia An; Baojun Li; Yuan Ma; Yingjiao Zhang; Wenzhong Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yangyang Pan, Jiongjie Jing, Junxing Zhao, Xiali Jia, Liying Qiao, Lixia An, Baojun Li, Yuan Ma, Yingjiao Zhang, Wenzhong Liu
      The objective of this study was to detect the expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) in two breeds of fat-tailed sheep (Guangling Large-tailed sheep and Small-tailed Han sheep), and discover the miRNAs that may play roles in lipid metabolism. Consequently, two small RNA libraries were constructed and high-throughput sequencing was used to identify the miRNAs expressed in the two libraries and to calculate the expression of miRNAs. Bioinformatics methods were used to predict target genes, which were subsequently analyzed using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Nine miRNAs (miR-10b, miR-29a, miR-30c, miR-155, miR-192, miR-206, novel-miR-102, novel-miR-36, and novel-miR-63) were chosen to verify the sequencing results by detecting their expressions in the two breeds using quantitative real-time PCR. A total of 113 and 131 conserved miRNAs in the two breeds were obtained, of which 40 miRNAs were differentially expressed. KEGG analysis showed that many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in lipid metabolism pathways. By screening the unknown miRNAs using MIREAP, 208 and 215 novel miRNAs were obtained from the two libraries, of which 150 were significantly different. This study represents the comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in the tail fat of two breeds of sheep with different tail fat deposition using HiSeq analysis. We conclude that differentially expressed miRNAs may play roles in regulating adipose metabolism, and thus, may contribute to improving the meat quality and fat deposition in sheep.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:21:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.11.007
       
  • A comparison of the growth performance between cattle reared in
           conventional systems and in feral conditions
    • Authors: Sergio Nogales; Juan Calderón; Teresa Marta Lupi; Maria Cristina Bressan; Juan Vicente Delgado; María Esperanza Camacho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sergio Nogales, Juan Calderón, Teresa Marta Lupi, Maria Cristina Bressan, Juan Vicente Delgado, María Esperanza Camacho
      Feral and conventional growth performances were compared using Marismeña cattle as a model. Marismeña calves are commonly reared under feral conditions in one of the most important reserves of Europe (Doñana National Park, Spain). Data recording in these natural conditions faces compromises as animals are only handled once per year. This fact has to be saved to obtain efficient estimations for the biological growth curve of cattle reared under feral conditions. On the one hand, we assessed the inference of the theoretical influence of human management on cattle growth. On the other hand, we studied the fitness of the best growth curve, in both feral and conventional systems to use the physiological meaning of the parameters obtained from their study as selection criteria related to the adaptability of potential breeding males and females. Fitting of Brody's, von Bertalanffy, Verhulst, logistic, Gompertz and Richards’ models was tested as these models are the most representative ones for cattle growth. In general, Brody's and Richards’ models presented the best fitting values for the biological curve. According to the biological curve parameters, males and females presented asymptotic weights of 641.71kg and 403.55kg, respectively. As expected, the results of the commercial growth curve severely differed from those of the biological curve. The best fitting biological curve was not representative for cattle reared under commercial conditions. The logistic model was the best fitting one for feral females, Gompertz model for feral males, and Verhulst for intensive males and females, respectively. Seasonal oscillations in feeding may be responsible for the earlier achievement of the best performance in feral cattle (7 and 10 months for males and females, respectively), while such best performances were reached at 11 months in intensive calves, what becomes relevant for management and slaughtering decision-making. The study of the biological curve in Marismeña feral breed is very illustrative as this is the first time that feral cattle's growth is approached. Knowledge on the biological growth curve parameters could be used to interpret the strong relation between feral animals and their environment. This research could infer a model to quantify the effects of human management on livestock development, as feral resources offer unique opportunities to study domestic livestock without any human influence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.026
       
  • Dietary effects of plant extracts, based on verbascoside, lycopene and
           horseradish on several blood variables and plasma oxidative status in
           growing rabbits
    • Authors: D. Casamassima; M. Palazzo; F. Vizzarri; C. Costagliola; C. Corino; C.A. Di Costanzo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Casamassima, M. Palazzo, F. Vizzarri, C. Costagliola, C. Corino, C.A. Di Costanzo
