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Journal Cover Livestock Science
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Effect of pomegranate seed oil as a source of conjugated linolenic acid on
           performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats
    • Authors: A. Emami; M.H. Fathi Nasri; M. Ganjkhanlou; L. Rashidi; A. Zali
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Emami, M.H. Fathi Nasri, M. Ganjkhanlou, L. Rashidi, A. zali
      The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil on lactational performance, ruminal fermentation parameters, nutrients digestibility and milk fatty acid (FA) content, particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) and vaccenic acid (VA) of dairy goats. Twenty-four Mahabadi goats in mid lactation were assigned to three dietary treatments: 1- control diet, basal diet without added oil (CON), 2- diet supplemented with 25g/kg pomegranate seed oil (PSO), and 3- diet supplemented with 25g/kg linseed oil (LSO), on a dry matter (DM) basis. Feed intake, milk yield and 4% fat-corrected milk yield were similar for goats fed different diets. Milk fat concentration (P< 0.01) and fat/ protein ratio (P< 0.0001) of goats fed PSO and LSO diets increased, while milk protein, lactose and solid not fat concentrations were not affected by diets (P> 0.05). Addition of vegetable oils to diet had no effect on apparent digestibility of nutrients and ruminal fermentation parameters (P> 0.05). The proportions of VA (P< 0.001) and C18:1 (trans−9 + trans−10, P< 0.01) acids were increased in milk fat from goats fed PSO and LSO diets compared with goats fed CON diet. The concentration of cis−9, trans−11 CLA (rumenic acid) increased with oil supplements (P< 0.0001) and was greatest for goats fed PSO diet. Compared with CON and LSO diets, feeding PSO diet increased cis−9, trans−11, cis−13 C18:3 CLnA (punicic acid) in milk fat (P< 0.0001). The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; P< 0.05), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; P< 0.0001) and n-3PUFA (P< 0.0001) increased and n−6/n−3 PUFA ratio (P< 0.0001) decreased with oil supplemented diets. In conclusion, feeding PSO and LSO to dairy goats was a useful way to increase milk fat, CLA, and VA content of milk and to reduce the n−6/n−3 PUFA ratio without negative effects on intake, milk yield, and nutrients digestibility.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T21:30:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • The role of the level of intensification, productive orientation and
           self-reliance in extensive beef cattle farms
    • Authors: A.J. Escribano; P. Gaspar; F.J. Mesías; M. Escribano
      Pages: 8 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.J. Escribano, P. Gaspar, F.J. Mesías, M. Escribano
      The identification of the livestock production systems (LPS) existing in a given area constitutes the first step to manage farms sustainably, since it improves the knowledge of its operation and subsequently allows for establishing the appropriate managerial strategies for each LPS. It is of great interest, as LPS are key for agro-ecosystem conservation and rural population in many areas. The present study was conducted in light of the importance of the beef cattle sector for one of the oldest and most heavily protected agroforestry systems (‘dehesa’, SW Spain and Portugal). A total of 63 beef cattle farms (including organic and conventional ones) were analysed from the structural and technical-economic points of view, aiming to: (i) improve the knowledge of the dehesa beef cattle sector; (ii) define specific managerial strategies tailored to each typology (LPS) in order to increase their sustainability as well as that of the dehesa ecosystem; (iii) clarify whether there is a relationship between the typologies obtained on the basis of technical-economic indicators and a previous classification of the farms based on their condition of being organic, and their productive and market orientation. For this purpose, the analysis paid special attention to the level of intensification, productive orientation (presence of a calf-finishing period) and self-reliance (related to their dependence on subsidies). The methodology yielded the following four typologies: (i) extensive farms selling at weaning with low productivity; (ii) extensive farms with low productivity and high dependence on subsidies; (iii) calf-finishing farms with average stocking rates and high profitability; (iv) irrigated farms with low presence of livestock, and high fixed capital and economic fluxes. In general terms, management and structure of dehesa beef cattle farms positioned them in a good place regarding CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) trends (mainly in terms of environmental protection). However, the farms studied must improve several aspects. Firstly, they need to increase their degree of self-reliance (reducing their dependence on external workforce and subsidies). Secondly, their productivity and economic performance must also be increased. The latter could be achieved by adding value to the products being sold, i.e. finishing more calves, developing new products and/or participating in marketing. Generally speaking, a close relationship between farm typologies and the previously established groups of farms (Conventional, Organic 1 and Organic 2) has not been observed. This was due to the similarities between organic and conventional farms in the context of the dehesas with regard to indicators used in the present study.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T21:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Efficacy of yeast derived glucomannan or algae-based antioxidant or both
           as feed additives to ameliorate mycotoxicosis in heat stressed and
           unstressed broiler chickens
    • Authors: C. Bortoluzzi; J.M. Schmidt; H.L.F. Bordignon; L.M. Fülber; J.R. Layter; J.I.M. Fernandes
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): C. Bortoluzzi, J.M. Schmidt, H.L.F. Bordignon, L.M. Fülber, J.R. Layter, J.I.M. Fernandes
      Mycotoxin-contaminated corn may negatively affect the growth performance of broiler chickens, which led the feed industry to adopt strategies that could ameliorate the adverse effects of mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the dietary inclusion of an algae-based antioxidant and esterified glucomannan derived from yeast cell wall on broiler chickens affected by mycotoxicosis before and after the exposure to heat stress during the pre-slaughter period. 1,225 one-day old broiler chickens were allocated in 5 dietary treatments (7 replicates each): basal diet formulated with corn classified as uncontaminated (control, CON); basal diet formulated with corn naturally contaminated with mycotoxins (contaminated control, CC); CC + esterified glucomannan; CC + algae based-antioxidant; and CC + esterified glucomannan + algae based-antioxidant. From 42 to 44 d of age all of the remaining broiler chickens were subjected to pre-slaughter heat stress (48h at 32°C). The feed formulation with contaminated corn impaired the feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 0 to 42 d of age (P < 0.05), but the supplementation with antioxidant partially improved the FCR. The mycotoxins itself decreased the b⁎ value of the meat (P < 0.05), which may negatively be affected by other factors, such as pre-slaughter heat stress. High ambient temperature during the pre-slaughter period decreased the water loss after cooking, increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value, and decreased the pH value of the meat in all the times evaluated (0, 6, 12, and 18h after slaughter, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the classification of the corn was an effective strategy to reduce its amount of toxins, and the antioxidant supplementation partially improved the FCR in contaminated corn-fed broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-09-17T21:30:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Effects of dietary crude protein levels and exogenous protease on
           performance, nutrient digestibility, trypsin activity and intestinal
           morphology in broilers
    • Authors: X.M. Ding; D.D. Li; Z.R. Li; J.P. Wang; Q.F. Zeng; S.P. Bai; Z.W. Su; K.Y. Zhang
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): X.M. Ding, D.D. Li, Z.R. Li, J.P. Wang, Q.F. Zeng, S.P. Bai, Z.W. Su, K.Y. Zhang
      The experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenous protease in different crude protein (CP) level diets on performance, nutrient utilization, trypsin activity and intestinal morphology in broilers. A total of 1,080 1-d-old Arbor Acres (AA) male broilers were allocated into a 3 × 3 factorial design that included 3 CP levels (CP1, CP starter 21%, grower 19%; CP2, CP starter 20%, grower 18%; CP3, CP starter 19%, grower 17%) and 3 protease levels (0, 150, and 300mg/kg, enzyme activity unit 1 × 105 U/g) for 42 d (starter, d 1 to 21; grower, d 22 to 42). As CP was decreased on d 1 to 21 and from d 1 to 42, body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) of birds were reduced (P ≤ 0.05), whereas the ratio of feed to gain (F/G) was increased (P < 0.05). Protease supplementation significantly improved the F/G of 1 to 21-d-old broilers (P < 0.05), regardless of dietary protein level. The apparent CP digestibility of the CP3 diet was lower than that of the CP1 diet(P<0.05), and protease supplementation significantly improved CP digestibility (P<0.05). When CP levels decreased, the activity of trypsin in the pancreas and duodenum content was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and both the villus height and the villous height and the crypt depth ratio (VCR) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Supplementation with 300mg/kg of protease significantly increased the activity of trypsin in the pancreas (P<0.05) and 21 d villus height and VCR in the duodenum, jejunum (villus height), ileum (VCR). No interaction was observed among growth performance, nutrient digestibility, trypsin activity and the intestinal morphology of the broilers. These results suggest that supplementation with an exogenous protease enhanced endogenous trypsin activity and intestinal morphology regardless of CP levels, which resulted in improved CP digestibility during the starter period.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T21:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources – A New Tact
    • Authors: Samuel Rezende Paiva; Concepta M. McManus; Harvey Blackburn
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Samuel Rezende Paiva, Concepta M. McManus, Harvey Blackburn
      For the past 20 years countries have initiated programs to sustainably conserve farm animal genetic resources. At the same time the growing need for increased animal productivity has emerged. Viewing gene banks and in vivo conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product demand suggests the need for a more efficient use of these mechanisms to support sustainable productivity. Some advances have been made in developing and implementing in-vivo conservation programs, but those efforts appear to be predicated upon various types of government subsidies, which are subject, for example, to policy changes, and their growth has been limited. Given the in-vivo situation, it is suggested conservation efforts shift toward gene banks as the primary conservation mechanism. Globally, national gene banking efforts have increased and they have the capacity and potential to become more dynamic, incorporate different biological materials and facilitate increased use of genetic diversity. The next steps for gene banks are to better utilize information systems to integrate and store data from genetic/genomic assessments, cryopreservation, phenotypes and environmental conditions. These types of benefits plus the reduced conservation costs gene banks can speed the rate of conserving breeds while freeing the livestock sector to increase productivity with the breeds of their choosing.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T09:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • 12S rRNA mitochondrial gene as marker to trace Sicilian mono-species dairy
    • Authors: Lina Tortorici; Rosalia Di Gerlando; Marco Tolone; Salvatore Mastrangelo; Maria Teresa Sardina
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 193
      Author(s): Lina Tortorici, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Marco Tolone, Salvatore Mastrangelo, Maria Teresa Sardina
      For a rapid, specific and sensitive identification of cows', ewes' and goats' milk in mono-species Sicilian dairy products, species-specific duplex-PCR protocol was applied. DNA samples from blood and experimental cheeses of Sicilian autochthonous breeds were extracted to amplify the 12S rRNA (and part of 16S rRNA in case of Ovis aries) mitochondrial species-specific gene fragment. The use of species-specific primers for Bos taurus, Capra hircus and Ovis aries species, after electrophoresis on agarose gel, yielded fragments of 256bp, 326bp and 172bp, respectively. Amplification by duplex-PCR of DNA pools from two species showed detection thresholds of 0.1% of “contaminant” DNA in each mixture. Finally, duplex-PCR assay was applied to experimental cheeses in order to detect the minimum threshold of DNA belonging to one species in cheese made with milk of two species. The results showed a sensitive threshold of 0.1% of ewes' milk in cows' and goats' cheeses, 0.1% of cows' milk in ewes' and goats' cheeses, and finally 0.1% of goats' milk in cows' and ewes' cheeses. The proposed assay represents a rapid and straightforward method of species traceability for the detections of adulteration in Sicilian mono-species dairy products.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Methane emissions by beef cattle consuming hay of varying quality in the
           dry forest ecosystem of Costa Rica
    • Authors: J. Montenegro; E. Barrantes; N. DiLorenzo
      Pages: 45 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J. Montenegro, E. Barrantes, N. DiLorenzo
