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Journal Cover Livestock Science
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-1413
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3032 journals]
  • Effect of different exogenous proteases on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, and carcass response in broiler chickens fed poultry
           by-product meal-based diets for 35 d
    • Authors: T. Mahmood; M.A. Mirza; H. Nawaz; M. Shahid; M. Athar; M. Hussain
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): T. Mahmood, M.A. Mirza, H. Nawaz, M. Shahid
      This study was conducted to examine the effect of different proteases with varied optimum pH range (acid and neutral) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed poultry by-product meal-based diets. The acid protease contained 50,000 U/g and the neutral protease contained 25,000 U/g of premix. The broiler chickens (n = 200) were assigned to 5 treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment and 10 broiler chickens per pen in a completely randomized design. Five diets were iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous (metabolizable energy, 2,850kcal/kg; crude protein, 20%) and broiler chickens had ad libitum access to diets for 35 d. A corn-soybean meal-based negative control (NC) diet was formulated on digestible amino acid basis. A positive control (PC) corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 3% poultry by-product meal was formulated on digestible amino acid basis, and it was supplemented with acid protease mix (80g/t; PC-A), neutral protease mix (160g/t; PC-N), or 50/50 combination of the two (120g/t; PC-C). Overall feed intake was not affected by any of the treatment. However, broiler chickens fed the PC-C diet had improved (P < 0.05) body weight gain compared with the NC diet during d 0 to 35. Except the PC diet, broiler chickens had improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with those fed the NC diet during the starter phase (d 0 to 21). The broiler chickens fed the PC-N and the PC-C diets improved FCR compared to the NC diet during d 0 to 35. The broiler chickens fed all the diets, except the NC diet, improved (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility for nitrogen (ATTDn), while broiler chicken fed the PC-C diet improved (P < 0.01) nitrogen retention (Nret) compared with other diets. Improved (P < 0.01) apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and AME corrected for N (AMEn) was noted in broiler chickens fed the PC-A, and the PC-C diets compared with other diets. However, carcass characteristics, e.g., carcass yield, breast meat yield, thigh weight, abdominal fat pad, and relative liver and heart weights, were not affected by treatments. In conclusion, broiler chickens fed the PC-C diet had better growth performance, energy and nutrient digestibility compared to the NC diet.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2017)
       
  • Effects of crude protein level and degradability of limited creep-feeding
           supplements on performance of beef cow-calf pairs grazing limpograss
           pastures
    • Authors: Philipe Moriel; Joao M.B. Vendramini; John D. Arthington; Andre D. Aguiar; Gregory Caputti
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 200
      Author(s): Philipe Moriel, Joao M.B. Vendramini, John D. Arthington, Andre D. Aguiar, Gregory Caputti
      Two experiments evaluated the growth performance of cow-calf pairs offered limited creep-feeding supplementation (Exp. 1) and creep-feeding supplements with different crude protein degradability (Exp. 2). In Exps. 1 and 2, Brangus crossbred cow-calf pairs (Bos sp.; 24 and 16 pairs, respectively) were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 limpograss pastures (3 and 2 cow-calf pairs/pasture, respectively). Treatments were randomly assigned to pastures (4 pastures/treatment) and consisted of: (Exp. 1) no creep-feeding supplementation (Control) or daily limit creep-feeding supplementation (Creep; 0.40kg/d of soybean meal) for 84d; and (Exp. 2) daily limited creep-feeding supplementation of 0.40kg/d of soybean meal (SBM; 35% RUP) or 0.40kg/d of cooker-expeller processed SBM (SP; SoyPLUS, West Central, Ralston, IA; 60% RUP) for 112d. In both experiments, creep-feed supplements were provided daily at 0800h in cow-exclusion areas. Body weight of cows and calves were assessed monthly, following 16h of feed and water withdrawal, whereas cow BCS was determined at the start and end of the study. In both experiments, herbage mass (HM) and hand plucked forage samples for nutritive value analysis were obtained at 14-d intervals from May to August (Exp. 1) and May to September (Exp. 2). Effects of treatment and treatment×time (P≥0.16) were not detected for HM, herbage allowance, in vitro digestible organic matter, and crude protein in both experiments. In Exp. 1, limited creep-feeding supplementation increased calf overall average daily gain (ADG, P=0.0005), but not cow growth (P≥0.19). In Exp. 2, effects of protein degradability were not detected for calf and cow growth performance (P≥0.14). In summary, limit creep-feeding supplementation of 0.40kg/d of soybean meal for 83d addressed weather-induced calf nutritional deficiencies and increased calf growth grazing limpograss pastures, without affecting cow growth performance and forage responses. In addition, increasing supplemental RUP consumption from 67 to 115g/d was not sufficient to impact limpograss herbage mass, nutritional composition, and growth performance of cows and calves.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T10:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2017)
       
  • Influence of loading handling and facilities on the subsequent response to
           pre-slaughter stress in pigs
    • Authors: Sébastien Goumon; Luigi Faucitano
      Pages: 6 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 200
      Author(s): Sébastien Goumon, Luigi Faucitano
      At all times prior to arrival at the slaughter plant, pigs may experience stress from a range of on-farm handling practices. The quality of the design of the loading facilities and of the handling procedures plays a key role in determining the effects of the farm on pig response to preslaughter stress, as it may contribute to improve to reduce the load time, the staff workload and stress in pigs. Poor handling management will impair pigs' movement during loading, leading to rougher handling and stressful experiences, and ultimately reduced welfare. Thus, this paper overviews the effects of on-farm handling management factors during loading that may influence the response of pigs to pre-slaughter stress. In addition, this paper provides recommendations on how to sort and move pigs to the loading dock and into the truck. Handling practices (tools, group size, use of shipping pens, mixing) and physical features of the barn, such as light and sound, and alley and exit design (length, width and shape) will be examined. The design of the loading dock will also be discussed, in regards to the ramp design (bedding, cleat spacing and angle) and its alternatives.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T10:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2017)
       
  • Financial evaluation of Holstein Friesian strains within composite and
           housed UK dairy systems
    • Authors: Margaret D. March; Laurence Shalloo; David J. Roberts; Willie Ryan
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 200
      Author(s): Margaret D. March, Laurence Shalloo, David J. Roberts, Willie Ryan
      Milk production in a volatile global economy requires matching suitable genotypes within efficient regimes to deliver optimal and cost effective dairy farming systems. Here, we determine and describe differences in profitability between two genetic merits of Holstein Friesian cows managed within contrasting regimes. Physical performance of the genotypes within composite and housed systems is determined using data from a long term experiment based in Scotland, and economic analysis is carried out by application of Moorepark Dairy Systems Model simulations. Scenarios explore profitability differences between the management types when applied to a fixed herd size of 200 cows and a limited land availability of 80ha. Sensitivity analysis describes the economic effect of changes in both feed costs and milk price. Results illustrate benefits within each dairy system depending on available resources, and show considerable differences in inputs, outputs, costs and profitability of each of the management types. On average, animals of an improved genetic merit achieve 4p more profit for every litre produced than average merit cows in a housed system, and 2p more within composite systems. Average genetic merit cows consuming a high forage diet plus grazing can be profitable however losses are made when this genotype is confined and fed high levels of concentrates. Systems which utilize high levels of imported concentrate feeds producing large milk volumes can be more vulnerable in circumstances where purchased feed costs are high and the milk price offered is low.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2017)
       
  • Predictability of adult Show Jumping ability from early information:
           alternative selection strategies in the Spanish Sport Horse population
    • Authors: Marina Solé; Ester Bartolomé; María José Sánchez; Antonio Molina; Mercedes Valera
      Pages: 23 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Marina Solé, Ester Bartolomé, María José Sánchez, Antonio Molina, Mercedes Valera
      The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and to evaluate whether performance results of young horses are good predictors for later sport performance, in order to propose alternative selection strategies to assess adult show jumping (SJ) ability. The data included 84,600 performance records from 4011 Spanish Sport Horses. Two different bivariate animal models with genetic groups were compared, using rankings of young and adult horses as the dependent variables. The models included the age as covariate, and gender, event, type of penalty scale and competition level as fixed effects. The horse⁎rider interaction and the animal permanent environment random factors were tested to find the most suitable model (A vs B, respectively). The heritability values obtained were in the low range, between 0.11 ± 0.01 in adult horses and 0.17 ± 0.01 in young horses. The results also showed high genetic correlations (≥ 0.84 ± 0.04) between results early and later on in life. With model A, the prediction of the adult SJ ability was higher (Pearson correlation between predicted and real data: 0.33 ± 0.01) than with model B (0.31 ± 0.01). The implementation of alternative strategies, such as two-stage selection, could increase the expected genetic gain significantly (over 50%) compared to other strategies. This strategy could promote genetic progress, without any loss of accuracy and little additional cost.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T10:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2017)
       
  • Enteric methane mitigation in sheep through leaves of selected
           tanniniferous tropical tree species
    • Authors: P.K. Malik; A.P. Kolte; L. Baruah; M. Saravanan; B. Bakshi; R. Bhatta
      Pages: 29 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 200
      Author(s): P.K. Malik, A.P. Kolte, L. Baruah, M. Saravanan, B. Bakshi, R. Bhatta
      This study was carried out to investigate the effect of supplementation of three selected tanniniferous tropical tree leaves of Ficus benghalensis, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Azadirachta indica on enteric methane emission, rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population in 20 native Indian adult male sheep (Mandya). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with four treatments of five animals each. The sheep in control group (CON) were fed on complete feed block (CFB) comprising finger millet straw and concentrate in the ratio of 60:40 (DM basis) without any inclusion of tropical tree leaves. Sheep in three test groups i.e. FIC, ART and AZA were also fed complete feed block prepared from finger millet straw and concentrate in the same ratio (60:40) as control, but wheat bran in concentrate mixture of test groups was partially replaced (10 parts w/w) with selected tanniniferous tropical tree leaves of Ficus benghalensis, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Azadirachta indica, respectively. The condensed tannin intake in sheep between 7.15 and 10.8g/kg dry matter intake via selected tanniniferous tropical tree leaves did not influence dry matter and digestibility. About 20–26% reduction (p<0.05) in enteric methane emission is achievable simply through the supplementation of selected tree leaves in straw based diet. The reduction in protozoal numbers (p<0.05) due to selected tropical leaves supplementation appeared as primary cause for the reduction in enteric methane emission. The study confirmed that entodinimorphs protozoa are more vulnerable to the condensed tannin supplementation. The study established that significant reduction in methane emission is feasible without affecting feed fermentation characteristics. However, studies in large productive (growing, lactating) ruminants are warranted in order to explore the persistency of ameliorative effect in long term and improvement in productive performance thereof.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2017)
       