      Oxidative stress can cause damage to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in several biological systems, leading to the functional and structural impairment of individual molecules that may be involved in various diseases. The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary plant extract supplementation, based on Lippia citriodora, horseradish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lycopene (Solanum lycopersicum L.), on several blood parameters and plasma oxidative status in growing rabbits. The experiment lasted 80 days and was conducted on 160 weaned-rabbits, divided into four groups of 40 animals each, matched by age (38 ± 2 days) and body weight (1.49 ± 0.07kg). The control group (CON) received a weaning-fattening feed without any feed additives, while of the other three experimental groups, the first group received a supplement of plant extract based on Lippia citriodora, containing 5mg of verbascoside/kg feed (VB group), the second group received 5mg of lycopene/kg feed, tomato fruit extract (LIC group), and the third received 350mg of Raphanus sativus root extract/kg feed (RAF group). The feed additives, based on verbascoside (Lippia citriodora), horseradish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lycopene (Solanum lycopersicum L.) resulted in a marked decrease in blood content of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and bilirubin. In addition, only when verbascoside was supplemented, were improvements in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and AST enzyme levels observed. Plasma oxidative markers significantly improved for all three extract groups. There was a significant reduction in ROMs and TBARS values, as well as an increase in the content of retinol and alfa-tocopherol, confirming the strong antioxidant ability of the plant extracts used. A dietary supplementation with phyto-extracts, based on Lippia citriodora, horseradish and lycopene can thus be effectively used in rabbit feeding due to the positive effects observed on the blood parameters and plasma oxidative status, with possible beneficial effects on the welfare of livestock animals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.022
       
  • Supplementation with live yeasts and essential oils does not alter blood,
           fecal and digestible parameters in horses
    • Authors: Mayara Angela Faga Palagi; Kátia Feltre; Iaçanã Valente Ferreira Gonzaga; Regina de Lima Costa; Luiz Antonio Jorge de Moraes Filho; Júlio César de Carvalho Balieiro; Alexandre Augusto de Oliveira Gobesso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mayara Angela Faga Palagi, Kátia Feltre, Iaçanã Valente Ferreira Gonzaga, Regina de Lima Costa, Luiz Antonio Jorge de Moraes Filho, Júlio César de Carvalho Balieiro, Alexandre Augusto de Oliveira Gobesso
      The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of essential oils and live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SC) compound on fecal parameters, apparent digestibility of nutrients and blood parameters of horses. Eight geldings Mini-Horse breed (age 48±6 months and body weight 147±15kg) were used, randomly distributed in two Latin squares (2×2). The individual dry matter intake adopted was 1.75% of body weight. The experimental diet (concentrate:hay as 60:40) was divided into Control group (CO – without additives), live yeast S. cerevisiae group (SC – 2g/day addition), Essential Oils group (EO – 150mg/day addition) and Live Yeast + Essential Oils group (LE – both additives). Four periods of 23 days each, being 15 days of adaptation to the diet, 5 days of total collection of feces, and 3 days of washout were performed. Variance and orthogonal contrasts (CO vs others; SC and EO vs LE; EO vs SC) analysis using p<0.05 as a reference for significant values. The apparent digestibility of nutrients was evaluated through the total collection of feces of each animal by calculating the relationship between the ingested and the excreted nutrients. We were calculated the contents of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ethereal extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and starch. Lipids (triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and fractions of high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)) were evaluated into serum, which was obtained during the total collection of feces period. The glycemic and insulinemic responses were evaluated based on the area under the curve of glucose (AUC-G) and insulin (AUC-I). The microbial population (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Lactobacillus genus) and pH were evaluated in feces. The treatments did not influence (p>0.05) the apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, PB, EE, NDF, ADF and starch. No differences (p>0.05) in blood parameters CT, TG, HDL, LDL, VLDL, AUC-G and AUC-I were observed. There was no effect (p>0.05) of treatments, time and treatment⁎time interaction in fecal pH of horses. No differences in the relative population of microorganisms (p>0.05) between treatments were observed. The use of essential oils and live yeasts (CNCM I-1077), allied or not, in equine diets does not alter blood, fecal and digestible parameters in horses.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.024
       
  • Short Communication: Milk fat response to calcium salts of palm or soybean
           in a normal or milk fat depression scenario in dairy ewes
    • Authors: M. Baldin; J. de Souza; E. Ticiani; E.C. Sandri; R. Dresch; F. Batistel; D.E. Oliveira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Baldin, J. de Souza, E. Ticiani, E.C. Sandri, R. Dresch, F. Batistel, D.E. Oliveira
      A limited number of studies in lactating sheep have compared milk fat responses to calcium salts (Ca-salts) differing in fatty acid (FA) composition and their interactions with different dietary conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ca-salts of palm or soybean FA on milk fat under Normal and CLA-induced milk fat depression (MFD) scenarios in lactating dairy ewes. Thirty-eight Lacaune and thirty-seven East Friesian multiparous ewes were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The main factor consisted of two diets designed to create two distinct scenarios: Normal and CLA-induced MFD (CLA-MFD, 30g/d of CLA 29.9% trans−10, cis−12 CLA as methyl ester). The subfactor was supplementation of Normal or CLA-MFD scenarios with 27g/d of Ca-salts of palm FA, or 30g/d of Ca-salts of soybean FA, resulting in four treatments: 1) Normal + Ca-Palm, 2) Normal + Ca-Soy, 3) CLA-MFD + Ca-Palm, and 4) CLA-MFD + Ca-Soy. Overall, the CLA-MFD scenario decreased milk fat concentration by 1.64 percentage units and decreased milk fat yield by 17.3g/d. Ewes that received Ca-Palm had overall 0.29 percent units higher milk fat concentration, and 13.4% greater milk fat concentration when fed the CLA-MFD diet. Ca-Soy increased trans−10 C18:1 (131.0%), trans-11 C18:1 (30.4%), and cis-9, trans-11 CLA (21.1%) in the CLA-MFD diet. In conclusion, supplementation with Ca-Palm resulted in overall greater milk fat concentration. In a MFD scenario, supplementation with Ca-Soy increased concentration of milk trans FA linked to altered rumen biohydrogenation and further aggravated MFD.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T14:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.018
       
