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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2812 journals)

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Information Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 51)
Information Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121, SJR: 2.606, h-index: 91)
Information Security Technical Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 15)
Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.529, h-index: 53)
Infosecurity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 3)
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.545, h-index: 37)
Injury     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Injury Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 72)
InmunologĂ­a     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 7)
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 56)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.577, h-index: 51)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 75)
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.703, h-index: 75)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription  
Insulin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.175, h-index: 45)
Integration, the VLSI J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 24)
Integrative Medicine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.025, h-index: 54)
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.912, h-index: 33)
Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.696, h-index: 70)
Internet Interventions : The application of information technology in mental and behavioural health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.162, h-index: 2)
Intl. Biodeterioration & Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 57)
Intl. Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.936, h-index: 48)
Intl. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.353, h-index: 48)
Intl. Dairy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 87)
Intl. Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Emergency Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 23)
Intl. Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 12)
Intl. Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.97, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. for Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.76, h-index: 100)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Drugs and Drug Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 30)
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 78)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 36)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.492, h-index: 55)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.861, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.93, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.234, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.752, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.522, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.721, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Epilepsy     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.916, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.614, h-index: 121)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Gynecology & Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 65)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 117, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 116)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 76)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.338, h-index: 122)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.29, h-index: 66)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.913, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.801, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.017, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 1.295, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.363, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.886, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.387, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.507, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.947, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.173, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 74)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.143, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.316, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.887, h-index: 51)

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Journal Cover   Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Manipulations of attention during eating and their effects on later snack
           intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Suzanne Higgs
      Manipulation of attention during eating has been reported to affect later consumption via changes in meal memory. The aim of the present studies was to examine the robustness of these effects and investigate moderating factors. Across three studies, attention to eating was manipulated via distraction (via a computer game or TV watching) or focusing of attention to eating, and effects on subsequent snack consumption and meal memory were assessed. The participants were predominantly lean, young women students and the designs were between-subjects. Distraction increased later snack intake and this effect was larger when participants were more motivated to engage with the distracter and were offset when the distractor included food-related cues. Attention to eating reduced later snacking and this effect was larger when participants imagined eating from their own perspective than when they imagined eating from a third person perspective. Meal memory was impaired after distraction but focusing on eating did not affect later meal memory, possibly explained by ceiling effects for the memory measure. The pattern of results suggests that attention manipulations during eating have robust effects on later eating and the effect sizes are medium to large. The data are consistent with previous reports and add to the literature by suggesting that type of attention manipulation is important in determining effects on later eating. The results further suggest that attentive eating may be a useful target in interventions to help with appetite control.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T16:42:57Z
       
  • The weight management strategies inventory (WMSI). Development of a new
           measurement instrument, construct validation, and association with dieting
           success
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Carmen Keller , Michael Siegrist
      In an obesogenic environment, people have to adopt effective weight management strategies to successfully gain or maintain normal body weight. Little is known about the strategies used by the general population in daily life. Due to the lack of a comprehensive measurement instrument to assess conceptually different strategies with various scales, we developed the weight management strategies inventory (WMSI). In study 1, we collected 19 weight management strategies from research on self-regulation of food intake and successful weight loss and maintenance, as well as from expert interviews. We classified them under the five main categories of health self-regulation strategies – goal setting and monitoring, prospection and planning, automating behavior, construal, and inhibition. We formulated 93 items. In study 2, we developed the WMSI in a random sample from the general population (N = 658), using reliability and exploratory factor analysis. This resulted in 19 factors with 63 items, representing the 19 strategies. In study 3, we tested the 19-factor structure in a quota (age, gender) sample from the general population (N = 616), using confirmatory factor analysis. A good model fit (CFI = .918; RMSEA = .043) was revealed. Reliabilities and construct validity were high. Positive correlations of most strategies with dieting success and negative correlations of some strategies with body mass index were found among dieters (N = 292). Study 4 (N = 162) revealed a good test–retest reliability. The WMSI assesses theoretically derived, evidence-based, and conceptually different weight management strategies with different scales that have good psychometric characteristics. The scales can also be used for pre- and post measures in intervention studies. The scales provide insights into the general population's weight management strategies and facilitate tailoring and evaluating health communication.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T16:42:57Z
       
  • Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The
           role of parent depression and parenting stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Sheryl O. Hughes , Thomas G. Power , Yan Liu , Carla Sharp , Theresa A. Nicklas
      Purpose: Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles – authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Conclusions: Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent–child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T16:37:32Z
       