  • Factors influencing Awassi lambs survivorship under fields conditions
    • Authors: Anas Abdelqader; Rabie Irshaid; Mohammad Jihad Tabbaa; Mohannad Abuajamieh; Hosam Titi; Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Anas Abdelqader, Rabie Irshaid, Mohammad Jihad Tabbaa, Mohannad Abuajamieh, Hosam Titi, Abdur-Rahman Al-Fataftah
      The objective of this study was to investigate the pre-weaning survival rates of Awassi lambs and identify the causes of death in extensive and semi-extensive production systems. The study was designed to collect data under field conditions. Data were recorded on 29,290 lambs born alive during lambing seasons from 2011 to 2015. Postmortem autopsy findings were collected from 5448 lambs died during the pre-weaning period. About 63.5% of losses occurred during the first 7 days of life. The overall pre-weaning mortality rates were 19.7% and 16.9% in the extensive and semi-extensive production systems, respectively. Lamb birth weight had a strong effect (P<0.0001) on the pre-weaning mortality rate. The mean mortality rate in lambs weighed <2kg at birth was 45.1%. The proportion of autopsied lambs dying by category was starvation (28.6%), respiratory infections (19.2%), gastrointestinal infections (16.2%), birth injuries (10.2%), hypothermia (8.6%), enterotoxaemia (8.2%), dystocia (4.4%) and predation (2.1%). Explanatory variables best used by Weibull model to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of lambs falling into a certain death category were production system, lamb sex, birth type, and lamb birth weight. Lambs born in extensive production system were more (P<0.0001) likely to die from starvation (HR=4.6), gastrointestinal infections (HR=3.2), and hypothermia (HR=2.2), compared with semi-extensive system. Lambs weighed <2kg at birth were more (P<0.0001) likely to die from starvation (HR=5.5), hypothermia (HR=3.6), gastrointestinal infections (HR=2.4) and respiratory infections (HR=2.2), compared with lambs weighed 3–4kg. Triplet lambs were 4.6 more (P<0.0001) likely to die from hypothermia and 4.3 more (P<0.0001) likely to die from starvation. Survival rates of Awassi lambs can be improved by applying appropriate management practices that target intermediate birth weights and minimize the infectious diseases, starvation and cold stress.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Effects of grazing and feedlot finishing duration on the performance of
           three beef cattle genotypes in Uganda
    • Authors: Denis Asizua; Denis Mpairwe; Fred Kabi; David Mutetikka; Torben Hvelplund; Martin Riis Weisbjerg; Jørgen Madsen
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Denis Asizua, Denis Mpairwe, Fred Kabi, David Mutetikka, Torben Hvelplund, Martin Riis Weisbjerg, Jørgen Madsen
      Beef production in Uganda is progressing from the traditional pastoral practices to sedentary semi-intensive systems. Consequently, farmers are continuously crossbreeding the indigenous cattle with exotic genotypes to improve meat yield. This study was conducted on-farm to evaluate the effects of feeding systems and feeding durations on performance of three locally available genotypes. A 2×3×3 factorial experiment was used to randomly allot 108 young bulls (9–15 months old), 36 for each of the three genotypes; Ankole x Holstein Friesian (AXF) (175±22kg), pure Boran (208±34kg) and a composite genotype (212±35kg). The bulls were allotted to two feeding systems and three finishing durations. The feeding systems comprised sole grazing as the control where animals only grazed natural pastures and feedlot finishing where animals were fed a locally formulated total mixed ration containing 200 maize stover, 300 maize bran, 447 brewers’ spent grain, 50 molasses and 3 salt (NaCl) as g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis. The three durations were 60, 90 and 120 days excluding 14 days of adaptation period. Data was collected on feed intake, growth, slaughter and carcass characteristics. The Boran consumed less DM per kg of body weight gain than the AXF and composite. Feed conversion ratio (kg DM/kg body weight gain) ranged between 6.3±0.6 to 8.2±1.5 at the feedlot and 11.1±4.1 to 17±4.0 for all genotypes and all durations. Growth and slaughter characteristics did not vary (P>0.05) between genotypes. However, carcass quality grade scores were higher (P<0.05) in the pure Boran and the composite genotypes than in the AXF crossbreds at 120 days of finishing. Average daily live weight gain (ADG) for all genotypes was approximately twice under feedlot finishing compared to sole grazing while hot carcass weight under feedlot was only higher than that of sole grazing by 30kg in AXF, 37kg in Boran and 45kg in composite genotype at 120 days of finishing. Hot carcass weight and dressing percentages were similar (P>0.05) between genotypes irrespective of the feeding system for all durations but hot carcass weight was higher (P<0.05) at the feedlot for all durations. Therefore, intensification through feedlotting is a viable option for improving beef production. However, understanding the appropriate levels of crossing between genotypes is needed to achieve the desired improvement in productivity from crossbreds.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Effects of feeding time with betaine diet on growth performance, blood
           