  • Identification of SNP markers associated with milk and fat yields in
           multibreed dairy cattle using two genetic group structures
    • Authors: Thawee Laodim; Mauricio A. Elzo; Skorn Koonawootrittriron; Thanathip Suwanasopee; Danai Jattawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Thawee Laodim, Mauricio A. Elzo, Skorn Koonawootrittriron, Thanathip Suwanasopee, Danai Jattawa
      The objective of this research was to determine the correspondence between significant SNP for first-lactation 305-d milk and 305-d fat yields and associated genes from mixed models accounting for population structure using all additive relationships among animals and genetic groups constructed with either SNP genotypic information or with expected breed composition in the Thai multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset contained 2,410 MY and 912 FY from 2,410 first-lactation cows with complete pedigree information genotyped with GeneSeek Genomic Profiler 9K. SNP genotypes located in autosomes and the X chromosome, with call rates larger than 90%, minor allele frequencies (MAF) larger than 0.01, and P-values for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium tests larger than 0.00001 were used in the research. Significant SNP for MY and FY were identified using two mixed models that differed only in their definition of genetic groups. Model 1 (M1) defined genetic groups in terms of breed composition and model 2 (M2) in terms of SNP genotypic information. Fixed effects in M1 and M2 were contemporary group (herd-year-season), genetic group, heterosis, and calving age. Random effects were animal additive genetic and residual. Significant SNP markers were used to identify genes using R package Map2NCBI. Molecular function and biological processes of genes identified by significant SNP markers located inside or within 2,500 bp of these genes were obtained via program PANTHER. Both models yielded identically high correlations between number of significant SNP and number of genes per chromosome for MY (r = 0.97) and FY (r = 0.99). Over 60% of genes associated with MY and FY were involved in binding and catalytic activities. Similarly, over 50% of genes associated with MY and FY participated in cellular and metabolic processes. Larger numbers of significant SNP and genes were identified with M2 for MY and with M1 for FY. However, considering both traits, M1 identified more significant SNP and genes than M2 for MY and FY in this Thai multibreed dairy population. Genes associated with MY and FY were primarily involved in binding and catalytic activities as well as in cellular and metabolic processes. Genes identified to be important for MY and FY in the Thai multibreed population differed substantially from those identified in Bos taurus breeds in temperate environments indicating the need to continue to conduct studies with high-density genotyping chips that identify sets of genes relevant to MY and FY in populations of different breed composition under a variety of environmental conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T13:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.015
       
  • Identification of new loci for body weight traits in F2 chicken population
           using genome-wide association study
    • Authors: Hossein Emrani; Rasoul Vaez Torshizi; Ali Akbar Masoudi; Alireza Ehsani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Hossein Emrani, Rasoul Vaez Torshizi, Ali Akbar Masoudi, Alireza Ehsani
      Understanding the genetic control of growth traits is one of the most important breeding goals in poultry industry. In order to find genes and genomic regions affecting growth traits, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumnia 60K chicken SNP Beadchip in a chicken F2 resource population derived from the reciprocal cross between Arian fast-growing line and Orumieh indigenous slow-growing chicken. A total of 312 F2 birds in eight half sib families from five hatches were produced. Growth traits including body weight (BW) from birth to 12 weeks of age and average daily gain (ADG) were measured for all of the F2 chickens. The GWAS analysis for growth traits was performed using the generalized linear model (GLM) and compressed mixed linear model (cMLM). The results indicated that nine SNPs reached to 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P < 2.43E-6) and 12 were suggestively passed genome-wide significance (P < 4.8E-6) for BW and ADG traits. These nine SNPs were located nearby or in 10 candidate genes, including DIS3, BORA, UBE2H, CNOT10, SGOL1, ADGRB3, DTNB, SETD3, EFNA5 and SPINZ. Cell division, skeletal myogenesis, regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton organization and transcriptional activity are the main important biological process of these genes. This study indicates novel genes related with important processes that can open new insights to the genetic control of growth traits in broiler chickens. In addition, these SNPs are potential to be included in animal breeding programs assisted by molecular markers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T13:49:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.016
       