      In livestock production systems, methane (CH4) is produced and released during the digestive process, representing a loss of energy that can be as high as 12% of total intake. In Costa Rica there are not actual in vivo measurements of methane produced from enteric fermentation in the livestock sector. This research represents the first effort to quantify the CH4 emitted by growing beef steers fed three different diets during the dry season in the Dry Tropics ecosystem of Costa Rica, using the SF6 tracer technique. Three diets were evaluated, all of them offered at libitum: 1) Good quality hay of transvala (Digitaria decumbens; GOOD). 2) Low quality Brachiaria tanner hay (POOR). 3) Low quality hay (B. tanner) plus a supplement of 1kg/d of sugar cane molasses mixed with 46g/d of urea (POOR+MU). Nine Brahman steers (329 ± 38kg of body weight) were utilized in a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square for a total of 9 replicates/treatment. Variables measured were in vivo CH4 emissions, feed intake, and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients using indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) as an internal indigestible marker. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater in GOOD (7.9kg/d) compared to the remaining two diets (3.6 and 4.2kg/d for POOR and POOR+MU, respectively). Enteric CH4 emission (g/d) was similar (P > 0.05) for POOR (110.4) and POOR+MU (125.8) but lower (P < 0.0001) than that of GOOD (181.5); when the methane emitted was reported as g of CH4/kg of DMI, greatest (P < 0.0001) emissions were detected with POOR (31.0) and POOR+MU (29.8), and lesser in diet 1 (23.0 ± 1.9). Estimated methane yield (Ym) for GOOD (6.9) was similar to that suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); however, greater values than those reported by the IPCC were obtained for POOR (9.3) and POOR+MU (9.0). In conclusion, CH4 emitted by growing Brahman steers fed hay of varying quality was closely related to daily DMI. Furthermore, when CH4 emission was expressed per unit of DMI, poor quality hay increased emissions intensity, regardless of supplementation with urea and molasses. Supplementing poor quality B. tanner hay with urea and molasses increased hay digestibility but did not alter methane emissions. Feeding good quality D. decumbens hay decreased CH4 emissions (in g/kg of DMI) by 30% relative to those by steers receiving poor quality B. tanner hay during the dry season in Costa Rica.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T21:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • The performance and behaviour of gilts and their piglets is influenced by
           whether they were born and reared in farrowing crates or farrowing pens
    • Authors: Kirsty L. Chidgey; Patrick C.H. Morel; Kevin J. Stafford; Ian W. Barugh
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kirsty L. Chidgey, Patrick C.H. Morel, Kevin J. Stafford, Ian W. Barugh
      The level of maternal care experienced by offspring in early life may influence their future behaviour. If maternal behaviour is influenced by the level of mother-young interaction in early life, this may persist in subsequent generations through altered maternal behaviour of female offspring. In the present study, post-farrowing behaviour of gilts and their piglets was observed in a crossover experiment. Gilts were born and reared in a farrowing crate (C) or in a pen with temporary confinement (P); and were observed after they farrowed in a crate or a pen with temporary confinement. Hence there were four experimental groups: CC (born and reared in a crate, farrowed in a crate, N = 8), CP (born and reared in a crate, farrowed in a pen, N = 6), PC (born and reared in a pen, farrowed in a crate N = 5), and PP (born and reared in a pen, farrowed in a pen, N = 8). Gilts and their piglets were observed for the first three days post-farrowing whilst they were all confined in crates. There were no differences between groups for total born, born alive, weaned per litter, or piglet mortality. Gilts in the PP group interacted more with neighbouring gilts/sows than any other (P < 0.05). Gilts born and reared in pens touched their piglets more (P born = 0.02) and vocalised more towards their piglets (P born = 0.01) than gilts born and reared in farrowing crates. Piglets born to PP gilts spent more time active in the creep area compared to all other groups (P < 0.05). The current study demonstrated that the performance of some piglet-directed behaviour was influenced by the system in which a gilt was born and reared.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Analysis of glucose metabolization capability and breeding value of
           Holstein sires
    • Authors: L. Hanusova; M. Brzakova; A. Mikova; L. Vecerek; B. Hosnedlova; L. Tothova; J. Citek
      Pages: 92 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): L. Hanusova, M. Brzakova, A. Mikova, L. Vecerek, B. Hosnedlova, L. Tothova, J. Citek
      The associations between the ability to metabolize glucose measured by the glucose tolerance test (GTT) and the estimated breeding values (EBVs) for milk performance in German Holstein sires were evaluated. The German Holstein sires born 1993 (n=43), 1998 (n=98), 1999 (n=104), 2000 (n=96), 2001 (n=91), 2002 (n=82), and 2003 (n=28) were analysed. The EBVs were taken from Vereinigte Informationssysteme Tierhaltung Verden. Statistical analyses were performed by General Linear Model and MIXED procedures, and phenotypic correlations among GTT and EBVs for milk performance were computed by the Pearson correlations. The sires born in 1993 had some significant (P<0.01) negative correlations between the milk yield and GTT, similarly for protein yield, but the majority of the correlations were non-significant (P>0.05). For the sires born in 1998–2003, the same correlation analysis resulted in non-significant and very low coefficients, few significant (P<0.05) correlations were found only for protein yield in year of birth 2000, protein percentage in year 2003, and for fat percentage and yield in year of birth 2002. GTT may be helpful for studying the metabolic capacity of dairy cattle; however, the possible use of GTT in breeding value prediction must be again clarified.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Veterinary perspectives on cattle welfare challenges and solutions
    • Authors: B.A. Ventura; D.M. Weary; A.S. Giovanetti; M.A.G. von Keyserlingk
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): B.A. Ventura, D.M. Weary, A.S. Giovanetti, M.A.G. von Keyserlingk
      Livestock veterinarians have important roles in advancing animal welfare on farms. In the present study, focus groups were used to engage dairy and beef cattle veterinarians and veterinary researchers based primarily in Europe. Discussions were structured to elicit perceptions of welfare issues on cattle farms, as well as the challenges and desired solutions for change. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and content analysis was used to identify participants’ views on animal welfare challenges and solutions. Participants held multi-dimensional conceptions of animal welfare that included animal health, pain and distress, and behaviour. When asked to discuss animal welfare challenges, participants focused on five primary themes: animal welfare definition and assessment, economic barriers, and farmer, veterinarian, and researcher-related challenges. Participants envisioned the following overarching solutions: 1) research to develop better animal welfare assessment, 2) motivating increased adherence to standards via either voluntary incentives or mandatory regulations, and 3) increased communication linkages between stakeholders, primarily in the form of education to farmers and veterinarians.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Factors influencing estimates of heat energy associated with activity by
           grazing meat goats
    • Authors: M.-E. Brassard; R. Puchala; T.A. Gipson; T. Sahlu; A.L. Goetsch
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 193
      Author(s): M.-E. Brassard, R. Puchala, T.A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, A.L. Goetsch
      Ten yearling Boer goat wethers (45.4±0.92kg) grazed a 0.8-ha grass pasture or were individually confined in a crossover experiment with 3-wk periods to evaluate factors influencing heat energy (HE) associated with activity (AEC) when grazing and to evaluate different methods of estimating the AEC. Fresh forage offered to confined wethers was 15.9% and 13.4% CP and 65.0% and 67.4% NDF in periods 1 and 2, respectively. Based on forage and fecal acid detergent insoluble ash, digestibility of gross energy in forage by confined wethers averaged 67.9% and 56.5% in periods 1 and 2, respectively. From these values and fecal DM, least squares means of ME intake were 405 and 484kJ/kg BW0.75 for confined and grazing wethers, respectively (SE =15.4). HE determined from heart rate (HR) measured over 1d and the ratio of HE to HR estimated earlier was less (P<0.001) for confined than for grazing wethers (482 and 642kJ/kg BW0.75; SE =17.2). The AEC estimated by subtraction from HE of ME required for maintenance (MEm; 427kJ/kg BW0.75), HE expended for tissue energy gain based on recovered energy (RE) when greater than 0, an efficiency of ME use for gain (i.e., [0.0423× forage ME in MJ/kg DM] +0.006; 0.40±0.009), and the same efficiency of use for maintenance (km; [0.019× forage ME in MJ/kg DM] +0.503; 0.68±0.004) of energy from forage and mobilized tissue with RE less than 0 was 39 and 213kJ/kg BW0.75 for confined and grazing wethers, respectively (SE =21.9; Partitioning approach). The AEC determined as the difference between HE by grazing and confined wethers was 165±19.3kJ/kg BW0.75 (Confinement approach), and that based on time spent in different activities (i.e., lying, standing, grazing, and walking) multiplied by corresponding HE and assuming that AEC resulted from HE when standing, grazing, and walking was 46±4.85kJ/kg BW0.75 (Lying approach). In conclusion, method of estimation can have marked impact on the AEC, with a relatively low value for the Lying method because of lower HE while lying when confined than on pasture. Determining the AEC by the Confinement approach relies on similar conditions to minimize confounding, and the Partitioning method is influenced by specific assumptions of energy requirements and efficiencies of use for different physiological functions.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T14:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 193 (2016)
  • Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and/or probiotic Enterococcus faecium as a
           feed supplement for piglets
    • Authors: E. Hanczakowska; M. Świątkiewicz; M. Natonek-Wiśniewska; K. Okoń
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): E. Hanczakowska, M. Świątkiewicz, M. Natonek Wiśniewska, K. Okoń
      The effect of supplements of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) and/or probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on piglet performance, intestine structure, and microbiology was estimated on 271 piglets (24 litters) of Polish Landrace. Piglets were allocated to three groups with eight litters in each, kept in group pens, and fed the standard feed mixture (negative control, group I). The same mixture supplemented with 0.3% of caprylic (octanoic—C8) or 0.3% of capric (decanoic—C10) acids was given to groups II and III, respectively. In each group, half the animals received Cylactin® added in the amount of 0.35 × 109 CFU per kg feed. The feed and water were available ad libitum. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of life. At 60 days of life, 6 piglets from each subgroup were slaughtered and their intestines were investigated. Digesta from digestive tract was removed and the length and weight of particular parts of intestines were measured. The structure of the ileum mucosal epithelium was examined. Acidity of digesta and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content of chyme from jejunum and cecum were analyzed. Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens counts in these parts of intestines were also estimated. Capric acid improved piglet body weight gain after the 28th day of life. Probiotic lowered the weight gain from 28th to 56th day but increased it later. There was no difference in feed intake, and feed utilization was improved only by probiotic in the last period of the experiment. Probiotic increased pH in the small intestine and colon and significantly increased the amount of acetic acid in cecum. Capric acid reduced the total length of the intestines. Probiotic had no effect on intestines’ mass and length, but it increased villi width and crypt depth in the epithelium of small intestine. MCFA had no effect on these qualities. Both supplements had strong antibacterial activity: acids against E. coli and probiotic against C. perfringens.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Comparison of muscle characteristics and underpinning mechanisms between
           Texel and Ujumqin sheep aged from day 70 to 135 of gestation
    • Authors: Li Li; Hongwei Su; Caihong Wei; Hangxing Ren; Lingyang Xu; Fuping Zhao; Li Zhang; Linjie Wang; Tao Zhong; Hongping Zhang; Wenzhong Liu; Lixin Du
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Li Li, Hongwei Su, Caihong Wei, Hangxing Ren, Lingyang Xu, Fuping Zhao, Li Zhang, Linjie Wang, Tao Zhong, Hongping Zhang, Wenzhong Liu, Lixin Du
      Though muscle characteristics in the second half of gestation closely relate to quantity and quality of postnatal muscle, far fewer studies have examined breed differences in prenatal sheep muscle. This study seeks to better understand anatomic prenatal muscle differences and its underpinning mechanisms between two contrasting sheep breeds. A total of 38 sheep fetuses, including 20 Texel with pronounced muscularity and 18 Ujumqin, an indigenous fat-tailed sheep characterized by their hardiness, fetuses aged at up to five time-points from embryonic day (E) 70 to 135 of gestation were sacrificed and their organs and muscles dissected at 12 anatomical locations from the right side of each animal. Whole Texel fetuses weighed more especially at E70 and E85 (both 1.7-fold, P<0.001) with heavier internal organs (P<0.05), than age-matched Ujumqin fetuses. Texel fetuses also contained more muscle, including aggregate-excised muscles (70% before E100, P<0.001) and muscle proportion (~0.5%, P<0.05), larger (~20%) and more total muscle fibers, greater muscle size (20% loin muscle area, P=0.008), and a lower proportion of type I muscle fibers (Texel, 18.85%; Ujumqin, 25.23%) at most anatomical locations. Notably, in Texel fetuses from E70 to E85, sharply decreased myofiber number and significantly augmented fiber size were accompanied by the molecular events resembled those in myoblast fusing of Ujumqin sheep (E85-E100), which indicate this period (E70-E85) is pivotal for Texel myoblast fusing. Altogether, these results suggest that comparing with obese animal, the muscular superiority in lean breed largely establishes at middle gestation, although they share the similar regulatory gene network. The present study provides a novel insight into mammalian myogenesis.

