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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2556 journals)

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International Journal of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (25 followers)
International Journal of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
International Journal of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Journal of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
International Journal of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
International Journal of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (4 followers)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (2 followers)
International Journal of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (16 followers)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription  
International Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
International Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
International Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
International Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription  
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription  
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Japan and the World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Japanese Dental Science Review     Full-text available via subscription  
JCC Open : Journal de Cas Cliniques     Open Access  
Joint Bone Spine     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Jornal de Pediatria     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de Mycologie Médicale / Journal of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (19 followers)
Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Journal of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (562 followers)
Journal of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Journal of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Journal of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (114 followers)
Journal of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Journal of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (7 followers)
Journal of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Journal of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (5 followers)
Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (6 followers)
Journal of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (82 followers)
Journal of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (8 followers)
Journal of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
Journal of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Journal of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (24 followers)
Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access  
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (14 followers)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (12 followers)
Journal of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Appetite    [11 followers]  Follow    
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]   [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
  • A qualitative, cross cultural examination of attitudes and behaviour in
           relation to cooking habits in France and Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Andy Gatley , Martin Caraher , Tim Lang
      Food campaigners, policy makers, journalists and academics continue to debate an alleged decline in home cooking, a corresponding increase in individualised eating habits and the impact of such trends upon public health. The focus of this research was to examine and compare current domestic food practices in Britain with those of another country, namely France. In-depth interviews with 27 members of the public drawn from both countries enabled the researchers to explore people’s actual cooking practices in the home. Analysis of the data revealed that respondents from both countries often lacked time to cook and increasingly relied on a mix of both raw and convenience-type foods to varying degrees. A range of cooking skills was employed in the home, although confidence in relation to cooking was more varied with the French respondents who demonstrated a greater willingness to ‘cook from scratch’. There was some evidence of men on both sides of The Channel engaging with cooking in the home although this often formed part of a leisure activity undertaken at weekends and for special occasions.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T01:08:03Z
       
  • Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among
           Australian children aged 10–12years. Cross-sectional and
           longitudinal associations with dietary patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Rebecca M. Leech , Sarah A. McNaughton , David A. Crawford , Karen J. Campbell , Natalie Pearson , Anna Timperio
      Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β =0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β =1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β =−0.56, 95% CI: −1.06, −0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T01:08:03Z
       
  • Sweet delusion. Glucose drinks fail to counteract ego depletion
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Florian Lange , Frank Eggert
      Initial acts of self-control have repeatedly been shown to reduce individuals’ performance on a consecutive self-control task. In addition, sugar containing drinks have been demonstrated to counteract this so-called ego-depletion effect, both when being ingested and when merely being sensed in the oral cavity. However, since the underlying evidence is less compelling than suggested, replications are crucially required. In Experiment 1, 70 participants consumed a drink containing either sugar or a non-caloric sweetener between two administrations of delay-discounting tasks. Experiment 2 (N =115) was designed to unravel the psychological function of oral glucose sensing by manipulating the temporal delay between a glucose mouth rinse and the administration of the consecutive self-control task. Despite applying powerful research designs, no effect of sugar sensing or ingestion on ego depletion could be detected. These findings add to previous challenges of the glucose model of self-control and highlight the need for independent replications.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T01:08:03Z
       
  • Using crowdsourcing to compare temporal, social temporal, and probability
           discounting among obese and non-obese individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Warren K. Bickel , A. George Wilson , Christopher T. Franck , E. Terry Mueller , David P. Jarmolowicz , Mikhail N. Koffarnus , Samantha J. Fede
      Previous research comparing obese and non-obese samples on the delayed discounting procedure has produced mixed results. The aim of the current study was to clarify these discrepant findings by comparing a variety of temporal discounting measures in a large sample of internet users (n =1163) obtained from a crowdsourcing service, Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). Measures of temporal, social–temporal (a combination of standard and social temporal), and probability discounting were obtained. Significant differences were obtained on all discounting measures except probability discounting, but the obtained effect sizes were small. These data suggest that larger-N studies will be more likely to detect differences between obese and non-obese samples, and may afford the opportunity, in future studies, to decompose a large obese sample into different subgroups to examine the effect of other relevant measures, such as the reinforcing value of food, on discounting.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T01:08:03Z
       
  • Attitudes and beliefs on the establishment of a national food safety
           authority in Cyprus. A population-based survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Andreas Hadjigeorgiou , Michael A. Talias , Elpidoforos S. Soteriades , Anastasios Philalithis , Anna Psaroulaki , Achilleas Gikas , Yiannis Tselentis
      Cyprus does not have a National Food Safety Authority (NFSA), but a multi-level, fragmented system with responsibilities divided among different ministries and governmental agencies, frequently impeding efforts to effectively manage food risks by duplication and overlapping of responsibilities. A population-based survey was carried out to determine the beliefs and attitudes of interested parties concerning the establishment of a NFSA in Cyprus. Information was collected using a random stratified sampling design and a structured questionnaire. A total of 868 questionnaires were collected (704 from regular consumers, 154 from food businesses’ representatives, and 10 from public services’ directors or acting head officers). About 11% of food businesses’ representatives and 45% of consumers reported that they did not know which public authorities are responsible for food control. Moreover, 2 out of 10 (17%) of responders from public agencies, 70% from food businesses and 91% from consumers, although not aware of ongoing efforts to establish a food safety authority in Cyprus (currently under consideration), were supportive of the idea [8 out of 10 (83%) of responders from public services, 93% from food businesses, and 89% of consumers]. Finally, 7 out of 10 (67%) from the public agencies and 84% of representatives from food businesses agreed with the separation of risk assessment from risk management activities. Public opinion in Cyprus as well as public agencies and food businesses’ representatives support the establishment of a single independent national food safety authority in Cyprus based on the European paradigm including the division of risk activities.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T01:08:03Z
       
  • Eating behavior, restraint status, and BMI of individuals high and low in
           perceived self-regulatory success
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Christine Nguyen , Janet Polivy
      The Perceived Self-Regulatory Success (PSRS) scale was developed to assess self-reported success at dieting and has been used to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieters (Fishbach, Friedman, & Kruglanski, 2003). We re-analyzed data from seventeen studies in order to examine whether PSRS predicted in-lab eating behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters. We also explored the relation between body mass index, restraint, current dieting, and responding on the PSRS scale. It was found that successful dieters do not necessarily eat less than do unsuccessful dieters when a tempting food is available. Additionally, individuals who considered themselves to be successful dieters were more likely to be unrestrained eaters and current non-dieters than restrained eaters and current dieters. However, regardless of restraint status, individuals high in PSRS had lower BMI than those low in PSRS. These findings suggest that those who score high on the PSRS scale may not be concerned with regulating eating and weight. However, the restrained eaters who do score high on the PSRS scale appear to be successful at controlling their weight, despite not eating less in the lab.