  • Embryo recovery results in Hispano-Arabe horse and Spanish donkey breeds
    • Authors: Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín; Guillermo Vizuete; Juan Jose Galisteo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Carlos Carmelo Pérez-Marín, Guillermo Vizuete, Juan Jose Galisteo
      This study was carried out as part of an embryo preservation program undertaken among Hispano-Arabe (H-a) mares and Spanish (Andalusian and Zamorano-Leones) jennies, both considered to be endangered breeds. Over the course of six years, 61 donor mares and 17 donor jennies were monitored and inseminated with chilled semen from 17 H-a stallions and six jackasses. A total of 199 uterine flushings (140 in mares and 59 in jennies) were carried out and the embryo recovery rate was recorded and the effect of various factors such as embryo quality and size, flushing effluent quality and individual effects were analyzed. The ovulation rate was significantly lower in donor mares (1.12) than in jennies (1.86) (p<0.001). Embryo recovery per flush was 35.0% and 40.7% in mares and jennies respectively (p>0.05), and it was influenced by photoperiod (p<0.05). Individual effects were also noted for different stallions and jackasses. The embryo size was significantly affected by day of flush (p<0.05) and embryo morphology (p<0.001). While the effect of a range of variables is described in this study, it is important to emphasize that the endangered nature of the breeds concerned makes it harder to obtain acceptable results in an embryo transfer program, because it is difficult to select the best animals (donors, recipients and stallions), and this may play a role in the results obtained. However, it is necessary to continue the research in this field in order to improve the tools needed to preserve the pool of genetic heritage and diversity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.011
       
  • Identification of artificial selection signatures in Caracu breed lines
           selected for milk production and meat production
    • Authors: Bárbara Machado Campos; Adriana Santana do Carmo; Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva; Lucas Lima Verardo; João José de Simoni Gouveia; Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado; Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva; Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Bárbara Machado Campos, Adriana Santana do Carmo, Thiago Bruno Ribeiro da Silva, Lucas Lima Verardo, João José de Simoni Gouveia, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
      The identification of selection signatures allows a better comprehension of evolutionary processes, gene function and organization in the genome. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify and characterize genomic regions subject to selection, comparing two Caracu breed lines, one selected for milk (Caracu Caldeano) and other for meat production (Caracu). Animals were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine HD Genotyping BeadChip which included ~777K SNP. The identification of selection signatures was based on population differentiation (FST). Twenty-one genomic regions related to meat and milk production and adaptation characteristics were identified. The genes identified as candidate to be under selection in this study included those related to muscle growth and meat quality (TFCP2, KIAA1244, CDH23 and FAM186B), milk compounds synthesis (MUC19), reproductive metabolism (SLC39A11). Genes related to adaptative traits including resistance to metabolic diseases (C6), and epidermal development and resistance to high temperatures (KRT86) and KRT83) were also identified. The observed relevant genomic regions of Caracu and Caracu Caldeano differed, indicating that specific selection signatures of each line were successfully identified and may represent the consequence of adaptation to the local environment and type of animal production.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.014
       
  • Effects of melengestrol acetate supplementation after fixed-timed
           artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows
    • Authors: W.M. Costa Junior; R.F. Cooke; M.H.C. Pereira; J.L.M. Vasconcelos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): W.M. Costa Junior, R.F. Cooke, M.H.C. Pereira, J.L.M. Vasconcelos
      This experiment compared pregnancy rates in Bos indicus cows assigned to temporary calf weaning (TCW) or eCG administration during estrus synchronization, with or without melengestrol acetate (MGA) supplementation after artificial insemination (AI). A total of 3042 lactating, multiparous, non-pregnant Nelore cows were managed in 48 groups, and assigned to an estrus synchronization + fixed-time AI protocol (d −11 to 0, with AI on d 0). On d −11, groups were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 gonadotropic stimulus, which were either 48-h TCW from d −2 to AI (n = 9 groups, 604 cows) or 300 IU i.m. injection of eCG on d −2 (n = 39 groups, 2438 cows). On d 1, groups were assigned to receive, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, 1 of 3 MGA treatments: 0.5mg of MGA/cow from d 5 to 18 (M5to18; n = 16 groups, 1074 cows) or from d 13 to 18 (M13to18; n = 16 groups, 971 cows), or no MGA supplementation (CON; n = 16 groups, 997 cows). Estrus expression was evaluated by painting the tailhead of each cow on d −2, and evaluating the presence of tailhead paint at AI. Body condition score (BCS; 1 to 9 scale) was recorded at AI, and cows were classified as adequate (≥ 4.5) or inadequate (< 4.5) BCS. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 80 were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in M5to18 and M13to18 compared with CON cows (62.9, 62.9, and 55.3% on d 30, 58.1, 59.2, and 50.5% on d 80, respectively; SEM = 3.1), and similar (P ≥ 0.79) between M5to18 and M13to18 cows. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 80 were similar (P ≥ 0.17) between cows assigned to eCG and TCW (58.1 and 62.6% on d 30, 54.3 and 57.6% on d 80, respectively; SEM = 2.7). The MGA supplementation × gonadotropic stimulus interaction was not significant (P ≥ 0.41) whereas no interactions of main treatment effects with cow BCS and estrus expression were detected (P ≥ 0.21) for pregnancy outcomes. Hence, supplementing B indicus beef cows with MGA post-AI increased pregnancy rates compared with non-supplemented cows, and this outcome was independent of period and length of MGA supplementation, gonadotropic stimulus, cow BCS status, and estrus expression during the synchronization protocol.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.012
       