  • Association of usual self-reported dietary intake with ecological
           momentary measures of affective and physical feeling states in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Gillian A. O'Reilly , Jimi Huh , Susan M. Schembre , Eleanor B. Tate , Mary Ann Pentz , Genevieve Dunton
      Background: Little is known about the relationship between dietary intake and affective and physical feeling states in children. Purpose: The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to examine how usual dietary intake is cross-sectionally associated with both average affective and physical feeling state ratings and rating variability in children. Methods: Children (N = 110, mean age = 11.0 ± 1.2 years, 52.5% male, 30.1% Hispanic/Latino) completed EMA measures of affective and physical feeling states 3–7 times per day for a full or partial day (weekday evenings and weekend days and evenings) over a 4-day period. Usual intake of pre-selected dietary components was measured prior to the EMA measurement period using the Block Kids Food Screener. Statistical analyses included mixed models and mixed-effects location scale models. Results: Greater usual fiber intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average positive affect (PA) ratings, lower variability of NA ratings, and higher variability of physical fatigue ratings. Lower usual glycemic load of diet was cross-sectionally associated with lower variability of NA ratings. Lower usual added sugar intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average physical energy ratings and lower variability of NA ratings. Conclusions: Although temporal precedence was not established by these findings, they indicate that characteristics of children's usual dietary intake are cross-sectionally associated with both the average and variability of affective and physical feeling states. EMA offers a promising avenue through which to explore the associations between affective states and diet and has the potential to provide insight into nuances of this relationship.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Public attitudes to GM foods. The balancing of risks and gains
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): John Hudson , Anetta Caplanova , Marcel Novak
      In the paper we study the variables influencing attitudes to the use of two biotechnologies related to gene transfer within apples. Using Eurobarometer 73.1 survey data on biotechnology, science and technology, with 15,650 respondents, we study the extent these attitudes are determined by socio-economic and other variables. We found that attitudes to the risks and gains are determined by socio-economic variables and also by the individual's knowledge, scientific background, their parent's education in science and their religion. Perceptions of naturalness and of environmental impact combined with perceived risks and gains in determining overall approval, proxied by views on whether the technologies should be encouraged, for GMTs. However there are substantial differences in attitudes to transgenesis and cisgenesis.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of
           protection motivation theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Hans De Steur , Joseph Birundu Mogendi , Joshua Wesana , Anselimo Makokha , Xavier Gellynck
      Objective/Purpose: To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. Methods: A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Results: Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. Conclusion: School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Alterations in sucrose sham-feeding intake as a function of diet-exposure
           in rats maintained on calorically dense diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Yada Treesukosol , Nu-Chu Liang , Timothy H. Moran
      We previously reported that rats increase meal size upon initial presentation of a calorically dense diet. The increase may be attributed to increased orosensory stimulation and/or reduced sensitivity to post-ingestive inhibitory signals. During feeding both types of signals are simultaneously in play; thus here, we compare responses in rats presented a high-energy diet (HE) or 45% high-fat diet (HF) with those of chow-fed controls (CHOW) in a sham-feeding procedure in which post-ingestive feedback is minimized. Measures of sham-feeding to sucrose were taken before diet manipulation (baseline), ~5 days (dynamic phase) and ~6 weeks (static phase) following introduction of the palatable diet, as well as after animals were switched back to standard chow (recovery phase). Some but not all the hypotheses based on our previous findings were confirmed by the outcomes here. Consistent with our hypothesis that enhanced orosensory stimulation during the dynamic phase compared with the static phase would generalize to increased intake of other palatable stimuli, HE rats showed higher sucrose intake during the dynamic phase compared with the static phase. Contrary to what we hypothesized, HE and HF rats did not increase responses to sucrose compared to CHOW rats. In fact, HE rats showed decreased responses compared to CHOW controls. Thus changes in orosensory stimulation do not necessarily generalize to increased intake of other palatable stimuli.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Effects of two cognitive regulation strategies on the processing of food
           cues in high restrained eaters. An event-related potential study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Jennifer Svaldi , Brunna Tuschen-Caffier , Stefanie C. Biehl , Kathrin Gschwendtner , Ines Wolz , Eva Naumann
      This study tested the effects of cognitive regulation (CR) on the attentional processing of food cues in restrained eaters (RE) by means of event-related potentials (ERPs). In a within-subject-design, RE (n = 23) were presented pictures of highly palatable food and office items while ERPs were recorded. Prior to the presentation of the food stimuli, participants were either instructed to engage in reappraisal or to attempt to suppress cravings – both cognitive regulation (CR) strategies – or to simply watch the pictures. Prior to the presentation of the neutral stimuli, participants were instructed to simply watch them. Following each picture presentation, momentary craving was assessed. Main results showed that engaging in CR significantly reduced ERP amplitudes compared to the food watch condition. Passively attending to food pictures yielded significantly higher craving scores compared to engaging in CR. In addition, craving was significantly lower in the reappraisal than in the suppression condition. Therefore, reappraisal could potentially increase the ability to inhibit the appetitive motivation to eat.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Infant and maternal predictors of early life feeding decisions. The timing
           of solid food introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Allison E. Doub , Kameron J. Moding , Cynthia A. Stifter
      There is limited research on the maternal and infant characteristics associated with the timing of solid food introduction. The current study examined how maternal feeding style and infant temperament independently and interactively predicted the age at which infants were introduced to solid food. Data from 115 predominately white, middle-class mothers were collected when infants were 4 and 6 months of age. The timing of solid food introduction was positively correlated with mothers' age, education, breastfeeding at 4 months, self-reported responsiveness to infants' hunger and satiety cues, and negatively correlated with mothers' pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), beliefs about feeding infants solid food prior to 6 months of age, and infants' temperamental motor reactivity. When controlling for maternal age, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, and milk feeding method at 4 months, the timing of solid food introduction was negatively predicted by mothers' beliefs about feeding solid food prior to 6 months of age. Exploratory interaction analyses suggested that infant temperament marginally moderated maternal feeding style in predicting the timing of solid food introduction.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to
           understand motivation for food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Monika Kardacz Stojek , Sarah Fischer , James MacKillop
      Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Effects of awareness that food intake is being measured by a universal
           eating monitor on the consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack in
           healthy female volunteers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): J.M. Thomas , C.T. Dourish , S. Higgs
      To date, there have been no studies that have explicitly examined the effect of awareness on the consumption of food from a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM – hidden balance interfaced to a computer which covertly records eating behaviour). We tested whether awareness of a UEM affected consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack. 39 female participants were randomly assigned to either an aware or unaware condition. After being informed of the presence of the UEM (aware) or not being told about its presence (unaware), participants consumed ad-libitum a pasta lunch from the UEM followed by a cookie snack. Awareness of the UEM did not significantly affect the amount of pasta or cookies eaten. However, awareness significantly reduced the rate of cookie consumption. These results suggest that awareness of being monitored by the UEM has no effect on the consumption of a pasta meal, but does influence the consumption of a cookie snack in the absence of hunger. Hence, energy dense snack foods consumed after a meal may be more susceptible to awareness of monitoring than staple food items.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Quantifying consumer portion control practices. A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): M. Spence , L. Lähteenmäki , V. Stefan , M.B.E. Livingstone , E.R. Gibney , M. Dean
      The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from ‘never’ to ‘very often’ by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution is to the intake of food over an extended period of time.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total
           body fat and regional fat distribution in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): S. Nicole Fearnbach , David Thivel , Karol Meyermann , Kathleen L. Keller
      Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4–6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat.


