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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3177 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Otolaryngologia Polska     Partially Free   (SJR: 0.192, h-index: 12)
Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 52)
Otolaryngology Case Reports     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review A : Natural Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Pacific-Basin Finance J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 36)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.734, h-index: 46)
Paediatrics & Child Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.429, h-index: 22)
Paediatrics and Child Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 14)
Pain Management Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 36)
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.501, h-index: 112)
Palaeoworld     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 20)
Papillomavirus Research     Open Access  
Parallel Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 55)
Parasite Epidemiology and Control     Open Access  
Parasitology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 46)
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 66)
Particuology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.682, h-index: 32)
Pathogenesis     Open Access   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 4)
Pathology - Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 48)
Pathophysiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.614, h-index: 38)
Patient Education and Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.279, h-index: 96)
Pattern Recognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.051, h-index: 146)
Pattern Recognition Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.225, h-index: 109)
Pediatría     Open Access  
Pediatria Polska     Partially Free   (SJR: 0.132, h-index: 8)
Pediatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 67)
Pediatric Dental J.     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.109, h-index: 1)
Pediatric Hematology Oncology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Infectious Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.819, h-index: 73)
Pediatrics & Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.546, h-index: 23)
Pedobiologia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 51)
Pedosphere     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.71, h-index: 34)
Península     Open Access  
Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.128, h-index: 96)
Performance Enhancement & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.246, h-index: 7)
Performance Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 50)
Pergamon Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 2)
Perinatología y Reproducción Humana     Open Access  
Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Perioperative Medizin     Full-text available via subscription  
Perioperative Nursing Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 5)
Personality and Individual Differences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.16, h-index: 108)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.451, h-index: 22)
Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Personalized Medicine Universe     Full-text available via subscription  
Perspectives in Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Perspectives in Medical Virology     Full-text available via subscription  
Perspectives in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.406, h-index: 56)
Perspectives in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 38)
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 55)
PET Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 13)
Petroleum Exploration and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.972, h-index: 24)
Pharmacochemistry Library     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.819, h-index: 57)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.108, h-index: 99)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.09, h-index: 158)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.121, h-index: 110)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 6)
Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophy and Foundations of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Photoacoustics     Open Access   (SJR: 2.073, h-index: 8)
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.678, h-index: 30)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 28)
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 115)
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.509, h-index: 77)
Physica C: Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.472, h-index: 71)
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.049, h-index: 102)
Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 66)
Physica Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 24)
Physical Acoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 19)
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.516, h-index: 41)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Techniques in the Study of Art, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 30)
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 26)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 137)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.186, h-index: 216)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.615, h-index: 39)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.099, h-index: 15)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.14, h-index: 83)
Physics Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 23)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 8.102, h-index: 209)
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 62)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.245, h-index: 122)
Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.769, h-index: 35)
Phytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 134)
Phytochemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.484, h-index: 22)
Phytomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.013, h-index: 84)
Piel     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 6)
Placenta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.608, h-index: 98)
Planetary and Space Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98, SJR: 1.072, h-index: 69)
Plant Gene     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 84)
Plant Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.601, h-index: 107)
Plasmid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.891, h-index: 46)
PM&R (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 32)
Poetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.867, h-index: 41)
Polar Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 13)
Polish Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.928, h-index: 68)
Polski Przegląd Otorynolaryngologiczny : Polish J. of Otorhinolaryngology Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 78)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 197)
Polymer Contents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.241, h-index: 112)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 0.947, h-index: 69)
Porto Biomedical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • A multidimensional approach to understanding the potential risk factors
           and covariates of adult picky eating
    • Authors: Jordan M. Ellis; Rebecca R. Schenk; Amy T. Galloway; Hana F. Zickgraf; Rose Mary Webb; Denise M. Martz
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Jordan M. Ellis, Rebecca R. Schenk, Amy T. Galloway, Hana F. Zickgraf, Rose Mary Webb, Denise M. Martz
      Objective Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. Methods A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables. A structural equation modeling procedure tested a series of regression models that included BMI and disordered eating behaviors as covariates. Results SEM modeling indicated that retrospective reports of greater parental pressure to eat, higher disgust sensitivity, lower PE age of onset, and experiencing an aversive food event were associated with general adult PE behavior. Results also indicated parental encouragement of healthy eating may be a protective factor, and that men endorsed higher levels of adult PE. Exploratory analyses indicated that cross-sectional predictors and covariates were differentially related to specific aspects of PE as measured by the APEQ subscales. Conclusions Early experiences, including parental approaches to feeding, appear to be potential risk factors of PE behavior in adults. A nuanced understanding of adult PE is important for the prevention and treatment of severe PE behaviors, related psychosocial impairment, and ARFID.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Steps toward understanding the impact of early emotional experiences on
           disordered eating: The role of self-criticism, shame, and body image shame
    • Authors: Ana Carolina Gois; Cláudia Ferreira; Ana Laura Mendes
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Ana Carolina Gois, Cláudia Ferreira, Ana Laura Mendes
      In research, it has been suggested that early threatening emotional experiences, characterized by abuse, rejection, neglect or absence of affiliative signals may activate maladaptive defensive responses. Further, several studies have emphasised the association between the recall of early emotional experiences and eating psychopathology. However, this relationship does not seem to be direct. Thus, the current study explored the mediator roles of self-criticism and shame (general and body image-focused shame) in the link between early emotional experiences and the engagement in disordered eating, while controlling for the effect of body mass index. The sample of this study included 552 female participants, aged between 18 and 40 years old. The path analysis indicated that the absence of early positive emotional experiences was associated with disordered eating behaviours, through an increased perception of being negatively perceived as inferior or unattractive by others, self-critical attitudes, and body image-focused shame. The tested model accounted for 63% of body image shame and for 67% of disordered eating's variance, and showed an excellent model fit. These findings suggest that shame and self-criticism are defensive mechanisms associated with early threatening emotional experiences, which may trigger disordered eating behaviours. These data appear to offer important research and clinical implications supporting the development of intervention community programs for body and eating difficulties, that specifically target shame (general and body image-focused shame) and self-criticism, through the development of more adaptive emotional regulation strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Premenstrual appetite and emotional responses to foods among women with
           premenstrual dysphoric disorder
    • Authors: Ju-Yu Yen; Tai-Ling Liu; I-Ju Chen; Su-Yin Chen; Chih-Hung Ko
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Ju-Yu Yen, Tai-Ling Liu, I-Ju Chen, Su-Yin Chen, Chih-Hung Ko