  • Genetic parameter estimates for temperament, heifer rebreeding, and
           stayability in Nellore cattle
    • Authors: T.S. Valente; O.D. Albito A.C. Carvalheiro Baldi L.G. Albuquerque M.J.R.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): T.S. Valente, O.D. Albito, A.C. Sant’Anna, R. Carvalheiro, F. Baldi, L.G. Albuquerque, M.J.R. Paranhos da Costa
      The aim of this study was to estimate heritability for five temperament and two reproductive traits in Nellore cattle and to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among them. Temperament was evaluated using the movement (MOV), tension (TEN) and crush (CS) scores (measured with animals inside the squeeze chute) as well as the flight speed (FS) and temperament score (TS). Reproductive traits included i) heifer rebreeding (HR), which evaluates heifers’ ability to become pregnant, given that they had calved once; and ii) stayability (STAY), which measures cows’ ability to calve at least 3 offspring before reaching 65 months of age. We used Bayesian inference and Gibbs sampling in a two-trait analysis to estimate genetic parameters applying a linear model for FS and threshold models for MOV, TEN, CS, TS, HR and STAY. The animal model included contemporary group as a fixed effect, direct additive genetic and residual effects as random effects, and animal age at yearling as a covariate (with linear and quadratic effects). Heritability estimates for MOV, TEN, CS, FS, TS, HR and STAY were 0.14 ± 0.04, 0.11 ± 0.03, 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.22 ± 0.02, 0.19 ± 0.04, 0.13 ± 0.02 and 0.13 ± 0.02, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates were low to moderate and the highest values (in magnitude) were −0.19 ± 0.21 (HR-CS), −0.21 ± 0.15 (STAY-TEN) and −0.24 ± 0.16 (STAY-CS), indicating that the selection to improve cattle temperament does not negatively affect HR and STAY. These results indicate that all traits had sufficient genetic variability to respond to direct selection; however, given the low estimated heritability, we expect to see only long-term genetic changes. Genetic correlations showed that there is no antagonism of temperament with fertility and longevity; however, we recommend including these traits as selection criteria in Nellore breeding programs to obtain satisfactory genetic changes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Effects of feeding sugar beets, ensiled with or without an additive, on
           the performance of dairy cows
    • Authors: Anne Louise; Frydendahl Hellwing Ulrike Messerschmidt Mogens Larsen Martin Riis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Ulrike Messerschmidt, Mogens Larsen, Martin Riis Weisbjerg
      The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional composition and quality of beet silages ensiled without (SBS–) and with silage additive (SBS+) and the effect on nutrient intake, milk yield, and milk composition when maize silage was replaced with SBS+ or SBS–. SBS– ferment heavily, and the main fermentation products are ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid. Adding a silage additive restricts fermentation and preserves most of the sugar in SBS+. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a multiple 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of two weeks adaptation and one week of measurements. The cows were fed either a control diet (DCON) or diets where two-third of the maize silage was replaced with SBS+ (DSBS+) or SBS– (DSBS–) on a dry matter (DM) basis, in a partial mixed ration (PMR). The cows had access to one milking robot, and were offered up to 3.0kg/day of concentrate in the milking robot. The concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and sucrose in SBS– were 90.7, 64.9, 29.9, and 1.4g/kg DM, corrected for evaporation losses, respectively. The concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and sucrose in SBS+ were 4.4, 2.5, 4.4, and 105g/kg DM, respectively. The intake of PMR did not differ between the three treatments. The intake of concentrate in the milking robot was lower for DSBS– and DSBS+ compared to DCON, due to fewer visits to the robot. Milk yield was lower but more concentrated for the two treatments with beet silages compared to DCON. The yield of energy corrected milk was 36.9kg and 36.3kg in DCON and DSBS–, respectively, which was higher than the 34.9kg in DSBS+. It is concluded that the milk production value of SBS– is comparable to maize silage, whereas SBS+ seemed to be lower. However, this may be partly due to fewer visits to the milking robot and thus less concentrate intake in DSBS+. The results show that sugar beets ensiled wet, without silage additive, is a promising feed for lactating cows.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • The use of near infrared spectroscopy to predict faecal indigestible and
           digestible fibre fractions in lactating dairy cattle
    • Authors: Federico Righi; Marica Simoni Giulio Visentin Carmen Manuelian Sarah Afro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Federico Righi, Marica Simoni, Giulio Visentin, Carmen L. Manuelian, Sarah Currò, Afro Quarantelli, Massimo De Marchi