      PubDate: 2015-06-19T18:12:28Z
       
  • The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting
           adolescents' beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Cristel Antonia Russell , Denise Buhrau
      Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences' views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents' actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents' regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents' geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Dissociation from beloved unhealthy brands decreases preference for and
           consumption of vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Rebecca K. Trump , Paul M. Connell , Stacey R. Finkelstein
      Many people form strong bonds with brands, including those for unhealthy foods. Thus, prompting people to dissociate from beloved but unhealthy food brands is an intuitively appealing means to shift consumption away from unhealthy options and toward healthy options. Contrary to this position, we demonstrate that dissociating from unhealthy but beloved brands diminishes people's interest in consuming vegetables because the dissociation depletes self-regulatory resources. Across three experimental studies, we manipulate dissociation from two beloved brands both implicitly (studies 1–2) and explicitly (study 3) and observe effects on both preference for vegetables (studies 2–3) and actual vegetable consumption (study 1). In study 1, participants consumed fewer vegetables following dissociation from (vs. association with) a beloved candy brand. Study 2 demonstrates that the effect of depletion on preference for vegetables is more pronounced for those who strongly identify with the brand, as these individuals are most depleted by the dissociation attempt. Finally, study 3 illustrates that the difficulty experienced when trying to dissociate from beloved brands drives the observed effects on vegetable preference and consumption for those who strongly (vs. weakly) identify with the brand.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • The effect of a whey protein supplement dose on satiety and food intake in
           resistance training athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Kristen L. MacKenzie-Shalders , Nuala M. Byrne , Gary J. Slater , Neil A. King
      Objective: Many athletes perform resistance training and consume dietary protein as a strategy to promote anabolic adaptation. Due to its high satiety value, the regular addition of supplemented dietary protein could plausibly displace other key macronutrients such as carbohydrate in an athlete's diet. This effect will be influenced by the form and dose of protein. Therefore, this study assessed the impact of liquid whey protein dose manipulation on subjective sensations of appetite and food intake in a cohort of athletes. Design: Ten male athletes who performed both resistance and aerobic (endurance) training (21.2 ± 2.3 years; 181.7 ± 5.7 cm and 80.8 ± 6.1 kg) were recruited. In four counter-balanced testing sessions they consumed a manipulated whey protein supplement (20, 40, 60 or 80 g protein) 1 hour after a standardised breakfast. Subsequent energy intake was measured 3 hours after the protein supplement using an ad libitum test meal. Subjective appetite sensations were measured periodically during the test day using visual analogue scales. Results: All conditions resulted in a significant decrease in ratings of hunger (50–65%; P < 0.05) at the time of supplement consumption. However, there were no significant differences between the conditions at any time point for subjective appetite sensations or for energy consumed in the ad libitum meal: 4382 ± 1004, 4643 ± 982, 4514 ± 1112, 4177 ± 1494 kJ respectively. Conclusion: Increasing whey protein supplement dose above 20 g did not result in a measurable increase in satiety or decrease in food intake. However, the inclusion of additional whey protein supplementation where not otherwise consumed could plausibly reduce dietary intake.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in
           a structured grocery aisle setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Gregory J. Privitera , Taylor E. Phillips , Faris M. Zuraikat , Robert Paque
      Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, <5% non-White, mean BMI = 52nd percentile) in kindergarten through 5th grade were first given a brief 5-min lesson on how to use the emoticons, then asked to choose any 4 foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle – there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R 2 = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI −212.6, −149.0], R 2 = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and
           child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4–8 year olds
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Rana H. Mosli , Julie C. Lumeng , Niko Kaciroti , Karen E. Peterson , Katherine Rosenblum , Ana Baylin , Alison L. Miller
      Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4–8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Examining women's perceptions of their mother's and romantic partner's
           interpersonal styles for a better understanding of their eating regulation
           and intuitive eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Noémie Carbonneau , Elise Carbonneau , Mélynda Cantin , Marie-Pierre Gagnon-Girouard
      Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • “Dinner's ready!” A qualitative exploration of the food domain
           across the lifecourse
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Carolyn May Hooper , Vivienne Chisholm Ivory , Geoff Fougere
      The influence of the childhood food domain on adult food-related practices is only partially understood. Through an interpretive study using in-depth life-story interviewing and narrative analysis, we aimed to discover how preferences and perceptions relating to the food domain become embodied during childhood, and once embodied, how these influence practices in adulthood. We observed distinct ‘food mood’ pathways seemingly anchored in childhood memories about dinnertime. One pathway led to food philosophies participants perceived to be beneficial for their health and wellbeing, whilst another led to perceptions of food as a chore and bore they would rather ignore. Parental attitudes were very important to the food domain of childhood, as this is now recalled through life-story narratives. Our findings suggest a positive relationship with the food domain needs to be fostered during childhood for the long-term protection and promotion of health and wellbeing in adulthood.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Clinical differences in children with autism spectrum disorder with and
           without food selectivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Valentina Postorino , Veronica Sanges , Giulia Giovagnoli , Laura Maria Fatta , Lavinia De Peppo , Marco Armando , Stefano Vicari , Luigi Mazzone
      Several studies have described the atypical eating behaviors frequently occurring in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and food selectivity is the most frequent of these problems. The everyday management of mealtime behaviors among children with ASD can have a negative impact on family routines and become a significant stressor for families. However, much remains unknown about why food selectivity is so prevalent among individuals with ASD. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and behavioral features in individuals with ASD with the aim of identifying distinctive clinical profiles in children with and without food selectivity. A total of 158 children with ASD were enrolled in this study: 79 participants with food selectivity (FS) were age and sex matched with 79 participants without food selectivity (No FS). All participants and their parents completed a battery of psychological tests for a comprehensive evaluation of ASD symptoms, cognitive abilities, adaptive skills, behavioral problems and parental stress level. No statistically significant difference on gastrointestinal symptoms and growth adequacy was found between the FS group and the No FS group. Overall, the FS group showed significantly higher rates of ASD symptoms as compared to the No FS group in the questionnaires completed by parents. Furthermore, parents of the FS group reported significantly higher levels of parental stress and a larger degree of their children's behavioral problems as compared to the No FS group. Finally, there were no differences between the FS and the No FS group on any adaptive skill domain. Our findings suggest that the identification of distinctive clinical and behavioral patterns in children with ASD and food selectivity is a crucial issue for parents and therapists in the daily management.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • The use of a wearable camera to capture and categorise the environmental
           and social context of self-identified eating episodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Luke Gemming , Aiden Doherty , Jennifer Utter , Emma Shields , Cliona Ni Mhurchu