    • Authors: Byung S. Park; Sang O. Park
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Byung S. Park, Sang O. Park
      The objective of this study was to determine effect of the diet containing 1200 betaine diet on blood biomarkers, electrolytes, gas and cecum short-chain fatty acid profile in meat ducks exposed to very hot environment (high relative humidity) conditions from d 21–42 (11:00 to 17:00h; 33–43°C; 70% relative humidity). On the day of hatching, a total of 320 meat ducks(average, 48.6g body weight) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 4 pens per treatment and 20 ducks per pen for 42 d. Dietary treatments consisted of: 1) the control diet fed ad libitum, 2) the betaine diet fed ad libitum, 3) the betaine diet fed from 05:00 to 10:00 and 17:00 to 20:00h, and 4) the betaine diet fed from 17:00 to 20:00h. Ducks fed the betaine diets had greater body weight at d 42 than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). The total red blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, platelet count, plateletcrit and mean platelet volume concentration in ducks fed the control diet were lower than those fed the betaine diets (P<0.05). Blood electrolyte concentrations in ducks fed the betaine diet at different feeding times had greater values than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, base excess of extracellular fluid, bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations in ducks fed the control diets were lower than those on the betaine treatments (P<0.05). Respective to ducks fed the betaine diets had greater concentrations of total SCFA, acetic acid, propionic acid in the cecum than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). However, ducks fed the betaine diets had lower levels of butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid than those fed the control diet (P<0.05). The body weight, feed intake, sodium, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base excess of extracelluar fluid, mean corpuscular volume in ducks fed the betaine diet from fed 05:00 to 10:00 and 17:00 to 20:00h were greater (P<0.05) than those fed the betaine diet ad libitum and from 17:00 to 20:00h. The results of this study indicated that restricted feeding of the diet with 1200ppm betaine in morning and afternoon can have beneficial effects on meat ducks exposed to the very hot environment (high relative humidity) condition.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T14:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Comparing gestating sows housing between electronic sow feeding system and
           a conventional stall over three consecutive parities
    • Authors: J.C. Jang; J.S. Hong; S.S. Jin; Y.Y. Kim
      Pages: 37 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): J.C. Jang, J.S. Hong, S.S. Jin, Y.Y. Kim
      This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gestating sows housed in groups with electronic sow feeding (ESF) system over three consecutive parities. A total of 83 pregnant gilts [Yorkshire×Landrace] were housed into ST: gilts housed in individual stalls, and ESF: gilts housed in groups with ESF system on the basis of body weight (BW) and backfat thickness (BFT) in a completely randomized design. Rice hulls were used as bedding material on the group housing floor. The same commercial gestating diet was provided daily at 2.0kg, 2.2kg and 2.4kg/day in the first, second and third parity, respectively, in both treatments. All sows introduced farrowing crates five days before expected farrowing. BW and BFT of the sows were measured at d 35, and 110 of gestation as well as at 12h and d 21 postpartum. Parturition time was recorded during farrowing. Reproductive performance, including total born, stillborn, mummy, born alive, mortality, weaning pigs as well as litter and piglet weight were recorded. Scratch incidence and locomotion scores in sows were assessed at d 36, 70, and 110, respectively. Ten sows in each treatment were randomly selected for blood sampling. Serum samples were analyzed for cortisol and oxytocin levels. In the gestation period, ESF tended to increase BW gain in the second parity (P=0.08), and consistently showed significance during the third parity (P<0.01), resulting in higher BW at d 110 (P=0.10, P<0.03 in parities 2 and 3, respectively). Similarly, BFT gain tended to be higher in ESF than ST (P=0.08, P=0.10 in parity 1 and 2, respectively). Estimated body fat contents changes are also higher in ESF regardless of the parities (P<0.01, P<0.02, P=0.10 in parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively). However, there were no significant differences on sow BW and BFT changes during lactation. There was a tendency of shorten duration of farrowing in the ESF treatment (P=0.07, P=0.09, and P=0.10 in parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively). In reproductive performances, higher piglet stillborn in ST was observed (P=0.06, P=0.07 in parities 2 and 3, respectively). In endocrinal analysis, ST higher serum cortisol was observed at d 110 of gestation (P<0.01 in parity 1), whereas no detectable difference was observed in the serum oxytocin level. Higher incidence of body scratch was scored in ESF treatment in early gestation in all parities (P<0.01). Likewise, ESF treatment were observed higher locomotor disorders in the middle and late gestation periods (P=0.07). In conclusion, our results suggested that the Group housing with ESF system showed higher growth performance and survival rate of piglets. However, more incidences of body scratch and higher locomotion disorder scores observed in the ESF sows was due to the combination of persistent fighting around the ESF machines and inadequate bedding materials. Consequently, it is necessary to consider an adequate space divider or barrier for gestating sows to avoid aggression in the group housing with ESF system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Increase of fat-free mass and low percentage of body fat in Brazilian
           sport horses training under tropical climate
    • Authors: Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha; Ana Cláudia Tavares Miranda; Fernando Queiroz de Almeida; Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
      Pages: 46 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha, Ana Cláudia Tavares Miranda, Fernando Queiroz de Almeida, Ana Maria Reis Ferreira
      This study aimed to determine the subcutaneous fat layer thickness, percentage of body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass of Brazilian sport horses at different levels of training for and competing in eventing and the effects of a tropical climate in the body composition of athletic horses. The study included 17 Brazilian sport horses aged between 4 and 10 years. Group 1 included young horses aged from 4 to 6 years training for Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) one-star events, and group 2 comprised adult horses aged from 7 to 10 years in training for FEI two-star events. The training protocol comprised exercise for 5 days a week for 60min, including flatwork, aerobic conditioning, and jumping, both track and natural obstacles. The equines were weighted, and rump fat layer was determined by measuring the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue at the region of the gluteus medius muscle using ultrasound. The ultrasound evaluation was performed at the end of the equestrian season, which lasted 9 months. An increase in the body weight, fat layer, percentage of body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass was observed in group 2 compared with the overall group and group 1, although the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Despite the important increase in the percentage of body fat between young and adult horses, 4.87±1.22% and 5.64±1.90% found in group 1 and 2, respectively, it did not differ statistically (p=0.3775). This fact may contribute to a decline in their performance because fat can be a key source of energy. Lower mean values of all parameters were observed in group 1 than in group 2. In conclusion, Brazilian sport horses training for and competing in eventing under tropical conditions have the body composition accustomed for this equestrian discipline. Brazilian sport horses training for and competing in eventing have high values of fat-free mass and low percentage of body fat and fat mass, demonstrating the athletic capability of these horses. There were no significant changes in the body condition of young and adult Brazilian sport horses. A hot, humid environment led to an increase of weight and body condition.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Vitrification of immature and in vitro matured bovine cumulus-oocyte
           complexes: Effects on oocyte structure and embryo development
    • Authors: Dowglish F. Chaves; Emilie Corbin; Carmen Almiñana; Yann Locatelli; Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan; Maajid H. Bhat; Vicente J.F. Freitas; Pascal Mermillod
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Dowglish F. Chaves, Emilie Corbin, Carmen Almiñana, Yann Locatelli, Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan, Maajid H. Bhat, Vicente J.F. Freitas, Pascal Mermillod
      This study aimed to verify the effects of cryoprotectant and Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification on ultrastructural changes in bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, the cryoprotectant exposure was analyzed by distributing immature and matured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in groups: control immature, immature and exposed to one vitrification solution (IVS1), immatured and exposed to two vitrification solutions (IVS1-2), matured and exposed to one vitrification solution (MVS1), matured and exposed to two vitrification solutions (MVS1-2), control matured, IVS1 post in vitro maturation (IVS1 post IVM) and IVS1-2 post in vitro maturation (IVS1-2 post IVM). In experiment 2, immature and matured COCs were distributed in: control and vitrified by OPS using VS1-2. Sample COCs from both experiments were evaluated for mitochondrial distribution, nuclear lamins (immature COCs) and meiotic spindle (matured COCs). In both experiments, COCs were in vitro matured and fertilized. In experiment I, nuclear lamins in immature COCs exhibited higher proportion of structures with irregular shape when treated with VS1 and VS1-2. Immature and matured COCs treated with VS1-2, and matured COCs treated with VS1 had lower (P<0.05) blastocyst development (29%, 20% and 8%, respectively) than control and immature COCs treated with VS1 (51% and 41%, respectively). In experiment 2, immature oocytes exhibited more (P<0.05) structures with irregular lamin (72%) than control (9%). Vitrification of matured COCs did not induce abnormalities of meiotic spindle, compared to control matured (25% and 37%, respectively) (P>0.05). The cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in matured vitrified than immature vitrified group (19% vs. 8%). In conclusion, immature COCs were more tolerant to cryoprotectant exposure. However, matured oocytes showed better embryo development (cleavage) after vitrification.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Genetic and environmental factors influencing gestation length and
           parturition conception interval in Hanoverian warmblood
    • Authors: Anna Christmann; Harald Sieme; Gunilla Martinsson; Ottmar Distl
      Pages: 63 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Anna Christmann, Harald Sieme, Gunilla Martinsson, Ottmar Distl
      The present study has the objectives to analyse effects influencing the gestation length (GL) and the parturition conception interval (PCI) in Hanoverian warmblood horses and subsequently to estimate heritabilities for the GL and the PCI. Data comprised artificial insemination records of the years 2008–2014 from the National State Stud Celle, Germany, and corresponding foaling data from the Hanoverian Breeding Society, Germany. A total of 19,315 seasonal records including 10,294 mares and 276 stallions were available for GL and 10,244 records for PCI with 5881 mares and 234 stallions. The average GL was 341.7±10.7 days. The fixed effects of the year and month of insemination, the age of the mare at the time of insemination, whether the mare had a foal with her from the previous season, the sex of the foal and the random effects of the mare and the stallion had a significant effect on the GL. For the effect of the month of insemination the GL was longest in the months of December to February and shortest in July and August. It was shortest in 2–4-year old mares and longest in mares >19 years. Also GLs were longer if the mare did not have a foal at foot from the previous season than in mares with a foal with her. Pregnancies with colts were longer than those with fillies. The average PCI was 38.1±25.9 days. Year and month of insemination, the age of the mare at the time of insemination and the mare as well as the stallion had a significant effect on the PCI. PCI was shortest in the months of December to February and increased until July and August. The PCI was longest in the youngest and the oldest age class of the mares. Heritabilities were estimated in linear animal models. A model including the maternal and paternal genetic effect resulted in heritabilities of 0.234 for the mare and 0.024 for the stallion for GL and 0.026 and 0.013 respectively for the PCI. Heritabilities for GL in a model including the maternal and direct genetic effects were 0.269 for the mare and 0.066 for the embryo. Mare-related effects seem to have the largest impact on GL, whereas environmental effects like a good post-parturition management highly influence the PCI.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Selecting random regression models under different minimum number of test
           day records
    • Authors: Alessandro Haiduck Padilha; Cláudio Napolis Costa; José Braccini Neto; Darlene dos Santos Daltro; Jaime Araújo Cobuci
      Pages: 69 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Alessandro Haiduck Padilha, Cláudio Napolis Costa, José Braccini Neto, Darlene dos Santos Daltro, Jaime Araújo Cobuci
      The objective of this study was to compare EBVs, reliability and genetic parameters in random regression models with Legendre polynomials using structures of data sets with different minimum number of test days in lactation. The original data base was edited in order to prepare for subsets by deleting cows that did not have at least 4, 6, 8 or 10 test day (TD) records in lactation. The original intervals between monthly TD were used. Random regression models with third (M3), fourth (M4) and fifth-order (M5) Legendre polynomial were used. The lowest values of AIC, BIC, −2LogL and RV was found in the models with highest Legendre polynomials orders within structure with 6, 8 and 10 TD and lowest in structure with 4 TD. The eigenvalues indicated models with lowest Legendre polynomial orders as M3 and M4 in all structures. Heritability on days in milk ranged from 0.24 to 0.48 for M3 and from 0.17 to 0.31 for M4 and M5. Spearman correlations of EBVs of bulls and cows between M3, M4 and M5 were higher than 0.99 in all structures. Average reliability of EBVs of a group of bulls in common was around 0.82, 0.82, 0.80 and 0.63 in structures with at least 4, 6, 8 and 10 TD, respectively. Results indicate M3 and M4 as sufficient for genetic evaluations in all data sets of Holstein cattle. Random regression models will have similar reliability and ranks of EBVs in data sets with a minimum of 4, 6 or 8 TD.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • A comparative study on the efficacy of Garlicon and monensin
           supplementation on blood metabolites and performance of fattening lambs
    • Authors: Ehsan Anassori; Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh; Mohammad Valizadeh-Keshmeshtappeh; Shoja Jafari
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Ehsan Anassori, Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh, Mohammad Valizadeh-Keshmeshtappeh, Shoja Jafari
      In this study, the effects of Garlicon (GLC) (vegetable oil from garlic and onion family) were evaluated in comparison to monensin (MON) on blood metabolites and performance of fattening lambs. Thirty-five four to five-month-old lambs in five groups (seven lambs in each group) were confined in individual boxes. The experimental diets were offered as: basal diet without additives (Control); basal diet supplemented with 33mg MON/kg DM (positive control), and three other groups, including basal diet with 0.03 (GLC1), 0.06 (GLC2) and 0.09 (GLC3) ml of GLC/l of drinking water. Rumen pH increased and the rumen ammonia concentrations decreased significantly with both monensin and Garlicon supplementations. The MON and, to a lesser extent, GLC had similar effects on the molar ratio of volatile fatty acids. The observed changes in the concentrations of VFAs and ammonia in the rumen liquid could be considered as a favorable outcome of GLC supplementation. These findings were associated with significant reduction in blood NEFA and BHB concentrations. MON and GLC had no effects on feed intake (P>0.05). Values for average daily gain in lambs supplemented by MON and GLC indicated an improved energy intake efficiency. In conclusion, this study found that the most prominent effects of MON and GLC supplementations were increased ruminal propionate concentrations, propionate to acetate ratios, and decreased serum NEFA and BHB concentrations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Longitudinal genetic dissection of feed efficiency and feeding behaviour
           in MaxGro pigs
    • Authors: M. Shirali; P.F. Varley; J. Jensen
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): M. Shirali, P.F. Varley, J. Jensen
      The aim of this study was to examine the genetic characteristics of feed efficiency and feeding behaviour traits longitudinally along with their associations. Data were available on 3027 purebred MaxGro pigs from 52 (11, SD) to 110 (11, SD) Kg BW in 7 weeks on test. Longitudinal phenotypes of average daily feed intake (FI), occupation time in automatic feeder (OT), number of visit (NV) and feeding rate (FR) were obtained per each week on test. Feed intake and behaviour records were obtained by electronic feeder (IVOG) under ad libitum feeding condition and all traits were expressed as weekly averages. To obtain genetic association of feed efficiency and feeding behaviour traits, residual feed intake (RFI) was estimated as FI adjusted phenotypically for ADG of the entire test period and lean meat percentage (LMP) at end of the test. Data were analysed using random regression model containing animal genetic effect, permanent environmental effect of each pig and contemporary group using Legendre polynomials of weeks on test along with heterogeneous residual variances. Furthermore, the covariance function was used to estimate the genetic parameters of above traits at different weeks on test. Posterior mean of heritability estimates of FI and RFI showed quadratic changes during test period with lowest in week one (0.15 (standard deviation, 0.03) and 0.07 (0.02), respectively) to highest in week three (0.31 (0.03) and 0.24 (0.04), respectively). Posterior mean of heritability estimates of weekly OT (0.32 (0.04) to 0.37 (0.04)), NV (0.17 (0.03) to 0.22 (0.03)) and FR (0.26 (0.05) to 0.31 (0.04)) were consistent at different stages of growth. Posterior mean of genetic correlations among RFI estimates dropped by increase in weeks on test to −0.06 (0.16) between first and last weeks on test. However, positive large genetic correlations were observed among OT 0.79–0.99), NV 0.77–0.99) and FR 0.87–0.99). Furthermore, RFI showed varying genetic correlations with feeding behaviour traits of OT, NV and FR with early stages having (0.17, −0.23 and 0.38, respectively) and late stages showing (0.72, 0.25 and −0.07, respectively). Modelling the dynamics of feed efficiency may enhance the genetic improvement of feed efficiency due to considering the change in feed intake capacity of pigs. Inclusion of feeding behaviour traits to pig breeding programs may further improve the genetic progress of feed efficiency due to their larger heritability estimates than RFI and their existing correlations with feed efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Effects of gender and age on energy use by young Boer goats
    • Authors: I. Tovar-Luna; R. Puchala; T. Sahlu; A.L. Goetsch
      Pages: 86 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): I. Tovar-Luna, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, A.L. Goetsch
      Boer goats (7/8 and 1/8 Spanish breed) were used to characterize effects of gender and age on the ME requirement for maintenance (MEm). There were eight animals of each gender, doelings, intact males, and wethers castrated at 2mo of age. Kids were weaned at 3.7mo and thereafter consumed a 50% concentrate pelleted diet ad libitum while in group pens at most times. Measurement periods consisted of three segments of 12, 10, and 4 days with consumption ad libitum and near MEm and while fasting, respectively. Maintenance segment measures began at 4.9, 7.8, 11.7, and 14.8 mo of age in periods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Feed intake data, feces and urine collections, and a calorimetry system were used to determine ME intake and heat energy (HE). The MEm estimate was based on fasting HE and the slope (km) of the regression of recovered energy (RE) against ME intake with intake near MEm and while fasting, and kg was RE with ad libitum intake relative to ME intake above MEm. BW (kg) during the maintenance segment was 20.6, 30.8, 46.5, and 57.1 for doelings, 25.9, 40.1, 67.3, and 76.9 for males, and 23.1, 35.1, 53.9, and 65.0 for wethers in periods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (SE=1.85). km was similar among genders and periods (P>0.05%; 70.2%, 69.5%, and 69.7% for doelings, males, and wethers, respectively; SE=1.25). Fasting HE and MEm were affected by gender×period interactions (P<0.001). Fasting HE (kJ/kg BW0.75) was 277, 272, 281, and 281 for doelings, 288, 327, 334, and 398 for males, and 274, 303, 274, and 305 for wethers (SE=10.1); MEm (kJ/kg BW0.75) was 382, 390, 399, and 420 for doelings, 412, 469, 492, and 569 for males, and 384, 417, 426, and 439 for wethers in periods 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (SE=14.2). kg tended (P=0.067) to vary among genders (61.5%, 48.1%, and 52.7% for doelings, males, and wethers, respectively; SE=3.91). In conclusion, MEm was not greatly different between doelings and wethers and increased for both as the study progressed, whereas that for males was greater, with the difference increasing considerably as age rose.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Molecular diversity and phylogenetic analysis of domestic and wild
           
    • Authors: Li Yi; Yisi Ai; Liang Ming; Le Hai; Jing He; Fu-Cheng Guo; Xiang-Yu Qiao; Rimutu Ji
      Pages: 95 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 199
      Author(s): Li Yi, Yisi Ai, Liang Ming, Le Hai, Jing He, Fu-Cheng Guo, Xiang-Yu Qiao, Rimutu Ji
      In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of 126 samples representing 14 Bactrian camel populations from different localities using the mitochondrial ATP8 and ATP6 genes. A total of 842bp of the complete ATP8/6 sequences of all Bactrian camel samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The ATP8/6 sequences were analyzed by MEGA6.0 and DnaSP v5.10, and the function of nucleotide substitutions was predicted by PolyPhen2 and Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) programs. The haplotype network and phylogenetic tree were constructed by Network 5.0 and MEGA6.0, respectively. The analysis generated 16 haplotypes that were divided into the wild haplogroup (H1) and the domestic haplogroup (H2–H16). Haplotypes H2, H4–H6 were shared among 13 populations of domestic Bactrian camels, which indicated that there were little geographical structuring and genetic differences among different domestic Bactrian camel populations compared with those from different localities. The phylogenetic tree showed the same pattern as the haplotype network profile. Our results are in general agreement with those of previous reports that wild and domestic Bactrian camels evolved from two distinct ancestors. The present study provides useful genomic information about genetic diversity in domestic and wild Bactrian camels.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
       