      PubDate: 2016-08-19T16:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Effect of crude glycerine in supplement on the intake, rumen fermentation,
           and microbial profile of Nellore steers grazing tropical grass
    • Authors: Elias San Vito; Juliana D. Messana; Pablo S. Castagnino; Yury T. Granja-Salcedo; Erick E. Dallantonia; Telma T. Berchielli
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Elias San Vito, Juliana D. Messana, Pablo S. Castagnino, Yury T. Granja-Salcedo, Erick E. Dallantonia, Telma T. Berchielli
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine (CG) inclusion in feed supplement (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280g/kg DM basis of supplement) on the forage intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation parameters, kinetics of fibre degradation, and rumen microbial profile of Nellore steers grazing on tropical grass. Ten ruminally cannulated Nellore steers [490kg ± 47 body weight (BW)] were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Steers were individually supplemented at the rate of 300g/100kg of BW. Inclusion of CG in the supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) dry matter intake, apparent total tract digestibility, ruminal pH (P = 0.784) or total ruminal VFA (P = 0.291), but linearly decreased the NH3-N concentration (P = 0.021). The inclusion of CG in the supplement linearly increased (P < 0.001) the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate; linearly decreased the acetate (P = 0.007) concentration, thus reducing the acetate to propionate ratio (P < 0.001); and did not affect the molar proportions of propionate and isobutyrate. Inclusion of GC had a quadratic effect (P = 0.010) on the in situ potential degradable fraction of NDF and rate of fibre degradation (P = 0.006). Addition of CG linearly decreased the number of protozoa of the genera Entodinium (P = 0.015) and Isotricha (P = 0.058) and the relative proportions of Ruminococcus albus (P = 0.047) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in the rumen (P = 0.036), but did not affect Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.420) or the methanogens (P = 0.150). The inclusion of CG in the supplement up to 280g/kg DM altered ruminal fermentation and negatively affected in situ fibre degradation and the gram-positive cellulolytic bacterial population, but did not affect intake and apparent total tract digestibility for Nellore steers grazing tropical grass.

      PubDate: 2016-08-19T16:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Changes in body weight and fatness of sows during reproductive activity
           depending on LEPR and MC4R genes polymorphism
    • Authors: Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza; Katarzyna Ropka-Molik; Katarzyna Piórkowska
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna Piórkowska
      The use of genetic markers in selection of maternal breed gilts for reduced feed intake and fatness of pigs, may impact on their reproductive performance in subsequent breeding. The objective of the study was to analyse changes, over three consecutive lactations, in condition (body weight and fatness) and reproductive performance of Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) sows of known genotype at leptin receptor (LEPR) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) loci. The study involved 58 PLW and 65 PL gilts. Gilts and subsequently sows were monitored for body weight (BW) and backfat thickness (P2) over three reproductive cycles, and their litters were analysed for the number and body weight of the piglets. A total of 168 litters of PLW pigs and 186 litters of PL pigs were evaluated. It is concluded that over the three reproductive cycles, PLW sows exhibited higher weight gains and lower fatness compared to PL sows. The interaction between LEPR and MC4R genes had a significant effect on changes in body weight of the gilts, subsequently on changes in the condition of sows (BW and P2) during consecutive reproductive cycles, and on the average weight of piglets born. Heterozygous sows of LEPR AB /MC4R AG genotype were characterized during that time by the highest weight gains and backfat thickness at P2, and their the piglets born had low birth weight. Over the three reproductive cycles, sows of LEPR AA /MC4R GG and LEPR AB /MC4R GG genotypes produced piglets with significantly higher birth weight compared to sows of LEPR AB /MC4R AG , LEPR BB /MC4R AA and LEPR BB /MC4R GG genotypes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T19:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Effects of oregano essential oil or quercetin supplementation on body
           weight loss, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant status
           in finishing pigs under transport stress
    • Authors: Yi Zou; Quanhang Xiang; Jun Wang; Hongkui Wei; Jian Peng
      Pages: 33 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yi Zou, Quanhang Xiang, Jun Wang, Hongkui Wei, Jian Peng
      This study compared the effects of dietary oregano essential oil (OEO), quercetin or vitamin E (vit E), on the live body weight loss, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant status of pigs after transportation. A total of 340 finishing pigs (Large White×Landrace) with an initial body weight of 74kg (±4.0kg) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (five replicate pens per treatment, 17 pigs per pen). Pigs consumed the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200mg vit E /kg (positive control), 25mg OEO /kg or 25mg quercetin /kg for 4 weeks. After this period, 144 pigs (36 pigs per treatment) were transported for 5h before slaughter. Compared with the control group, the OEO or quercetin groups had a higher average daily gain (P<0.05), and the OEO group also had a lower feed intake/gain (P<0.05). The live body weight loss was less in the OEO group after 5h transportation (P<0.05) than in the control group. The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher in the OEO group after 5h of transportation (P<0.05) than in the control group. After slaughter, the pH value at 45-min postmortem and Opto-star value (meat color) at 24-h postmortem increased in the vit E, OEO or quercetin groups (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The vit E or quercetin groups also exhibited higher 24-h postmortem pH values (P<0.05) than the control group. The Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of pigs from the OEO or quercetin groups produced lower 24-h drip loss values (P<0.05) than that of pigs from the control group. Compared with the control group, the OEO or quercetin groups had reduced levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) in serum, muscle and liver (P<0.05), while the vit E group had reduced levels in serum only (P<0.05). The OEO or quercetin groups also had increased levels of Gpx (glutathione peroxidase) and T-SOD (total superoxide dismutase) activity in serum and liver compared with the control group (P<0.05). Conversely, there were no differences between the vit E and control groups in Gpx or T-SOD activities. In conclusion, supplementation with dietary OEO or quercetin may be superior to supplementation with dietary vit E in alleviating the negative effects of transportation on pigs by improving the pigs’ antioxidant status.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
    • Authors: Lilian Francisco Arantes de Souza; Lívia Pegoraro Espinha; Eduardo Alves de Almeida; Raquel Lunedo; Renato Luís Furlan; Marcos Macari
      Pages: 39 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Lilian Francisco Arantes de Souza, Lívia Pegoraro Espinha, Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Raquel Lunedo, Renato Luís Furlan, Marcos Macari
      The effect of continuous and cyclical heat stress on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, energy and nitrogen balances was investigated. Four hundred and fifty, 21-day-old, Cobb male broilers were raised in battery cages in five treatments: 22C/AL (continuous 22°C, ad libitum feed consumption); 32C/AL (continuous 32°C, ad libitum feed consumption); 22C/PF32C (continuous 22°C, pair-fed on the daily feed intake of 32C/AL); CY/AL (cyclical – 32°C for 8h and 25°C for 12h, ad libitum feed consumption); 22C/PFCY (continuous 22°C, pair-fed on the daily feed intake of CY/AL). Between 39 and 42 days of age, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and AMEn were analyzed in the diets and excreta to determine nutrient digestibility. Energy and nitrogen balances were evaluated through comparative slaughter (21 and 42 days of age). Growth performance was significantly lower in broilers exposed to either continuous or cyclical heat stress. However, the cyclical heat stress had a lower effect on feed intake and weight gain and no effect on the feed conversion rate. Nutrient digestibility was only influenced by continuous heat exposure, decreasing dry matter (3.9%) and protein digestibility (9.7%) in comparison to control birds. Broilers exposed to continuous heat stress increased metabolizable energy intake (20.3%) and heat production (35.5%), and decreased energy retention (20.9%) and energy efficiency (32.4%) in relation to control ones. Nitrogen intake and nitrogen retention were reduced by both forms of heat exposure, in comparison to control, but more strongly under continuous heat. Nitrogen retention was reduced by 50.4 and 20.4%, for continuous or cyclical heat stress, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency was reduced only by the continuous heat exposure (33.1%). These results revealed important differences between the effects of a continuous or a cyclical heat exposure in broiler chickens for digestibility, performance and energy and nitrogen balances.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T20:37:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
    • Authors: I. García-Ispierto; M.A. Rosselló-Visa; B. Serrano-Pérez; R. Mur-Novales; N.M. de Sousa; J.F. Beckers; F. López-Gatius
      Pages: 44 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. García-Ispierto, M.A. Rosselló-Visa, B. Serrano-Pérez, R. Mur-Novales, N.M. de Sousa, J.F. Beckers, F. López-Gatius
      Carrying twins is the main factor jeopardizing pregnancy maintenance and reducing the lifespan of dairy cows. There is therefore a need to accurately detect twin embryos at the time of pregnancy diagnosis so that twin pregnancies are carefully followed. This study compares in single and twin pregnancies from day 28 to 42 of gestation, patterns of plasma pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) I and II and progesterone (P4), and establishes cut-offs for these hormones on day 28 post-AI that might be useful for twin pregnancy diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic capacity of these cut-off values were then determined using ultrasonography findings as the reference standard. A total of 110 lactating dairy cows carrying live singletons or twins from day 28 to 42 of gestation were enrolled. On day 28 post AI, 56 cows were diagnosed as carrying twins and 54 singletons by ultrasonography. This diagnosis was confirmed ultrasonographically on days 35 and 42 post AI. Among the 54 cows with single pregnancies, those in which the single embryo was accompanied by two corpora lutea (n=23) maintained this condition until day 42 and showed similar plasma PAG-I, PAG-II and P4 levels as those cows with a single embryo and single corpus luteum (n=31). Cows bearing twins showed higher plasma PAG-I, PAG-II and P4 concentrations throughout the study period than cows bearing singletons (between subject effect; P < 0.001). Cut-offs for plasma PAG-I, PAG-II and P4 concentrations on day 28 of gestation of 5.5, 0.25 and 14 ng/ml, respectively, were used to determine twin pregnancies. Each of the proposed cut-off values identified twin pregnancies with a precision higher than 70%. In conclusion, the determination of these hormones could be a useful tool to discriminate between single and twin pregnancies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T20:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Pasture larval count as a supporting method for parasite epidemiology,
           population dynamic and control in ruminants
    • Authors: Marcelo Beltrão Molento; Andréia Buzatti; Lew Kan Sprenger
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Marcelo Beltrão Molento, Andréia Buzatti, Lew Kan Sprenger
      The survival of the nematode parasite free-living stages depends mainly on environmental factors (i.e. rainfall, temperature and relative humidity). To complete its life cycle outside the host the parasite eliminated as eggs in the faecal material, develop to three larval stages before is ingested by the host. Although the presence of infective third stage larvae (L3) on pasture is of great importance for producers and researchers to determine the level of infectivity, the quantification of L3 on pasture is often neglected. Such condition can be determined by pasture larval count (PLC) from a target area. As anthelmintic resistance is widely overspread PLC technique supports population dynamic and epidemiological studies and can be used for measuring the success rate of livestock management strategies under different climatic conditions. The present review article brings together some of the field applications and difficulties to run and interpret this technique, encouraging its use as a diagnostic procedure.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T20:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • How do sow postures change when lameness is induced using a chemical
           synovitis model?