      The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in late-luteal appetite for highly sweet (HS) and highly salty and fatty (HSF) foods in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). After initial assessment in a psychiatric interview, the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) was used to identify women with moderate-to-severe premenstrual symptoms. Sixty-seven women with PMDD and 74 healthy controls were evaluated in the early-follicular and late-luteal (pre-menstrual) phases of the menstrual cycle. Because the PSST is designed to assess symptoms only in the late-luteal phase, an 11-point Likert scale was used to rate PMDD symptoms once a week in the evaluation mentioned previously and the following two menstrual cycles. Participants were shown pictures of 15 highly sweet (HS) and 15 highly salty and fatty (HSF) foods, desire to eat each food was rated on an eleven-point Likert scale (0, “none at all”; 10, “extreme desire”), and sweet-food craving was rated using the food craving-state questionnaire. Emotional responses to the foods were measured with a four-point Likert scale we previously validated. Depression, irritability, and impulsivity were measured with standard psychiatric instruments. Women with PMDD, but not control women, had late-luteal phase elevations in desire to eat HS food, sweet-food craving and emotional responses to HS foods. Desire to eat for HSF foods did not differ significantly across the menstrual cycle between groups. There were significant correlations between emotional responses to and desire to eat HS foods. Moreover, late-luteal phase irritability and impulsivity scores were associated with desire to eat HS foods. These data suggest that targeted assessment of increased late-luteal appetites for HS foods may facilitate clinical interventions in women with PMDD.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.029
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Pre- and postprandial variation in implicit attention to food images
           reflects appetite and sensory-specific satiety
    • Authors: Graeme R. Davidson; Timo Giesbrecht; Anna M. Thomas; Tim C. Kirkham
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Graeme R. Davidson, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna M. Thomas, Tim C. Kirkham
      Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety. Participants were required to detect targets within a rapid visual stream, presented after task-irrelevant food (preferred or non-preferred sandwiches, or desserts) or non-food distractor images. All categories of food distractor preferentially captured attention even when appetite levels were low, but became more distracting as appetite increased preprandially, reducing task accuracy maximally as hunger peaked before lunch. Postprandially, attentional capture was markedly reduced for images of the specific sandwich type consumed and, to a lesser extent, for images of other sandwich types that had not been eaten. Attentional capture by images of desserts was unaffected by satiation. These findings support an important role of selective visual attention in the guidance of motivated behaviour. Naturalistic, meal-related changes in appetite are accompanied by changes in implicit attention to visual food stimuli that are easily detected using the EBA paradigm. Preprandial enhancement of attention capture by food cues likely reflects increases in the incentive motivational value of all food stimuli, perhaps providing an implicit index of wanting. Postprandial EBA responses confirm that satiation on a particular food results in relative inattention to that food, supporting an important attentional component in the operation of sensory-specific satiety.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.028
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Similar taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed Dutch and
           Malaysian foods
    • Authors: Pey Sze Teo; Astrid W.B. van Langeveld; Korrie Pol; Els Siebelink; Cees de Graaf; See Wan Yan; Monica Mars
      Pages: 32 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Pey Sze Teo, Astrid W.B. van Langeveld, Korrie Pol, Els Siebelink, Cees de Graaf, See Wan Yan, Monica Mars
      Three recent studies showed that taste intensity signals nutrient content. However, current data reflects only the food patterns in Western societies. No study has yet been performed in Asian culture. The Malaysian cuisine represents a mixture of Malay, Chinese and Indian foods. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste intensity and nutrient content in commonly consumed Dutch (NL) and Malaysian (MY) foods. Perceived intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation were assessed for 469 Dutch and 423 Malaysian commonly consumed foods representing about 83% and 88% of an individual's average daily energy intake in each respective country. We used a trained Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) with quantitative sensory Spectrum™ 100-point rating scales and reference solutions, R1 (13-point), R2 (33-point) and R3 (67-point). Dutch and Malaysian foods had relatively low mean sourness and bitterness (<R1), but higher mean sweetness, saltiness and fat sensation (between R1 and R2). Mean umami taste intensity of Malaysian foods (15-point) was higher than that of Dutch foods (8-point). Positive associations were found between sweetness and mono- and disaccharides (R2 = 0.67 (NL), 0.38 (MY)), between umami and protein (R2 = 0.29 (NL), 0.26 (MY)), between saltiness and sodium (R2 = 0.48 (NL), 0.27 (MY)), and between fat sensation and fat content (R2 = 0.56 (NL), 0.17(MY)) in Dutch and Malaysian foods (all, p < 0.001). The associations between taste intensity and nutrient content are not different between different countries, except for fat sensation-fat content. The two dimensional basic taste-nutrient space, representing the variance and associations between tastes and nutrients, is similar between Dutch and Malaysian commonly consumed foods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Measurement of food-related approach–avoidance biases: Larger biases
           when food stimuli are task relevant
    • Authors: Anja Lender; Adrian Meule; Mike Rinck; Timo Brockmeyer; Jens Blechert
      Pages: 42 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Anja Lender, Adrian Meule, Mike Rinck, Timo Brockmeyer, Jens Blechert
      Strong implicit responses to food have evolved to avoid energy depletion but contribute to overeating in today's affluent environments. The Approach–Avoidance Task (AAT) supposedly assesses implicit biases in response to food stimuli: Participants push pictures on a monitor “away” or pull them "near" with a joystick that controls a corresponding image zoom. One version of the task couples movement direction with image content-independent features, for example, pulling blue-framed images and pushing green-framed images regardless of content (‘irrelevant feature version’). However, participants might selectively attend to this feature and ignore image content and, thus, such a task setup might underestimate existing biases. The present study tested this attention account by comparing two irrelevant feature versions of the task with either a more peripheral (image frame color: green vs. blue) or central (small circle vs. cross overlaid over the image content) image feature as response instruction to a ‘relevant feature version’, in which participants responded to the image content, thus making it impossible to ignore that content. Images of chocolate-containing foods and of objects were used, and several trait and state measures were acquired to validate the obtained biases. Results revealed a robust approach bias towards food only in the relevant feature condition. Interestingly, a positive correlation with state chocolate craving during the task was found when all three conditions were combined, indicative of criterion validity of all three versions. However, no correlations were found with trait chocolate craving. Results provide a strong case for the relevant feature version of the AAT for bias measurement. They also point to several methodological avenues for future research around selective attention in the irrelevant versions and task validity regarding trait vs. state variables.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.032
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Mindfulness and laboratory eating behavior in adolescent girls at risk for
           type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: Shelly K. Annameier; Nichole R. Kelly; Amber B. Courville; Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Jack A. Yanovski; Lauren B. Shomaker
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Shelly K. Annameier, Nichole R. Kelly, Amber B. Courville, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A. Yanovski, Lauren B. Shomaker
      Mindfulness-based intervention has become increasingly popular to address disinhibited eating in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Theoretically, present-moment attention promotes the ability to recognize and respond to internal hunger cues and to differentiate physiological hunger from other stimuli. Yet, there is limited research describing the relationship of mindfulness with disinhibited eating patterns in adolescents. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to laboratory eating in 107 adolescent (12–17 years) girls at risk for T2D. Adolescents reported dispositional mindfulness, were evaluated for recent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) by interview, and participated in two successive, standardized laboratory test meals to assess eating when hungry as well as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Adolescents rated state appetite throughout the test meal paradigms. In analyses adjusting for body composition and other possible confounds, mindfulness was inversely related to caloric intake during the EAH paradigm. Mindfulness did not relate to energy intake when hungry. Instead, there was a significant interaction of reported LOC-eating by state hunger, such that girls with recent, reported LOC-eating and high state hunger consumed more calories when hungry, regardless of mindfulness. Findings suggest that in girls at risk for T2D, mindfulness may play a role in disinhibited eating. A propensity for LOC-eating may be most salient for overeating in a high hunger state.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.030
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Do children with obesity have worse table manners' Associations
           between child table manners, weight status and weight gain
    • Authors: Naomi F. Briones; Robert J. Cesaro; Danielle P. Appugliese; Alison L. Miller; Katherine L. Rosenblum; Megan H. Pesch
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Naomi F. Briones, Robert J. Cesaro, Danielle P. Appugliese, Alison L. Miller, Katherine L. Rosenblum, Megan H. Pesch