  • Genome-Wide Association study for Milk Production in Egyptian Buffalo
    • Authors: Nermin El-Halawany; Hamdy Abdel-Shafy; Abd-El-Monsif A. Shawky; Magdy A. Abdel-Latif; Ahmed F.M. Al-Tohamy; Omaima M. Abd El-Moneim
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Nermin El-Halawany, Hamdy Abdel-Shafy, Abd-El-Monsif A. Shawky, Magdy A. Abdel-Latif, Ahmed F.M. Al-Tohamy, Omaima M. Abd El-Moneim
      With the aim of characterizing the genetic background of Egyptian buffalo and identifying genomic regions and potential causative mutations associated with milk yield, we performed a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) in Egyptian buffalo using Axiom Buffalo Genotyping Array 90K. This study was carried out with 250 buffalo cows using 89,069 daily milk records. After quality control, a total of 42,269 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained for further analysis. Genome-wide analysis was performed in the way of SNP-by-SNP, through regressing the observations of an average daily milk yield deviations on SNP alleles. Several genomic regions were detected with suggestive signals of association on chromosomes BTA1, BTA5, BTA6, and BTA27. The most significant SNP (Affx-79526274) was located on chromosome BTA27. The convincingly associated SNPs were located within or close to several candidate genes. A GO analysis ranked immune response at the top of all biological process associated with those genes. This is the first GWAS in Egyptian buffalo. Although a small sample size was used in this study, several suggestive genomic loci associated with daily milk production were detected. Further work is required on a larger sample size with fine mapping of identified QTL to detect potential candidate regions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and
           intestinal morphology of growing turkeys fed diet supplemented with
           arginine
    • Authors: A.O. Oso; G.A. Williams; O.O. Oluwatosin; A.M. Bamgbose; A.O. Adebayo; O. Olowofeso; V. Pirgozliev; A.A. Adegbenjo; S.O. Osho; J.O. Alabi; F. Li; H. Liu; K. Yao; W. Xin
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.O. Oso, G.A. Williams, O.O. Oluwatosin, A.M. Bamgbose, A.O. Adebayo, O. Olowofeso, V. Pirgozliev, A.A. Adegbenjo, S.O. Osho, J.O. Alabi, F. Li, H. Liu, K. Yao, W. Xin
      A 8-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Arg on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and intestinal morphology of growing turkeys. A total of one hundred and eighty 56-d-old male grower turkeys were weighed individually and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens and 10 turkeys per pen in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, and 1.0g Arg/kg. Growth response was measured during the grower (d 56 to 84) and finisher (d 84 to 112) phases, while nutrient digestibility, metabolizable energy, and intestinal morphology were measured at d 84 and 112. Arginine supplementation had no effect on growth response during the grower phase. During the finisher phase, feed conversion ratio decreased initially as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 0.5g/kg, but it increased with the 1.0g Arg/kg (quadratic, P = 0.028). At d 84, grower turkeys fed diets supplemented with 1.0g Arg/kg had greater (linear, P < 0.001) apparent dry matter, crude protein, and ether extract digestibility. At d 84, greatest apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy, and true metabolizable energy values were obtained with grower turkeys fed diet supplemented with 0.5g Arg/kg (quadratic, P < 0.001). At d 84, duodenum, and ileum villus height in grower turkeys increased linearly, and quadratically (P < 0.001) with increasing Arg supplementation. Dietary supplementation with Arg reduced the apical widths in duodenum (linear, P = 0.003; quadratic, P < 0.001), jejunum (linear and quadratic, P < 0.001), and ileum (linear, P = 0.010; quadratic, P = 0.004) of grower turkeys. At d 112, jejunum villus height (quadratic, P = 0.042), and ileum villus height (linear, P = 0.022; quadratic, P = 0.042) of finisher turkeys increased, while duodenum apical widths reduced (quadratic, P = 0.033) with increasing Arg supplementation. In conclusion, Arg supplementation showed a linear improvement in nutrient digestibility of grower turkeys at d 84, increased nutrient absorption in grower, and finisher turkeys as indicated by increased intestinal villus height at d 84, and 112. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with 0.5g Arg/kg promoted a quadratic improvement in feed conversion ratio of finisher turkeys, and metabolizable energy values of grower turkeys at d 84.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effect of the gestation and lactation on fiber diameter and its
           variability in Peruvian alpacas
    • Authors: Alan Cruz; Renzo Morante; Isabel Cervantes; Alonso Burgos; Juan Pablo Gutiérrez
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Alan Cruz, Renzo Morante, Isabel Cervantes, Alonso Burgos, Juan Pablo Gutiérrez
      A study was conducted to know the influence of the pregnancy and lactation states on the fiber performance in alpacas at Pacomarca experimental farm in the Peruvian highlands. Records obtained from the regular performance recording software of the farm were used, gathering 8648 records of 1541 females and 366 males of Huacaya ecotype, and 2410 records of 374 females and 132 males of Suri ecotype, registered from 2001 to 2015 and belonging to animals of three or more years. A mixed linear model for fiber diameter, standard deviation and coefficient of variation fitted the physiological state with five categories (milking, pregnant, milking and pregnant, open females and males) as an effect jointly with others such as year of recording, age from 3 to 9 or more years old and coat color. Huacaya and Suri ecotypes were independently analyzed. All the effects included in the model appeared as highly significant, being the paired differences less significant in Suri because of the lower number of records. Lactation physiological state appeared as an important effect affecting fiber performance, explaining a difference of 1.2 and 1.0µm of differences in respectively Huacaya and Suri pregnant females, while pregnancy appeared with a much less relevant influence. Other factors greatly influenced the fiber diameter. Thus, age had a very important effect increasing 3.71µm from 3 to 9 years of age in huacaya and 4.52µm en Suri. A difference of 3.09µm in huacaya and 5.93µm in Suri was found between dark and white coat colored alpacas. These results recommend modifying the genetic evaluation model by fitting the physiological state of females to increase the accuracy of the breeding values used to select animals in the breeding scheme of the farm.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary levels of chito-oligosaccharide on ileal digestibility
           of nutrients, small intestinal morphology and crypt cell proliferation in
           weaned pigs
    • Authors: Sureerat Suthongsa; Rath Pichyangkura; Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong; Boonrit Thongsong
      Pages: 37 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sureerat Suthongsa, Rath Pichyangkura, Sarinee Kalandakanond-Thongsong, Boonrit Thongsong
      There is continued need for novel agents to improve intestinal function in weaned pigs. Some evidence suggests that chito-oligosaccharide (COS) supplements may enhance pigs’ intestinal function after weaning. The present study was designed to examine the effect of COS supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and small intestinal functions in weaned pigs as an effective alternative to antibiotic addition in post-weaning diets. For the experiment, weanling pigs were divided into 5 groups (13–14 animals per group) and received either a basal diet, a supplemented diet with 75, 150 or 225mg/kg COS, or a supplemented diet with 110mg/kg lincomycin for 56 days. Growth, feed efficiency, hematological and biochemical profiles, nutrient's ileal digestibility, small intestinal morphology and crypt cell proliferation were measured at 28 and 56 days of the experiment. Pigs supplemented with 150mg/kg COS or lincomycin showed: (i) consistently more digestible ileal contents (e.g. crude protein, crude fat, ash, calcium, and phosphorus), (ii) increased absorption capacity (e.g. increased villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio for three intestinal segments) on day 28 of the experiment and (iii) more active cell division (as indicated by Ki-67 marker of duodenal and jejunal crypt cells) on day 56 of the experiment (P< 0.05, respectively). These data suggest that 150mg/kg COS might be a useful dietary supplement to promote nutrient absorption and digestibility efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Impacts of reduction of phosphorus in finishing diets for Holstein ×
           Zebu steers
    • Authors: D. Zanetti; S.C. Valadares Filho; L.F. Prados; E. Detmann; M.V.C. Pacheco; L.A. Godoi; L.N. Rennó; T.E. Engle
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): D. Zanetti, S.C. Valadares Filho, L.F. Prados, E. Detmann, M.V.C. Pacheco, L.A. Godoi, L.N. Rennó, T.E. Engle
      In Brazil, commonly males of dairy herd are destined to beef production. However, little is known about the mineral requirements for dairy males. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the calcium (Ca) requirements of Holstein × Zebu steers by determining Ca body tissue concentrations, true absorption and retention coefficients, as well as the requirements for maintenance and weight gain of steers fed diets containing or not containing dicalcium phosphate. Twenty-eight Holstein × Zebu steers with an average initial body weight of 377.5 ± 49.4kg were utilized. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 1) two concentrate levels (30 or 60%); and 2) two levels of dicalcium phosphate (DP), 0 or the amount necessary to attend the estimated dietary requirements. Absorption and retention coefficients, maintenance and gain requirements were estimated. The feedstuffs, refusals, feces, urine, blood and bone were sampled for Ca and phosphorus (P) analysis. Phosphorus intake was improved by the addition of concentrate and presence of DP. There were no variations in the daily fecal and urinary phosphorus excretion as a function of DP. The serum level of inorganic phosphorus was lower in non-supplemented animals, although it was within adequate concentrations for all treatments. Dry matter and organic matter intake, organic matter digestibility, performance, and efficiency were not affected by treatment. Absorption and retention coefficients, and the net requirements for maintenance are similar across treatments. Therefore, the lack of inorganic supplementary Ca and P in diets of feedlot finishing cattle does not change the concentrations of these minerals in bone. The dietary requirements of calcium and phosphorus obtained for cattle were lower than those described by the nutritional requirement systems from Brazil, USA, and UK.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Genetic contribution of cytoplasmic lineage effect on feed efficiency in
           Nellore cattle
    • Authors: L. Grigoletto; B.C. Perez; M.H.A. Santana; F. Baldi; J.B.S. Ferraz
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): L. Grigoletto, B.C. Perez, M.H.A. Santana, F. Baldi, J.B.S. Ferraz
      This study estimated the genetic contribution to genetic variance components and genetic parameters from cytoplasmic lineage effects through the transmission of cytoplasmic components, mainly, the mitochondrial genome evaluated from feed efficiency indicators. Records on 1569 Nellore males (castrated and young bulls) and females (heifers) were used for the following traits, dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). Genetic variances were estimated by the bayesian approach using Gibbs2f90 program in two univariate animal models. General model (Mgen) which included the direct additive genetic variance as the random effect and the cytoplasmic lineage model (Mlc) included besides the direct additive genetic variance also the cytoplasmic lineage as random effects. Direct heritability estimates by Mgen for DMI, ADG, FCR and RFI were 0.42±0.09, 0.37±0.09, 0.17±0.06 and 0.30±0.10, respectively, while, the direct heritability coefficients estimated by Mlc were 0.41±0.09, 0.35±0.09, 0.15±0.06 and 0.27±0.10. The percentage of cytoplasmic lineage as the proportion of total phenotypic variance ranged from 1.1% to 2.1% for the feed efficiency traits. However, this percentage increase to 14.5% for RFI, if the cytoplasmic effect was take into account as proportion of the additive genetic variance. These results indicate that genetic improvement in feed efficiency can be achieved through selection and the traits analyzed showed enough genetic variability, thus the inclusion of feed efficiency in animal breeding programs of Nellore cattle is feasible. The inclusion of cytoplasmic lineage effect to evaluate feed efficiency indicator traits has not produced substantial gains to the genetic evaluation, as it does not improve the prediction ability of the models by deviance information criteria for Bayesian models. However, on a long-term basis, the identification of the best cytoplasmic lineages in the population may help to assure continuous improvement for the traits of interest.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation with arginine on haematological indices,
           serum chemistry, carcass yield, gut microflora, and lymphoid organs of
           growing turkeys
    • Authors: A.O. Oso; G.A. Williams; O.O. Oluwatosin; A.M. Bamgbose; A.O. Adebayo; O. Olowofeso; V. Pirgozliev; A.A. Adegbenjo; S.O. Osho; J.O. Alabi; F. Li; H. Liu; K. Yao; W. Xin
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): A.O. Oso, G.A. Williams, O.O. Oluwatosin, A.M. Bamgbose, A.O. Adebayo, O. Olowofeso, V. Pirgozliev, A.A. Adegbenjo, S.O. Osho, J.O. Alabi, F. Li, H. Liu, K. Yao, W. Xin
      A 8-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Arg on haematological indices, serum chemistry, carcass yield, gut microflora, and lymphoid organ weights of growing turkeys. A total of one hundred and eighty 56-d-old male grower turkeys were weighed individually and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens, and 10 turkeys per pen in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, and 1.0g Arg/kg. Haematological indices and serum chemistry were measured at 84 and 112 d of study. Carcass yield, relative weights of retail cuts, organ weights, and gut microflora were measured at d 112. Except eosinophil, no effect of Arg supplementation was obtained on haematological indices at d 84. At d 112, finisher turkeys fed the diet supplemented with 0.5g Arg/kg had the greatest red blood cell (quadratic, P < 0.001), lymphocyte (linear, P = 0.011; quadratic, P < 0.001), and basophil counts (quadratic, P < 0.001). In grower turkeys at d 84, total serum protein (quadratic, P = 0.030), and serum globulin concentrations (quadratic, P = 0.043) increased initially as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 0.5g/kg, but decreased with the 1.0g Arg/kg. Uric acid concentration and alanine aminotransferase activity reduced as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 0.5g/kg, but increased with the 1.0g Arg/kg (quadratic, P = 0.002). In finisher turkeys at d 112, total serum protein (linear, P = 0.004; quadratic, P = 0.002), serum globulin (linear, P = 0.008; quadratic, P = 0.030), serum albumin (linear, P = 0.012; quadratic, P = 0.040), and triodosterine concentrations (linear, P = 0.025; quadratic, P = 0.033) increased with increasing Arg supplementation. At d 112, spleen weights increased linearly (P = 0.006), while thymus weights increased quadratically (P = 0.003) with increasing dietary Arg supplementation. Salmonella counts in the small intestinal content of turkeys at d 112 reduced quadratically as Arg supplementation increased from 0 to 1.0g/kg (P = 0.029). In conclusion, Arg supplementation increased packed cell volume of finisher turkeys, improved serum chemistry of grower, and finisher turkeys as indicated by increased total serum protein, and reduced serum enzymes with appreciable improvement obtained when included at 0.5g Arg/kg. Arginine supplementation enhanced the relative weights of thymus, spleen, and reduced Salmonella counts in small intestine of turkeys.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of an accelerated growth program for pre-weaned Shall lambs-
           short communication
    • Authors: Ehsan Mahjoubi; Mehdi Hossein Yazdi; Omid Afsarian; Kimberly A. Vonnahme
      Pages: 72 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Ehsan Mahjoubi, Mehdi Hossein Yazdi, Omid Afsarian, Kimberly A. Vonnahme
      In order to evaluate the effect of source and amount of milk delivered to lambs on their performance, thirty newborn Shall male lambs (4.76 ± 0.31kg) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: 1) conventional whole milk feeding program at 10% of body weight (CWM); 2) conventional milk replacer feeding at 10% of body weight and 17.1% milk solid (MRC); 3) accelerated milk replacer feeding program at 20% of body weight and 21% milk solid (MRA). Lambs were weaned at 56 d of age and the experiment finished 2 week after weaning. Milk and solid feed intakes were individually recorded on a daily basis. As the experiment advanced, the solid feed consumption (P < 0.01) and average daily gain (ADG; P < 0.01) increased, but MRC fed lambs had a decreased ADG compared to CWM or MRA groups in the pre-weaning (94g/day vs. 140 and 155g/day, respectively), but not in post-weaning, phase. The accelerated program led to decreased solid feed intake in the MRA group while the other lambs had similar starter intake, though total dry matter intake was greater in MRA compared with others. The CWM group had the best gain:feed ratio, resulting in similar final body weights as the MRA group and greater body weights compared with MRC lambs. Circulating β-hydroxy butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) in MRA lambs compared with lambs on the traditional program during pre-weaning, but not post-, weaning period. In conclusion, it appears that lambs can be artificially reared on very low fat MRA program with greatly improved ADG during the first month of life, but, without altering final performance.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Impact of incomplete pedigree data and independent culling level
           pre-selection on the genetic evaluation of livestock: a simulation study
           on lamb growth
    • Authors: Samir Id-Lahoucine; Joaquim Casellas
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Samir Id-Lahoucine, Joaquim Casellas
      Incomplete pedigree data due to multiple-sire mating systems is an issue for extensive sheep livestock production systems that leads to inefficiency in genetic selection programs. Although paternity testing technologies can deal with this challenge, their costs prevent the systematic testing of all offspring born, often being restricted to the replacement breeding stock (i.e., a non-random sample of individuals). This may result in important biases during genetic evaluations for traits expressed early in life, where animals can be pre-selected on the basis of their phenotypic performance, and poor performing individuals (most of them with poor genetic merit), are preferentially discarded. The potential bias due to the joint impact of this pre-selection and the specific cohort of lambs tested for missing paternity data was evaluated on simulated lamb growth data. Genetic evaluations where performed on different scenarios depending on the pre-selection criterion for the replacement breeding stock (>150, >200, >250 or >275g/d) and availability of pedigree data. The results suggested a relevant impact on the ability of genetic evaluation models to capture the additive genetic variance (simulated heritability, h2 = 0.2), and h2 moved from slight (h2 = 0.225 ± 0.004) to severe overestimations (h2 = 0.618 ± 0.002) when pre-selection criterion rose from 150g/d to 275g/d and with sire data restricted to the replacement breeding stock. This impact was attenuated when sire data was unknown for all individuals (h2 < 0.25), low levels of pre-selection, or when recovering sire data for 10 to 20% of discarded lambs (additional increases marginally attenuated the bias and improvements were almost absent from ~50% of the lambs). The complete loss of sire data impaired genetic evaluations and revealed moderate-to-low accuracies (r a ) for predicted breeding values. Scenarios with both moderate and high pre-selection criteria on lamb growth reported remarkable reductions on r a when sire data was only available for replacement individuals. When sire data was also available for a percentage of discarded lambs, r a increased, although the marginal benefit was almost negligible when paternity testing was applied to at least half of the discarded lambs. The expected genetic gain exhibited a similar behavior. As a whole, if sire data is only available for replacement individuals, pre-selection criterion must be minimal to avoid relevant biases during genetic evaluation. If not, the statistical performance of genetic evaluation procedures without sire data was similar or even better than the one obtained with sire data restricted to the replacement breeding stock.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Excretion of faecal, urinary urea and urinary non-urea nitrogen by four
           ruminant species as influenced by dietary nitrogen intake: A meta-analysis
           