    • Authors: A. Roca; A.K. Johnson; L.A. Karriker; L.L. Timms; C.E. Abell; K.J. Stalder
      Pages: 55 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Roca, A.K. Johnson, L.A. Karriker, L.L. Timms, C.E. Abell, K.J. Stalder
      Lameness detection using objective behavioral parameters provides an opportunity for timely treatment which, in turn, could improve sow welfare and reduce economic expense. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (1) determine sow posture frequencies and duration (2) ascertain the postural sequence and time when standing to lying and vice versa and (3) to record time spent for sows to access feed when lameness was induced using a chemical synovitis model. Lameness was induced in 24 multiparous, non-pregnant, crossbred Newsham, maternal-cull sows by injecting amphotericin B in the distal interphalangeal joint space. The experimental design was a 3 (days) x 2 (rear feet) factorial arrangement where sow was the experimental unit. All sows were video recorded in their home pens continually over a 12-h period (0600 to 1800h) on the sound day (1 d pre-induction), on the most lame day (1 d post-induction) and the resolution day (6 d post-induction). Three postures (standing, lying and sitting), an unknown category, three lying positions (lying left lateral, lying right lateral and lying sternal), time to change postures, the number of postures used to go from lying-standing and standing to lying and time to reach feeder on the raised step were collected. Sows spent less time standing on the most lame day compared to sound and resolution days (P < 0.05). Sows performed fewer standing and sitting postural adjustments on the most lame day compared to the sound day (P < 0.05). Lame sows transitioned through fewer postures and moved more quickly through the standing to lying transition on the most lame day compared to sound and resolution days (P < 0.05). Sows had a higher percentage of time lying laterally on the most lame day compared to sound and resolution days regardless of which foot was injected (P < 0.05). There were no observed differences in time (s) for sows to reach the feeder over treatment days (P > 0.05). In conclusion, these results support the use of behavioral indicators as an objective tool for detecting sow lameness when using this transient lameness model.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T20:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 192 (2016)
  • Genetic analyses of mothering ability in sows using field-recorded
    • Authors: Patrick Stratz; Annik Just; Hans Faber; Jörn Bennewitz
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Patrick Stratz, Annik Just, Hans Faber, Jörn Bennewitz
      The improvement of the postpartum survival rate of piglets is important for pig breeding nowadays. For the improvement, breeding for good mothering abilities of sows offer a promising strategy. The aim of the following study was to estimate genetic parameters for mothering ability traits recorded on an five-point ordinal scale (1=”best” to 5=”worst”). Information of 48028 litters and 15688 sows belonging to different lines and crosses was available. Genetic parameters were estimated by applying a linear mixed- and a threshold model. Pairwise bivariate analyses were conducted for the linear mixed model (LMM) in order to calculate correlations. The estimates for the heritability (repeatability) using the LMM are between 0.02 and 0.07 (0.05 and 0.09). With the threshold model the heritability (repeatability) estimates are between 0.05 and 0.15 (0.08 and 0.17). The difference between repeatability and heritability points to a huge impact of the permanent environment. The threshold model seems to be more suitable for analysing the data. The heritability estimated for group - and nursing behaviour with the threshold model was highest (0.15 and 0.10). All the correlations were positive and the genetic correlations were in accordance with the phenotypic correlation. The genetic correlation for piglet vitality and estrus behaviour was zero. The highest genetic correlations were estimated between nursing – (group behaviour) and litter balance and piglet weaning weight. For nursing behaviour and piglet weaning weight the genetic correlation was 0.86. Accelerating genetic gain for good mothering abilities of sows will be possible. Especially nursing - and group behaviour seem to be promising traits. For the implementation in breeding programs, clearly defined traits are required and correlations between mothering ability and common production traits (e.g. daily weight gain) should be investigated.

      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Selection index for meat and milk traits of buffaloes in Colombia
    • Authors: Divier A. Agudelo-Gómez; Jorge H. Agudelo-Trujillo; Mario F. Cerón-Muñoz
      Pages: 6 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Divier A. Agudelo-Gómez, Jorge H. Agudelo-Trujillo, Mario F. Cerón-Muñoz
      Genetic parameters and breeding values from unitrait, multitrait, and reduced principal component models for weaning weight, yearling weight, weight at 18 months, weight at two years, age at first calving, milk yield, and maternal genetic effects for weaning weight and yearling weight were estimated for dual purpose buffaloes in Colombia. With those values we constructed selection indices (SI) and estimated genetic progress obtained through mating-modeling under various selection criteria and weighted values for each trait. Comparison of SI was performed using duality diagrams in principal components of breeding values obtained by pseudo-simulation of mating with animals selected with the constructed SIs. The index constructed with the first principal component of the reduced range model led to improved meat, milk yield, and age at first calving.

      PubDate: 2016-07-01T11:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Variation of TMR Particle Size and Physical Characteristics in Commercial
           Iranian Holstein Dairies and Effects on Eating Behaviour, Chewing
           Activity, and Milk Production
    • Authors: M. Esmaeili; M. Khorvash; G.R. Ghorbani; S.M. Nasrollahi; M. Saebi
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Esmaieli, M. Khorvash, G.R. Ghorbani, S.M. Nasrollahi, M. Saebi
      Evidence is limited on the effect of physical form of total mixed rations (TMR) on management of group-housed dairy cows in commercial dairy herds. The objective of this study was to consider the variation of TMR particle size (PS) and physical characteristics in commercial dairies and its effects on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production. Fifteen dairy herds, feeding TMR, were each studied for 7 consecutive days. In each herd, a group of multiparous (3.5 ± 0.8 parity; mean ± SD), high producing cows (47 ± 4kg milk/d) in mid-lactation (109 ± 12 DIM) was studied. Herds were visited for 7 consecutive days for sampling fresh and refusal feed from the test group to assess particle size distribution, dry matter, and chemical composition. Chewing activity and milk production were monitored for the group. The 15 herds were divided to 3 classes according to geometric mean particle size of TMR: short, medium, and coarse, with average lengths of 4.6, 5.4, and 6.7 mm respectively. The classes were significantly different in geometric mean particle length (GMPL) and physically effective neutral detergent fibre1.18 (peNDF1.18) (P<0.01), but physically effective neutral detergent fibre8 (peNDF8) was similar between medium and coarse classes. Amount of TMR retained on the 19-mm sieve of Penn State Particle Separator was highest for dairy farms with medium GMPL (P<0.01). Diurnal changes in particle size of refusals and chewing activity were similar among classes; the only difference observed was that daily rumination activity in the medium class tended to be greater than for the short and coarse classes (P=0.10). Milk fat percentage and yield as well as fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) were higher in the classes with medium and coarse TMR PS (P<0.01). Although GMPL and peNDF1.18 of TMR were correlated (P<0.05) only with milk F:P (r = 0.53 and 0.64, respectively), peNDF8 was correlated (P<0.05) with both milk F:P (r = 0.56) and chewing activity (r = 0.60). The 19-mm TMR fraction was the only variable that correlated (P<0.05) with milk fat percentage (r = 0.51) along with a tendency to be correlated (P=0.09) with chewing time. Interestingly, grain percentage of TMR was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with both milk F:P (r = −0.58) and chewing time (r = −0.68). In conclusion, commercial dairy farms considered in this study had a high variation in TMR PS, and peNDF8 and the 19-mm fraction of the Penn State Particle Separator were good indicators for predicting bio-physical responses of cows.