      Background Children with obesity experience stigma stemming from stereotypes, one such stereotype is that people with obesity are “sloppy” or have poor manners. Teaching children “proper table manners” has been proposed as an obesity prevention strategy. Little is known about the association between children's weight status and table manners. Objectives To examine correlates of child table manners and to examine the association of child table manners with child obese weight status and prospective change in child body mass index z-score (BMIz). Methods Mother-child dyads (N = 228) participated in a videotaped laboratory eating task with cupcakes. Coding schemes to capture child table manners (making crumbs, chewing with mouth open, getting food on face, shoving food in mouth, slouching, and getting out of seat), and maternal attentiveness to child table manners, were reliably applied. Anthropometrics were measured at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Regression analyses examined the association of participant characteristics with child table manners, as well as the associations of child table manners with child obese weight status, and prospective change in BMIz/year. Results Predictors of poorer child table manners were younger child age, greater cupcake consumption, and greater maternal attentiveness to child table manners. Poorer child table manners were not associated with child obese (vs. not) weight status, but were associated with a prospective decrease in BMIz/year in children with overweight/obesity. Conclusions Obesity interventions to improve table manners may be perpetuating unfavorable stereotypes and stigma. Future work investigating these associations is warranted to inform childhood obesity guidelines around table manners.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • A treat for the eyes. An eye-tracking study on children's attention to
           unhealthy and healthy food cues in media content
    • Authors: Ines Spielvogel; Jörg Matthes; Brigitte Naderer; Kathrin Karsay
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Ines Spielvogel, Jörg Matthes, Brigitte Naderer, Kathrin Karsay
      Based on cue reactivity theory, food cues embedded in media content can lead to physiological and psychological responses in children. Research suggests that unhealthy food cues are represented more extensively and interactively in children's media environments than healthy ones. However, it is not clear to this date whether children react differently to unhealthy compared to healthy food cues. In an experimental study with 56 children (55.4% girls; M age = 8.00, SD = 1.58), we used eye-tracking to determine children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues embedded in a narrative cartoon movie. Besides varying the food type (i.e., healthy vs. unhealthy), we also manipulated the integration levels of food cues with characters (i.e., level of food integration; no interaction vs. handling vs. consumption), and we assessed children's individual susceptibility factors by measuring the impact of their hunger level. Our results indicated that unhealthy food cues attract children's visual attention to a larger extent than healthy cues. However, their initial visual interest did not differ between unhealthy and healthy food cues. Furthermore, an increase in the level of food integration led to an increase in visual attention. Our findings showed no moderating impact of hunger. We conclude that especially unhealthy food cues with an interactive connection trigger cue reactivity in children.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.033
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Changes in eating behavior and plasma leptin in children with obesity
           participating in a family-centered lifestyle intervention
    • Authors: Tamara R. Cohen; Tom J. Hazell; Catherine A. Vanstone; Celia Rodd; Hope A. Weiler
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Tamara R. Cohen, Tom J. Hazell, Catherine A. Vanstone, Celia Rodd, Hope A. Weiler
      The goal of childhood obesity lifestyle interventions are to positively change body composition, however it is unknown if interventions also modulate factors that are related to energy intake. This study aimed to examine changes in eating behaviors and plasma leptin concentrations in overweight and obese children participating in a 1-year family-centered lifestyle intervention. Interventions were based on Canadian diet and physical activity (PA) guidelines. Children were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: Control (Ctrl; no intervention), Standard treatment (StnTx: 2 servings milk and alternatives/day (d), 3x/wk weight-bearing PA), or Modified treatment (ModTx: 4 servings milk and alternatives/day; daily weight-bearing PA). Study visits occurred every 3-months for 1-y; interventions were held once a month for 6-months with one follow-up visit at 8-months. Ctrl received counselling after 1-y. Caregivers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and reported on diet and activity. Plasma leptin were measured from morning fasted blood samples. Seventy-eight children (mean age 7.8 ± 0.8 y; mean BMI 24.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated; 94% completed the study. Compared to baseline, at 6-months StnTx reduced Emotional Overeating and Desire to Drink scores (p < 0.05) while Food Responsiveness scores were reduced in both StnTx and ModTx (p < 0.05). At 1-year, scores for Desire to Drink in StnTx remained reduced compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Plasma leptin concentrations were significantly lower in ModTx at 6-months compared to baseline (p < 0.05). This study resulted in intervention groups favorably changing eating behaviors, supporting the use family-centered lifestyle interventions using Canadian diet and PA recommendations for children with obesity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the
           Family Diet Study
    • Authors: Wai Yew Yang; Tracy Burrows; Lesley MacDonald-Wicks; Lauren T. Williams; Clare E. Collins; Winnie Siew Swee Chee
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Wai Yew Yang, Tracy Burrows, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lauren T. Williams, Clare E. Collins, Winnie Siew Swee Chee
      Background and aims Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. Materials and method The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8–12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Results Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of ‘perceived child overweight’ was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). Children who were overweight (F = 37.4; p < 0.001) and under-reported energy intake (F = 13.1; p = 0.001) had higher median scores for the parental perception of risk of child being overweight. Median scores for the CCO and PTE domains were significantly higher in low-income families (F = 7.87; F = 9.75; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Malay parents in this present study are concerned about their child's weight, particularly for those overweight. Family size, household income, and child weight status significantly influence parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.037
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • The buffer effect of body compassion on the association between shame and
           body and eating difficulties
    • Authors: Sara Oliveira; Inês A. Trindade; Cláudia Ferreira
      Pages: 118 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Sara Oliveira, Inês A. Trindade, Cláudia Ferreira
      Body compassion is a new construct which incorporates two multidimensional concepts: body image and self-compassion. Self-compassion has been revealed as a protective mechanism against body image and eating-related-related disturbances, including eating disorders. However, the study of this compassionate competence specifically focused on the domain of the body is still largely unexplored. This study aims to test whether body compassion moderate the impact of external shame on body image shame and disordered eating, in a sample of 354 women from the Portuguese general population. Correlation analyses showed that body compassion was negatively associated with experiences of shame and disordered eating. Path analysis results demonstrated the existence of a moderator effect of body compassion on the relationship between general feelings of shame and both body image shame and related behaviours, and disordered eating symptomatology. In fact, results suggested that body compassion buffered the impact of general feelings of shame on these psychopathological indices, with the tested model accounting for 46% and 39% of the variance of body image shame and disordered eating, respectively. This study contributes to a better understanding of the role of body compassion in body image and eating difficulties. Body compassion seems to be an important protector of these difficulties in women by buffering the effects of general shame on body image shame and related body concealment behaviours, as well as disordered eating. The findings from this study thus appear to offer important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of promoting body compassion in prevention and treatment programs for body image difficulties and disordered eating.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Ecology shapes moral judgments towards food-wasting behavior: Evidence
           from the Yali of West Papua, the Ngorongoro Maasai, and Poles
    • Authors: Michał Misiak; Marina Butovskaya; Piotr Sorokowski
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Michał Misiak, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski
      People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles. What's more, Yali judge food wasting harsher than Poles. These results suggest that there are cultural differences in moral judgments of food wasting. These differences might reflect the impact of unstable ecology on food economy of a given society. We hypothesize that harsh moral judgment concerning food waste may serve as a cultural adaptation for food insecurity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Cross-sectional associations between maternal self-efficacy and dietary
           intake and physical activity in four-year-old children of first-time
           Swedish mothers
    • Authors: Jeanett Friis Rohde; Bohman Benjamin; Berglind Daniel; Lena M. Hansson; Frederiksen Peder; Erik Lykke Mortensen; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann; Rasmussen Finn
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Jeanett Friis Rohde, Bohman Benjamin, Berglind Daniel, Lena M. Hansson, Frederiksen Peder, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann, Rasmussen Finn