    • Authors: J. Schuba; K.-H. Südekum; E. Pfeffer; A. Jayanegara
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J. Schuba, K.-H. Südekum, E. Pfeffer, A. Jayanegara
      The quantification of faecal nitrogen (FN) and of urinary urea-N (UUN) and urinary non-urea-N (UNUN) excretion at varying N contents in ruminant rations is an important tool in assessing endogenous N turnover via the rumino-hepatic cycle. Using a statistical analysis based on an extensive database, the aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate correlations derived previously by deduction. The data were categorised into dairy cattle, growing cattle (bulls and heifers), sheep and goats. Data from 50 publications were considered. The independent variable was the daily N intake (NI, g/day). The dependent variables were the daily quantities (g/day) of FN, urinary N, UUN, UNUN and N retention. The NI influenced FN to differing extents in goats, dairy cattle, growing cattle and sheep (listed in descending order of influence). Except in sheep, the effect was statistically significant. The influence on UN varied in the order goats, growing cattle, dairy cattle and sheep; the effect was statistically significant only for dairy cattle and growing cattle (P<0.001). The UUN was influenced in the order sheep, goats, dairy cattle and growing cattle (P<0.05). The UNUN could be assessed only in dairy cattle, growing cattle and sheep and was not influenced by NI. The UUN is therefore more strongly dependent on NI than is UNUN and can therefore continue to be seen as obligatory. The FN is indeed influenced by NI but, as a result of higher digestibility of the total ration with increasing crude protein content, an improvement in microbial crude protein synthesis can also be assumed, which is reflected in higher FN levels.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:07:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Analysis of selected rumen microbial populations in dairy heifers limit
           fed diets varying in trace mineral form and starch content
    • Authors: Kristina Kljak; Felipe Pino; Kevin J. Harvatine; Arlyn J. Heinrichs
      Pages: 93 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Kristina Kljak, Felipe Pino, Kevin J. Harvatine, Arlyn J. Heinrichs
      Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers were used to explore the effect of trace mineral form and diet starch content on selected ruminal microbial populations under limit feeding conditions. Heifers were subjected to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design with 19-day periods. Trace mineral form [organic proteinates (OTM) or inorganic sulfates (ITM)] was the whole-plot factor, and starch content (3.5, 12.9, 22.3, and 31.7% DM) was the sub-plot factor. Rumen samples were collected 3h after feeding on day 18 of each period, and DNA was extracted. Relative abundances of 6 well-studied bacterial taxa, total anaerobic fungi, ciliate protozoa, methanogenic Archaea and bacteria were determined using validated primer sets by real-time quantitative PCR. Targeted populations had relative abundances comparable to those previously reported. Of the microbial populations measured, trace mineral form influenced only Prevotella bryantii, which was increased by OTM. Increasing dietary starch concentration linearly decreased methanogenic Archaea, total bacteria, Prevotella spp., and Prevotella bryantii, and tended to linearly decrease fungi and protozoa. In conclusion, contrary to the starch content, trace mineral form had limited impact on the abundance of selected microbial populations in limit fed heifers 3h after feeding. The unexpected effect of starch content on bacterial populations and protozoa could be the result of different eating patterns of heifers fed diets varying in starch content.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T23:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Feeding behaviors, metabolism, and performance of primiparous and
           multiparous dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets
    • Authors: S.M. Nasrollahi; G.R. Ghorbani; A. Zali; A. Kahyani
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): S.M. Nasrollahi, G.R. Ghorbani, A. Zali, A. Kahyani
      Currently, there is a trend in management practices to feed a high concentrate diet to sustain a high level of milk production. The objective of this study was to identify the differences between primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet on feed intake and behavior, rumen pH and rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, inflammation, and milk production and efficiency. Twenty-four PP (DIM = 114 ± 20; 43.2 ± 10.6kg/d of milk; mean ± SD) and fifty-four MP (DIM = 99 ± 30; 53.2 ± 13.6kg/d of milk) cows were fed a high-concentrate diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix. The study lasted for 24 d, which consisted of 14 d of environmental adaptation followed by 10 d of data collection. Rumen pH was measured via rumenocentesis for all cows and reticuloruminal pH was measured for a subset of animals (4 PP and 10 MP) using indwelling oral-administered sensors. The PP cows had greater sorting against long particles during the daytime, but greater sorting in favor of long particles at night. The dry matter intake (DMI) between 0 and 4h after the morning feeding was not affected by parity, whereas PP cows had greater DMI from 4 to 6h post-feeding and MP cows had greater DMI from 6 to 24h post-feeding. Total 24-h intake was greater (25.1 vs. 22.4kg/d) in MP than in PP. Rumen pH and fermentation profile were not affected by parity. Duration of rumen pH <5.8 measured 750 and 570 ± 231min/d for PP and MP cows, respectively, which indicates that cows experienced rumen acidosis with respective coefficients of variation measuring approximately 8.2 and 10.8%, respectively. Primiparous cows produced less milk (−6.3kg/d), 3.5% fat corrected milk (−4.2kg/d), milk protein (−0.160kg/d), and lactose (−0.230kg/d). The PP cows, despite lower production, had greater concentrations in plasma of cholesterol, ß-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA), and blood urea nitrogen and a trend for greater triglyceride than MP cows. Primiparous cows also had lower feed efficiency compared with MP (1.88 vs. 2.03). We conclude from these results that under conditions of the present study, PP dairy cows responded with lower feed efficiency and greater concentration of cholesterol, BHBA, and urea nitrogen in the blood.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T12:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Stakeholder involvement and the management of animal genetic resources
           across the world
    • Authors: G. Leroy; R. Baumung; D. Notter; E. Verrier; M. Wurzinger; B. Scherf
      Pages: 120 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): G. Leroy, R. Baumung, D. Notter, E. Verrier, M. Wurzinger, B. Scherf
      The sustainability of activities related to animal genetic resources (AnGR) management depends largely on the participation of a range of stakeholders, both public and private. In this study, we investigated factors explaining differences in stakeholder involvement in AnGR management across countries, based on an historical perspective and an analysis of the 128 official country reports provided during preparation of The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Results of principal component analyses indicated that countries differed in the involvement of stakeholders in AnGR management, generally with greater involvement of livestock breeders and their organizations in developed countries. Developing countries tended to be divided into two groups, those with little involvement by stakeholders and those with high involvement by government/research organizations. Depending on the country, the involvement of government/research organizations versus breeders/livestock keepers organizations and commercial companies also differed, which could be linked to some extent to their historical background. The level of involvement of breeders ‘associations or cooperatives was positively correlated (r=0.68) to the general extent of AnGR activities within the country. Our results underline the importance of involving breeders and livestock keepers in the development of management activities, while public support is required as well, especially in the early stages of capacity development. In developing countries, development policies relative to AnGR management should therefore seek to promote coordination among livestock keepers through creation and empowerment of cooperatives, associations or community-based approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Usefulness of multi-breed models in genetic evaluation of direct and
           maternal calving ease in Holstein and Belgian Blue Walloon purebreds and
           crossbreds
    • Authors: S. Vanderick; A. Gillon; G. Glorieux; P. Mayeres; R.R. Mota; N. Gengler
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): S. Vanderick, A. Gillon, G. Glorieux, P. Mayeres, R.R. Mota, N. Gengler
      The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of a joint genetic evaluation system for calving ease trait of Belgian Blue (BBB) and Holstein (HOL) Walloon cattle based on data of purebred and crossbred animals. Variance components and derived genetic parameters for purebred BBB and HOL animals were estimated by using single-breed linear animal models. This analysis showed clear genetic differences between breeds. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities (±standard error) were 0.34 (±0.02) and 0.09 (±0.01) for BBB, respectively, but only 0.09 (±0.01) and 0.04 (±0.01) for HOL, respectively. Moreover, a significant negative genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects was obtained in both breeds: −0.46 (±0.04) for BBB and −0.29 (±0.11) for HOL. Variance components and derived genetic parameters for purebred BBB and HOL and crossbred BBB × HOL cattle were then estimated by using two multi-breed linear animal models: a multi-breed model based on a random regression test-day model (Model MBV), and a multi-breed model based on the random regression multi-breed model (Model MBSM). Both multi-breed models use different functions of breed proportions as random regressions, thereby enabling modelling different additive effects according to animal's breed composition. The main difference between these models is the way in which relationships between breeds are accounted for in the genetic (co)variance structure. Genetic parameters differed between single-breed and multi-breed analysis, but are similar to the literature. For BBB, estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities (±SE) were 0.45 (±0.07) and 0.08 (±0.01) by using Model MBV, and 0.45 (±0.08) and 0.09 (±0.02) for Model MBSM, respectively. For HOL, these estimates were 0.18 (±0.04) and 0.05 (±0.01) using Model MBV, and 0.16 (±0.04) and 0.05 (±0.01) for Model MBSM, respectively. Reliability gains (up to 25%) indicated that the use of crossbred data in the multi-breed models had a positive influence on the estimation of genetic merit of purebred animals. A slight re-ranking of purebred sires and maternal grandsires was observed between single-breed and multi-breed models. Moreover, both multi-breed models can be considered as quasi-equivalent models because they performed almost equally well with respect to MSE and correlations, for purebred and crossbred animals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Comparisons of extracellular matrix-related gene expression levels in
           different adipose tissues from Korean cattle
    • Authors: Jin Young Jeong; Muhammed Ibrahim; Min Ji Kim; Kyungmin So; Yong Dae Jeong; Sungkwon Park; Minseok Kim; Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): Jin Young Jeong, Muhammed Ibrahim, Min Ji Kim, Kyungmin So, Yong Dae Jeong, Sungkwon Park, Minseok Kim, Hyun-Jeong Lee
      Adipose tissues are related to the meat quality and economic value of cattle. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important factor that influences adipose tissue remodeling. The objective of this study was to measure the expression levels of ECM-related genes in different adipose tissues from bulls, cows, and steers of Korean cattle (Hanwoo). The sample tissues were separated from omental (OM), subcutaneous (SC), and intramuscular (IM) adipose tissues. The expression levels of 24 ECM-related genes and proteins were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. We also observed that castration resulted in increased (P<0.05) expression of 17 genes, whereas it caused decreased (P<0.05) expression of COL1A2, MMP1, MMP3, MMP7, and VCAM1 in the OM adipose tissue of cows and steers compared to bulls. The mRNA levels of 24 ECM-related genes were similar between IM and SC adipose tissues. Furthermore, except for ITGB1 (IM), ICAM1 (IM), and COL1A1 (OM), the expression levels were generally similar between cows and steers compared to bulls. The FN1, MMP7, and LOX mRNA levels exhibited significantly strong (P<0.001) positive correlations (r=0.74, r=0.73, and r=0.74, respectively) with the marbling score. The protein levels can reflect the mRNA levels. Therefore, our findings suggest that castration affects the expression levels of ECM-related genes, which is in accordance with different fat depots.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T13:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Early dietary amino acid restrictions and flaxseed oil supplementation on
           the leanness of pigs and quality of pork: Growth performance, serum
           metabolites, carcass characteristics, and physical and sensory
           characteristics of pork
    • Authors: C.K. Adhikari; L.I. Chiba; S.D. Brotzge; M.S. Vieira; C. Huang; W.G. Bergen; C.L. Bratcher; S.P. Rodning; E.G. Welles
      Pages: 182 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science, Volume 198
      Author(s): C.K. Adhikari, L.I. Chiba, S.D. Brotzge, M.S. Vieira, C. Huang, W.G. Bergen, C.L. Bratcher, S.P. Rodning, E.G. Welles
      A total of 64 pigs (Yorkshire) were used to investigate the effect of early dietary amino acid (AA) restrictions [100 or 80% of the 2012 NRC standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys requirements during the grower and finisher-1 phases] and flaxseed oil supplementation [0 or 3% (+2% poultry fat)] in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments on grower-finisher pigs. At 24.7±0.5kg body weight (BW), pigs were randomly assigned to 4 grower diets with 4 gilt and 4 castrated male pens/treatment and 2 gilts or 2 castrated males/pen, and switched to fnisher-1 diets when they reached 51.2±0.3kg. Pigs were offered common finisher-2 diets after 80.0±0.4kg, and those received 0 or 5% lipids during the grower and finisher-1 phases were continued to receive 0 or 5% lipids. Ultrasound backfat measurements and blood samples were collected at the end of the grower, finisher-1, and finisher-2 phases, and pigs were harvested at 110.5±0.5kg to assess carcass traits and physical and sensory characteristics of pork. During the grower phase, although pigs consumed less feed, SID Lys, and digestible energy (DE; P <0.015), their average daily BW gain was not really depressed by the dietary AA restrictions. During the finisher-1 phase, however, pigs fed the AA restricted diets had greater BW gain (P =0.042) and utilized SID Lys more efficiently (P <0.001) for BW gain than those fed the unrestricted diets. Pigs fed the diets supplemented with lipids had lower feed intake (P =0.007) but greater BW gain (P =0.03) during the grower phase, and their BW gain:feed (P <0.045) was improved during the all phases of production. Overall BW gain was not affected by the early dietary AA restrictions, but overall efficiency of feed, SID Lys, or DE utilization for BW gain (P <0.005) was improved by the AA restrictions. Similarly, the early dietary AA restrictions had no effect on fat-free lean (FFL) gain but increased FFL gain:SID Lys (P<0.001) and tended to increase FFL gain:DE (P =0.095). Serum urea-N (P <0.026) at the end of the grower and finisher-1 phases was reduced, and serum glucose (P =0.027) at the end of the grower phase was increased by the dietary AA restrictions. The dietary lipids tended to increase and increased serum triglycerides at the end of the grower (P =0.075) and finisher-1 and 2 (P <0.018) phases, respectively, and reduced urea-N (P =0.037) at the end of the finisher-2 phase. At the end of the finisher-1 phase, the dietary lipids increased serum cholesterol in pigs fed the unrestricted diet but had no effect on those fed the AA restricted diet (AA restrictions x lipid supplementation, P =0.029). The dietary AA restrictions tended to reduce the initial tenderness (P <0.057) and reduced flavor intensity (P =0.048) of pork slightly. Belly firmness (P <0.001) was reduced and off-flavor (P =0.007) was increased slightly by the dietary lipids. There was no effect of dietary treatments on ultrasound backfat. In conclusion, the dietary lipids improved BW gain:feed but reduced belly firmness and increased off-flavor slightly. The dietary AA restrictions had no effect on overall BW gain or FFL gain but improved overall efficiency of AA and DE utilization for BW gain and FFL gain.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T10:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
       