      PubDate: 2016-07-06T12:11:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Comparison of gamma - irradiation and enzyme supplementation to eliminate
           antinutritional factors in rice bran in broiler chicken diets
    • Authors: M. Khosravi; B. Dastar; M. Aalami; P. Shawrang; O. Ashayerizadeh
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Khosravi, B. Dastar, M. Aalami, P. Shawrang, O. Ashayerizadeh
      A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation and enzyme supplementation of crude rice bran in broiler chicken diet and their effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal microbial population, and blood profile in broiler chickens. A total of 144 one - day - old Ross 308 broiler chickens were weighed and assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates (floor pen) of 12 broiler chickens per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet formulated to contain 15% crude rice bran (with or without enzyme supplementation) and the diet containing 15% gamma-irradiated rice bran. The chemical changes of crude and gamma-irradiated rice bran were determined before feeding experiment. At the end of the experiment (d 42), growth performance, ileum microflora, and blood profile in broiler chickens were determined. Proximate composition of rice bran was not affected by gamma irradiation, but the contents of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor decreased (up to 98%) (P < 0.05). The use of gamma-irradiated rice bran improved (P < 0.05) the body weight gain than crude rice bran. Moreover, broiler chickens on gamma-irradiated rice bran treatment had greater (14.9%) body weight gain compared to the enzyme supplementation. Although, none of the treatments had a major effect on the carcass percentage, the breast percentage (22.4%) increased (P < 0.05) because of the enzyme supplementation compared to those (18.5%) of broiler chickens on crude rice bran diet. The relative weight of liver and abdominal fat pad decreased (P < 0.05) by feeding of gamma - irradiated rice bran than the enzyme supplemented diet. Lower numbers (P < 0.05) of salmonella were found in the ileum of broiler chickens fed gamma-irradiated rice bran when compared to the use of the enzyme supplemented diet. Blood profile was not affected by the treatments. The results indicated that gamma irradiation could be a more effective method to reduce the content of antinutritional factors in crude rice bran than enzyme supplementation and improve growth performance and health of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype block structure in Limousin,
           Simmental and native Polish Red cattle
    • Authors: I. Jasielczuk; A. Gurgul; T. Szmatoła; T. Ząbek; K. Pawlina; E. Semik; M. Bugno-Poniewierska
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. Jasielczuk, A. Gurgul, T. Szmatoła, T. Ząbek, K. Pawlina, E. Semik, M. Bugno-Poniewierska
      The aim of this study was to characterize in detail linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and haplotype block structures in genomes of commercial Limousin (LM, n=201) and Simmental (SM, n=106) cattle and refer this data to the characteristics found in native unselected Polish Red (PR, n=299) cattle. A panel of 40,158 (LM), 40,117 (SM) and 42,118 (PR) high quality SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers from Illumina BovineSNP50 v2 BeadChip were utilized for the LD analysis based on the pairwise r2 statistic of SNPs at a distance up to 5Mb. The lower average r2 of 0.27 was observed in RP cattle at a short distance up to 25kb when compared to two other studied breeds (0.3 in both LM and SM). The minimum average values of r2 (0.01) were observed at the distances of 1500–3000kb in LM and 3000–5000kb in SM. In PR cattle LD persisted similarly as in SM cattle and the minimum average values of r2 (0.02) were observed at a distance of 3000–5000kb. The effects of minor allelic frequency threshold on the extent of LD was also evaluated by applying three different minimum MAF levels (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2). A total of 828 (LM), 667 (SM) and 761 (PR) haplotype block structures spanning 89,781kb (LM), 72,582kb (SM) and 70,647kb (PR) of the genome were detected. In total, 7.92% (LM), 6.43% (SM) and 6.52% (PR) of all SNPs formed blocks with a range of 2–15 SNPs per block in LM and SM breeds and 2–16 SNPs per block in PR cattle. Mean block lengths were slightly lower in RP cattle than in two other breeds and were estimated as 108.4±99kb, 108.8±97kb and 92.8±87 for LM, SM and PR respectively. For all studied breeds chromosome 1 showed the longest haplotype block structures in the genome, having 66 blocks spanning 8,120kb in LM, 57 blocks spanning 6,754kb in SM and 59 blocks spanning 5,920kb in PR. The results showed slightly faster LD decay in Polish Red cattle (especially at short distances) than in two other breeds and shorter haplotype block structures which may result from population demographic history, overall genetic diversity as well as extensive breeding applied in this breed.

      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing
           dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage
    • Authors: Katariina Manni; Marketta Rinne; Arto Huuskonen
      Pages: 72 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Katariina Manni, Marketta Rinne, Arto Huuskonen
      The objective of this experiment was to examine effects of barley intake and allocation regime on performance of growing dairy bulls offered highly digestible grass silage, with digestible organic matter of 703g/kg dry matter (DM). The feeding experiment comprised of a total of 33 bulls (17 Holstein and 16 Nordic Red) with an initial mean live weight of 230kg and age of 200 days and a slaughter age of 566 days. During the feeding experiment the bulls were fed ad libitum either grass silage alone (GS) or a total mixed ration where contained rolled barley grain was added. Barley concentrations were either 300g/kg DM during the whole experiment (SC) or 600g/kg DM during only the early (DC) or late (IC) half of the growing period. When barley proportion was doubled in the diet during the early part of the growing period, it had no effect on the total DMI (SC vs. DC). Including barley in the diet during the late part of growing period increased barley intake by 30% (P< 0.05) compared to the other treatments where barley was given. Silage DM intake decreased on average by 27% (P< 0.05) when barley was included in the diet over the whole growing period (GS vs. others). Including barley in the diet during the late part of growing period increased LWG over the total growing period by 17% (P< 0.05) compared to the silage only treatment (IC vs. GS). When barley was included in the diet during the early part of the growing period, carcass fat score decreased by 20% (P< 0.05) compared to the treatment where barley was included in the diet during the late part of the growing period (DC vs. IC). Although good quality grass silage as a sole feed could support moderate to high levels of performance of growing cattle, including barley to the diet further improved the performance of animals. The present study demonstrated the ability of growing bulls to adapt to different feeding regimes without major effects on performance. This gives flexibility into choosing feeding strategies based on feed availability and prices resulting in potential benefits in the economy of beef production.

      PubDate: 2016-07-11T12:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Effects of supplementation of manganese with or without phytase on growth
           performance, carcass traits, muscle and tibia composition, and immunity in
           broiler chickens
    • Authors: A. Ghosh; G.P. Mandal; A. Roy; A.K. Patra
      Pages: 80 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A. Ghosh, G.P. Mandal, A. Roy, A.K. Patra
      An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Mn and phytase supplementation on performance, carcass traits, and immunity in broiler chickens. A total of 350 1-d-old unsexed broiler chickens (Vencobb 400 breed) were randomly allotted to 7 dietary treatments (5 replicate pens of 10 chicks per pen) in a 1 + 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 concentrations of supplemental Mn and with or without phytase addition. The control diet represented a basal diet with no supplemental Mn and phytase. The basal diet was supplemented with Mn at 50, 75, and 100mg/kg diet and microbial phytase was added at a dose of 500 FTU/kg. Average daily gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar among the treatments. During the starter, grower, and finisher periods, 5, 7.5, and 17.5% of the broiler chickens, respectively, developed leg abnormalities in the control diet, which were not observed in the treatment groups. The serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, Ca, and P were not affected by supplemental Mn and phytase or their interaction. Antibody titer against Newcastle virus disease vaccine on 16 d and 32 d of the feeding trial (10 d after vaccination) were increased (P < 0.05) by Mn or phytase supplementation, but the antibody titer was not affected by the Mn and phytase interaction. Carcass traits such as hot carcass weight, eviscerated carcass weight, dressing percentage, breast, leg, frame, and giblet were not altered by Mn or phytase or both supplementation. Abdominal fat content was decreased (P < 0.05) by high concentrations of Mn supplementation (75 and 100mg/kg), but not by phytase addition. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, and fat) in thigh and breast muscle, and total ash, Ca, and P concentrations in tibia at 42 d were similar among the dietary treatments. Thus, supplementation of Mn at 75 to 100mg/kg to a basal corn-soybean diet could be beneficial for improving immunity and decreasing fat deposition, and phytase supplementation could also improve immunity measures in broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Accessing marker effects and heritability estimates from genome prediction
           by Bayesian regularized neural networks
    • Authors: Leonardo Siqueira Glória; Cosme Damião Cruz; Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira; Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende; Paulo Sávio Lopes; Otávio H.G.B. Dias de Siqueira; Fabyano Fonseca e Silva
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Leonardo Siqueira Glória, Cosme Damião Cruz, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira, Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Otávio H.G.B. Dias de Siqueira, Fabyano Fonseca e Silva
      Recently, there is an increasing interest on semi- and non-parametric methods for genome-enabled prediction, among which the Bayesian regularized artificial neural networks (BRANN) stand. We aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of BRANN and to exploit SNP effects and heritability estimates using two different approaches (relative importance-RI, and relative contribution-RC). Additionally, we aimed also to compare BRANN with the traditional RR-BLUP and BLASSO by using simulated datasets. The simplest BRANN (net1), RR-BLUP and BLASSO methods outperformed other more parameterized BRANN (net2, net3, … net6) in terms of predictive ability. For both simulated traits (Y1 and Y2) the net1 provided the best h2 estimates (0.33 for both, being the true h2=0.35), whereas RR-BLUP (0.18 and 0.22 for Y1 and Y2, respectively) and BLASSO (0.20 and 0.26 for Y1 and Y2, respectively) underestimated h2. The marker effects estimated from net1 (using RI and RC approaches) and RR-BLUP were similar, but the shrinkage strength was remarkable for BLASSO on both traits. For Y1, the correlation between the true fifty QTL effects and the effects estimated for the SNPs located in the same QTL positions were 0.61, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.55, for RI, RC, RR-BLUP and BLASSO; and for Y2, these correlations were 0.81, 0.81, 0.81 and 0.71, respectively. In summary, we believe that estimates of SNP effects are promising quantitative tools to bring discussions on chromosome regions contributing most effectively to the phenotype expression when using ANN for genomic predictions.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Estimation of genetic parameters for teat number and reproduction and
           production traits from different data sources for Czech dam breeds
    • Authors: Emil Krupa; Eliška Žáková; Zuzana Krupová; Monika Michaličková
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Emil Krupa, Eliška Žáková, Zuzana Krupová, Monika Michaličková