      Background Healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours are established early in life where children learn by observing their parents. Therefore, parents can act as role models and influence their children toward a healthier lifestyle. Besides a strong association between parental and child health behaviours, parents also influence their children's health behaviours through socio-cognitive processes, where perceived self-efficacy is the central component. The objective was to examine if parental self-efficacy among Swedish mothers was associated with their four-year-old children's dietary and physical activity behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on information from control participants that took part in the Swedish primary prevention trial of childhood obesity (PRIMROSE) (n = 420 mother-child pairs). Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between parental self-efficacy (Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting Healthy Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours in Children Scale) and children's dietary intake (parent reported) and levels of physical activity (accelerometer) with adjustments for potential confounders. Results Mothers' efficacy beliefs in promoting healthy dietary or physical activity behaviours in their children were associated with a slightly higher consumption of fruit and vegetables among their children (β: 0.03 [95%CI: 0.01; 0.04] P < 0.001) and slightly higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous activity (β: 0.43 [95%CI: 0.05; 0.81] P = 0.03). Mothers' belief in their ability to limit unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours was inversely associated with children's intake of unhealthy snacks (β: −0.06 [95%CI: −0.10; −0.02] P < 0.01). Conclusion Our cross-sectional study suggests weak positive correlations between maternal self-efficacy and healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours, and weak inverse associations between maternal self-efficacy and unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours among their children.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.026
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Brain response to food cues varying in portion size is associated with
           individual differences in the portion size effect in children
    • Authors: Kathleen L. Keller; Laural K. English; S. Nicole Fearnbach; Marlou Lasschuijt; Kaitlin Anderson; Maria Bermudez; Jennifer O. Fisher; Barbara J. Rolls; Stephen J. Wilson
      Pages: 139 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Kathleen L. Keller, Laural K. English, S. Nicole Fearnbach, Marlou Lasschuijt, Kaitlin Anderson, Maria Bermudez, Jennifer O. Fisher, Barbara J. Rolls, Stephen J. Wilson
      Large portions promote intake of energy dense foods (i.e., the portion size effect--PSE), but the neurobiological drivers of this effect are not known. We tested the association between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) brain response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) and children's intake at test-meals of high- and low-ED foods served at varying portions. Children (N = 47; age 7–10 years) participated in a within-subjects, crossover study consisting of 4 meals of increasing PS of high- and low-ED foods and 1 fMRI to evaluate food images at 2 levels of PS (Large, Small) and 2 levels of ED (High, Low). Contrast values between PS conditions (e.g., Large PS - Small PS) were calculated from BOLD signal in brain regions implicated in cognitive control and reward and input as covariates in mixed models to determine if they moderated the PSE curve. Results showed a significant effect of PS on intake. Responses to Large relative to Small PS in brain regions implicated in salience (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex) were positively associated with the linear slope (i.e., increase in intake from baseline) of the PSE curve, but negatively associated with the quadratic coefficient for the total meal. Responses to Large PS High ED relative to Small PS High ED cues in regions associated with cognitive control (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were negatively associated with the linear slope of the PSE curve for high-ED foods. Brain responses to PS cues were associated with individual differences in children's susceptibility to overeating from large portions. Responses in food salience regions positively associated with PSE susceptibility while activation in control regions negatively associated with PSE susceptibility.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Eating with eyes – Comparing eye movements and food choices between
           overweight and lean individuals in a real-life buffet setting
    • Authors: Eunice Wang; Yusuf O. Cakmak; Mei Peng
      Pages: 152 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Eunice Wang, Yusuf O. Cakmak, Mei Peng
      Researchers have long sought to pinpoint factors underpinning individual differences in eating behaviour. Emerging data from eye-tracking studies have suggested that attentional biases to food exist among individuals and food types. However, such studies have thus far relied on food images and computerised tasks, limiting real-world implications. The present study tested 32 healthy male participants (16 being overweight) for attentional biases in an ad libitum buffet setting, using wearable eye-trackers. The eye-tracking analyses suggested that sugar content moderated visual fixation biases (p < 0.05), whereas BMI exerted significant effects on pupil diameter (p < 0.05). In addition, findings from the study revealed tripartite relationships between eye-tracking, self-reported liking, and ad libitum intake. Although visual fixation in the “view” condition was correlated with liking for high-calorie food, further analyses showed that this measure was not a strong predictor of food selection. Instead, visual fixation during the selection task could be the key predictor for selection of savoury food. In contrast, neither eye-tracking nor self-reported measures could adequately predict selection of desserts, implicating distinct decision-making processes for different types of food. Due to the small sample size, findings from this study should be replicated in future research. Overall, this study highlights the importance of realistic experimental settings in eye-tracking studies for understanding eating behaviour.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Who eats with family and how often' Household members and work styles
           influence frequency of family meals in urban Japan
    • Authors: Wakako Takeda; Melissa K. Melby; Yuta Ishikawa
      Pages: 160 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Wakako Takeda, Melissa K. Melby, Yuta Ishikawa
      Family commensality, or meals eaten together with family members, is a key practice to understand the socio-cultural organization of eating and family lives. Yet empirical evidence is limited outside of western societies, which have different household structures, work styles, and socio-cultural constructions of the practice. This study examined frequencies of family commensality based on 242 surveys of Japanese adults aged between 20 and 85 in two metropolitan areas. Results showed that family commensality is less frequent not only among those living alone, but also among those living with only non-partners including adult children, parents, and non-family members, than among those living with partners. Full-time employment was associated with late dinner times on weekdays. Later weekday dinner times were strongly associated with reduced frequency of dinners together. Late dinners have become commonplace among full-time workers in postwar Japan, and the peak dinner time in Japan occurs later than in other developed countries. Thus, work and lifestyle constraints impacting schedules appear to influence the frequency of family commensality. Our results suggest that frequencies of family commensality are influenced by co-residents and work styles of participants rather than household sizes. The idea that reduction of household size drives reduction of family commensality may be biased by previous studies conducted in western countries where most people reside in either single or nuclear households. Our study highlights complex determinants of family commensality, beyond presence of other household members, and demonstrates a need for rigorous investigation of family commensality across cultures.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Subjective satiety and plasma PYY concentration after wholemeal pasta
    • Authors: Giuseppina Costabile; Ettore Griffo; Paola Cipriano; Claudia Vetrani; Marilena Vitale; Gianfranco Mamone; Angela A. Rivellese; Gabriele Riccardi; Rosalba Giacco
      Pages: 172 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Giuseppina Costabile, Ettore Griffo, Paola Cipriano, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Gianfranco Mamone, Angela A. Rivellese, Gabriele Riccardi, Rosalba Giacco
      Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30±2 yrs (mean±SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Participants consumed on two different days, at one week interval, 117g of wholemeal pasta or 100g of refined wheat pasta (control pasta), similar in energy and macronutrient composition except for fiber amount, which was higher in wholemeal pasta (11 vs 3 g). Appetite ratings, glucose/insulin/lipid and gastrointestinal hormone responses were measured at fasting and for 4-h after the ingestion of the pasta tests, after which self-reported energy intake for 8-h was evaluated. After the wholemeal pasta, the desire to eat and the sensation of hunger were lower (-16%, p=0.04 and -23%, p=0.004, respectively) and satiety was higher (+13%; p=0.08) compared with the control pasta; no effect on self-reported energy intake at subsequent meal was observed. After wholemeal pasta, glucose, triglyceride increased and GLP-1 responses were not different compared to control pasta but insulin response at 30 min (p<0.05) and ghrelin at 60 min (p=0.03) were lower and PYY levels higher (AUC=+44%, p=0.001). The appetite rating changes correlated with PYY plasma levels (p<0.03). In conclusion, consumption of whole grain instead of refined wheat pasta contributed to appetite control but did not seem to influence acute energy balance. Appetite ratings were associated with modifications in PYY hormone concentrations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • A process and outcome evaluation of an in-class vegetable promotion
    • Authors: Gael Myers; Shannon Wright; Sally Blane; Iain S. Pratt; Simone Pettigrew
      Pages: 182 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Gael Myers, Shannon Wright, Sally Blane, Iain S. Pratt, Simone Pettigrew
      Objective Nutrition interventions that target both fruits and vegetables are effective in increasing fruit consumption, but have been limited in their ability to improve vegetable intake. To address the low proportion of children meeting vegetable intake guidelines, approaches specifically targeting vegetables are needed. This paper reports on a mixed-method analysis of a 10-week vegetable promotion pilot project that aimed to increase vegetable intake as part of the existing Crunch&Sip in-class fruit and vegetable break program. Design The intervention was designed to promote vegetable consumption through the implementation of vegetable-focused resources, including curriculum resources and parent education materials. Teachers completed pre- and end-of-intervention surveys. Process measures related to the use of resources and teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. The outcome evaluation included measures of children's vegetable consumption during Crunch&Sip breaks and teachers' attitudes and confidence relating to educating students about the benefits of consuming vegetables. Subjects Twenty-one Western Australian primary schools already participating in the Crunch&Sip program participated in the pilot intervention and evaluation. Coverage included 35 primary school teachers representing 818 students aged 4–11 years. Results The proportion of children bringing vegetables for Crunch&Sip more than doubled over the 10-week intervention (21% vs 46%; p < 0.001). Improvements were observed in teachers' perceived knowledge about the nutritional benefits of vegetables (p = 0.001) and confidence to educate students about the benefits of vegetable consumption (p = 0.028). Conclusions Preferentially promoting vegetable consumption as part of an existing school-based nutrition program may be an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • (Not) Eating for the environment: The impact of restaurant menu design on