  • Bayesian estimation of genetic parameters for individual feed conversion
           and body weight gain in meat quail
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Giovani da Costa Caetano, Rodrigo Reis Mota, Delvan Alves da Silva, Hinayah Rojas de Oliveira, José Marcelo Soriano Viana, Otávio Henrique G.B.D. de Siqueira, Pedro Henrique F. Freitas, Fabyano Fonseca e Silva
      We estimated genetic correlations between partial and total body weight gain (BWG) and individual feed conversion (FC) aiming to identify possible partial traits as selection criteria in meat quail breeding programs. Data included 379 records from two different genetic lines (188 quails from UFV1 and 191 from UFV2). The following traits were evaluated: individual feed conversion from 21 to 28 (FC21-28) and from 28 to 35 days of age (FC28-35); body weight gain from 1 to 21 (BWG1-21), 21 to 28 (BWG21-28), 28 to 35 (BWG28-35) and from 1 to 35 (BWG1-35, full period) days of age. Genetic parameters (heritabilities and genetic correlations) were estimated through multi-trait models via Bayesian inference. For UFV1 line, genetic correlations estimates (with respective credible intervals) between BWG1-21 and BWG1-35, BWG21-28 and BWG1-35, BWG28-35 and BWG1-35, FC21-28 and FC28-35, FC21-28 and BWG1-35, and FC28-35 and BWG1-35 were 0.62 (0.15 to 0.90), 0.81 (0.60 to 0.94), 0.69 (0.35 to 0.88), 0.06 (−050 to 0.60), −0.87 (−0.97 to −0.63) and −0.51 (−0.84 to −0.01), respectively; and for UFV2 line, these estimates were 0.33 (−0.05 to 0.63), 0.79 (0.59 to 0.92), 0.88 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.35 (−0.30 to 0.78), −0.56 (−0.85 to −0.09) and −0.76 (−0.93 to −0.41), respectively. Additionally, for the UFV1 line heritability estimates for BWG21-28 and FC21-28 were 0.69 (0.40 to 0.86) and 0.55 (0.31 to 0.74), respectively; while for UFV2 line the heritabilities for BWG28-35 and FC28-35 were 0.68 (0.47 to 0.83) and 0.37 (0.17 to 0.63). Based on these results, we recommend as target traits BWG21-28 and FC21-28 for UFV1 line; and BWG28-35 for UFV2 line. Selecting for these indicated traits, we expect to reduce breeding program costs related mainly to feeding of non-selected animals and labor with phenotyping.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T14:25:28Z
       