      Genetic parameters for total number of teats (TNT), total number of piglets born (TNB), number of weaned piglets (NW), lean meat content, and average daily gain were estimated for the populations of Czech Large White and Czech Landrace pig breeds. TNT was defined as sum of all measurable teats without taking into account of between teats and was counted during the identification of piglets up to 10 days after birth. Two main resources of data for TNT were analyzed: (1) TNT recorded only for breeding pigs in the national performance testing scheme (animals with at least 14 teats in total) as the pre-selected performance data set (PT; 94,500 animals); and (2) TNT recorded in nucleus and multiplier farms (F). In this data set (40,160 animals), whole litter information, including negatively selected piglets, was considered. Only 6.7% of animals from farmers’ data set showed optimal production in the performance test. The average number of piglets evaluated in the PT and F data sets per litter was 2.7 and 9.4, respectively. The TNT was analyzed using single-trait and five-trait animal models by using production and reproduction data to determine heritability and genetic correlations between TNT and production and reproduction traits. As expected, the farmers’ data set was characterized by higher variability of TNT than the performance data set. The estimated heritability for TNT ranged from 0.28 to 0.30 (regarding the data and models used). The genetic correlations of TNT with production and reproduction traits were negligible and varied from −0.096 to 0.080 depending on the datasets and models used. A very high significant genetic correlation (0.782 and 0.793) was found between TNB and NW. Our hypothesis of impact of raw data inclusion on estimated genetic parameters for the trait TNT was rejected. Our findings suggested no significant differences for the estimated heritabilities of TNT among the analyzed datasets and models. The breeding values for TNT can be estimated by using single as well as multi-trait animal models, because no genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits were found.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Genotype Environment interactions for milk production traits in Holstein
           and crossbred Holstein-Zebu cattle populations estimated by a character
           state multibreed model
    • Authors: Alberto Menéndez-Buxadera; Alejandro Palacios-Espinosa; José Luis Espinosa-Villavicencio; Danilo Guerra-Iglesias
      Pages: 108 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Alberto Menéndez-Buxadera, Alejandro Palacios, José Luis Espinosa, Danilo Guerra
      A total of 478555 lactation records from 203825 cows calving from January 1984 to December 2003 were used to quantify the importance of the genotype-environment interaction (GxE) on milk production in a large population of Holstein and Holstein-Zebu crossbred animals under Cuban tropical conditions. These cows were distributed in a total of 1288 herds, daughters of 1565 Holstein (H) sires and 831 Holstein crossbred sires (HZ) with female Zebu (Z). Due to the dramatic political crisis in eastern countries at the end of the 1980s, all economical activities in Cuba were affected, and particularly the resources available for the dairy sector were marginalize; therefore two contrasted environmental periods of time were created: the first one was the calving from 1984 to 1990 and the second from 1991 to 2003. This division was made to estimate the magnitude of the GxE. Data were analyzed with different character state multi-breed sire models. Accordingly to the genetic correlation between the same traits across the time periods, the GxE was negative and highly significant but with more intensity in H sires with regard to HZ sires. A very important genetic variation was found in plasticity and a group of robust or generalist sires were identified showing a very good performance in the two time-period environmental conditions. The importance of the use of a Character State Multi-breed Model and the plasticity concept for breeding programs in the tropics are highly suggested.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • The effect of dietary supplementation of the broiler chicken diet with
           Boswellia serrata resin on growth performance, digestibility, and
           gastrointestinal characteristics, morphology, and microbiota
    • Authors: B. Kiczorowska; A.R.M. Al-Yasiry; W. Samolińska; A. Marek; E. Pyzik
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): B. Kiczorowska, A.R.M. Al-Yasiry, W. Samolińska, A. Marek, E. Pyzik
      The study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementation of the broiler chicken diet with Boswellia serrata resin (BSR) on growth performance, dry matter, organic matter, and energy digestibility as well as gastrointestinal characteristics, morphology, and microbiota. A total of 200 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to 4 treatments with 5 replicate cages of 10 broiler chickens per cage (5 females and 5 males). The experiment lasted 6 wk, and broiler chickens were fed diets containing 0 (control), 3 (BSR3), 4 (BSR4), or 5% Boswellia serrata resin (BSR5). There was no effect of the treatments on growth performance. The proportion of the proventriculus in the metabolic weight was lower with a quadratic pattern (P < 0.05) in the broiler chickens fed the diets containing BSR compared to those fed the control diet. In addition, broiler chickens fed the BSR3 and BSR4 diets had greater digestibility of dry matter and organic matter (control vs. BSR diets and quadratic, P < 0.05). The jejunum was shorter (P < 0.05) in broiler chickens fed the diets supplemented with BSR (control vs. BSR diets and quadratic, P < 0.05). The duodenum of chickens receiving BSR diets, a decrease in the depth of crypts and an increase in the villus:crypt were observed (quadratic, P < 0.05). In broiler chickens fed the BSR diets, a decrease in the count of Escherichia coli and an increase in the count of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus was observed (control vs. BSR diets and quadratic, P < 0.05). A decreased count of Clostridium spp. strains was noted as well (control vs. BSR diets and linear, P < 0.05). The resin of Boswellia serrata can be considered as a good feed additive, which can have positive effects on intestinal microbiota and the gastrointestinal tract morphology of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T14:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.019
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Antioxidant effects of a propolis extract and vitamin E in blood and milk
           of dairy cows fed diet containing flaxseed oil
    • Authors: Nadine Woruby Santos; Emerson H. Yoshimura; Erica Machado; Paula T. Matumoto-Pintro; Paula F. Montanher; Jesuí V. Visentainer; Geraldo T. dos Santos; Lucia M. Zeoula
      Pages: 132 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Nadine Woruby Santos, Emerson H. Yoshimura, Erica Machado, Paula T. Matumoto-Pintro, Paula F. Montanher, Jesuí V. Visentainer, Geraldo T. dos Santos, Lucia M. Zeoula
      The diets of dairy cattle were supplemented with phenolic compounds from propolis extract to determine the potential benefits on milk quality. The use of these compounds along with vitamin E may reduce the oxidation levels in blood and milk of cows fed polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aimed to assess the fatty acid composition of milk, the antioxidant quality of milk and blood lipoperoxidation of dairy cows whose diet was supplemented with flaxseed oil containing a propolis-based product (PBP) with or without vitamin E. Four Holstein cows, averaging 584 ± 50kg of body weight and 90 ± 40 days in milk, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square, with four periods and four diets: control diet; diet with flaxseed oil, 25g/kg of dry matter (DM); diet containing flaxseed oil + PBP, 1.2g/kg DM; diet containing flaxseed oil + PBP + vitamin E, 375 IU/kg DM. Diets containing PBP and PBP combined to vitamin E did not affect the DM intake and chemical composition of milk. The addition of PBP and vitamin E in diets increased the concentrations of fatty acids trans9-18:1, cis9,trans11-18:2 and the total CLA content in milk. The total polyphenol concentration in milk was elevated by PBP and PBP in combination with vitamin E. PBP enhanced the antioxidant activity of milk by increasing the reducing power, but the antioxidants did not preserve milk fat from oxidation. Supplementing the cow diet with PBP reduced the time to reach the maximum rate of oxidation in blood during copper-induced oxidation. Under the studied conditions, PBP and vitamin E supplementation resulted in improvements in the fat quality of milk, the oxidative properties of milk and the blood resistance to oxidation.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Multi-trait animal model estimation of genetic parameters for morphometric
           measurements in the Murgese horse breed
    • Authors: Grazia Bramante; Anna Maria Cito; Elena Ciani; Elisa Pieragostini
      Pages: 139 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Grazia Bramante, Anna Maria Cito, Elena Ciani, Elisa Pieragostini
      The Murgese is a baroque-type horse breed from Southern Italy that is currently experiencing growing interest both at local and international level. The aim of the present work was to investigate the morphological evolution of withers height (WH), chest girth (CG) and cannon bone circumference (CBC) over the last four decades by using linear regression analysis, and to use a multiple-trait animal model with fixed effects (herd, sex, birth year) to estimate genetic parameters for the above traits in the Murgese horse population. A significant increase of WH (only in males), and decrease of CG and CBC over the considered period was observed, though no remarkable trend in genetic gain was observed for the above traits. Hereditability estimates were 0.27 (WH), 0.31 (CG) and 0.24 (CBC). Genetic correlations ranged 0.641 (CG x WH) to 0.709 (CG x CBC). The obtained results suggest that phenotypic selection has not had so far a large impact on the Murgese morphology, whose evolution over the last four decades seems more likely attributable to improvement in management practices. According with the obtained heritability estimates and the favourable genetic correlations, there is ground for the application of quantitative genetic selection for the considered morphometric traits.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • A genome-wide scan of copy number variants using high-density SNPs in
           Brown Swiss dairy cattle
    • Authors: R.T.M.M. Prinsen; M.G. Strillacci; F. Schiavini; E. Santus; A. Rossoni; V. Maurer; A. Bieber; B. Gredler; M. Dolezal; A. Bagnato
      Pages: 153 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R.T.M.M. Prinsen, M.G. Strillacci, F. Schiavini, E. Santus, A. Rossoni, V. Maurer, A. Bieber, B. Gredler, M. Dolezal, A. Bagnato
      Detecting genetic variation such as Copy Number Variants (CNVs) in cattle provides the opportunity to study their association with quantitative traits. CNVs are DNA sequences of 50bp up to several Mb long, which can vary in copy number in comparison with a reference genome. The aim of this study was to investigate CNVs in 1,410 samples of the Brown Swiss cattle breed using Illumina Bovine HD SNP chip information, which includes 777,962 SNPs. After stringent quality control, CNVs were called with the Golden Helix SVS 8.3.1 (SVS) and PennCNV software and were summarized to CNV regions (CNVRs) at a population level (i.e. overlapping CNVs), using BEDTools. Additionally, common CNVRs between the two software were set as consensus regions. Genes within consensus CNVRs were annotated with a GO analysis using the DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7. In order to validate these results, quantitative PCRs were executed on 15 selected CNVRs. The SVS software identified 25,030 CNVs summarized to 398 CNVRs, which comprised 30 gains, 344 losses and 24 complex CNVRs (i.e. containing both losses and gains), covering 3.92% of the bovine genome. The PennCNV software identified 6,2341 CNVs summarized to 5,578 CNVRs, which comprised 2,638 gains, 2,404 losses and 537 complex CNVRs, covering 7.68% of the bovine genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 1,244bp to 1,381,355bp. A total of 563 consensus CNVRs were found covering 2.29% of the UMD 3.1 bovine genome assembly. Of these, 24 were gains, 300 were losses and 239 were complex CNVRs. A total of 775 official gene IDs were annotated in the consensus CNVRs. Among the 537 genes with functional information, the GO and pathway analysis was reported for those who clustered with a p-value < 0.05. The quantitative PCRs successfully validated 14 (93.33%) of the selected CNVRs. The result of this study is the first comprehensive genomic analysis of the Brown Swiss breed based on the Illumina Bovine HD SNP chip on such a large number of animals that enriches the CNV map in the bovine genome. These findings also provide valuable information for further CNV studies. Finally, the results of the CNVR map delivers new information for functional, health and productive traits considered in selection programs of the Brown Swiss breed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Bacteriophages as a promising anti-pathogenic option in creep-feed for
           suckling piglets: Targeted to control Clostridium spp. and coliforms
           faecal shedding
    • Authors: S.H. Lee; A.R. Hosseindoust; J.S. Kim; Y.H. Choi; J.H. Lee; I.K. Kwon; B.J. Chae
      Pages: 161 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.H. Lee, A.R. Hosseindoust, J.S. Kim, Y.H. Choi, J.H. Lee, I.K. Kwon, B.J. Chae