           vegetarian food choice
    • Authors: Linda Bacon; Dario Krpan
      Pages: 190 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Linda Bacon, Dario Krpan
      Previous research has shown that restaurant menu design can influence food choices. However, it remains unknown whether such contextual effects on food selection are dependent on people's past behavior. In the present study, we focused on vegetarian food choices, given their important implications for the environment, and investigated whether the influence of different restaurant menus on the likelihood of selecting a vegetarian dish is moderated by the number of days on which people reported eating only vegetarian food during the previous week. In an online scenario, participants were randomly assigned to four different restaurant menu conditions—control (all dishes presented in the same manner), recommendation (vegetarian dish presented as chef's recommendation), descriptive (more appealing description of vegetarian dish), and vegetarian (vegetarian dishes placed in a separate section)—and ordered a dish for dinner. The results showed that the recommendation and descriptive menus increased the likelihood of vegetarian dish choices for infrequent eaters of vegetarian foods, whereas these effects tended to reverse for those who ate vegetarian meals more often. The vegetarian menu had no impact on the infrequent vegetarian eaters' choice but backfired for the frequent vegetarian eaters and made them less likely to order a vegetarian dish. These findings indicate that people's past behavior is an important determinant of the impact of nudging on food choices, and that achieving sustainable eating may require more personalized interventions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • The Montreal Children’s Hospital Feeding Scale: Relationships with
           parental report of child eating behaviours and observed feeding
    • Authors: Samantha Rogers; Maria Ramsay; Jackie Blissett
      Pages: 201 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Samantha Rogers, Maria Ramsay, Jackie Blissett
      Feeding problems are common, with implications for nutrition, growth and family stress, placing burden on primary care services. The Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCHFS) is a quick and reliable measure of feeding problems for clinical settings, but there is little examination of its relationship to commonly used research measures of parental feeding practice, child eating behaviour and observations of parent-infant interaction at mealtimes. We examined the relationships between the MCHFS, demographics and early feeding history, weight across the first year, parental report of feeding practices and child eating behaviours, and observations of maternal-infant feeding interaction at 1 year. The MCHFS, Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) were completed by 69 mothers when their infants were 1-year-old (37 male, 32 female). Infant weight was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Mothers were observed feeding their infants at 1 year. The MCHFS was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = .90) and showed significant overlap with other measures of feeding and eating. Potential feeding problems were identified in 10 of the children (14%) reflecting similar rates in other community samples. Higher MCHFS scores were associated with lower birthweight and weight across the first year, greater satiety responsiveness, fussiness and slowness in eating, lower enjoyment of food and food responsiveness, and less observed infant food acceptance. Parents of infants with more feeding problems reported less encouragement of balance and variety in their children's diets. Conclusion: MCHFS showed good criterion validity with other parental report measures of eating and observations of mealtime interactions. MCHFS may be a useful tool for researching feeding problems in community samples.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Sleep, food cravings and taste
    • Authors: Wen Lv; Graham Finlayson; Robin Dando
      Pages: 210 - 216
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Wen Lv, Graham Finlayson, Robin Dando
      Objective Taste is influenced by factors from our environment, psychology, and from our own physiological state. The objective of the study was to determine whether sleep influences our sense of taste or our cravings for food. Method 57 healthy panelists, predominantly of college age, submitted to sleep tracking, and subsequently underwent a series of sensory tests, using basic prototypic tastants, as well as real foods. Panelists were also evaluated to quantify food cravings, using both the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, and the Control of Eating Questionnaire. Results Umami (p = 0.025, F = 5.301) and sour (p = 0.037, F = 4.591) taste were intensified in those rating sleepiness higher, while this group also reported higher implicit wanting for high fat sweet foods (p = 0.011, Wald chi-sq = 14.937). Craving for sweet or savory also associated with a number of measures of taste response to real foods. Conclusions Results imply that a lack of sleep may induce cravings for unhealthy foods, and that foods high in umami or sour taste may be experienced differently due to alterations in taste function. Results imply that feeding behavior may be influenced by a lack of sleep, acting at least partially through our sense of taste.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • How effective are messages and their characteristics in changing
           behavioural intentions to substitute plant-based foods for red meat'
           The mediating role of prior beliefs
    • Authors: Annukka Vainio; Xavier Irz; Hanna Hartikainen
      Pages: 217 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Annukka Vainio, Xavier Irz, Hanna Hartikainen
      By means of a population-based survey experiment, we analysed the effectiveness of two message characteristics – message framing and the refutation of misinformation – in persuading respondents to reduce their consumption of red meat and increase that of plant-based alternatives. We also tested whether the effects of those two message characteristics were moderated by prior beliefs about the health and climate impacts of red meat consumption. The data were collected with an online survey of the adult population living in Finland (N = 1279). We found that messages had a small but desired effect on intentions when the effect of prior beliefs was taken into account, but that that effect was strongly moderated by prior beliefs. In particular, messages changed behavioural intentions among the “meat-sceptics” (i.e., those believing relatively strongly in the negative health and climate effects of meat consumption) but not among the “meat believers” (defined symmetrically). The combination of frames and refutation of misinformation were not found to be more effective strategies than the provision of information through single-framed, one-sided messages. We found limited evidence that the way a message was formulated determined its effectiveness in changing behaviours.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the
           future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable
           food supplies in Western Australia
    • Authors: Amelia J. Harray; Xingqiong Meng; Deborah A. Kerr; Christina M. Pollard
      Pages: 225 - 232
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Amelia J. Harray, Xingqiong Meng, Deborah A. Kerr, Christina M. Pollard
      Objective To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Design Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Setting Western Australia. Subjects Community-dwelling adults aged 18–64 years (n = 2832). Results Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were ‘quite’ or ‘very’ concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious (‘quite’ or ‘very’ concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was ‘quite’ or ‘very’ important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as ‘quite’ or ‘very’ important’ (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. Conclusions There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Foods with increased protein content: A qualitative study on European
           consumer preferences and perceptions
    • Authors: Marija Banovic; Liisa Lähteenmäki; Anne Arvola; Kyösti Pennanen; Denisa E. Duta; Monika Brückner-Gühmann; Klaus G. Grunert
      Pages: 233 - 243
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Marija Banovic, Liisa Lähteenmäki, Anne Arvola, Kyösti Pennanen, Denisa E. Duta, Monika Brückner-Gühmann, Klaus G. Grunert
      Foods with increased protein content have rapidly become one of the fastest-growing product categories targeting image- and health-focused consumers. However, it is not clear whether consumers really understand the difference between ‘inherently rich in protein’ and ‘artificially increased protein’. This study used a qualitative focus group approach to investigate the consumer preferences and perceptions of foods with increased protein content among mixed-age and older population in four European countries. In total fifty-two participants were involved in the study. Understanding of the concept of foods with ‘increased protein’ content was limited. Both older and mixed-age participants could not differentiate between natural sources of protein and foods with increased protein content, no matter whether foods with animal or plant proteins were mentioned. Older participants expressed more scepticism towards foods with increased protein content than mixed-age participants. The combination of protein type and food carrier closer to conventional foods received more acceptance among both older and mixed-age participants. Future use and acceptance of foods with increased protein content will depend on the extent to which consumer concerns about incorporating additional protein into a diet can be responded.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.034
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Multisensory flavor perception: The relationship between congruency,
           pleasantness, and odor referral to the mouth
    • Authors: Robin Fondberg; Johan N. Lundström; Maria Blöchl; Mats J. Olsson; Janina Seubert
      Pages: 244 - 252
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Robin Fondberg, Johan N. Lundström, Maria Blöchl, Mats J. Olsson, Janina Seubert