      Research investigating the influence of the environmental and social factors on eating behaviours in free-living settings is limited. This study investigates the utility of using wearable camera images to assess the context of eating episodes. Adult participants (N = 40) wore a SenseCam wearable camera for 4 days (including 1 familiarisation day) over a 15-day period in free-living conditions, and had their diet assessed using three image-assisted multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recalls. The images of participants' eating episodes were analysed and annotated according to their environmental and social contexts; including eating location, external environment (indoor/outdoor), physical position, social interaction, and viewing media screens. Data for 107 days were used, with a total of 742 eating episodes considered for annotation. Twenty nine per cent (214/742) of the episodes could not be categorised due to absent images (12%, n = 85), dark/blurry images (8%, n = 58), camera not worn (7%, n = 54) and for mixed reasons (2%, n = 17). Most eating episodes were at home (59%) and indoors (91%). Meals at food retailers were 24.8 minutes longer (95% CI: 13.4 to 36.2) and were higher in energy (mean difference = 1196 kJ 95% CI: 242, 2149) than at home. Most episodes were seated at tables (27%) or sofas (26%), but eating standing (19%) or at desks (18%) were common. Social interaction was evident for 45% of episodes and media screens were viewed during 55% of episodes. Meals at home watching television were 3.1 minutes longer (95% CI: −0.6 to 6.7) and higher in energy intake than when no screen was viewed (543 kJ 95% CI: −32 to 1120). The environmental and social context that surrounds eating and dietary behaviours can be assessed using wearable camera images.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • How well do preschoolers identify healthy foods? Development and
           preliminary validation of the Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional
           Awareness (DIANA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Paulo A. Graziano
      The current study aimed to develop and initially validate a brief Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA) that mapped onto the Stop-Light Diet System. Participants for this study included 69 preschool children (83% boys; mean age = 5.13 years; 86% Latino) recruited from two summer programs. Children were presented with 24 pictures and were asked to name the food and indicate how healthy they felt each food was by pointing to a smiley face (very healthy = Green/Go food), neutral face (somewhat healthy = Yellow/Slow food), or a sad face (not healthy at all = Red/Whoa foods). Psychometric properties of the DIANA were assessed via a baseline assessment while children were re-administered the DIANA within 4–6 weeks to ascertain the test–retest reliability. Discriminant validity was also assessed in an exploratory fashion with a small subsample (n = 11) of children who participated in a healthy-lifestyle intervention program (HIP). Results indicated that the internal consistency of the DIANA for both the expressive knowledge and the health classification scales was acceptable (α = .83 and .82, respectively) along with the test–retest reliability (ICC = .86 and .81, respectively). Lastly, children who participated in HIP experienced greater gains in their ability to classify food based on the Stop-Light System and greater expressive knowledge of Green/Go foods compared to children who did not participate in the intervention suggesting adequate construct validity. These findings highlight the feasibility and utility of the DIANA in assessing young children's knowledge of foods and their relative healthiness as well as its potential sensitivity to intervention effects.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Gender differences in the roles for social support in ensuring adequate
           fruit and vegetable consumption among older adult Canadians
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Emily J. Rugel , Richard M. Carpiano
      Background: Adequate fruit and vegetable consumption has been linked to reductions in all-cause mortality, stroke, and cancer. Unfortunately, less than half of Canadians aged 65+ meet the standard international guideline for adequate consumption (≥5 servings per day). Among older adults, social isolation and low social support are barriers to proper nutrition, but the effects of specific types of social support on adequate fruit and vegetable consumption are unknown. Objective: This study sought to test hypotheses regarding direct and indirect pathways through which tangible and emotional/informational social support may facilitate adequate fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults. Methods: Analyzing 2008–2009 Canadian Community Health Survey – Healthy Aging component data (n = 14,221), logistic regression models were developed to examine associations between tangible and emotional/informational social support, eating behaviors (eating alone and preparing one's own meals), and meeting the recommended guideline of consuming ≥5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day. Results: In pooled models, emotional/informational support was positively associated with adequate fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.27). Among men, neither social support form was directly or indirectly associated with adequate consumption; among women, adequate consumption was negatively associated with tangible support but positively associated with higher emotional/informational support. Both of these associations were mediated by not usually cooking one's own meals. Conclusions: Programs and policies that seek to foster social support for older adults as a means of ensuring proper nutrition should consider the nuanced mechanisms through which different social support forms may operate for men and women.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style
           and feeding strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Samantha B. Boots , Marika Tiggemann , Nadia Corsini , Julie Mattiske
      One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2–7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Genotype status of the dopamine-related catechol-O-methyltransferase
           (COMT) gene corresponds with desirability of “unhealthy” foods
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Deanna L. Wallace , Esther Aarts , Federico d'Oleire Uquillas , Linh C. Dang , Stephanie M. Greer , William J. Jagust , Mark D'Esposito
      The role of dopamine is extensively documented in weight regulation and food intake in both animal models and humans. Yet the role of dopamine has not been well studied in individual differences for food desirability. Genotype status of the dopamine-related catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been shown to influence dopamine levels, with greater COMT enzymatic activity in val/val individuals corresponding to greater degradation of dopamine. Decreased dopamine has been associated with poorer cognitive control and diminished goal-directed behavior in various behavioral paradigms. Additionally, dopaminergic-rich regions such as the frontal cortex and dorsal striatum have been shown to be important for supporting food-related decision-making. However, the role of dopamine, as assessed by COMT genotype status, in food desirability has not been fully explored. Therefore, we utilized an individual's COMT genotype status (n = 61) and investigated food desirability based on self-rated “healthy” and “unhealthy” food perceptions. Here we found val/val individuals (n = 19) have greater desirability for self-rated “unhealthy” food items, but not self-rated “healthy” food items, as compared to val/met (n = 24) and met/met (n = 18) individuals (p < 0.005). Utilizing an objective health measure for the food items, we also found val/val and val/met individuals have greater desirability for objectively defined “unhealthy” food items, as compared to met/met individuals (p < 0.01). This work further substantiates the role of dopamine in food-related behaviors and more specifically in relationship to food desirability for “unhealthy” food items.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Higher proportion of total and fat energy intake during the morning may
           reduce absolute intake of energy within the day. An observational study in
           free-living Japanese adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Yukako Tani , Keiko Asakura , Satoshi Sasaki , Naoko Hirota , Akiko Notsu , Hidemi Todoriki , Ayako Miura , Mitsuru Fukui , Chigusa Date
      Background: Although the distribution of energy intake throughout the day appears to impact overall daily energy intake, little is known about the ad libitum distribution of energy intake. Objective: Our aim was to investigate associations between the distribution of energy intake during the day and subsequent or overall energy intake, and food choice in free-living adults. Design: A total of 119 women and 116 men completed 16-day semi-weighed dietary records. The longitudinal dietary intake data for each participant were analyzed using a mixed model to examine the effect of energy intake at various times of day on subsequent or overall energy intake. Results: Mean proportion of total energy intake in the morning (4:00 a.m.–10:29 a.m.), afternoon (10:30 a.m.–4:59 p.m.) and evening (5:00 p.m.–3:59 a.m.) meal was 22.6%, 33.8% and 43.6% in men, and 24.7%, 36.5%, 38.8% in women, respectively. Proportion of energy intake (%) in the morning meal was significantly and negatively associated with energy intake (kcal) in the subsequent afternoon and evening meals, and consequently in the whole day in both sexes. This significant and negative association was also observed for proportion of energy intake (%) of fat, but not of carbohydrate or protein, in both sexes. Proportion of energy intake (%) in the morning meal was negatively associated with overall energy intake (kcal) from the group of meats, fish, and eggs in both sexes, and from the group of confectioneries and soft drinks in women. Conclusions: More energy in the morning meal may reduce energy intake, especially that from fat, in the subsequent meals, and consequently in the whole day.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Eating in the absence of hunger in college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Taylor A. Arnold , Carol S. Johnston , Chong D. Lee , Andrea M. Garza