  • The efficacy of supplying supplemental cobalt, selenium and vitamin B12
           via the oral drench route in sheep
    • Authors: Joshua Robert; Williams Nia Elizabeth Williams Nigel Roy Kendall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Joshua Robert Williams, Nia Elizabeth Williams, Nigel Roy Kendall
      Cobalt and selenium are essential trace elements required for ruminants. There are many different methods of supplementation available to sheep including boluses, in feed, free access minerals, pasture dressing and oral drenches. Recent changes in European legislation have resulted in a reduction in the maximum permitted level (MPL) of cobalt to be included in ruminant diets from 2mg/kg DM to 1mg/kg DM with a suggested supplementary rate of 0.3mg Co/kg DM. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of cobalt plus/minus vitamin B12 and selenium supplementation from oral drenching over a 13day time period. Seven groups of grass silage fed Suffolk cross mule lambs (n=56) were randomly allocated to one of 7 treatments, a 5ml oral drench containing 700, 2300, 12000mg Co/l, with or without 2300mg vitamin B12/l in a factoral design, with an additional control group which received no drench. All drenches also contained selenium at 625mg/l. Lambs were weighed on days 0 and 13. The lambs were sampled by jugular venepuncture on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13, with samples analysed for plasma selenium and cobalt by ICP-MS, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase by colourimetric assay and vitamin B12 by immunoassay. The results showed that cobalt via a drench was able to raise plasma cobalt in a dose dependent manner, with each dose level significantly higher than the previous level at all post drenching time points (P<0.05). However, the cobalt containing drenches did not significantly raise vitamin B12 concentrations in the plasma. Vitamin B12 containing drenches were able to elevate vitamin B12 in the plasma for a period of 7 days (P<0.05). The selenium content of the drench was able to significantly raise the plasma selenium from day 1 throughout the rest of the trial (day 13) (P<0.001). A significant increase in erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity of the sheep did eventually occur at day 13 (P<0.05). In summary, the addition of vitamin B12 via the drench route resulted in a short term elevation (7 days) of plasma vitamin B12 concentrations whereas cobalt sulphate alone was unable to significantly raise vitamin B12 concentrations within this trial with marginally adequate cobalt status, despite elevating plasma cobalt concentrations. The drench route was also able to elevate plasma selenium concentrations from a marginal selenium status.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:23:15Z
       
  • Effect of gelatin supplementation on growth performance and blood
           metabolites of broiler chickens fed diets varying in crude protein
    • Authors: Asadi Kermani; M.H. Shahir Baradaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Z. Asadi Kermani, M.H. Shahir, N. Baradaran
      An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of gelatin inclusion on growth performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed diets varying in crude protein (CP) concentration in a 42-d study. Four concentrations of gelatin (0, 30, 60, and 90g/kg) and 2 concentrations of CP in the starter (220 and 200g/kg) and grower (195 and 182g/kg) periods were evaluated in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each diet was fed to 5 replicate pens of 15 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) from d 0 to 42. Digestibility coefficients of amino acid (AA) of gelatin were in the range of 0.90 to 0.95. Gly, Pro, Ala, and Glu were the major AA in gelatin. There were interactions between dietary CP content and gelatin concentration for feed intake (FI; P = 0.016), body weight gain (BWG; P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.001) during the starter (d 0 to 21), grower (d 21 to 42), and the overall experiment period (d 0 to 42). In the low CP diets, gelatin inclusion had a greater negative effect on BWG and FCR compared with those fed the normal CP diets over the course of the experiment (gelatin × CP, P < 0.001). The contrasts showed that the increase in dietary gelatin content decreased BWG and FI, whereas FCR increased with higher dietary gelatin content from d 0 to 42. The CP × gelatin interactions showed that gelatin addition to the low CP diets increased plasma concentrations of glucose (gelatin × CP, P < 0.01) and uric acid (gelatin × CP, P < 0.001), and decreased N retention (gelatin × CP, P < 0.001) to a greater extent than was the case for the normal CP diets at d 42. The CP × gelatin interactions indicated that gelatin inclusion in the low CP diets decreased carcass yield (gelatin × CP, P < 0.01) and abdominal fat (gelatin × CP, P < 0.001), and increased heart weight (gelatin × CP, P < 0.01) to a greater extent than was the case for the normal CP diets. The present findings showed that gelatin inclusion had a greater negative effect on growth performance and carcass yield in broiler chickens that received the low CP diets compared with those fed the normal CP diet over the course of the study. Also, increasing dietary gelatin content depressed growth rate and N retention.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:23:15Z
       
  • Productive performance and meat quality traits in growing rabbit following
           the dietary supplementation of Lippia citriodora, Raphanus sativus and
           Solanum lycopersicum extracts
    • Authors: F. Vizzarri; M. Palazzo; A.G. D’Alessandro; D. Casamassima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): F. Vizzarri, M. Palazzo, A.G. D’Alessandro, D. Casamassima
      Consumers particularly appreciate rabbit meat for its low lipid content, rich of polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the high biological value and content of protein, and for its low cholesterol content. The high degree of unsaturation of fatty acids makes meat particularly susceptible to oxidative processes during storage; so in the effort to increase its oxidative stability and improve quality traits, a study was carried out to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Lippia citriodora, Raphanus sativus and Solanum lycopersicum plant extract in intensively-reared growing rabbits. The experiment was performed on 160 weaned rabbits for 80 days, from which one group was control (CON) receiving a fattening-feed without any supplements. The other three experimental groups received an integration of Lippia citriodora extract (VB group, containing 5mg of verbascoside per kg of feed), of Solanum lycopersicum extract (LIC group, containing 5mg of lycopene per kg of feed), and of Raphanus sativus extract (RAF group, containing 350mg per kg of feed) respectively. The plant extracts have determined in the muscle Longissimum lumborum of rabbit meat a significant reduction in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids and thiobarbituric reactive substances, as well as a marked increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and in alpha-tocopherol and retinol content. The use of plant extracts have not produced a meat chemical composition change a productive performance and dressing percentage increase; however feed additives favoured improving the nutritional and nutraceuticals quality of meat, with beneficial effects on the health of the consumer. In addition, the use of plant extracts has permitted obtaining meat with greater oxidative stability with evident positive implications on its shelf-life.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.04.007
       
  • Computed tomographic precision rate-of-passage assay without a fasting
           period in broilers: more precise foundation for targeting the releasing
           time of encapsulated products
    • Authors: J.D. Liu; S.A. Secrest; J. Fowler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): J.D. Liu, S.A. Secrest, J. Fowler
      The objective of this study was to develop a precision-fed rate-of-passage assay using iodinated contrast as an indigestible marker in broiler chickens. In this experiment, twenty-two Cobb-Cobb male broilers were obtained on the day of hatch and fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until day 21. All birds were then orally gavaged 3g of feed mixed with 2ml of iodinated contrast. Two birds were selected for collection of the gastrointestinal tract (gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon) at 0:15, 0:30, 0:45, 1:00, 1:30, 2:00, 2:30, 3:00, 4:00, 5:00, 6:00h post-gavage. A computed tomographic exam of the intestinal tract was conducted to determine the location and percentage of each intestinal segment which contained the admixed contrast and feed. Results indicated that feed entered the gizzard extremely fast after the gavage (less than 0:15h). The marked feed left the gizzard between the 0:15 and 0:30h time points and was shown in both the duodenum and jejunum after 0:30h. We found 67.3% of the duodenum and 48.4% of the jejunum containing the iodinated contrast at 0:30h time point. After 1:30 to 2:00h, feed reached the ileum. We found 63.5% of the colon length was occupied with iodinated contrast after 2:30h, and the contrast was found in ceca 4:00h after the gavage. The enteric cavity was virtually cleared of the iodinated contrast between the 4:00 to 6:00h time points, except for a few spots still in the gizzard and ceca. These results indicate that the rate-of-passage can be easily determined in young broilers by using iodinated contrast as a marker without fasting the birds. The digestive time for feed passing through the anterior digestive tract in broiler chickens is less than 2:30h, with feed arriving at the ceca at 3:00 to 4:00h. Most of the feed is digested 4:00 to 5:00h after consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.04.006
       
  • Dietary preference of European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) grazing grass and
           legume at two contrasting plant heights: a pilot study
    • Authors: M. Jordana Rivero; María A. Gallardo; Pierre-Guy Marnet; Alejandro Velásquez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): M. Jordana Rivero, María A. Gallardo, Pierre-Guy Marnet, Alejandro Velásquez
      There were two objectives: checking a methodology to test diet preferences in a natural environment and secondly to assess diet preferences of European wild boar in terms of species and plant characteristics when offered in a situation with minimal physical constraints. Five hundred pots (100 mm upper diameter, 450 cc volume) were completely filled with soil. Half of the pots were sown with red clover (Trifolium pretense) and half with hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridum Hausskn). All pots were irrigated, periodically cut, and maintained outdoors. Then 220 leaves of ryegrass, 201 leaflets of clover and 188 petioles of clover were used to establish a relationship between plant structure dimensions and their dry matter weight. The preference study was conducted in a fenced area (18m length and 11,1m width) with a pasture cut to a height of 3cm (lowest height possible to cover the soil). Four transects were marked separated 2m from each other, and 16 holes within each transect were made 1m apart, in which the pots were buried and anchored. Treatments consisted of the factorial combination of two plant species (red clover and hybrid ryegrass) and two plant heights (12 and 18cm, tall and short, respectively), randomized within each transect (block). During three days, four nose-ringed wild boars grazed the experimental area for one hour and the treatments which they were grazing were recorded every two minutes. Plants structures were measured pre-and post-grazing from marked plants (green thread tied at the base) in each pot to detect consumption and to estimate the amount consumed. Strong correlations were found between plant structures and their dry weight (R2 between 0,83 and 0,89). The methodology was able to show that more dry matter was apparently consumed from clover than ryegrass (P <0.001) and clover had a greater probability of being grazed than ryegrass (P <0.05). Also, the tall plants were consumed more than the short plants (P < 0.001) with individual tall plants having a higher probability of being grazed (P<0.05). It is concluded that the novel method proposed was able to detect the diet preference of wild boar during grazing. Additionally, in this study European wild boar discriminated between plant species and between plant heights, preferring legume over ryegrass and taller over shorter plants. However, more studies with a greater number of animals are necessary to validate these results.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T06:23:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.04.005
       
  • Fattening and slaughtering performance of growing pigs consuming high
           levels of alfalfa silage (Medicago sativa) in organic pig production
    • Authors: Jessica Wüstholz; Salomé Carrasco; Ulrich Berger; Albert Sundrum; Gerhard Bellof
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jessica Wüstholz, Salomé Carrasco, Ulrich Berger, Albert Sundrum, Gerhard Bellof
      A key objective of organic pig production is the use of feedstuffs originating entirely from organic and also, if possible, from in house or local production, respectively. However, the supply of protein for the organic pig production so far has not been achieved. Additionally, the European guidelines for organic livestock include a daily offer of roughage for pigs. Young harvested and possibly additionally macerated alfalfa (Medicago sativa), conserved as silage, can be used as a protein source as well as roughage. The potential of alfalfa silage as feedstuff was examined in a feeding trial: 3 feeding groups x 2 gender x 6 repetitions (2 animals/repetition) with 36 fattening pigs crossbred: (Duroc x Pietrain) x (German Landrace x Large White), initial body weight: 29kg. The control group (A) was fed with a complete feed mixture and the silage groups (B and C) were fed with a supplementary feed mixture (adjusted to the alfalfa silage). Group B and C received alfalfa silage as chopped (B) and as extruded (C) ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 100–105kg live weight. Feed intake, fattening performance and carcass characteristics were determined. The proportion of alfalfa silage in the total daily DM ration of the experimental groups was ~ 20% in the starter phase, ~ 40% in the grower phase and up to 50% in the finishing phase. In this way, approximately 100kg of concentrated feed per pig and fattening period could be saved in comparison to the control group. Fattening performance and carcass characteristics of the silage groups (groups B and C) did not significantly differ from those of the pigs in control group (A), which was served concentrated feed only. However, the daily gain of all feeding groups (an average of 600g) was at a relatively low level. Young harvested alfalfa can be an appropriate regional protein source and additionally a possible roughage for organically fattening pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.04.004
       
  • The effect of administration of silver nanoparticles to broiler chickens
           on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, calcium, and potassium
    • Authors: Ognik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): K. Ognik, A. Stępniowska, K. Kozłowski
      We postulate that Ag accumulated in the intestines may block ion channels or bind with transport proteins responsible for absorption of mineral elements. The objective of the study was to determine whether and to what degree administration of Ag nanoparticles to broiler chickens affects accumulation of Ag in the intestines. An additional objective of the study was to test whether nanosilver affects absorption of Fe, Ca, and K. The experiment was conducted with 126 broiler chickens assigned to 7 treatments with 3 pens per treatment and 6 broiler chickens per pen. The control treatment did not receive Ag nanoparticles. Broiler chickens received Ag nanoparticles (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mg/kg body weight/d) via a tube into the crop in three 3-d periods (d 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38) or three 7-d periods (d 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 to 42). After the rearing period (d 42), 6 broiler chickens from each experimental treatment (2 broiler chicken from each pen) with body weight similar to the treatment average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. The study showed that nanosilver supplied via ingestion leads to dose-dependent accumulation of Ag in the intestinal walls. Silver present in the intestines did not interfere with absorption of Ca, but reduced absorption of K and Fe. This was a pilot study and therefore, the research must be continued to definitively verify the results.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
       