      Our hedonic response to a food is determined by its flavor, an inherently multisensory experience that extends beyond the mere addition of its odor and taste. While congruency is known to be important for multisensory processes in general, little is known about its specific role in flavor processing. The aim of the present study was to delineate the effects of odor-taste congruency on two central aspects of flavor: odor referral (or mislocalization) to the mouth, and pleasantness. We further aimed to test whether an eventual effect on pleasantness was mediated by odor referral. Aqueous solutions containing odors and tastes were prepared to create food-like stimuli with varying degrees of congruency, ranging from maximally incongruent to maximally congruent in nine steps. Thirty participants reported where they perceived the odors, and how much they liked the solutions. Congruency had a positive linear effect both on odor referral to the oral cavity and on pleasantness. However, the effect of congruency on pleasantness was not mediated by odor referral. These results indicate that as an odor-taste mixture approximates a mental representation of a familiar food, its components are increasingly merged into one perceptual object sensed in the mouth. In parallel, the mixture is evaluated as increasingly pleasant, which promotes consumption of familiar foods that have been determined through experience to be non-toxic. While the modulatory role of congruency on pleasantness and odor referral was confirmed, our results also indicate that these effects arise through distinct perceptual mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Influence of oral processing on appetite and food intake – A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Emma M. Krop; Marion M. Hetherington; Chandani Nekitsing; Sophie Miquel; Luminita Postelnicu; Anwesha Sarkar
      Pages: 253 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Emma M. Krop, Marion M. Hetherington, Chandani Nekitsing, Sophie Miquel, Luminita Postelnicu, Anwesha Sarkar
      Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically “chewing” and “lubrication”, on “appetite” and “food intake”. A literature search of six databases (Cochrane library, PubMed, Medline, Food Science and Technology s, Web of Science, Scopus), yielded 12161 articles which were reduced to a set of 40 articles using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. A further two articles were excluded from the meta-analysis due to missing relevant data. From the remaining 38 papers, detailing 40 unique studies with 70 subgroups, raw data were extracted for meta-analysis (food intake n = 65, hunger n = 22 and desire to eat ratings n = 15) and analyzed using random effects modelling. Oral processing parameters, such as number of chews, eating rate and texture manipulation, appeared to influence food intake markedly but appetite ratings to a lesser extent. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant effect of the direct and indirect aspects of oral processing that were related to chewing on both self-reported hunger (−0.20 effect size, 95% confidence interval CI: −0.30, −0.11), and food intake (−0.28 effect size, 95% CI: −0.36, −0.19). Although lubrication is an important aspect of oral processing, few studies on its effects on appetite have been conducted. Future experiments using standardized approaches should provide a clearer understanding of the role of oral processing, including both chewing and lubrication, in promoting satiety.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Why I eat at night: A qualitative exploration of the development,
           maintenance and consequences of Night Eating Syndrome
    • Authors: James A. Shillito; James Lea; Stephanie Tierney; Jacqueline Cleator; Sara Tai; John P.H. Wilding
      Pages: 270 - 277
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): James A. Shillito, James Lea, Stephanie Tierney, Jacqueline Cleator, Sara Tai, John P.H. Wilding
      Night Eating Syndrome (NES), as a diagnosis, presents as a combination of disordered eating, sleep and mood. Patients identified as having both NES and obesity demonstrate poorer outcomes in terms of weight loss compared to those with NES only. However, research focusing on psychological factors associated with NES remains relatively underdeveloped. This study aimed to explore the relationship between NES and the experience of emotion from the perspective of patients accessing a weight management service. Ten adults who met diagnostic criteria for moderate or full NES took part in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using a constructivist approach to grounded theory. A core concept to emerge from the analysis was termed ‘emotional hunger’; reflecting an urge or need to satiate a set of underlying unmet emotional needs. It was underpinned by the following interrelated themes: (1) Cultivating a dependency on food; (2) Relying on food to regulate emotions; (3) Understanding the significance of night-time; (4) Acknowledging the consequences of night eating. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the relationship between NES and the experience of emotion from the perspective of patients attending a weight management service. Results have potential to inform future service development, particularly around the adoption of a more holistic approach to night eating behaviours.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Intragastric preloads of l-tryptophan reduce ingestive behavior via
           oxytocinergic neural mechanisms in male mice
    • Authors: Sarah N. Gartner; Fraser Aidney; Anica Klockars; Colin Prosser; Elizabeth A. Carpenter; Kiriana Isgrove; Allen S. Levine; Pawel K. Olszewski
      Pages: 278 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Sarah N. Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A. Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S. Levine, Pawel K. Olszewski
      Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was used to assess whether hypophagia is unrelated to sickness. c-Fos immunohistochemistry was employed to detect TRP-induced activation of feeding-related brain sites and of oxytocin (OT) neurons, a crucial component of satiety circuits. Also, expression of OT mRNA was assessed with real-time PCR. The functional importance of OT in mediating TRP-driven hypophagia was substantiated by showing the ability of OT receptor blockade to abolish TRP-induced decrease in feeding. TRP reduced intake of energy-dense standard chow in deprived animals and energy-dense palatable chow in sated mice. Anorexigenic doses of TRP did not cause a CTA. TRP failed to affect intake of palatable yet calorie-dilute or noncaloric solutions (10% sucrose, 4.1% Intralipid or 0.1% saccharin) even for TRP doses that decreased water intake in thirsty mice. Fos analysis revealed that TRP increases activation of several key feeding-related brain areas, especially in the brain stem and hypothalamus. TRP activated hypothalamic OT neurons and increased OT mRNA levels, whereas pretreatment with an OT antagonist abolished TRP-driven hypophagia. We conclude that intragastric TRP decreases food and water intake, and TRP-induced hypophagia is partially mediated via central circuits that encompass OT.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Stress and psychological constructs related to eating behavior are
           associated with anthropometry and body composition in young adults
    • Authors: Katie C. Hootman; Kristin A. Guertin; Patricia A. Cassano
      Pages: 287 - 294
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Katie C. Hootman, Kristin A. Guertin, Patricia A. Cassano
      Background The transition to college is associated with weight gain, but the relation between eating behavior indicators and anthropometric outcomes during this period remains unclear. Objective We aimed to evaluate sex differences in stress, emotional eating, tendency to overeat, and restrained eating behavior, and determine whether the psycho-behavioral constructs assessed immediately prior to starting college are associated with anthropometry and adiposity at the start of college, and with first-semester weight gain. Methods A prospective study administered the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Satter Eating Competence Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to 264 participants one month before college. Body composition was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the start of college, and anthropometry (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) was collected at the beginning and end of the first semester. Ordinary least squares regression tested the cross-sectional association of baseline psychological and behavioral scales with baseline DXA and anthropometry, and the longitudinal association with change in anthropometry. Results Among 264 participants, 91% (241) had baseline data, and 66% (173) completed follow-up. In sex-adjusted linear regression models, baseline TFEQ disinhibited and emotional (DE; EE) eating sub-scales were positively associated with baseline weight (P = 0.003; DE, P = 0.014; EE), body mass index (BMI, P = 0.002; DE, P = 0.001; EE), WC (P = 0.004; DE, P = 0.006; EE) and DXA fat mass index (P = 0.023; DE, P = 0.014; EE). Baseline PSS was positively associated with subsequent changes in weight and WC among males only (Pinteraction = 0.0268 and 0.0017 for weight and WC, respectively). Conclusion College freshmen with questionnaire scores indicating a greater tendency to overeat in response to external cues and emotions tended to have greater weight, BMI, and WC at the start of college. Males with higher perceived stress at college entrance subsequently gained significantly more weight in the first semester, but no such relation was evident in females.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Mother and child personality traits associated with common feeding
           strategies and child body mass index
    • Authors: Angelina R. Sutin; Antonio Terracciano
      Pages: 295 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Angelina R. Sutin, Antonio Terracciano
      The feeding strategies that parents use with their children shape their children's attitudes and behaviors toward food. The present research examined whether personality traits of the mother and the child are associated with the types of feeding strategies mothers use with their children. The present research also examined whether these characteristics are associated with the child's body mass index (BMI). Mothers (N = 2928) reported how often they used three feeding strategies (Restriction, Pressure to Eat, Monitoring) with the target child and their personality and the personality of the child. Both mother and child Conscientiousness were associated significantly with less use of Restriction and Pressure to Eat and more use of Monitoring. Child Openness and Agreeableness were likewise related to less use of Restriction and Pressure to Eat. Mother and child Conscientiousness were associated with child obesity: Children with obesity scored lower in Conscientiousness and also had mothers who scored lower on this trait; Restriction and Pressure to Eat partially mediated the association between mother Conscientiousness and child BMI. The present findings suggest that individual differences in both mother and child personality are associated with the use of three common feeding strategies in childhood and the child's weight.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Perceived child eating behaviours and maternal migrant background