      The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of faecal near infrared spectroscopy (FNIRS) to predict undigested neutral detergent fibre at 240h of fermentation (uNDF240) and other fibre fractions in lactating dairy cattle faeces. A total of 130 faecal samples (600g) were collected directly from the rectum of dairy cows randomly selected across the lactating groups of 6 herds located in northern Italy and fed grass/alfalfa hay forage based total mixed ration. Reference values were matched with FNIRS spectra. Prediction equations were developed for each trait using external validation. Our results showed that the calculated uNDF240 (DM basis) to ADL ratio in faeces averaged 2.84, ranging from 1.58 to 4.10. The similar ratio of acid detergent fibre (ADF) and uNDF240 to NDF (66–67%) indicated that potentially digestible NDF in faeces is mainly represented by hemicelluloses, whereas uNDF240 is mainly composed of lignin and cellulose. The coefficient of determination of external validation (R2 V) of uNDF240 was 0.59 when expressed as percentage of DM and 0.36 when expressed as percentage of NDF, and the corresponding ratio performance deviation of external validation (RPD) values in validation were 1.52 and 1.26, respectively. Values of R2 V ranged from 0.54 to 0.63 for fibre fractions and RPD in validation ranged from 1.45 (ADL, %DM) to 1.68 (ADF, %DM). Despite the low accuracy of the prediction models, this study contributes to the knowledge of the FNIRS application to uNDF240 and other fibre fractions in faeces. Further investigations with different diet composition should be addressed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Environmental impact of milk production across an intensification gradient
           in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Daniel Woldegebriel; Henk Udo Theo Viets Eugenie van der Harst
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Daniel Woldegebriel, Henk Udo, Theo Viets, Eugenie van der Harst, José Potting
      This paper quantifies environmental performances of milk production systems differing in degree of intensification in the Mekelle milkshed area, Ethiopia. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to estimate Land Use (LU), Fossil Energy Use (FEU) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the cattle sub-system in 8 large-scale, 8 (peri-)urban and 8 rural farms. The large-scale farms owned considerably more and other types of cattle (35.0 cattle units (cu); mainly Friesians) than the (peri-)urban (6.3 cu; mainly crossbreds) and rural farms (4.1 cu; mainly local breeds). The milk production per average cow per year was much lower in rural farms (730kg) than in large-scale (2377kg) and (peri-)urban farms (1829kg). Milk was the main contributor to the economic benefits of the large-scale (90%) and (peri-)urban (80%) farms, whereas milk (sold and consumed at home) contributed only about 40% to the economic benefits in the multifunctional rural farms. The environmental impacts per cu, reflecting the absolute impacts of cattle keeping, were considerably higher in the large-scale and (peri-)urban farms than in the rural farms. LU and FEU were for the great majority caused by the land use for hay, straws and grasses, and harvesting, transport and processing of feeds, in particular wheat bran. On-farm emissions from enteric fermentation and manure storage were the main contributors to GWP. The impacts per kg milk did not differ significantly between the three systems. The LU per kg milk estimates (9.4, 11.2 and 8.8m2 in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively high compared to LCA studies of milk production in developed countries due to large amounts of low-quality forages and wheat bran fed, whereas the FEU values per kg milk (7.5, 11.1 and 6.6 MJ in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were relatively low compared to studies of milk production systems in developed countries. The GWP estimates per kg milk (1.75, 2.25 and 2.22kg CO2-equivalents per kg milk in the large-scale, (peri-)urban and rural farms, respectively) were slightly higher than GWP values for the same types of farms in other developing countries, due to the relatively large amounts of low quality feeds fed. The quality of cattle management practices seems more important than the choice for a specific cattle keeping system in reducing environmental impacts of milk production.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Evaluation of methodologies for equine biometry
    • Authors: Rodrigues dos; Santos Guilherme Freiberger Fernanda Bottin Maisa Chiocca Aline
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Moisés Rodrigues dos Santos, Guilherme Freiberger, Fernanda Bottin, Maisa Chiocca, Aline Zampar, Diego de Córdova Cucco
      Equines have some peculiarities of zootechnical interests that differ from other species, mainly due to their motor capacity to perform work or sporting functions. For that reason, body dimensions and proportions are extremely important in horse selection and breeding, and morphological characteristics such as length, height, width and angular measurements may influence the quality of movement and physical structure of the animal. In this way, this work aimed to evaluate the biometric data of equines, obtained by the traditional method of body measurement and photogrammetry technique using ImageJ® software. In addition, the methods were correlated and the limitations and advantages of each one were shown. The effect of evaluators for both methods was verified to demonstrate the efficiency of the procedures. Three trained evaluators took body measurements, each performing four replications per horse. A total of 10,944 biometric measurements were taken on twenty-four adult horses. The data was collected from 19 biometric measurements, and photographic images were captured with the purpose of performing measurements in these same anatomical points through the software. The results of this work demonstrated that there is a very high correlation between biometric measurements and photogrammetry for four metric measurements with values between 0.90 and 0.95 and for six measures of high correlation (0.73 to 0.86). Angular measurements showed the largest differences, with correlations ranging from negligible to high (0.29 to 0.81). It was concluded that the ImageJ® software is an alternative that can be used to obtain equine morphological data, due to the easy execution of data collection, as well as the fact that the software is free. Thus, this strategy can be used mainly by breeders who seek to form a database with zoometric information that is essential for equine genetic improvement.