  • Bayesian analysis of pig growth curves combining pedigree and genomic
           information
    • Authors: Sirlene Fernandes Lázaro; Noelia Ibáñez-Escriche; Luis Varona; Fabyano Fonseca e Silva; Lais Costa Brito; Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães; Paulo Sávio Lopes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Sirlene Fernandes Lázaro, Noelia Ibáñez-Escriche, Luis Varona, Fabyano Fonseca e Silva, Lais Costa Brito, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Paulo Sávio Lopes
      We proposed a genome association study for pig growth curves based on Bayesian hierarchical framework considering different sets of SNP markers and pedigree. Additionally, we aimed also to identify possible chromosome regions affecting the growth curve parameters using empirical weight-age data from an outbred F2 (Brazilian Piau vs commercial) pig population. Under the proposed hierarchical approach, individual growth trajectories were modeled by the nonlinear Gompertz function, so that the parameter estimates were considered to be affected by additive polygenic, systematic and SNP markers effects. The model assuming jointly pedigree and SNP markers presented the best fit based on Deviance Information Criterion. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.53 to 0.56 and from 0.55 to 0.57, respectively for the parameters mature weight (a) and maturing rate (k). Additionally, we found high and positive genetic correlation (0.78) between “a” and "k". The percentages of the genetic variances explained by each SNP allowed identifying the most relevant chromosome regions for each phenotype (growth curve parameters). The majority of these regions were closed to QTL regions previously reported for growth traits. However, we identified three relevant SNPs (55840514bp at SSC17, 55814469 at SSC17 and 76475804 at SSC X) affecting "a" and "k" simultaneously, and three SNPs affecting only "a" (292758bp at SSC1, 67319bp at SSC8 and 50290193bp at SSC17), that are located in regions not previously described as QTL for growth traits in pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T10:33:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.024
       
  • Lactation performance and diet digestibility of dairy cows in response to
           the supplementation of Bacillus subtilis spores
    • Authors: V.L. Souzaa; N.M. Lopesb; O.F. Zacaronib; V.A. Silveirab; R.A.N. Pereirac; J.A. Freitasd; R. Almeidaa; G.G.S. Salvatib; M.N. Pereirab
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): V.L. Souzaa, N.M. Lopesb, O.F. Zacaronib, V.A. Silveirab, R.A.N. Pereirac, J.A. Freitasd, R. Almeidaa, G.G.S. Salvatib, M.N. Pereirab
      Bacillus subtilis is a transitory microorganism of the digestive tract, non-pathogenic to animals, and capable of forming spores that are resistant to heat and cold. As an animal feed probiotic the microorganism is supposedly capable of increasing diet digestibility and immunity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Bacillus subtilis spores on milk yield and composition and diet digestibility. In both experiments lactating dairy cows were fed in tie stalls and treatments were force-fed once per day. In experiment 1, 18 Holsteins in late lactation (246 ± 75 days in milk) received a sequence of the treatments Bacillus subtilis strain C-3102 (3.0 × 109 colony-forming units of spores per day) or Placebo in a crossover design with 39-day periods, a 10-day wash-out between periods, and response evaluated after the 28th day of the periods. The supplementation of Bacillus subtilis spores did not elicit detectable changes in intake (18.3kg/d, P = 0.91), milk (25.3kg/d, P = 0.66) and solids yield and concentration, total tract nutrient digestibility, and chewing activity. In experiment 2, 30 cows (161 ± 72 days in milk) with high milk somatic cell count (725,000 cells/mL) received the same treatments for 16 weeks, in a covariate adjusted randomized block design with repeated measures over time. Bacillus subtilis spores increased the yields of milk (25.3 vs. 23.6kg/d, P = 0.02), protein (0.816 vs. 0.763kg/d, P = 0.01), total solids (2.718 vs. 2.566kg/d, P = 0.05), and energy (60.7 versus 56.5 MJ/d, P = 0.02) and milk urea-N tended to be reduced (19.3 vs. 20.8mg/dL, P = 0.06). Milk somatic cell count did not differ between treatments. The positive lactation response to Bacillus subtilis spores supplementation occurred when the probiotic was fed for 16 weeks and there was no evidence to suggest that increased diet digestibility was a mediator of the response.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T10:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.023
       
  • Technical Note: A comparison among adipogenic induction protocols for
           dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells obtained from subcutaneous fat of pigs
    • Authors: R. Bueno; C.F. de Campos; R. Veroneze; W. Silva; L.M.P. Sanglard; L. Alcantara; N.V.L. Serão; G.J. Hausman; M.V. Dodson; M.S. Duarte; S.E.F. Guimarães
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): R. Bueno, C.F. de Campos, R. Veroneze, W. Silva, L.M.P. Sanglard, L. Alcantara, N.V.L. Serão, G.J. Hausman, M.V. Dodson, M.S. Duarte, S.E.F. Guimarães
      In the current study we have performed two experiments to evaluate the effects of adipogenic induction media on dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells redifferentiation into mature adipocytes. In experiment 1, we aimed to evaluate whether it is necessary to use insulin in the induction media to allow DFAT cells differentiation into mature adipocytes by establishing two experimental treatments where insulin was either withdrawn from the culture medium, after 72h of a normal induction period (Treatment 1: Insulin-) or kept in culture media (Treatment 2: Insulin+) for 16 d. In experiment 2, we aimed to evaluate if the lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) in the induction medium would affect the differentiation of DFAT cells into mature adipocytes. For that, DFAT cells were induced to differentiate into lipid assimilating adipocytes using an induction medium containing IBMX (Treatment 1: IBMX+) or without IBMX (Treatment 2: IBMX-) during the first 72h of induction. In both experiments we have evaluated the mRNA expression of lipid metabolism markers and cell morphology through Oil-Red staining as indicators of differentiation of DFAT cells into lipid-assimilating cells. The results of Experiment 1 revealed no differences in mRNA expression for any of the lipid metabolism markers with exception of GLUT4 (P = 0.02), which was greater in Insulin- compared to Insulin+ treatment. Similarly, no differences were observed for mRNA expression of adipogenic markers between IBMX+ and IBMX- treatments with exception of FABP4 (P = 0.01), which was greater for the IBMX- compared to IBMX+ treatment. In both experiments we did not observed any differences in cell morphology among treatments. Our results suggest that neither insulin nor IBMX are required to accelerate redifferentiation process of pig-derived DFAT cells.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.009
       
  • Characterizing body temperature and activity changes at the onset of
           estrus in replacement gilts
    • Authors: Jay S. Johnson; Kevin A. Shade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Jay S. Johnson, Kevin A. Shade
      Accurate estrus detection can improve sow conception rates and increase swine production efficiency. Unfortunately, current practices based on individual animal behavior may be inefficient due to large sow populations at commercial farms and the associated labor required. Therefore, the study objective was to characterize body temperature and activity changes in replacement gilts at the onset of estrus in order to provide initial data to develop a remote estrus detection system for commercial swine operations. Twelve replacement gilts (130.2 ± 1.9kg BW) were administered altrenogest to synchronize estrus, and data loggers that detect vaginal temperature (TV) and quantify total activity 24h/d in 5min intervals were attached to a blank controlled internal drug release device and inserted intra-vaginally for 7 d prior to expected estrus. Activity was quantified as counts per minute (cnt/min) using an internal accelerometer. During the 7 d of monitoring, gilts were checked for estrus twice daily (0800 and 1500h) by two trained individuals. To standardize data, only the day of estrus detection (dE) and the 3 d prior (d−3, d−2, d−1, n = 4 total days) were used in the final analysis since gilts came into estrus on different days. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure in SAS 9.4. Overall, TV was reduced (P < 0.01; 0.26°C) on dE compared to the previous 3 d; however, no differences were detected between d−3, d−2, and d−1. Activity was increased (P < 0.01; 37.8%) on dE compared to d−3 and d−2, but no differences were detected between dE and d−1. In summary, TV was reduced and activity was increased at the onset of estrus in replacement gilts.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.004
       
  • Effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid on ruminal
           biohydrogenation and transfer of fatty acids to milk in dairy goats
    • Authors: P. Schmidely; S. Ghazal; V. Berthelot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): P. Schmidely, S. Ghazal, V. Berthelot
      The objective of the study was to evaluate ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and apparent transfer of long-chain (FA) from duodenum into milk in dairy goats fed Ca salts of palm oil (CaS, 45g/d) or lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acids (LE-CLA, 45g/d providing 4.5g trans-10,cis-12 C18:2/d and 4.5g cis-9,trans-11 C18:2/d). Twelve lactating multiparous dairy Saanen or Alpine goats (65 ± 3 days in milk) were randomly allocated to two experimental treatments (CaS vs LE-CLA) for a 3 wks experiment. The goats were fitted with a ruminal cannula and a T-type duodenal cannula for the measurement of duodenal flow by supplying 2.4g of Cr2O3/d through the rumen cannula during 3 wks: the first one was for reaching steady-state concentration of this marker in the digestive tract, the second wk was for measuring the daily flow of faecal chrome and nutrient faecal digestibility, and the third wk was for the duodenal sampling. LE-CLA did not affect intake, duodenal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and starch. Compared to CaS, LE-CLA tended to decrease total digestibility of DM and NDF whereas total digestibility of starch was not affect by dietary treatments. The duodenal flow of FA was higher than FA intake in goats fed CaS or LE-CLA. LE-CLA increased the duodenal flows of C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, leading to a calculated 16% protection from BH for both FA. The LE-CLA treatment tended to decrease the duodenal flows of C18:2 cis-9,trans-12 and C18:2 trans-9,cis-12. The ruminal biohydrogenation of C18:1 cis-9, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12, and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 was not affected by the LE-CLA treatment. Average apparent transfer between the duodenum and milk fat was 22%, 44%, 36% and 22% for C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 + C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 and C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15, respectively. Apparent transfer efficiency of long-chain FA was not affected by LE-CLA treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.005
       
  • Effect of solid-state fermentation with Arxula adeninivorans or Hypocrea
           jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) on hygienic quality and in-vitro
           digestibility of banana peels by mono-gastric animals
    • Authors: Constantine B. Katongole; Albina Bakeeva; Volkmar Passoth; Jan Erik Lindberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Livestock Science
      Author(s): Constantine B. Katongole, Albina Bakeeva, Volkmar Passoth, Jan Erik Lindberg
      This study evaluated the effectiveness of solid-state fermentation with Arxula adeninivorans or Hypocrea jecorina to improve hygienic quality and digestibility of banana peels by mono-gastric animals. Green peels of cooking bananas (Musa AAA-group) were solid-state fermented in ziploc plastic bags for 14 d either non-inoculated or inoculated with A. adeninivorans or H. jecorina. Colonies of aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds were enumerated. In-vitro digestibility (total tract and pre-caecal) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) was also determined. Solid-state fermentation significantly improved (P < 0.05) in-vitro total tract digestibility (9.9% for DM and 10.1% for OM), and in-vitro pre-caecal digestibility (25.0% for DM, 30.9% for OM and 74.5% for CP); however, no significant effect (P > 0.05) due to inoculation was observed. Conversely, inoculation (with A. adeninivorans or H. jecorina) significantly improved (P < 0.05) the hygienic quality; with lower (P < 0.05) aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and mould counts than the non-inoculated treatment. However, H. jecorina triggered a significantly superior (P < 0.05) improvement in both hygienic quality and in-vitro pre-caecal digestibility than A. adeninivorans.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T13:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2017.03.002
       
 
 
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