      Nearly one-third of college students are overweight or obese. Disinhibited eating, a phenomenon defined as the lack of self-restraint over food consumption prompted by emotional or external factors, is prevalent among college students and may be a target for intervention in this population. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is a form of disinhibited eating that has been studied extensively in children and adolescents, but there is little investigation of EAH among college students. In this research, a validated measure for assessing continual and beginning EAH in children and adolescents was modified and assessed in a free-living college population (n = 457; 84% F; 24.5 ± 7.6 years; 23.4 ± 4.8 kg/m2). Nine subscales grouped into three latent factors (emotion, external, and physical) accounted for 68% of the variance in continual EAH, and a separate set of nine subscales grouped into the same latent factors accounted for 71% of the variance in beginning EAH (Cronbach's alpha: 0.82 for continual EAH and 0.81 for beginning EAH). Female sex and sedentary behavior were significantly related to continual EAH, relationships driven by scores for the emotion factor, and to beginning EAH, relationships driven by scores for the physical factor. BMI was weakly related to the emotion factor (p = 0.06) for continuing EAH only. The observation that a sedentary lifestyle was associated to EAH (both continuing and beginning EAH) in a college population is a novel finding and reveals a possible strategy to moderate EAH.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and
           healthy eating among women in a Latin American city
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Ietza Bojorquez , Claudia Unikel , Irene Cortez , Diego Cerecero
      Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward “healthy eating” could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional–modern–healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico–United States (US) border. Women 18–65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: “tortillas,” “hamburgers” and “vegetables.” Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the “hamburgers” pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the “vegetables” pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the “hamburgers” pattern.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Leonardo de Sousa Fortes , Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira , Saulo Melo Fernandes de Oliveira , Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino , Sebastião Sousa Almeida
      The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X2  = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R2  = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R2  = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R2  = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R2  = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R2  = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R2  = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R2  = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Menu label accuracy at a university's foodservices. An exploratory recipe
           nutrition analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Charles Feldman , Douglas Murray , Stephanie Chavarria , Hang Zhao
      The increase in the weight of American adults and children has been positively associated with the prevalence of the consumption of food-away-from-home. The objective was to assess the accuracy of claimed nutritional information of foods purchased in contracted foodservices located on the campus of an institution of higher education. Fifty popular food items were randomly collected from five main dining outlets located on a selected campus in the northeastern United States. The sampling was repeated three times on separate occasions for an aggregate total of 150 food samples. The samples were then weighed and assessed for nutrient composition (protein, cholesterol, fiber, carbohydrates, total fat, calories, sugar, and sodium) using nutrient analysis software. Results were compared with foodservices' published nutrition information. Two group comparisons, claimed and measured, were performed using the paired-sample t-test. Descriptive statistics were used as well. Among the nine nutritional values, six nutrients (total fat, sodium, protein, fiber, cholesterol, and weight) had more than 10% positive average discrepancies between measured and claimed values. Statistical significance of the variance was obtained in four of the eight categories of nutrient content: total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol (P < .05). Significance was also reached in the variance of actual portion weight compared to the published claims (P < .001). Significant differences of portion size (weight), total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol were found among the sampled values and the foodservices' published claims. The findings from this study raise the concern that if the actual nutritional information does not accurately reflect the declared values on menus, conclusions, decisions and actions based on posted information may not be valid.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old
           children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Catarina Durão , Valeska Andreozzi , Andreia Oliveira , Pedro Moreira , António Guerra , Henrique Barros , Carla Lopes
      This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort – Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4–7 times/day; dairy 3–5 times/day; meat and eggs 5–10 times/week; fish 2–4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11–18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14–27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher possibility of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • A nudge in a healthy direction. The effect of nutrition labels on food
           purchasing behaviors in university dining facilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Catherine E. Cioffi , David A. Levitsky , Carly R. Pacanowski , Fredrik Bertz
      Background: Despite legislation that requires restaurants to post nutritional labels on their products or menu items, the scientific literature provides inconsistent support for the idea that adding labels to foods will change buying patterns. Lack of success of previous research may be that sample sizes have been too small and durations of studies too short. Objective: To assess the effect of nutrition labeling on pre-packaged food purchases in university dining facilities. Design: Weekly sales data for a sample of pre-packaged food items were obtained and analyzed, spanning three semesters before and three semesters after nutritional labels were introduced on to the sample of foods. The labels summarized caloric content and nutrient composition information. Mean nutrient composition purchased were calculated for the sample of foods. Labeled food items were categorized as high-calorie, low-calorie, high-fat, or low-fat foods and analyzed for change as a function of the introduction of the labels. Setting: Data were obtained from all retail dining units located at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY where the pre-packaged food items were sold. Results: Results indicated that the introduction of food labels resulted in a 7% reduction of the mean total kcals purchased per week (p < 0.001) from the labeled foods. Total fat purchased per week were also reduced by 7% (p < 0.001). Percent of sales from “low-calorie” and “low-fat” foods (p < 0.001) increased, while percent of sales from “high-calorie” and “high-fat” foods decreased (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods in a large university dining hall produces a small but significant reduction of labeled high calorie and high fat foods purchased and an increase in low calorie, low fat foods.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Kristin Keller , Santiago Rodríguez López , Margarita M. Carmenate Moreno
      The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20–79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health “Semanas del Corazon” events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41–0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05–1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84–1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63–1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • A systematic review of adherence to restricted diets in people with
           functional bowel disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Tanya Osicka , Emily Kothe , Lina Ricciardelli
      Functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome are commonly experienced within the population, and have an adverse impact on emotions, physical well-being, social activity, and occupational output. Adherence to a restricted diet can reduce symptoms, which in turn leads to increased quality of life and well-being. The aim of this review was to assess the extent to which predictors of dietary adherence have been considered in studies relating to functional bowel disorders and following a restricted diet. This was done firstly by examining such studies which contained a measure or indicator of adherence, and then by examining predictors of adherence within and between studies. A search of PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases was performed during July 2014, with the search criteria including relevant terms such as gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, diet, and adherence. Of an initial 7927 papers, 39 were suitable for inclusion. Fourteen of the 39 studies included had a structured measure or indicator of dietary adherence, and the remaining 25 mentioned adherence without any structured levels of adherence. There was little investigation into the predictors of adherence, with symptom relief or induction being the primary goal of most of the studies. This review indicates that predictors of dietary adherence are rarely considered in research regarding functional bowel disorders. Further investigation is needed into the variables which contribute to rates of adherence to restricted diets, and more rigorous research is needed to characterise those individuals most likely to be non-adherent. Such research is necessary to ensure that people with these conditions can be provided with appropriate support and interventions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Association of distorted eating behaviors with cardiometabolic risk
           indices in preadolescents. The Healthy Growth Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): George Moschonis , Alexandra Georgiou , Katerina Sarapi , Yannis Manios
      The association between distorted eating behavior (DEB) with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in children has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to examine the association between DEB with certain CMR indices in 9- to 13-year-old children in Greece. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 1803 schoolchildren from 77 primary schools in 4 counties of Greece with full data on DEBQ and ChEAT questionnaires and CMR indices. Children underwent anthropometric measurements and Tanner stage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR levels assessments. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to test for the association between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices. Several significant associations between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices were observed when tested at univariate regression models in both boys and girls. However, after adjusting for several possible confounders, including Tanner stage, all significant associations were lost in girls while only a few remained in boys. Thus, DEB might have an unfavorable effect also in certain CMR indices, besides nourishment status. This is more pronounced in preadolescent boys for whom hormonal changes due to the transition to adolescence have not yet been established compared to girls. Still further research is needed to shed more light on these associations.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Automatic approach/avoidance tendencies towards food and the course of
           anorexia nervosa
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Renate A.M. Neimeijer , Peter J. de Jong , Anne Roefs
      Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of automatic approach/avoidance tendencies for food in Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We used a longitudinal approach and tested whether a reduction in eating disorder symptoms is associated with enhanced approach tendencies towards food and whether approach tendencies towards food at baseline are predictive for treatment outcome after one year follow up. Method: The Affective Simon Task-manikin version (AST-manikin) was administered to measure automatic approach/avoidance tendencies towards high-caloric and low-caloric food in young AN patients. Percentage underweight and eating disorder symptoms as indexed by the EDE-Q were determined both during baseline and at one year follow up. Results: At baseline anorexia patients showed an approach tendency for low caloric food, but not for high caloric food, whereas at 1 year follow up, they have an approach tendency for both high and low caloric food. Change in approach bias was neither associated with change in underweight nor with change in eating disorder symptoms. Strength of approach/avoidance tendencies was not predictive for percentage underweight. Discussion: Although approach tendencies increased after one year, approach tendencies were neither associated with concurrent change in eating disorder symptoms nor predictive for treatment success as indexed by EDE-Q. This implicates that, so far, there is no reason to add a method designed to directly target approach/avoidance tendencies to the conventional approach to treat patients with a method designed to influence the more deliberate processes in AN.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the Clinical
           Impairment Assessment Questionnaire
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Josune Martín , Angel Padierna , Anette Unzurrunzaga , Nerea González , Belén Berjano , José M. Quintana
      The Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) assesses psychosocial impairment secondary to an eating disorder. The aim of this study was to create and validate a Spanish-language version of the CIA. Using a forward–backward translation methodology, we translated the CIA into Spanish and evaluated its psychometric characteristics in a clinical sample of 178 ED patients. Cronbach's alpha values, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and correlations between the CIA and the Eating Attitudes Test-12 and the Health-Related Quality of Life in ED-short form questionnaires evaluated the reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity, respectively. Known-groups validity was also studied comparing the CIA according to different groups; responsiveness was assessed by means of effect sizes. Data revealed a three-factor structure similar to that of the original CIA. Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.91 for the total CIA score supported its internal consistency and correlations with other instruments demonstrated convergent validity. The total CIA score and factor scores also significantly discriminated between employment status, evidencing known-groups validity. Responsiveness parameters showed moderate changes for patients with restrictive eating disorders. These findings suggest that the CIA can be reliably and validly used in Spain in a number of different clinical contexts, by researchers and clinicians alike.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate
           consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Fania C.M. Dassen , Katrijn Houben , Anita Jansen
      Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate – both general and food-specific – and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p < .001) and negatively to the immediate subscale of the CFC-food (r = −.43, p < .001). The general CFC and discount rate (MCQ and MCQ-snack) were not related to healthy eating (all p > .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Attitudes and beliefs of Australian adults on reality television cooking
           programmes and celebrity chefs. Is there cause for concern?
           Descriptive analysis presented from a consumer survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): A.M. Villani , T. Egan , J.B. Keogh , P.M. Clifton
      Background: There is evidence suggesting that the nutritional content of recipes promoted by celebrity chefs or television cooking programmes contradict healthy eating guidelines. This study aims to investigate people's attitudes and beliefs about popular television cooking programmes and celebrity chefs. Methods: Males and females who watch television cooking programmes were recruited to participate in a self-administered online questionnaire (22-items) which included multiple-choice and rank order questions. Results: A total of n = 207 participants undertook the questionnaire with fully completed questionnaires available for n = 150 participants (Males, n = 22; Females, n = 128; aged 38.4 ± 14 years). The majority of respondents watch ≤30 minutes of television cooking programming per day (total responses, n = 153/207; 74%) with almost three-quarters (total responses, n = 130/175; 74%) having attempted a recipe. New cooking ideas (total responses, n = 81/175; 46%) and entertainment (total responses, n = 64/175; 36.5%) were the two main reasons participants gave for watching these programmes. Significantly more respondents believed recipes use excessive amounts of unhealthy fat, sugar or salt (unhealthy: 24%; healthy: 7%; P < 0.0001). Almost half of all respondents (total responses, n = 67/151; 44%) believed these programmes have no impact on their habitual diet. Discussion and Conclusion: Our results suggest television cooking programmes and celebrity chefs are unlikely to impact habitual dietary intake; rather, vicarious viewing and entertainment appear important factors relating to why people watch these programmes. However results generated from the present study are descriptive and subjective and further investigation into the impact of television cooking programmes and celebrity chefs on behavioural change requires attention. Further investigation including a systematic investigation into the dietary quality of recipes promoted by celebrity chefs against national healthy eating benchmarks is also warranted.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91