      PubDate: 2014-01-25T01:08:03Z
       
  • Clinical validity of the descriptor. “Presence of a belief that one
           must eat in order to get to sleep” in diagnosing the Night Eating
           Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Piergiuseppe Vinai , Silvia Cardetti , Stacia Studt , Gabriella Carpegna , Noemi Ferrato , Paola Vallauri , Halpern Casey , Luisa Vinai , Paolo Vinai , Luigi Ferini Strambi , Maurizio Speciale , Mauro Manconi
      The diagnostic criteria for the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) published in 2010 require the presence of two core criteria: evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal awakenings for ingestion of food and three of five diagnostic descriptors. One of the descriptors is as follows: “The belief that one must eat in order to fall asleep”. In this study we evaluated whether this conviction is significantly more prominent in obese individuals suffering from insomnia and nocturnal eating, than among obese patients with insomnia who do not eat at night. Ninety-eight obese subjects afflicted by insomnia were included in this study. Eight were affected by NES, 33 by Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and 13 by both BED and NES. Subjects’ insomnia and sleep disturbances were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index and the Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire. The presence of the belief that one must eat at night in order to sleep was evaluated with the question: “Do you need to eat in order to get back to sleep when you wake up at night?” Patients affected by NES and by both BED and NES were convinced that nocturnal food intake was necessary in order to fall back asleep after a night time awakening. The presence of this belief seemed to be a critical factor in identifying the presence of the Night Eating Syndrome among obese subjects suffering from insomnia.


      PubDate: 2014-01-21T00:38:31Z
       
  • A brief mindfulness intervention reduces unhealthy eating when hungry, but
           not the portion size effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): David Marchiori , Esther K. Papies
      Objective: The present research examined the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention to foster healthy eating. Specifically, we tested whether a brief mindfulness manipulation can prevent the portion size effect, and reduce overeating on unhealthy snacks when hungry. Methods: 110 undergraduate participants (M Age =20.9±2.3; M BMI =22.3±2.5) were served a small or a large portion of chocolate chip cookies after listening to an audio book or performing a mindfulness exercise (i.e., body scan). Current level of hunger was assessed unobtrusively on a visual analog scale before the eating situation. Main outcome measure: Calorie intake from chocolate chip cookies. Results: When presented with a large compared to a small portion, participants consumed more cookies (+83kcal). This was not affected by the mindfulness intervention or by hunger. However, while control participants ate more unhealthy food when hungry than when not hungry (+67kcal), participants in the mindfulness condition did not (+1kcal). Conclusions: Findings confirm the prevalence and robustness of the portion size effect and suggest that it may be independent from awareness of internal cues. Prevention strategies may benefit more from targeting awareness of the external environment. However, mindfulness-based interventions may be effective to reduce effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption.


      PubDate: 2014-01-21T00:38:31Z
       
  • Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of
           participant-driven-photo-elicitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Lise Justesen , Bent E. Mikkelsen , Szilvia Gyimóthy
      A patients’ hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients’ hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines this with interviews, which can provide deeper insight into multisensory experiences beyond verbal or written discourse. The sample consisted of eight hospitalised patients. Patients completed a photo-essay of their hospital meal experience during a single day at a Danish hospital and afterwards participated in an open-ended interview. Two inductive analytical approaches were selected to assess the patients’ reflections on their hospital meal experiences. First, the interview transcripts were analysed using the Semiotic Analysis approach using qualitative data analysis software NVivo 9. Second, the 91 produced photographs and the participants’ engagement with the photographs were analysed by means of a Reflexive Content Analysis. The study found that PDPE is a research method that can be used for expanding the conceptualisation of hospital meal experiences, revealing the significance of the meal context, materiality and memories beyond food per se.


      PubDate: 2014-01-21T00:38:31Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74




      PubDate: 2014-01-21T00:38:31Z
       
  • Analyses of meal patterns across dietary shifts
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Yada Treesukosol , Timothy H. Moran
      The direct controls of meal size can be categorized into positive signals such as those from the oral cavity and negative signals such as postoral inhibitory cues. It follows that the relative contribution of these signals, and in turn meal pattern parameters, change across periods of high-energy diet exposure. Here, we compared daily intake and meal pattern analysis in male Sprague–Dawley rats presented a high-energy diet for 6weeks then standard chow for ∼1week (HE), with those of standard chow fed controls (CHOW). These measures allow for evaluation of (1) whether there are distinct dynamic and static phases of DIO and if so, how they are characterized, (2) how meal patterns change across short and long term HE experience, and (3) ingestive behavioral changes when HE-fed animals are returned to standard chow. The HE animals showed significantly higher intake primarily driven by an increase in meal size compared to CHOW controls. This was most pronounced during the first several days of high-energy diet exposure thus characterizing the dynamic phase. Intake and meal size decreased with longer exposure to the diet but remained significantly higher than those of CHOW. Increased meal size could be driven by enhanced orosensory stimulation and/or reduced sensitivity to postoral inhibitory feedback. Distribution curves derived from histogram plots of meal size revealed both larger average meal size (right shift) and spread (standard deviation) thus it is tempting to speculate that more than one type of mechanism influences increased meal size. Meal number decreased suggesting post meal inhibitory signaling is relatively intact. However, this increase was insufficient to compensate for the increased meal size. When HE animals were switched to standard chow, daily intake and meal size decreased and eventually returned to values comparable to those of the CHOW rats. Meal number remained lower suggesting altered physiological mechanism(s) that underlie the control of ingestive behavior as a function of previous high-energy diet exposure.