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not work synergistically with exogenous
           enzymes to enhance feed utilization, ruminal fermentation and lactational
           performance of Nubian goats
    • Authors: A.E. Kholif; M.M. Abdo U.Y. Anele M.M. El-Sayed T.A. Morsy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.E. Kholif, M.M. Abdo, U.Y. Anele, M.M. El-Sayed, T.A. Morsy
      The present study assessed the effect of in-feed doses of an exogenous enzyme preparation and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production performance, nutrient utilization, ruminal and blood serum measurements in goats. Sixteen lactating Nubian does (35.1 ± 0.8kg) were utilized in a quadruplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design over a period of 88 days. Enzymes and/or yeast were included in a basal diet (control treatment) at doses of 4g exogenous enzyme (EZ treatment), 4g yeast (SC treatment), or 8g of their mixture at 1:1 w/w (EZSC treatment). The EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.01) feed intake, milk yield, energy corrected milk, milk component yields, and feed efficiency. In addition, the EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.01) concentrations of milk total solids, solids excluding fat, fat, and lactose compared with the control treatment. Greater (P<0.05) nutrient digestibility and diet's total digestible nutrients, digestible crude protein, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy for lactation were observed with feeding EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments. In addition, greater (P<0.001) ruminal pH, and concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids were observed with feeding EZ, SC, and EZSC diets. The SC and EZSC treatments decreased (P<0.05) ruminal ammonia-N compared with EZ and control treatments. The EZ, SC, and EZSC treatments had greater (P<0.001) concentrations of blood total proteins, albumin, globulin, and glucose. As a result, it is concluded that in-feed dose of exogenous enzymes or yeast at 4g/doe/d will enhance feed intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk yield and composition in lactating Nubian does. Mixing the exogenous enzyme with the yeast did not show any synergistic effect.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Genetic basis of Lipomatous Myopathy in Piedmontese beef cattle
    • Authors: Peletto M.G.; Strillacci M.T. Capucchio Biasibetti Modesto P.L. Acutis Bagnato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Peletto, M.G. Strillacci, M.T. Capucchio, E. Biasibetti, P. Modesto, P.L. Acutis, A. Bagnato
      In Piedmontese cattle breed, the sporadic detection of Lipomatous Myopathy (LM) has been reported. The phenotypic disease expression consists in degeneration and infiltration of the muscular tissue characterized by replacement of myofibers with adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of genetic loci associated with lipomatous myopathy in Piedmontese cattle breed through a genome wide association study based on a DNA pooling design. The samples used for the study were collected from a meat cutting plant, pairing cases and controls within farms. Samples of different muscles (diaphragm, superficial and deep pectoral, intercostal, sternocleidomastoid group and vastus lateralis) were histopathologically and enzymatically classified as cases and controls. DNA pools of cases and controls were constructed. Equal amounts of DNA were pooled from individuals for the constitution of 4 pools (2 independent biological replicates for cases and 2 for controls). Technical duplicates were also built and all pools genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip three time each, for a total of 24 chip array positions. SNPs positions were based on the UMB 3.1 bovine assembly. The B-allele frequencies (BAF) for each array replicate were used in a specific pipeline in R software to perform multiple marker tests after excluding the 5% of SNPs showing the highest BAF variability from the replicate arrays within tail, as well as the monomorphic SNPs. A total of 41 QTLRs were identified on the 29 bovine autosomes, and 4 on the X chromosome. A subset of the identified markers fall inside or nearby genes involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis and cell to cell adhesions. The biological role of these genes in the onset of lipomatous myopathy has been identified looking at the known functions of the encoded proteins on the GeneCards database. Gene networks have been identified using STRING.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Methane emissions from non-lactating pregnant dairy cows while grazing
    • Authors: Conrad Ferris; Haopeng Jiao Stephen Murray Alan Gordon Alistair Carson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Conrad P. Ferris, Haopeng Jiao, Stephen Murray, Alan W. Gordon, Alistair F. Carson