      A total of 28 crossbred sows in their third parity were allotted to one of four treatments. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the response of suckling pigs and sows to two levels of supplemental bacteriophages (0 and 1.0g/kg bacteriophages), in sows diet (SF) and suckling piglets diet (CF). The supplementation of bacteriophages in suckling piglet's diet showed increase on the number of total weaned piglets, BW at weaning and ADG of piglets. Bacteriophages in sows diet decreased faecal Clostridium spp. shedding at d 14. The number of coliforms in sows received bacteriophages was significantly lower at the end of experiment. There were reductions in population of Clostridium spp., and coliforms shedding in the feces at d 14 and d 21 of samplings with the inclusion of bacteriophages in the diet of suckling piglets. Bacteriophages in piglet's diet increased faecal Lactobacillus spp. at d 14. There was no SF×CF interaction effect for all the parameters. This study shows the benefit of targeted bacteriophages in creep feed against Clostridium spp. and coliforms of suckling piglets.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency
           in early lactation and improved milk yield
    • Authors: Trine Friis Pedersen; Thomas Sønderby Bruun; Takele Feyera; Uffe Krogh Larsen; Peter Kappel Theil
      Pages: 165 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Trine Friis Pedersen, Thomas Sønderby Bruun, Takele Feyera, Uffe Krogh Larsen, Peter Kappel Theil
      The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according to their individual requirements for maintenance and milk production. Thus, a basal diet was formulated and supplied to meet the energy requirement for maintenance and a lactation supplement was formulated to meet the dynamic requirement of nutrients for milk production. Sows and piglets were weighed and feed intake was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk of lactation. In lactation wk 4 sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime produced less milk (13.0kg/d) than the sows fed the 2-diet regime (14.9kg/d). Piglet weight gain was numerically higher (P = 0.11) throughout the lactation period for sows fed the 2-diet regime. Dietary regime had no effect on milk composition of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P = 0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P = 0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached a positive or zero balance in late lactation. For the 2-diet feeding regime sows’ N and Lys balance was positive throughout lactation, and N loss was higher for sows fed the 2-diet feeding regime. The concentration of urea in plasma was lower for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime. In conclusion, feeding lactating sows with the 2-diet feeding regime throughout lactation improved sows’ MY and mean piglet weight as lactation progressed, and weight loss was reduced in early lactation. By feeding sows with the 2-diet feeding regime it was also possible to reduce nutrient deficiency throughout lactation.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Combining revealed and stated preferences to define goat breeding
           objectives in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Tatek Woldu; André Markemann; Christoph Reiber; Girma T. Kassie; Anne Valle Zárate
      Pages: 179 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Tatek Woldu, André Markemann, Christoph Reiber, Girma T. Kassie, Anne Valle Zárate
      In order to design a sound community-based genetic improvement program, identifying breeding objective traits and their relative importance is a prerequisite. The study aims to identify goat breeding objectives in three production systems of Ethiopia based on revealed and stated preference information. Market transaction surveys as well as choice experiments (CE) were conducted in three production systems of Ethiopia. Relationships between goats’ attributes and prices were estimated by hedonic modeling, while economic values of traits included in the CE were estimated by conditional logit (CL) model. Part worth value of a trait which indicates the relative importance of a trait was calculated based on the implicit prices farmers were willing to pay (WTP) for an improvement of a trait. The hedonic regression results showed that body weight was a consistent determinant of goat price in all observed markets. While, attributes such as body condition, age and season had heterogeneous effect on market prices of goats. The CL analysis indicated that farmers living in harsh environments valued functional traits such as disease resistance more than performance traits. Based on revealed preferences and choice models, alternative breeding options, which are in line with farmers’ trait preferences and market demands, were suggested. The suggested alternative trait combinations and their economic values could be used as an input for optimization of the breeding schemes after considering heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T16:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Ruminal bacterial community changes during adaptation of goats to fresh
           alfalfa forage
    • Authors: Diego Javier Grilli; Jakub Mrázek; Kateřina Fliegerová; Jan Kopečný; Sebastian Paez Lama; María Esperanza Cerón Cucchi; Miguel Angel Sosa; Graciela Nora Arenas
      Pages: 191 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Diego Javier Grilli, Jakub Mrázek, Kateřina Fliegerová, Jan Kopečný, Sebastian Paez Lama, María Esperanza Cerón Cucchi, Miguel Angel Sosa, Graciela Nora Arenas
      Using culture-independent molecular approaches, we studied the bacterial population changes in the rumen of goats abruptly converted from alfalfa hay to fresh alfalfa diet. Administration of fresh forage with significantly increased soluble nitrogen and soluble protein nitrogen resulted in frothy bloat. Changes of the bacterial composition of rumen were monitored using DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA gene amplicons and quantitative PCR method. As the diet changed, the bacterial population of Bacteroidetes and γ-Proteobacteria decreased, even if animals have not shown signs of frothy bloat. The most severely bloated animals showed an increase of Bacteroidetes phylum. Lactobacillus/Streptococcus group belonging to Firmicutes phylum decreased in response to transferring the animals from hay to a fresh forage-based diet, and did not achieve the values observed at the beginning of the experiment. In summary, changes in the diet and subsequent frothy bloat occurrence produce long-lasting changes in the structure of the microbial community and may be associated with a specific bacterial population belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2016)
  • Retelling the recent evolution of genetic diversity for Guzerá:
           inferences from LD decay, runs of homozygosity and Ne over the generations
    • Authors: Pablo Augusto de Souza Fonseca; Fernanda Caroline dos Santos; Izinara Cruz Rosse; Ricardo Vieira Ventura; Frank Ângelo Tomita Brunelli; Vânia Maldini Penna; Rui da Silva Verneque; Marco Antônio Machado; Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva; Maria Raquel Santos Carvalho; Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Pablo Augusto de Souza Fonseca, Fernanda Caroline dos Santos, Izinara Cruz Rosse, Ricardo Vieira Ventura, Frank Ângelo Tomita Brunelli, Vânia Maldini Penna, Rui da Silva Verneque, Marco Antônio Machado, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva, Maria Raquel Santos Carvalho, Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto
      Genetic diversity is the one of the most important issues in conservation studies of livestock breeds or endangered species. In the present study, we tested the feasibility of describing the recent evolution in genetic diversity through genome-wide SNP genotyping and estimates of linkage disequilibrium decay patterns, effective population size, inbreeding coefficient based on runs of homozygosity and population structure. We choose the bovine indicine breed Guzerá because it has suffered recent bottlenecks which have been registered historically. A sample of 1,036 females was genotyped using Illumina BovineSNP50. A resampling strategy was applied to correct for sampling biases caused by the population structure in herds, and by the extensive use of some sires for artificial reproduction. A subsample of 210 animals and 32,806 markers with MAF>0.01 was used. Very low linkage disequilibrium was detected for distances greater than 120Kb between two markers. Furthermore, three points of decrease in effective population size between generations were detected, which coincide with the historically registered bottlenecks. The inbreeding coefficient, based on runs of homozygosity, confirmed a strong contribution of the last 20–30 generations to current inbreeding. In the population structure analysis, the most probable number of sub-populations is 2, reflecting selection purpose (beef or dual-purpose). Taken together, these results allow a retelling of the recent evolution of this breed. The strategy described here will be useful for other breeds or even species for which a careful historical registry is not available for conservation proposals.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T14:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.006
  • Validation of a noseband sensor system for monitoring ruminating activity
           in cows under different feeding regimens
    • Authors: I. Kröger; E. Humer; V. Neubauer; N. Kraft; P. Ertl; Q. Zebeli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): I. Kröger, E. Humer, V. Neubauer, N. Kraft, P. Ertl, Q. Zebeli
      Monitoring of ruminating activity in cows can help detecting deficiencies in structural fibre in the diet and also identifying related rumen disorders at an early stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate a noseband sensor system (NSS; “RumiWatch”, Itin + Hoch GmbH, Liestal, Switzerland) under variable feeding regimens. Visual and electronic measurements of ruminating activity were compared in eight Holstein cows fed either roughage-only diet, transition diet from roughage to concentrate, or constant feeding of 65% concentrate (dry matter basis). Increasing the concentrate amount in the diet lowered (P < 0.01) all ruminating parameters, regardless of the measurement method. The analysis showed that NSS overestimated (P ≤ 0.01) several chewing variables such as ruminating chews per minute, chews per bolus and ruminating chews per 10minutes; however, total duration of rumination did not differ (P = 0.49) between visual and NSS method. Also, the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis, representing the reproducibility of the NSS measurements, revealed a substantial agreement between visually observed and with NSS recorded values for ruminating chews per 10min (CCC = 0.92) and a high agreement for the number of boli per 10minutes (CCC = 0.82). In contrast, the reproducibility of NSS was moderate (CCC = 0.67) for chews per bolus and low (CCC = 0.36) for chews per min. In conclusion, the NSS is a suitable device to replace time-consuming visual observations for measuring total rumination time in cows under variable feeding conditions. However, specific NSS measurements such as chews per minute, chews per bolus, and the number of boli need further adjustements.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T14:13:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.007
  • Copy number variation of bovine MAPK10 modulates the transcriptional
           activity and affects growth traits
    • Authors: Mei Liu; Bo Li; Yongzhen Huang; Mingjuan Yang; Xianyong Lan; Chuzhao Lei; Weidong Qu; Yueyu Bai; Hong. Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Mei Liu, Bo Li, Yongzhen Huang, Mingjuan Yang, Xianyong Lan, Chuzhao Lei, Weidong Qu, Yueyu Bai, Hong. Chen
      Beef production is an economically important sector of animal husbandry and much attention has been paid on the identification of molecular markers associated with gene expressions and growth traits. The aim of this study was to search for potential effects of a novel copy number variation (CNV) located in intron 10 of bovine Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10 (MAPK10) on phenotypic variation. Cattle of nine Chinese domestic breeds were included: Qinchuan (QC), Nanyang (NY), Xianan (XN), Jiaxian (JX), Jinnan (JN), Qinghai (QH), Dzomo (DZ), Fu (FU) and Chinese Holstein cattle (CH). In total, genomic DNA of 455 female cattle and RNA of 27 fetal and/or adult tissues of QC cattle were used. Methods of Real-time quantitative PCR, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ANOVA were applied to evaluate the copy number distributions and their effects on genes’ transcriptional levels and growth traits. Substantial genetic differences between NY cattle and other four breeds (XN, QH, DZ and FU) were observed (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Negative correlations between copy numbers and transcript levels of MAPK10 / MYOG were shown in fetal skeletal muscle (P<0.01). Statistical analysis between CNV and growth traits revealed that the NY cattle with copy number gain type showed better traits, including body weight (P<0.05), body height and chest girth (P<0.01). These results suggested that this CNV locus could modulate the transcriptional activity and thereby affect the phenotypic traits. Our study firstly indicated that the CNV at MAPK10 locus was a promising genetic marker to improve meat production in beef cattle breeding.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.014
  • Molecular diversity between two cohorts of six Spanish riding-horse
           breeds: impact of selection in Crossbred vs Purebred populations
    • Authors: S. Negro; M. Solé; R. Pelayo; M.D. Gómez; P.J. Azor; M. Valera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S. Negro, M. Solé, R. Pelayo, M.D. Gómez, P.J. Azor, M. Valera