      PubDate: 2014-01-21T00:38:31Z
       
  • Evaluation of a pictorial method to assess liking of familiar fruits and
           vegetables among preschool children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Virginia Carraway-Stage , Hillary Spangler , Michelle Borges , L. Suzanne Goodell
      Research suggests fruit and vegetable (FV) preferences greatly influence on FV intake. Methods for assessing children’s FV preference in a reliable and valid manner are needed. The purpose of this study was to develop a practical, reliable, and valid method for evaluating FV liking among preschool-aged children using photographs.
      Authors formatively assessed a series of digital FV photographs and hedonic scales to develop content for the liking measure. The measure for assessment included 20 high-quality, digital photographs presenting 13 FVs. A non-gendered 5-point face scale (super yummy to super yucky) was chosen to determine level of liking. We used this measure to establish reliability (i.e., test re-test) and concurrent validity (i.e., photograph versus tasting experience) of the pictorial method. Data were analyzed using Spearman’s Rho Correlation Coefficients and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The measure demonstrated varying levels of reliability/validity for individual FV items and the fruit scale; however, the vegetable scale and collapsed FV scale were determined to be valid measures.
      Authors recommended the removal of one weak pictorial fruit item (halved peach) from the fruit and FV scales to improve validity. The final recommended measure included 19 high-quality, digital photographs presenting 12 FVs. The pictorial FV measure and subscales may be useful for assessing FV liking among groups of preschool-aged children within the studied population. Additional research is needed to further validate the use of the pictorial FV measures in a larger, more generalizable sample.


      PubDate: 2014-01-17T00:09:53Z
       
  • Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating
           behavior traits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Outi Törnwall , Karri Silventoinen , Tero Hiekkalinna , Markus Perola , Hely Tuorila , Jaakko Kaprio
      Subgroups based on flavor preferences were identified and their genetic and behavior related characteristics investigated using extensive data from 331 Finnish twins (21–25years, 146 men) including 47 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and 51 twin individuals. The subgroup identification (hierarchical and K-means clustering) was based on liking responses to food names representing sour, umami, and spicy flavor qualities. Furthermore, sensory tests were conducted, a questionnaire on food likes completed, and various eating behavior related traits measured with validated scales. Sensory data included intensity ratings of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil-impregnated filter paper), hedonic and intensity responses to sourness (orange juice with and without added citric acid, 0.42%), pungency (strawberry jelly with and without added capsaicin 0.00013%) and umami (‘mouthfeel flavor’ taste solution). Ratings of liking of 41 general food names were categorized into salty-and-fatty, sweet-and-fatty, fruits and vegetables and fish foods. Subgroup differences (complex samples procedure) and the genetics underlying the subgroups (structural equation modeling) were investigated. Of the resulting two groups (basic, n =140, adventurous n =152; non-grouped n =39), the adventurous expressed higher liking for sour and spicy foods, and had more tolerance for capsaicin burn in the sensory-hedonic test. The adventurous were also less food neophobic (25.9±9.1 vs. 32.5±10.6, respectively) and expressed higher liking for fruits and vegetables compared to the basic group. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the subgroups (heritability 72%, CI: 36–92%). Linkage analysis for 27 candidate gene regions revealed suggestively that being adventurous is linked to TAS1R1 and PKD1L3 genes. These results indicate that food neophobia and genetic differences may form a barrier through which individual flavor preferences are generated.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T23:37:30Z
       
  • Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children’s
           eating and body mass index. A prospective study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Heidi Bergmeier , Helen Skouteris , Sharon Horwood , Merrilyn Hooley , Ben Richardson
      Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother–child interaction, preschoolers’ eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy–difficult temperaments, mother–child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy–difficult temperament and mother–child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother–child interaction.


      PubDate: 2014-01-12T23:37:30Z
       
  • Reported consumption of takeaway food and its contribution to
           socioeconomic inequalities in body mass index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Kyoko Miura , Gavin Turrell
      The aim of this study was to examine whether takeaway food consumption mediated (explained) the association between socioeconomic position and body mass index (BMI). A postal-survey was conducted among 1500 randomly selected adults aged between 25 and 64years in Brisbane, Australia during 2009 (response rate 63.7%, N =903). BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height. Participants reported usual takeaway food consumption, and these takeaway items were categorised into “healthy” and “less healthy” choices. Socioeconomic position was ascertained by education, household income, and occupation. The mean BMI was 27.1kg/m2 for men and 25.7kg/m2 for women. Among men, none of the socioeconomic measures were associated with BMI. In contrast, women with diploma/vocational education (β =2.12) and high school only (β =2.60), and those who were white-collar (β =1.55) and blue-collar employees (β =2.83) had significantly greater BMI compared with their more advantaged counterparts. However, household income was not associated with BMI. Among women, the consumption of “less healthy” takeaway food mediated BMI differences between the least and most educated, and between those employed in blue collar occupations and their higher status counterparts. Decreasing the consumption of “less healthy” takeaway options may reduce socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among women but not men.


      PubDate: 2014-01-08T23:13:18Z
       
  • Product reformulation in the food system to improve food safety.
           Evaluation of policy interventions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Giuseppe Marotta , Mariarosaria Simeone , Concetta Nazzaro
      The objective of this study is to understand the level of attention that the consumer awards to a balanced diet and to product ingredients, with a twofold purpose: to understand whether food product reformulation can generate a competitive advantage for companies that practice it and to evaluate the most appropriate policy interventions to promote a healthy diet. Reformulation strategy, in the absence of binding rules, could be generated by consumers. Results from qualitative research and from empirical analysis have shown that the question of health is a latent demand influenced by two main factors: a general lack of information, and the marketing strategies adopted by companies which bring about an increase in the information asymmetry between producers and consumers. In the absence of binding rules, it is therefore necessary that the government implement information campaigns (food education) aimed at increasing knowledge regarding the effects of unhealthy ingredients, in order to inform and improve consumer choice. It is only by means of widespread information campaigns that food product reformulation can become a strategic variable and allow companies to gain a competitive advantage. This may lead to virtuous results in terms of reducing the social costs related to an unhealthy diet.
      Highlights • Consumer awareness and attention with respect to food safety. • Product reformulation can be generated by consumer demand. • The lack of consumer information and the effects of communication practices. • Information campaign must increase the knowledge about unhealthy ingredients. • Information campaigns can allow some companies to gain a competitive advantage.