    • Authors: Maria Somaraki; Karin Eli; Kimmo Sorjonen; Carl-Erik Flodmark; Claude Marcus; Myles S. Faith; Christine Persson Osowski; Anna Ek; Paulina Nowicka
      Pages: 302 - 313
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Maria Somaraki, Karin Eli, Kimmo Sorjonen, Carl-Erik Flodmark, Claude Marcus, Myles S. Faith, Christine Persson Osowski, Anna Ek, Paulina Nowicka
      The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a well-established instrument in the study of obesity-related eating behaviours among children. However, research using the CEBQ in multicultural samples is limited. This study aims to identify and examine differences in child eating behaviours as reported by Swedish-born and non-Swedish-born mothers living in Sweden. Mothers (n = 1310, 74 countries of origin, mean age 36.5 years, 63.6% with higher education, 29.2% with overweight or obesity) of children aged 3–8 years (mean age 4.8 years, 18.1% with overweight or obesity) completed the CEBQ. Responses were analysed using CEBQ subscales Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment of Food, and Desire to Drink, clustering into Food Approach, and subscales Satiety Responsiveness, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating, and Food Fussiness, clustering into Food Avoidance. Data were compared across seven regional groups, divided by maternal place of birth: (1) Sweden (n = 941), (2) Nordic and Western Europe (n = 68), (3) Eastern and Southern Europe (n = 97), (4) the Middle East and North Africa (n = 110), (5) East, South and Southeast Asia (n = 52), (6) Sub-Saharan Africa (n = 16), and (7) Central and South America (n = 26). Crude, partly and fully adjusted linear regression models controlled for child's age, gender and weight status, and mother's education, weight status and concern about child weight. The moderation effect of maternal concern about child weight was examined through interaction analyses. Results showed that while Food Approach and Food Avoidance behaviours were associated with maternal migrant background, associations for Food Fussiness were limited. Notably, mothers born in the Middle East and North Africa reported higher frequencies of both Food Approach (except for Enjoyment of Food) and Food Avoidance. The study highlights the importance of examining how regionally-specific maternal migrant background affects mothers' perceptions of child eating behaviours.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences
           in overweight and obese adults: Observational data from the DiOGenes study
    • Authors: Charlotte Andriessen; Pia Christensen; Lone Vestergaard Nielsen; Christian Ritz; Arne Astrup; Thomas Meinert Larsen; J. Alfredo Martinez; Wim H.M. Saris; Marleen A. van Baak; Angeliki Papadaki; Marie Kunesova; Susan Jebb; John Blundell; Clare Lawton; Anne Raben
      Pages: 314 - 322
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Charlotte Andriessen, Pia Christensen, Lone Vestergaard Nielsen, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, J. Alfredo Martinez, Wim H.M. Saris, Marleen A. van Baak, Angeliki Papadaki, Marie Kunesova, Susan Jebb, John Blundell, Clare Lawton, Anne Raben
      People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD). Subjective appetite and food preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p < 0.05), decreased desire to eat (p < 0.05) and decreased prospective consumption (p < 0.05) after consuming the test meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p < 0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption was decreased by 18.1%, 20.2% and 21.1% respectively whereas AUC for fullness increased by 13.9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p < 0.05). High-carbohydrate and high-fat preference decreased by 11.4% and 16.2% before the test meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p < 0.05). No other effects were observed. These results suggest that LCD induced weight loss decreases the appetite perceptions of overweight volunteers whilst decreasing their preference for high-fat-, high-carbohydrate-, and low-energy products.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • How to bridge the intention-behavior gap in food parenting: Automatic
           constructs and underlying techniques
    • Authors: Junilla K. Larsen; Roel C.J. Hermans; Ester F.C. Sleddens; Jacqueline M. Vink; Stef P.J. Kremers; Emilie L.M. Ruiter; Jennifer O. Fisher
      Pages: 191 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Junilla K. Larsen, Roel C.J. Hermans, Ester F.C. Sleddens, Jacqueline M. Vink, Stef P.J. Kremers, Emilie L.M. Ruiter, Jennifer O. Fisher
      Although parents often report positive intentions to promote and create a healthy food environment for their children (e.g., setting limits to snacks offered), they also experience difficulties in translating these intentions into actual behaviors. In this position paper, we argue that automatic processes explain an important part of the gap between parents’ intentions and their actual food parenting behaviors. We provide a conceptual framework in which we hypothesize that automatic effects on food parenting occur through two key interrelated constructs: habits (key outcome construct) and volitional regulation behaviors (key mediating construct). Moreover, we discuss potentially important impulse-focused techniques that may directly change habits (e.g., nudging; inhibitory control training) or indirectly through volitional regulation behaviors (e.g., implementation intentions; mental contrasting). We make use of the literature on the role of intention-behavior discordance in general health behaviors and discuss implications for food parenting practices. Our framework provides a dual process view towards food parenting and may help to explain when and why parents are likely to engage in (un)healthy food parenting behaviors. In addition, this framework may hopefully stimulate research on (combinations of old and) new techniques to promote good food parenting behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
  • A systematic review of attentional biases in disorders involving binge
    • Authors: Monika Stojek; Lisa M. Shank; Anna Vannucci; Diana M. Bongiorno; Eric E. Nelson; Andrew J. Waters; Scott G. Engel; Kerri N. Boutelle; Daniel S. Pine; Jack A. Yanovski; Marian Tanofsky-Kraff
      Pages: 367 - 389
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Monika Stojek, Lisa M. Shank, Anna Vannucci, Diana M. Bongiorno, Eric E. Nelson, Andrew J. Waters, Scott G. Engel, Kerri N. Boutelle, Daniel S. Pine, Jack A. Yanovski, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff
      Objective Attentional bias (AB) may be one mechanism contributing to the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating. AB has traditionally been measured using reaction time in response to a stimulus. Novel methods for AB measurement include eye tracking to measure visual fixation on a stimulus, and electroencephalography to measure brain activation in response to a stimulus. This systematic review summarizes, critiques, and integrates data on AB gathered using the above-mentioned methods in those with binge eating behaviors, including binge eating, loss of control eating, and bulimia nervosa. Method Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo were conducted using combinations of terms related to binge eating and biobehavioral AB paradigms. Studies using AB paradigms with three categories of stimuli were included: food, weight/shape, and threat. For studies reporting means and standard deviations of group bias scores, Hedges' g effect sizes for group differences in AB were calculated. Results Fifty articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Individuals who binge eat in the absence of compensatory behaviors show an increased AB to food cues, but few studies have examined such individuals' AB toward weight/shape and threatening stimuli. Individuals with bulimia nervosa consistently show an increased AB to shape/weight cues and socially threatening stimuli, but findings for AB to food cues are mixed. Discussion While there are important research gaps, preliminary evidence suggests that the combination of AB to disorder-specific cues (i.e., food and weight/shape) and AB toward threat may be a potent contributor to binge eating. This conclusion underscores previous findings on the interaction between negative affect and AB to disorder-specific cues. Recommendations for future research are provided.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
  • Food for thought: Exploring how people think and talk about food online
    • Authors: Kate G. Blackburn; Gamze Yilmaz; Ryan L. Boyd
      Pages: 390 - 401
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Kate G. Blackburn, Gamze Yilmaz, Ryan L. Boyd
      This exploratory study examined the ways in which people communicate about food online by analyzing food-related conversations on Reddit, a social news networking site. The Meaning Extraction Helper (MEH) was used to analyze 2 corpora and define central themes related to online food talk. In light of these themes, the researchers discuss socio-cultural components shaping the food conversations in our society in general as well as healthy versus unhealthy communities, and provided specific directions for future empirical research.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
  • Attachment and eating: A meta-analytic review of the relevance of
           attachment for unhealthy and healthy eating behaviors in the general
    • Authors: Aida Faber; Laurette Dubé; Bärbel Knäuper
      Pages: 410 - 438
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Aida Faber, Laurette Dubé, Bärbel Knäuper
      Attachment relationships play an important role in people's wellbeing and affliction with physical and mental illnesses, including eating disorders. Seven reviews from the clinical field have consistently shown that higher attachment insecurity—failure to form trusting and reliable relationships with others—systematically characterized individuals with eating disorders. Nevertheless, to date, it is unclear whether (and if so how) these findings apply to the population at large. Consequently, the objective of the present meta-analysis is to quantify the relationship between attachment and unhealthy and healthy eating in the general population. Data from 70 studies and 19,470 participants were converted into r effect sizes and analysed. Results showed that higher attachment insecurity (r = 0.266), anxiety (r = 0.271), avoidance (r = 0.119), and fearfulness (r = 0.184) was significantly associated with more unhealthy eating behaviors, ps = 0.000; conversely, higher attachment security correlated with lower unhealthy eating behaviors (r = −0.184, p = 0.000). This relationship did not vary across type of unhealthy eating behavior (i.e., binge eating, bulimic symptoms, dieting, emotional eating, and unhealthy food consumption). The little exploratory evidence concerning healthy eating and attachment was inconclusive with one exception—healthy eating was associated with lower attachment avoidance (r = −0.211, p = 0.000). Our results extend previous meta-analytic findings to show that lack of trusting and reliable relationships does not only set apart eating disordered individuals from controls, but also characterizes unhealthy eating behaviors in the general population. More evidence is needed to determine how attachment and healthy eating are linked and assess potential mechanisms influencing the attachment–eating relationship.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.043