      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Influence of choice on vegetable intake in children: an in-home study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Victoire W.T. de Wild , Cees de Graaf , Hendriek C. Boshuizen , Gerry Jager
      Children's vegetable consumption is still far below that recommended, and stimulating their intake is a challenge for caregivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether choice-offering is an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake in an in-home situation. Seventy children (mean age 3.7; SD 1) randomly assigned to a choice or a no-choice condition, were exposed 12 times to six familiar target vegetables at home during dinner. In the choice group, two selected vegetables were offered each time, whereas the no-choice group only received one vegetable. Vegetable intake was measured by weighing children's plates before and after dinner. A mixed linear model with age, gender, and baseline vegetable liking as covariates was used to compare intake between the choice and the no-choice group. Mixed linear model analysis yielded estimated means for vegetable intake of 48.5 g +/− 30 in the no-choice group and 57.7 g +/− 31 for the choice group (P = 0.09). In addition, baseline vegetable liking (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.06) predicted vegetable intake to be higher when the child liked vegetables better and with older age. These findings suggest that choice-offering has some, but hardly robust, effect on increasing vegetable intake in children. Other factors such as age and liking of vegetables also mediate the effect of offering a choice.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Worlds apart. Consumer acceptance of functional foods and beverages in
           Germany and China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Michael Siegrist , Jing Shi , Alice Giusto , Christina Hartmann
      This study examined consumers' willingness to buy functional foods. Data were collected from an Internet survey in Germany (n = 502) and China (n = 443). The results showed that consumers in China were much more willing to buy functional foods, compared with their German counterparts. A substantial segment of the German consumers indicated lower willingness to buy functional foods, compared with the same foods without additional health benefits. The findings further showed that in both countries, the participants with higher health motivation and more trust in the food industry reported higher willingness to buy functional foods than the participants with lower health motivation and less trust in the industry. Food neophobia had a negative impact on acceptance of functional foods in the Chinese sample. No such association was observed for the German sample. The results suggest that cultural factors play a significant role in the acceptance of functional foods; therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing research findings from Western countries to others.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Healthy Eating and Barriers Related to Social Class. The case of vegetable
           and fish consumption in Norway
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Silje Elisabeth Skuland
      The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Nathalie Oexle , Timothy L. Barnes , Christine E. Blake , Bethany A. Bell , Angela D. Liese
      Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence – Geographic Information Systems (GIS) – within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by
           adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Jean Adams , Martin White
      This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables.