      PubDate: 2014-01-08T23:13:18Z
       
  • Successful and unsuccessful restrained eating. Does dispositional
           self-control matter?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Carmen Keller , Michael Siegrist
      In a random sample (N =1078) from the general population, this study examined whether individual differences in dispositional self-control can explain restrained eaters’ success in controlling their weight. A regression analysis with body mass index (BMI) as dependent variable revealed a significant negative association between dispositional self-control and BMI, and a significant positive association between dietary restraint and BMI. These effects were qualified by a significant interaction between restraint and self-control. Among restrained eaters, the association between self-control and BMI was significantly more negative than among normal eaters. Furthermore, among female restrained eaters higher dispositional self-control scores were associated with BMIs within the normal-weight range (BMI<25) and lower dispositional self-control scores were associated with BMIs within the overweight range (BMI>25). Among male restrained eaters very high scores on dispositional self-control were associated with BMIs within the normal-weight range, whereas medium or low scores on self-control were associated with BMIs within the overweight range. Results suggest that high dispositional self-control facilitates successful restrained eating.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T19:11:08Z
       
  • A new biomarker of hedonic eating? A preliminary investigation of
           cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Jennifer Daubenmier , Robert H. Lustig , Frederick M. Hecht , Jean Kristeller , Josh Woolley , Tanja Adam , Mary Dallman , Elissa Epel
      Overweight and obese individuals differ in their degree of hedonic eating. This may reflect adaptations in reward-related neural circuits, regulated in part by opioidergic activity. We examined an indirect, functional measure of central opioidergic activity by assessing cortisol and nausea responses to acute opioid blockade using the opioid antagonist naltrexone in overweight/obese women (mean BMI=31.1±4.8) prior to the start of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress eating. In addition, we assessed indices of hedonic-related eating, including eating behaviors (binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, restraint) and intake of sweets/desserts and carbohydrates (Block Food Frequency); interoceptive awareness (which is associated with dysregulated eating behavior); and level of adiposity at baseline. Naltrexone-induced increases in cortisol were associated with greater emotional and restrained eating and lower interoceptive awareness. Naltrexone-induced nausea was associated with binge eating and higher adiposity. Furthermore, in a small exploratory analysis, naltrexone-induced nausea predicted treatment response to the mindfulness intervention, as participants with more severe nausea at baseline maintained weight whereas those with little or no nausea responses tended to gain weight. These preliminary data suggest that naltrexone-induced cortisol release and nausea may help identify individuals who have greater underlying food reward dependence, which leads to an excessive drive to eat. Future research is needed to confirm this finding and to test if these markers of opioidergic tone might help predict success in certain types of weight management programs.


      PubDate: 2014-01-04T19:11:08Z
       
  • Quinine sensitivity influences the acceptance of sea-buckthorn and
           grapefruit juices in 9- to 11-year-old children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Ditte Hartvig , Helene Hausner , Karin Wendin , Wender L.P. Bredie
      The acceptance of novel foods by children is related to a number of factors, and differences in taste sensitivity may form some specific challenges. High sensitivity might be a barrier to the acceptance of sour/bitter products by children. This study investigated the effect of sensitivity to bitter, sour, sweet, and salty tastes on the acceptance of Nordic juices in 9- to 11-year-old children. A total of 328 children were subjected to two taste sensitivity tests for quinine, citric acid, sucrose, and NaCl. Their acceptance of six juices (carrot, rosehip, sea-buckthorn, lingonberry, grapefruit, and aronia) was measured. Bitter sensitivity was found to be significantly correlated to the intake of the sweet sea-buckthorn and lingonberry juices; the most bitter-sensitive children exhibited the highest intake of these juices. The opposite relationship was found for bitter sensitivity and the intake of the bitter grapefruit juice. Sour, sweet, and salt sensitivities did not affect the intake of any of the juices. Liking scores were not affected by sensitivity. In conclusion, bitter sensitivity appears to influence food intake in children to a greater extent than sour, sweet, or salt sensitivity. Bitter-sensitive children exhibited a reduced intake of grapefruit juice and a higher intake of sucrose-sweetened juices. Thus, bitter sensitivity might be a challenge in the acceptance of certain bitter foods.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T07:31:45Z
       
  • Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight
           status at four years of age
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Kimberley M. Mallan , Smita Nambiar , Anthea M. Magarey , Lynne A. Daniels
      The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an ‘eating in the absence of hunger’ paradigm, children’s energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother–child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7–4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5–4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r =−.40, p =.023, and partial r =−.40, p =.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r =−.42, p =.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly ‘healthy weight’ sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children’s early eating behaviour styles.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T07:31:45Z
       
  • Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among
           adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Malinauskiene Vilija , Malinauskas Romualdas
      The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N =1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents.


      PubDate: 2013-12-27T07:31:45Z
       
  • Parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and its
           association with students’ school lunch participation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Punam Ohri-Vachaspati
      This study explores the association between parental perception of the nutritional quality of school meals and whether students eat lunch served at school. We use data from five low-income cities in New Jersey that have high minority populations. Students whose parents perceive the quality of school meals to be healthy have greater odds of eating meals served at school. Recent changes in guidelines for the United States Department of Agriculture’s National School Lunch Program met with resistance from several fronts. Advocates for and implementers of improved school meals may benefit from partnering with parents to increase the acceptance and utilization of improved school offerings.


      PubDate: 2013-12-24T04:09:24Z
       
  • Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating
           attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Roeline G. Kuijer , Jessica A. Boyce
      Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either ‘guilt’ or ‘celebration’ with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration.


      PubDate: 2013-12-24T04:09:24Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73




      PubDate: 2013-12-24T04:09:24Z
       
  • Food and wellbeing. Towards a consumer-based approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Gastón Ares , Luis De Saldamando , Ana Giménez , Rosires Deliza
      Interest in understanding how foods affect consumers’ perceived wellbeing has grown in the last decade due to the increasing need to modify dietary patterns. Considering that wellbeing is a broad concept that lacks of a unique definition, in order to use and measure this concept it is necessary to explore how consumers understand it, particularly in the context of food consumption. The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers’ perception of wellbeing in a food-related context using an exploratory qualitative approach. A study was carried out with 120 Uruguayan participants using three qualitative techniques: word association, open-ended questions and free listing. Wellbeing in a food-related context was strongly associated with physical health. The expected effects of foods on wellbeing were mainly related to non-communicable diseases such as high cholesterol levels, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. However, hedonic and emotional aspects of food consumption were also salient for consumers perceived wellbeing. The information gathered in this study can contribute to the development of scales for measuring consumer perceived wellbeing when consuming foods.