      The genetic structure and level of diversity were assessed across 6 riding-horse breeds raised in Spain and born between 1989 and 2012 (Anglo-Arab, AA, Arab Purebred, PRA; Spanish Purebred, PRE; Menorca Purebred, PRMe; Spanish Sport horse, CDE; Spanish Trotter horse, TRO). The impact of selection on molecular diversity over time looking at 2 different cohorts in Crossbreds (AA, CDE and TRO) vs Purebreds (PRA, PRE and PRMe) has been also analysed. A total of 17 microsatellite loci were analysed in 2,530 horses from the cohort 1 (C1, born between 1989 and 2000) and 10,102 horses from the cohort 2 (C2, born between 2001 and 2012). The mean number of alleles per locus was the highest in C2 of TRO horses (11.76) and the lowest in C1 of PRMe breed (7.71). The lowest global values for the expected heterozygosity were found within Purebreds (0.71 − 0.76) compared to Crossbreds (0.76 − 0.78). For C2, the effective population size values based on linkage disequilibrium (from 4.9 in PRA to 668.3 in PRE) were higher than those computed for C1 (from 3.3 in PRA to 204.1 in CDE). Genetic distances and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained due to an increase in the genetic uniformity across generations in Pure and Crossbreds. PRA, CDE and AA breeds seem to be the most genetically related, and for PRE, PRMe and TRO, both cohorts appeared closely related. In all populations, the genetic variability and effective population size have increased over time. Thus breeding policies have been properly managed to preserve diversity levels. Regarding the intense impact of selection in Purebreds across generations shown through the differences in the structure of the populations, no loss of genetic variability is expected in a short-term, although an extremely high degree of similarity and homogeneity between individuals of Purebreds compared to Crossbreds was shown.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.013
  • Application of the Welfare Quality® protocol in pig slaughterhouses
           of five countries
    • Authors: Antoni Dalmau; Alexandre Nande; Madalena Vieira-Pinto; Silvia Zamprogna; Guido Di Martino; Juliana C R Ribas; Mateus Paranhos da Costa; Katri Halinen-Elemo; Antonio Velarde
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Antoni Dalmau, Alexandre Nande, Madalena Vieira-Pinto, Silvia Zamprogna, Guido Di Martino, Juliana C R Ribas, Mateus Paranhos da Costa, Katri Halinen-Elemo, Antonio Velarde
      The objective of the present study is to assess the variability of the measures used in the welfare quality (WQ) protocol for pigs among slaughterhouses in five different countries and to propose alarm and critical thresholds for the calculation of scores for future development of an animal welfare certification scheme. The WQ protocol was applied in 52,468 pigs in 42 slaughterhouses in 5 countries (Portugal, Italy, Finland, Brazil and Spain). The welfare assessment started in the unloading area, where measures of general fear, thermoregulation, slipping and falling, lameness, sickness and mortality were taken. Concerning lairage, space allowance, drinking points, thermoregulation and mortality were considered, and the human-animal relationship was assessed by means of high-pitched vocalisations when pigs were moved from lairage to the stunning system. Finally, stunning effectiveness, skin lesions and presence of pneumonia, pleurisy, pericarditis and white spots on the liver were assessed in the stunning area and after slaughtering the animals. There was a large degree of variability among slaughterhouses for measurements made. For instance, the percentage of animals slipping ranged from 0.4% to 57%. Pigs with signs of recovery after stunning ranged from 0% to 90% and the percentage of carcasses that were severely damaged with skin lesions ranged from 0% to 48%. The data obtained can be useful to establish some thresholds for future uses of the WQ protocol. Electric stunning was associated with more animals recovering consciousness than from CO2.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.001
  • Two tagSNPs in the prolactin receptor gene are associated with growth and
           litter traits in Boer and Macheng Black crossbred goats
    • Authors: Qi Xiong; Jin Chai; Xiaofeng Li; Xiaojun Suo; Nian Zhang; Hu Tao; Yang Liu; Qianping Yang; Siwen Jiang; Mingxin Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Qi Xiong, Jin Chai, Xiaofeng Li, Xiaojun Suo, Nian Zhang, Hu Tao, Yang Liu, Qianping Yang, Siwen Jiang, Mingxin Chen
      Boer and Macheng Black goat breeds were used to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene for the prolactin receptor (PRLR) by DNA sequencing. Thirteen mutations (seven in the exon, four in the intron, and two in the 3′ UTR) were found. We performed comprehensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analyses of the 13 SNPs of PRLR and found that the SNPs were in two LD blocks in 300 F2 hybrids of Boer × Macheng Black goats. Analyses of the tag SNPs indicated that the g.184822G/A and g.185275C/T SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits, and individuals with the combinative genotype GGTT had the lowest levels of some growth traits. Moreover, Individuals with genotype GA had stronger offspring than did individuals with genotype GG at the g.184822G/A locus. This study revealed that PRLR is a promising candidate for the selection of both growth and litter traits in these goats.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.10.002
  • Moderately increased energy intake during gestation improves body
           condition of primiparous sows, piglet growth performance, and milk fat and
           protein output
    • Authors: Jun Wang; Mei Yang; Meng Cao; Yan Lin; Lianqiang Che; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi; Zhengfeng Fang; Shengyu Xu; Bin Feng; Gang Liu; De Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jun Wang, Mei Yang, Meng Cao, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Gang Liu, De Wu
      This study determined the effect of dietary energy allowance during gestation on reproductive performance, blood metabolites, and milk composition in primiparous sows. Forty-four Landrace × Yorkshire gilts were randomly assigned to receive one of four dietary energy allowances (n = 11): low (L), medium (M), high (H), and extremely high (EH). The gilts in L, M, H, and EH treatments were provided 75, 100, 125, and 150% of the energy requirement for maintenance from 0 to 30 d of gestation, respectively. Compared to d 0 to 30 of gestation, dietary energy allowances in each group increased by 20% from d 30 to 90 of gestation and increased by 50% from d 90 of gestation to parturition. After parturition, all primiparous sows received the same diet and fed ad libitum during lactation. The results showed that dietary energy linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) sow body weight and backfat thickness at d 0 and 28 of lactation. Dietary energy linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) sow body weight gain and backfat gain from d 0 of gestation to d 0 of lactation. With increasing dietary energy allowance, there were linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in sow body weight loss and backfat loss during lactation, and linear and quadratic decreases (P < 0.01) in average daily feed intake during lactation. However, with increasing dietary energy allowance, individual birth and weaning weight linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05), and litter weight quadratically increased at birth (P < 0.05) and tended to increase at weaning (quadratic, P = 0.06). The greatest individual weight and litter weight at birth and weaning was observed when sows were provided the H energy allowance. The number of total born and born alive was not influenced by dietary energy. With increasing dietary energy allowance, the fat and protein content linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01) in colostrum, and the fat and protein content quadratically increased (P = 0.01) in mature milk. The greatest fat and protein content in mature milk was observed when sows were provided the H energy allowance. The results indicated that providing 125, 150, and 187.5% of the energy requirement for maintenance during early, mid, and late gestation was beneficial in maintaining optimal body condition of primiparous sows, as well as improving piglet growth performance and milk fat and protein output.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.012
  • Effects of Acremonium terricola culture on growth performance, antioxidant
           status and immune functions in weaned calves
    • Authors: Yang Li; Yi-zhen Wang; Xue Ding; Yong-gen Zhang; Shi-chong Xue; Cong Lin; Wen-bin Xu; Xiu-Jing Dou; Li-Yang Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Yang Li, Yi-zhen Wang, Xue Ding, Yong-gen Zhang, Shi-chong Xue, Cong Lin, Wen-bin Xu, Xiu-Jing Dou, Li-Yang Zhang
      This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Acremonium terricola culture (CAT) on growth performance, antioxidant status and immune responses of weaned calves. Twenty-four weaned female Holstein calves of the same age and with a similar genetic background were randomly assigned to one of two treatments for a 40 d feeding period. Treatments consisted of feed supplemented with (1) nothing (i.e., the control group) or (2) 50mg CAT/kg of body weight (BW). Feed, fecal and blood samples were collected on days 0, 20 and 40. The seventh day after weaning was defined as Day 0. The results demonstrated that CAT supplementation increased body weight, feed efficiency and average daily weight gain compared to the control group. Supplementation with 50mg of CAT/kg of BW significantly increased concentrations of immunoglobulins A, M, and G, interleukin-4, as well as the ratio of soluble CD4/soluble CD8, activities of total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase in plasma. In contrast, CAT supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in the concentrations of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor - alpha, cortisol and malondialdehyde in plasma. These results suggested that supplementation with 50mg of CAT/kg of BW may enhance growth performance and antioxidant and immune functions in weaned calves.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.009
  • A good taste in the meat, a good taste in the mouth – animal welfare as
           an aspect of pork quality in three European countries
    • Authors: Cecilie A.H. Thorslund; Peter Sandøe; Margit Dall Aaslyng; Jesper Lassen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Cecilie A.H. Thorslund, Peter Sandøe, Margit Dall Aaslyng, Jesper Lassen
      Welfare standards for farm animals in Europe are managed by two main strategies: a legislative and a market-driven strategy. The former imposes common minimum standards of animal welfare; it offers little or no help for consumers favoring welfare initiatives above the legal requirements. The latter can be used as a lever for improving welfare beyond baseline standards through initiatives supporting ‘welfare-friendly’ products that are sold at a premium. However, if this second strategy is to be successful the higher levels of welfare secured will need to reflect what consumers think is important. Using focus group interviews in three European countries, the study presented here looks at the way consumers perceive meat and meat consumption practices in relation to animal welfare. Regarding animal welfare as a quality attribute – something worth paying a premium for – the analysis shows that animal welfare is definitely a quality for which some consumers are prepared to pay as such, but that other consumers do not regard welfare as an important quality attribute. Another group of consumers consider welfare important and valuable given its positive link with attractive quality attributes such as taste. The results points to some striking national differences: little concern or action linked to animal welfare was expressed by English consumers; their Swedish counterparts displayed more concern and action; consumers in Denmark were similar to those in Sweden, but showed more variation in their attitudes and an awareness of barriers.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2016.09.007
  • 3048Dietary supplementation of tannic acid modulates nitrogen excretion
           pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents of beef cattle
    • Authors: Kai Yang; Chen Wei Guangyong Zhao Zhiwei Shixin Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kai Yang, Chen Wei, Guangyong Zhao, Zhiwei Xu, Shixin Lin
      The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of tannic acid (TA) on nitrogen (N) excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents of beef cattle. Four adult Simmental male cattle (initial BW 376.0 ± 9.0kg) were used as experimental animals. Four levels of TA, i.e. 0, 6.5, 13.0, or 26.0g/kg dry matter (DM), were added to a basal ration consisted of concentrate mixture and corn silage in a 4 × 4 Latin square design as experimental treatments, respectively. Each experimental period consisted of a 12-day adaptation phase followed by a 3-day sampling phase. The results showed that supplementing TA did not affect the N retention, but shifted the N excretion from urine to faeces, regulated the urinary N components by decreasing urea and increasing hippuric acid.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T15:39:02Z
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