      PubDate: 2015-06-07T18:38:39Z
       
  • The effects of nutrition knowledge on food label use. A review of the
           literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Lisa M. Soederberg Miller , Diana L. Cassady
      Nutrition information on food labels is an important source of nutrition information but is typically underutilized by consumers. This review examined whether consumer nutrition knowledge is important for communication of nutrition information through labels on packaged foods. A cognitive processing model posits that consumers with prior knowledge are more likely to use label information effectively, that is, focus on salient information, understand information, and make healthful decisions based on this information. Consistent with this model, the review found that nutrition knowledge provides support for food label use. However, nutrition knowledge measures varied widely in terms of the dimensions they included and the extensiveness of the assessment. Relatively few studies investigated knowledge effects on the use of ingredient lists and claims, compared to nutrition facts labels. We also found an overreliance on convenience samples relying on younger adults, limiting our understanding of how knowledge supports food label use in later life. Future research should 1) investigate which dimensions, or forms, of nutrition knowledge are most critical to food label use and dietary decision making and 2) determine whether increases in nutrition knowledge can promote great use of nutrition information on food labels.


      PubDate: 2015-06-07T18:38:39Z
       
  • Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Colleen X. Muñoz , Evan C. Johnson , Amy L. McKenzie , Isabelle Guelinckx , Gitte Graverholt , Douglas J. Casa , Carl M. Maresh , Lawrence E. Armstrong
      Acute negative and positive mood states have been linked with the development of undesirable and desirable health outcomes, respectively. Numerous factors acutely influence mood state, including exercise, caffeine ingestion, and macronutrient intake, but the influence of habitual total water intake remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe relationships between habitual water intake and mood. One hundred twenty healthy females (mean ± SD; age = 20 ± 2 y, BMI = 22.9 ± 3.5 kg⋅m−2 ) recorded all food and fluids consumed for 5 consecutive days. Investigators utilized dietary analysis software to determine Total Water Intake (TWI; total water content in foods and fluids), caffeine, and macronutrient consumption (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, fat). On days 3 and 4, participants completed the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, which examined tension, depression, anger, vigor, and confusion, plus an aggregate measure of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD). For comparison of mood, data were separated into three even groups (n = 40 each) based on TWI: low (LOW; 1.51 ± 0.27 L/d), moderate (MOD; 2.25 ± 0.19 L/d), and high (HIGH; 3.13 ± 0.54 L/d). Regression analysis was performed to determine continuous relationships between measured variables. Group differences (p < 0.05) were observed for tension (MOD = 7.2 ± 5.4, HIGH = 4.4 ± 2.9), depression (LOW = 4.5 ± 5.9, HIGH = 1.7 ± 2.3), confusion (MOD = 5.9 ± 3.4, HIGH = 4.0 ± 2.1), and TMD (LOW=19.0 ± 21.8, HIGH=8.2 ± 14.2). After accounting for other mood influencers, TWI predicted TMD (r2 = 0.104; p = 0.050). The above relationships suggest the amount of water a woman consumes is associated with mood state.


      PubDate: 2015-06-01T13:27:43Z
       
  • Appetite, appetite hormone and energy intake responses to two consecutive
           days of aerobic exercise in healthy young men
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Jessica A. Douglas , James A. King , Ewan McFarlane , Luke Baker , Chloe Bradley , Nicole Crouch , David Hill , David J. Stensel
      Single bouts of exercise do not cause compensatory changes in appetite, food intake or appetite regulatory hormones on the day that exercise is performed. It remains possible that such changes occur over an extended period or in response to a higher level of energy expenditure. This study sought to test this possibility by examining appetite, food intake and appetite regulatory hormones (acylated ghrelin, total peptide-YY, leptin and insulin) over two days, with acute bouts of exercise performed on each morning. Within a controlled laboratory setting, 15 healthy males completed two, 2-day long (09:00–16:00) experimental trials (exercise and control) in a randomised order. On the exercise trial participants performed 60 min of continuous moderate-high intensity treadmill running (day one: 70.1 ± 2.5% VO2max, day two: 70.0 ± 3.2% VO2max (mean ± SD)) at the beginning of days one and two. Across each day appetite perceptions were assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite regulatory hormones were measured from venous blood samples. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were determined from meals provided two and six hours into each day and from a snack bag provided in-between trial days. Exercise elicited a high level of energy expenditure (total = 7566 ± 635 kJ across the two days) but did not produce compensatory changes in appetite or energy intake over two days (control: 29,217 ± 4006 kJ; exercise: 28,532 ± 3899 kJ, P > 0.050). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any main effects for acylated ghrelin or leptin (all P > 0.050). However a significant main effect of trial (P = 0.029) for PYY indicated higher concentrations on the exercise vs. control trial. These findings suggest that across a two day period, high volume exercise does not stimulate compensatory appetite regulatory changes.


      PubDate: 2015-05-26T16:43:53Z
       
  • The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals.
           Cross-sectional analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Jennifer Remnant , Jean Adams
      Background: Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. Methods: We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges (‘healthier’, luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. Results: 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of ‘healthier’ meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Conclusions: Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available – particularly amongst meals specifically marked as ‘healthier’. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as ‘healthier’.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
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