      PubDate: 2013-12-24T04:09:24Z
       
  • Relationships between expected, online and remembered enjoyment for food
           products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Eric Robinson
      How enjoyable a food product is remembered to be is likely to shape future choice. The present study tested the influence that expectations and specific moments during consumption experiences have on remembered enjoyment for food products. Sixty-four participants consumed three snack foods (savoury, sweet and savoury-sweet) and rated expected and online enjoyment for each product. Twenty-four hours later participants rated remembered enjoyment and future expected enjoyment for each product. Remembered enjoyment differed to online enjoyment for two of the three products, resulting in the foods being remembered as less enjoyable than they actually were. Both expected enjoyment and specific moments during the consumption experience (e.g. the least enjoyable mouthful) influenced remembered enjoyment. However, the factors that shaped remembered enjoyment were not consistent across the different food products. Remembered enjoyment was also shown to be a better predictor of future expected enjoyment than online enjoyment. Remembered enjoyment is likely to influence choice behaviour and can be discrepant to actual enjoyment. Specific moments during a consumption experience can have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment (whilst others are neglected), but the factors that determine which moments influence remembered enjoyment are unclear.


      PubDate: 2013-12-24T04:09:24Z
       
  • Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin,
           cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Kate Raspopow , Alfonso Abizaid , Kimberly Matheson , Hymie Anisman
      Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N =103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions.


      PubDate: 2013-12-24T04:09:24Z
       
  • Balancing virtual land imports by a shift in the diet. Using a land
           balance approach to assess the sustainability of food consumption. Germany
           as an example
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Toni Meier , Olaf Christen , Edmund Semler , Gerhard Jahreis , Lieske Voget-Kleschin , Alexander Schrode , Martina Artmann
      Nutrition is considered as one of the main drivers of global environmental change. Dietary patterns in particular, embedded in the international trade of foods and other biomass based commodities, determine the dimension of beneficial or harmful environmental impacts of the agri-food sector – both domestically and abroad. In this study we analysed different dietary scenarios from a virtual land flow perspective, based on representative consumption data for Germany in the years 2006 and 1985–89. Further we identified the consumer groups that would have to adapt most to balance Germany’s virtual land import and analysed the impact reduced food wastage. For the study, official data sets concerning production, trade and consumption were used. We derived land use data from environmentally extended input–output data sets and FAO statistics. The conversion of agricultural raw products to consumed commodities is based on official processing and composition data. Subgroup-specific intake data from the last representative National Nutrition Survey in Germany were used. We analysed 42 commodities, aggregated into 23 product groups, seven land use types and six nutrition scenarios. The results show that in the baseline scenario the average nutrition in the year 2006 leads to a virtual land import of 707m2 p−1 a−1, which represents 30% of the total nutrition-induced land demand of 2365m2 p−1 a−1. On the other hand, the German agri-food sector exports virtual land, in the form of commodities, equivalent to 262m2 p−1 a−1. In this paper we calculate that the resulting net import of virtual land could be balanced by way of a shift to an officially recommended diet and a reduction in the consumption of stimulants (cocoa, coffee, green/black tea, wine). A shift to an ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diet would even lead to a positive virtual land balance (even with maintained consumption of stimulants). Moreover, we demonstrate that a shift in the average diet profile could lead to maintained or even expanded export competitiveness and simultaneously enable environmental benefits. Since such a diet shift complies with official dietary recommendations, it follows that public health benefits may well result. We show further that a reduction of avoidable food losses/wastage would not be sufficient to level out the virtual land balance of the average nutrition in Germany. Regarding the dietary developments in the last 20years, we argue that a dietary shift resulting in a zero land balance is within reach. The population groups that would have to be addressed most are younger and middle-aged men. Nevertheless, women’s land saving potentials should not be ignored neither. Due to the fact that a western-style diet prevails in Germany, we argue that our basic findings are applicable to other industrialised and densely populated countries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-12-20T02:28:31Z
       
  • Barriers to climate-friendly food choices among young adults in Finland
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Jaana-Piia Mäkiniemi , Annukka Vainio
      The aim of the study was to examine how young adults in Finland perceive barriers to climate-friendly food choices and how these barriers are associated with their choices. The participants were 350 university students of the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The study found that the barriers the participants perceived as being the most relevant were different from those that were associated with the omission of climate-friendly food choices. High prices were perceived as the most relevant barrier, but were only weakly associated with the participants’ food choices. Instead, habit and disbelief in the effects of food consumption on the climate were found to be the barriers that had the greatest association with climate-friendly choices. Moreover, women considered high prices and poor supply more important compared to men, whereas men considered disbelief and habit more important. In addition, vegetarians perceived fewer barriers than those who followed other diets. The findings increase our understanding of young adults’ perceptions of barriers to climate-friendly food choices, as well as their effects.


      PubDate: 2013-12-20T02:28:31Z
       
  • Food consumption by young children: A function of parental feeding goals
           and practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Allison E. Kiefner-Burmeister , Debra A. Hoffmann , Molly R. Meers , Afton M. Koball , Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children’s eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3–6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children’s eating and have implications for parental health education programs.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T20:43:16Z
       
  • Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic
           hunger? An experimental study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 74
      Author(s): Ashley A. Witt , Greer A. Raggio , Meghan L. Butryn , Michael R. Lowe
      Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants’ responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N =67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the “Fed” group drank a protein shake, while those in the “Fasted” group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the “Food Exposure” group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while “Food Absence” participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p’s<.33). All effect sizes were small (partial etas squared ⩽.015). Manipulation checks confirmed that the intended hunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures.