      There is little information on methane (CH4) emissions from non-lactating pregnant dairy cattle when grazing. To address this issue, enteric CH4 emissions were estimated from a total of 68 non-lactating pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle during three successive years (23, 22 and 23 cows in year 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Cows used in these studies ranged from 19 – 69 days prior to their actual calving date when measurements commenced. Methane emissions were measured using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technique over six consecutive 24-hour periods, with measurements commencing 28 August, 16 September and 15 September during years 1 – 3, respectively. Cows were given access to fresh grazing on the first and fourth day of the measurement period, but were not offered a concentrate supplement. Across the three years of the experiment mean CH4 emissions were 216g/cow/day and 25.2g/kg dry matter intake. Emission increased with increasing lactation number, from 200 (1st lactation) to 228 (>2nd lactation) g/day. Relationships between individual cow body weight and methane emissions (R2 = 0.17) and estimates of intakes for individual cows and CH4 emissions (R2 = 0.21) were poor.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
       
  • Effects of dry whey powder alone or combined with calcium butyrate on
           productive performance, duodenal morphometry, nutrient digestibility, and
           ceca bacteria counts of broiler chickens
    • Authors: C. Pineda-Quiroga; R. Atxaerandio; R. Ruiz; A. García-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Pineda-Quiroga, R. Atxaerandio, R. Ruiz, A. García-Rodríguez
      Prebiotics and organic acids have been proposed as safe additives in poultry feeding to promote performance and health. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of supplementing corn-soybean diets of broiler chickens with dry whey powder (WP), fat-coated calcium butyrate (CaB), and a mixture of both on apparent ileal digestibility (AID), pH of gastrointestinal content at various segments, productive performance, duodenal histomorphometry, and ceca microbial counts. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 WP inclusion rates (0 and 60g/kg of diet) and 2 CaB rates (0 and 1g/kg of diet). One-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to floor pens and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. In Trial 1, 120 broiler chickens were allocated to 4 treatments with 3 pens per treatment and 10 broiler chickens per pen during 21 d. With the addition of WP, the AID of dry matter, crude protein, Ca, and P increased, and cecum pH decreased only when CaB was also added (CaB × WP, P < 0.046). In Trial 2, 1,200 broiler chickens were allocated to the 4 treatments with 10 pens per treatment and 30 broiler chickens per pen during 42 d. With the dietary supplementation of WP, average daily gain and feed intake of broiler chickens increased during starter, grower-finisher periods, and the entire feeding period only when CaB was also added (P < 0.047). However, with addition of WP, feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased in broiler chickens fed the diet without CaB, but it increased in those fed with CaB during the grower-finisher and entire feeding periods (P < 0.001). Duodenal histomorphometry measurements were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin stains, and cecal microbial counts were determined by selective culture media. With the addition of WP, villus height, villus height to crypt depth ratio, and villus surface area were increased only when CaB was also added (CaB × WP, P < 0.017), while the supplementation of WP increased Bifidobacterium spp. counts only when CaB was not added (CaB × WP, P = 0.049). Results obtained in the present study indicate that the supplementation of WP without CaB addition improved the FCR of broiler chickens. However, the supplementation of WP together with CaB improve duodenal development, increases nutrient AID, and the weight and ingestion of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.10.001
       
  • Dietary supplementation with Lonicera macranthoides leaf powder enhances
           growth performance and muscle growth of Chinese Tibetan pigs
    • Authors: Z.Y. Wang; Y.H. Duan; F.N. Li; B.C. Yang; J.X. Zhang; S.Z. Hou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Z.Y. Wang, Y.H. Duan, F.N. Li, B.C. Yang, J.X. Zhang, S.Z. Hou
      This study was conducted to explore the effects of dietary supplementation with Lonicera macranthoides leaf (LML) on growth performance and muscle growth of Chinese Tibetan pigs. L. macranthoides leaves were harvested, air-dried, and milled to powder. Ninety-six pigs with an average initial body weight of 5.03 ± 0.24kg were randomly assigned into four groups (24 pigs per group) in a completely randomized design according to the body weight. Pigs were fed either a basal diet with no supplement (control), or a diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% of LML powder. Results showed that dietary supplementation with 1.5% powder increased ADG and lean percentage, improved the gain:feed ratio, and lowered the incidence of diarrhea in Tibetan pigs (P < 0.05), compared with the control group. Moreover, dietary supplementation with 1.0% and 1.5% powder increased the concentration of several free amino acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle and the mRNA expression of selected AA transporters, significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes related to muscle growth (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested that the dietary level of LML powder within the range of 1.0%~1.5% would facilitate the absorption and utilization of free AA, thus improving muscle growth and growth performance of Chinese Tibetan pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T13:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.09.026
       
 
 
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