      PubDate: 2013-12-11T20:43:16Z
       
  • Could capsaicinoids help to support weight management? A systematic
           review and meta-analysis of energy intake data
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): S. Whiting , E.J. Derbyshire , B. Tiwari
      Objective: Capsaicinoids are a group of chemicals naturally occurring in chilli peppers with bioactive properties that may help to support weight management. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis investigating the potential effects of capsaicinoids on energy intake, to clarify previous observations and form evidence-based conclusions about possible weight management roles. Methods: Medical databases (Medline, Web of Knowledge and Scopus) were systematically searched for papers. Search terms were: ‘capsaicin*’ or ‘red pepper’ or ‘chilli*’ or ‘chili*’ with ’satiety’ or ‘energy intake’. Of the seventy-four clinical trials identified, 10 were included, 8 of which provided results suitable to be combined in analysis (191 participants). From the studies, 19 effect sizes were extracted and analysed using MIX meta-analysis software. Results: Data analysis showed that capsaicinoid ingestion prior to a meal reduced ad libitum energy intake by 309.9kJ (74.0kcal) p <0.001 during the meal. Results, however, should be viewed with some caution as heterogeneity was high (I 2 =75.7%). Study findings suggest a minimum dose of 2mg of capsaicinoids is needed to contribute to reductions in ad libitum energy intake, which appears to be attributed to an altered preference for carbohydrate-rich foods over foods with a higher fat content. Conclusions: Meta-anlysis findings suggest that daily consumption of capsaicinoids may contribute to weight management through reductions in energy intake. Subsequently, there may be potential for capsaicinoids to be used as long-term, natural weight-loss aids. Further long-term randomised trials are now needed to investigate these effects.


      PubDate: 2013-12-07T18:31:50Z
       
  • Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information
           provided by the FTNS
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Fabio Verneau , Francesco Caracciolo , Adele Coppola , Pasquale Lombardi
      Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia–neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers’ behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia–neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T17:43:26Z
       
  • Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in
           families with young children. A mixed methods study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Rebecca Meysenburg , Julie A. Albrecht , Ruth Litchfield , Paula K. Ritter-Gooder
      Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2013-12-03T17:43:26Z
       
  • Does modifying the thick texture and creamy flavour of a drink change
           portion size selection and intake?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Keri McCrickerd , Lucy Chambers , Martin R. Yeomans
      Previous research indicates that a drink’s sensory characteristics can influence appetite regulation. Enhancing the thick and creamy sensory characteristics of a drink generated expectations of satiety and improved its actual satiating effects. Expectations about food also play an important role in decisions about intake, in which case enhancing the thick and creamy characteristics of a drink might also result in smaller portion size selection. In the current study forty-eight participants (24 female) completed four test days where they came into the laboratory for a fixed-portion breakfast, returning two hours later for a mid-morning drink, which they could serve themselves and consume as much as they liked. Over the test days, participants consumed an iso-energetic drink in four sensory contexts: thin and low-creamy; thin and high-creamy; thick and low-creamy; thick and high-creamy. Results indicated that participants consumed less of the thick drinks, but that this was only true of the female participants; male participants consumed the same amount of the four drinks regardless of sensory context. The addition of creamy flavour did not affect intake but the thicker drinks were associated with an increase in perceived creaminess. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across male and female participants and were not affected by the drinks sensory characteristics. The vast majority of participants consumed all of the drink they served themselves indicating that differences in intake reflected portion size decisions. These findings suggest women will select smaller portions of a drink when its sensory characteristics indicate that it will be satiating.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T17:43:26Z
       
  • A preference test for sweet taste that uses edible strips
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Gregory Smutzer , Janki Y. Patel , Judith C. Stull , Ray A. Abarintos , Neiladri K. Khan , Kevin C. Park
      A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures.


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T17:43:26Z
       
  • Saints, sinners and non-believers: the moral space of food. A qualitative
           exploration of beliefs and perspectives on healthy eating of Irish adults
           aged 50–70
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Mary Delaney , Mary B. McCarthy
      Food choices can involve a moral element of which healthy eating has come to play a major part in recent years. This research aimed to explore the moral space of food for older adults in order to understand how they conceptualise and negotiate various moral demands in the context of their general food lives. In-depth interviews on the lived experience of food and eating were conducted with a purposive sample of 50 adults aged 50–70, who varied by dietary quality and health status. An inductive thematic analysis was carried out. Three major themes representing aspects of the “moral space of food” were identified. This moral space was influenced by old religious and secular moralities which have become intertwined with new moralities of “healthism”, a trend towards encouraging personal responsibility for health. Participants sought to maintain moral congruence by keeping their behaviour within moral boundaries through balance and moderation. Some resisted immoral positioning by highlighting their own autonomy or by challenging healthist ideology. A fundamental tension exists between the concept of healthy eating as desirable to remain a moral person while simultaneously being equated with sacrifice of pleasure and enjoyment. Healthist ideology perpetuates this tension, problematising enjoyment of food and bodies of those outside of the “norm”. Attempting to address negative moralistic undertones of healthy eating messages may help to engage public interest in nutrition.


      PubDate: 2013-11-29T14:38:50Z
       
  • The role of personal values in Chinese consumers’ food consumption
           decisions. A case study of healthy drinks
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Pui Yee Lee , Karen Lusk , Miranda Mirosa , Indrawati Oey
      Differences in culture, language, and behavior between Chinese and Western consumers make entering the Chinese market a challenge. Chinese consumers may desire similar product features (e.g. brand name, quality, and flavor) to Western consumers but the value that consumers attach to the same product may differ cross-nationally. Besides values, an understanding of desired product attributes and the consequences linking to these values is also important. To the authors’ knowledge, there is no published scientific research that investigates how personal values influence Chinese consumers’ food consumption decisions. The aim of this research was to identify the links among product attributes, consequences of these attributes, and personal values associated with healthy drink consumption decisions within the Chinese market. Specifically, this research employed means-end chain theory and used association pattern technique (APT) as the main data collection technique to identify these links. Focus groups (n =6) were held in Hangzhou, China to identify the important attributes and consequences involved in the consumption decisions of healthy drinks. These attributes and consequences along with Schwartz’s 10 basic values were used to construct the matrices included in the APT survey. A total of 600 APT surveys were administered in six different companies in Hangzhou, with 570 returned. Construction of the hierarchical value map (HVM) identified four of Schwartz’s personal values influencing Chinese consumers’ healthy drink consumption decisions: security, hedonism, benevolence, and self-direction. Food safety was the foremost concern for Chinese consumers when choosing healthy drinks. Chinese consumers also sought a good tasting and nutritious drink that was good value for money. Results from this study provide food marketers with an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers’ healthy drink consumption decisions. Implications and recommendations are provided that will assist food marketers to effectively enact marketing strategies in China.


      PubDate: 2013-11-29T14:38:50Z
       
  • Enhancing children’s vegetable consumption using vegetable-promoting
           picture books. The impact of interactive shared reading and
           character–product congruence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Simone M. de Droog , Moniek Buijzen , Patti M. Valkenburg
      The present study investigated whether and how a picture book promoting carrots can increase young children’s carrot consumption. One hundred and four children (aged 4–6years) participated in shared reading sessions using the book on five consecutive days in school. These children were assigned randomly to one of four experimental conditions. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, the reading style and character in the book were manipulated. The reading style was either passive (listening to the story) or interactive (also answering questions about the story). The character in the book fitted either conceptually well with carrots (a rabbit) or not (a turtle). Compared to a baseline group of 56 children who were not exposed to the book, the children in the experimental groups consumed almost twice as much carrots (in proportion to other foods consumed), F(1,159)=7.08, p <.01. Results suggest that picture books are particularly effective when children are actively involved, answering questions about the story. Young children seem to enjoy this interactive shared reading style, triggering positive feelings that increase children’s liking and consumption of the healthy food promoted in the book.


      PubDate: 2013-11-29T14:38:50Z
       
  • “You must eat the salad because it is nutritious”.
           Argumentative strategies adopted by parents and children in food-related
           discussions at mealtimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Antonio Bova , Francesco Arcidiacono
      At mealtimes, the evaluation of the appropriate (or not appropriate) behavior concerning the food is often assumed as a topic of discourse. The aim of this study is to single out the argumentative strategies used by parents with their children and by children with their parents in order to convince the other party to eat or not to eat a certain food. Within a data corpus constituted by 30 video-recorded meals of 10 middle to upper-middle-class Swiss and Italian families, we selected a corpus of 77 argumentative discussions between parents and children arisen around a food-related issue. Data are presented through discursive excerpts of argumentative discussions that were found within the data corpus and analyzed through the pragma-dialectical model of critical discussion. The results of this study show that the feeding practices in families with young children during mealtimes are argumentatively co-constructed by participants. In most cases parents put forward arguments based on the quality (e.g., very good, nutritious, salty, or not good) and quantity (e.g., too little, quite enough, or too much) of food to convince their children to eat. Similarly, children put forward arguments based on the quality and quantity of food to convince their parents to change their standpoint, although their view on the issue is the opposite of that of their parents.


      PubDate: 2013-11-29T14:38:50Z
       
  • Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income
           preschool-aged children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Julie C. Lumeng , Alison Miller , Karen E. Peterson , Niko Kaciroti , Julie Sturza , Katherine Rosenblum , Delia M. Vazquez
      This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3–4years. Mean salivary cortisol–intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with “hypocortisolism” reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys.


      PubDate: 2013-11-25T12:39:52Z
       
  • Assessment of consumers’ level of engagement in following
           recommendations for lowering sodium intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Julio Ernesto Mendoza , Grietje Anna Schram , JoAnne Arcand , Spencer Henson , Mary L’Abbe
      Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers’ level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers’ engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of an online food panel survey from Ontario during November and December 2010. Rasch modelling was used for the analysis. Consumers were less likely to be engaged in 9 out of the 23 recommendations, in particular those related to avoiding foods higher in sodium and implementing sodium reduction strategies while eating in restaurants. Higher level of consumers’ engagement was observed in relation to food preparation practices, including use of low sodium ingredients. In comparison to the relevant reference group, men, older individuals, with lower educational level, single, and those who do not prepare food from scratch showed an overall lower level of engagement in following recommendations to lowering dietary sodium, particularly related to avoiding processed foods. These data provide novel insights and can inform public education campaigns, and highlight the need for interventions and programs targeted at the food supply that can assist consumers in lowering their sodium intake.


      PubDate: 2013-11-21T21:49:53Z
       
  • Interrelationships among impulsive personality traits, food addiction, and
           Body Mass Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Cara M. Murphy , Monika K. Stojek , James MacKillop
      Objective: Impulsive personality traits have been robustly associated with alcohol and drug misuse, but have received little attention in the context of food addiction. The goal of the current study was to examine the interrelationships between impulsive personality traits, food addiction, and Body Mass Index (BMI), including indirect pathways of influence. Method: Participants (N =233) completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to assess patterns of addictive consumption of food, the UPPS-P Impulsivity Scale to assess impulsive personality traits, and provided weight and height to generate BMI. Results: Significant positive associations were found between facets of impulsivity, food addiction symptoms, and BMI. Impulsivity was found to be indirectly associated with BMI by way of associations with addictive consumption of food. In particular, an inclination toward behaving irrationally while experiencing negative mood states (Negative Urgency) and low levels of task persistence (lack of Perseverance) were significantly associated with food addiction directly and that relationship was responsible for their relationship to BMI. Conclusions: Dispositional impulsivity, routinely associated with high-risk behaviors including addictive consumption of alcohol and drugs, may be an important risk factor when considering tendency to engage in addictive consumption of food. Monitoring food addiction symptoms early may help reduce the likelihood that compulsive food consumption patterns result in weight gain and obesity. Methodological considerations are discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-11-21T21:49:53Z
       
  • Validation of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a sample
           of Spanish women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): A. Cebolla , J.R. Barrada , T. van Strien , E. Oliver , R. Baños
      The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure of the Spanish version of the DEBQ using updated psychometric techniques in a sample of women. A sample of 647 Spanish females answered the questionnaire. Both exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis were used to evaluate the factor structure of the DEBQ. Reliabilities were estimated with Cronbach’s alpha. The relations between the subscales of the DEBQ and age, BMI, and scores on the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT) and the Restrained Scale-Revised (RS) were computed with Pearson correlations. Results showed that the internal structure was similar to the theoretical proposal, although items associated with boredom and idleness presented cross-loading problems. The reliability estimates were satisfactory. The Emotional and External Eating factors correlated with the BMI, and External Eating was negatively correlated with age. The Restraint factor of the DEBQ showed significant relationships with scales of the EAT-26 and RS. The dimensional validity of the DEBQ is reproduced in a Spanish sample, and the DEBQ seems to be an effective instrument for research in Spanish females. Minor modifications to the DEBQ are recommended.


      PubDate: 2013-11-21T21:49:53Z
       
  • The effect of energy and traffic light labelling on parent and child fast
           food selection: a randomised controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Pennie Dodds , Luke Wolfenden , Kathy Chapman , Lyndal Wellard , Clare Hughes , John Wiggers
      Objectives: Labelling of food from fast food restaurants at point-of-purchase has been suggested as one strategy to reduce population energy consumption and contribute to reductions in obesity prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of energy and single traffic light labelling systems on the energy content of child and adult intended food purchases. Participants and methods: The study employed a randomised controlled trial design. English speaking parents of children aged between three and 12years were recruited from an existing research cohort. Participants were mailed one of three hypothetical fast food menus. Menus differed in their labelling technique – either energy labels, single traffic light labels, or a no-label control. Participants then completed a telephone survey which assessed intended food purchases for both adult and child. The primary trial outcome was total energy of intended food purchase. Results: A total of 329 participants completed the follow-up telephone interview. Eighty-two percent of the energy labelling group and 96% of the single traffic light labelling group reported noticing labelling information on their menu. There were no significant differences in total energy of intended purchases of parents, or intended purchases made by parents for children, between the menu labelling groups, or between menu labelling groups by socio-demographic subgroups. Conclusions: This study provided no evidence to suggest that energy labelling or single traffic light labelling alone were effective in reducing the energy of fast food items selected from hypothetical fast food menus for purchase. Additional complementary public health initiatives promoting the consumption of healthier foods identified by labelling, and which target other key drivers of menu item selection in this setting may be required.


      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:19:13Z
       
  • Dads at the dinner table. A cross-sectional study of Australian
           fathers’ child feeding perceptions and practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Kimberley M. Mallan , Lynne A. Daniels , Michaela Nothard , Jan M. Nicholson , Andrew Wilson , Cate M. Cameron , Paul A. Scuffham , Karen Thorpe
      Maternal perceptions and practices regarding child feeding have been extensively studied in the context of childhood overweight and obesity. To date, there is scant evidence on the role of fathers in child feeding. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify whether characteristics of fathers and their concerns about their children’s risk of overweight were associated with child feeding perceptions and practices. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 436 Australian fathers (mean age=37years, SD =6) of a child (53% boys) aged between 2 and 5years (M =3.5years, SD =0.9). These data included a range of demographic variables and selected subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire on concern about child weight, perceived responsibility for child feeding and controlling practices (pressure to eat and restriction). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between demographic variables and fathers’ feeding perceptions and practices. Results indicated that fathers’ who were more concerned about their child becoming overweight reported higher perceived responsibility for child feeding and were more controlling of what and how much their child eats. Greater time commitment to paid work, possessing a health care card (indicative of socioeconomic disadvantage) and younger child age were associated with fathers’ perceiving less responsibility for feeding. Factors such as paternal BMI and education level, as well as child gender were not associated with feeding perceptions or practices. This study contributes to the extant literature on fathers’ role in child feeding, revealing several implications for research and interventions in the child feeding field.


      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:19:13Z
       
  • Association between the seven-repeat allele of the dopamine-4 receptor
           gene (DRD4) and spontaneous food intake in pre-school children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Patrícia Pelufo Silveira , André Krumel Portella , James L. Kennedy , Hélène Gaudreau , Caroline Davis , Meir Steiner , Claudio N. Soares , Stephen G. Matthews , Marla B. Sokolowski , Laurette Dubé , Eric B. Loucks , Jill Hamilton , Michael J. Meaney , Robert D. Levitan
      Background: Studies in adults show associations between the hypofunctional seven-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), increased eating behaviour and/or obesity, particularly in females. We examined whether 7R is associated with total caloric intake and/or food choices in pre-schoolers. Methods: 150 four-year-old children taking part in a birth cohort study in Canada were administered a snack test meal in a laboratory setting. Mothers also filled out a food frequency questionnaire to address childrens’ habitual food consumption. Total caloric and individual macronutrient intakes during the snack meal and specific types of foods as reported in the food diaries were compared across 7R allele carriers vs. non-carriers, using current BMI as a co-variate. Results: We found significant sex by genotype interactions for fat and protein intake during the snack test. Post hoc testing revealed that in girls, but not boys, 7R carriers ate more fat and protein than did non-carriers. Based on the food diaries, across both sexes, 7R carriers consumed more portions of ice cream and less vegetables, eggs, nuts and whole bread, suggesting a less healthy pattern of habitual food consumption. Conclusion: The 7R allele of DRD4 influences macronutrient intakes and specific food choices as early as four years of age. The specific pattern of results further suggests that prior associations between the 7R allele and adult overeating/obesity may originate in food choices observable in the preschool years. Longitudinal follow-up of these children will help establish the relevance of these findings for obesity risk and prevention.


      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:19:13Z
       
  • Effects of restriction on children’s intake differ by child
           temperament, food reinforcement, and parent’s chronic use of
           restriction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Brandi Y. Rollins , Eric Loken , Jennifer S. Savage , Leann L. Birch
      Parents’ use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children’s intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch’s (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children’s (3–5y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child’s inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of Fisher and Birch (1999b) and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children’s regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that the use of restriction does not reduce children’s consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.


      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:19:13Z
       
  • Self-regulation and the intention behaviour gap. Exploring dietary
           behaviours in university students
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Barbara Mullan , Vanessa Allom , Amy Brogan , Emily Kothe , Jemma Todd
      The aim of this study was to explore whether two aspects of self-regulation (impulsivity and temporal orientation) could reduce the intention–behaviour gap for two dietary behaviours: fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat consumption. Australian undergraduate students (N =154) completed questionnaires (the Barratt impulsiveness scale and the consideration of future consequences scale) and intention measures, and 1week later behaviour was measured using the Block rapid food screener. After controlling for demographics, intention was associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, but the self-regulation measures did not further improve the variance accounted for. For saturated fat, gender was associated with consumption, such that males tended to consume more saturated fat. Intention was significantly associated with consumption, and impulsivity further improved the model such that those who were more impulsive tended to consume more saturated fat. These findings suggest that health protective and health risk behaviours, such as those investigated in the current study, may have different determinants.


      PubDate: 2013-11-17T20:19:13Z
       
  • Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Matthew D. Gunderson , Dennis Clements , Sara E. Benjamin Neelon
      Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods—30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p <0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity.


      PubDate: 2013-11-13T21:19:48Z
       
 
 
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