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2018)
  • Characteristics of feeding tube dependency with respect to food aversive
           behaviour and growth
    • Authors: Markus Wilken; Peter Bartmann; Terence M. Dovey; Soyhan Bagci
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Markus Wilken, Peter Bartmann, Terence M. Dovey, Soyhan Bagci
      The use of feeding tubes in pediatric medical procedures and management has dramatically increased over the last three decades. With this increase, the prevalence of Feeding Tube Dependency (FTD) – a reliance on enteral feeding following medical recovery due to lack of oral intake of nutrition, despite being able to eat– has increased too. It has been suggested, that cases with FTD show avoidant feeding behaviours such as food refusal, gagging or swallowing resistance, but evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. In a German population of 146 cases requesting feeding tube dependency treatment between 2005 and 2008 the frequency of occurrence of avoidant behaviour in FTD cases has been evaluated and was correlated to growth. The study includes children under 50 months of age being tube fed for at least three months. Parents received the Anamnestic Questionnaire for Feeding Disorder and Tube Weaning (AFT), which evaluates nutritional supply, tube feeding, feeding disorder symptoms, medical diagnosis, growth and psychosocial variables. The study group was comprised of 101 children (50 male, 51 female), with a median age of 15 months (IQR: 10–26.5) and a median tube feeding duration of 13 months (IQR: 8–27). The most prevalent medical diagnoses were congenital malformations (n = 51) and prematurity (n = 27). Parents reported daily symptoms of food aversion through all age groups, like food refusal 2 (IQR: 1–3), gagging 1 (IQR: 0–3), vomiting 1 (0.1–2) and total symptoms 6 (5–11). Vomiting was negatively correlated with weight and length percentile and head circumference. Cases with FTD show frequent and persistent food avoidant behaviors, which may be explain the need for specific psychological treatment during transitioning from tube dependency to oral eating.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.107
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Detection thresholds for four different fatty stimuli are associated with
           increased dietary intake of processed high-caloric food
    • Authors: Jaana M. Heinze; Andrew Costanzo; Inga Baselier; Andreas Fritsche; Sabine Frank-Podlech; Russell Keast
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Jaana M. Heinze, Andrew Costanzo, Inga Baselier, Andreas Fritsche, Sabine Frank-Podlech, Russell Keast
      BMI-specific differences in food choice and energy intake have been suggested to modulate taste perception. However, associations between body composition and fat taste sensitivity are controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the association between body composition, dietary intake and detection thresholds of four fatty stimuli (oleic acid, paraffin oil, canola oil, and canola oil spiked with oleic acid) that could be perceived via gustatory and/or textural cues. In 30 participants, fat detection thresholds were determined in a repeated measurements design over twelve days. Weight status was examined by measuring the participants' BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. The habitual food intake was assessed via several questionnaires and twelve, non-consecutive 24-hour food diaries. In this study, a negative correlation was found between fat detection thresholds and the intake of food rich in vitamins and fibre. Moreover, a positive correlation was identified between the intake of high-fat food and fat detection thresholds. No differences in fat detection thresholds were observed due to variations in BMI or waist-to-hip ratio. These findings indicate that a regular intake of fatty foods might decrease an individuals’ perceptual response to fats which might lead to excess fat intake on the long term.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Stress and eating behaviors in children and adolescents: Systematic review
           and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Deborah C. Hill; Rachael H. Moss; Bianca Sykes-Muskett; Mark Conner; Daryl B. O'Connor
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Deborah C. Hill, Rachael H. Moss, Bianca Sykes-Muskett, Mark Conner, Daryl B. O'Connor
      It is well established that stress is linked to changes in eating behaviors. Research using adult populations has shown that stress is associated with both increases and decreases in the amount and type of food consumed. However, due to a lack of research reviews, the relationship between stress and eating behaviors in children is unclear. This systematic research review and meta-analysis aimed to identify whether stress is associated with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors in children aged 8–18 years. Studies were included in the review if they measured stress and included a measure of food consumption. All unique studies retrieved (N = 28,070) were assessed for their eligibility at title, abstract and full text levels. A total of 13 studies were included in the final review and data were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Using random-effects modelling, overall stress was not associated with a change in overall eating behaviors. However, additional analyses indicated stress was associated with unhealthy eating behaviors in both younger (Hedge's g = 0.283, p < 0.001) and older (Hedge's g = 0.274, p = 0.001) children. In contrast, stress was not associated with healthy eating behaviors in younger children (Hedge's g = 0.093, p = 0.156), but was negatively associated with healthy eating behaviors in older children (Hedge's g = −0.384, p < 0.001). The current findings are concerning as they suggest the impact of stress on unhealthy eating may begin as early as 8 or 9 years old. Future research ought to investigate further the role of psychological, behavioral and endocrine factors in the development of stress-related eating in children.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.109
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • What motivates women to breastfeed in Lebanon: An exploratory qualitative
    • Authors: Sarah BouDiab; Carolina Werle
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Sarah BouDiab, Carolina Werle
      This exploratory qualitative study examined the influence of injunctive and descriptive norms on breastfeeding, a health-improving behaviour related to a highly committed personal decision. The research explores the different mechanisms through which social norms impact breastfeeding behaviour pre or post-adoption of breastfeeding practice. A qualitative approach was used by performing in-depth analysis of cross-sectional accounts of women in Lebanon contemplating adoption of breastfeeding practice and women who already breastfed. Interviews were also conducted with medical professionals, lactation specialists, and breastfeeding activists. On one hand, the attitude of the medical professionals and the government efforts are two mechanisms that stimulate the injunctive norms. On the other hand, the descriptive norms are defined by community attitude aggregated with societal beliefs and expectations on women's image and role in society. Both types of social norms are in constant interplay with personal norms and each type becomes more salient at different periods over time. The findings suggest that social norms are major determinants of breastfeeding behaviour. The influence of the type of social norm—descriptive or injunctive—on the decision to breastfeed varies according to the moment of life the mother is living. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Initial validation of the Nine Item Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake
           disorder screen (NIAS): A measure of three restrictive eating patterns
    • Authors: Hana F. Zickgraf; Jordan M. Ellis
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Hana F. Zickgraf, Jordan M. Ellis
      Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors. The present study describes the development and validation of the nine-item ARFID screen (NIAS), a brief multidimensional instrument to measure ARFID-associated eating behaviors. Participants were 455 adults recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, 505 adults recruited from a nationally-representative subject pool, and 311 undergraduates participating in research for course credit. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for three factors. The NIAS subscales demonstrated high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, invariant item loadings between two samples, and convergent/discriminant validity with other measures of picky eating, appetite, fear of negative consequences, and psychopathology. The scales were also correlated with measures of ARFID-like symptoms (e.g., low BMI, low fruit/vegetable variety and intake, and eating-related psychosocial interference/distress), although the picky eating, appetite, and fear scales had distinct independent relationships with these constructs. The NIAS is a brief, reliable instrument that may be used to further investigate ARFID-related eating behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.111
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Ethical concerns regarding animal use mediate the relationship between
           variety of pets owned in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood
    • Authors: Sydney Heiss; Julia M. Hormes
      Pages: 43 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Sydney Heiss, Julia M. Hormes
      Plant-based and vegetarian diets have been shown to have diverse health and environmental benefits and also serve to reduce farmed animal exploitation. It is therefore worthwhile to gain a better understanding of the factors that play a role in the decision to refrain from animal products. Past studies have shown that childhood pet ownership predicts the likelihood of adherence to a vegetarian diet in adulthood. Building on this research, we tested the hypothesis that the number of different types of pets owned in childhood is positively associated with degree of restriction of animal products in adulthood, and that this relationship is mediated by pro-animal attitudes. A self-selected convenience sample of 325 participants (77.2% female; mean age = 30.23 ± 12.5) reported on their vegetarian status and completed the Animal Advocacy Scale and Child Pet Ownership Questionnaire. The number of different pets owned in childhood was positively correlated with degree of vegetarianism in adulthood (p < 0.001), but was no longer a significant predictor when controlling for moral opposition to animal exploitation. A significant Sobel test (z = 4.36; p < 0.001) confirmed the presence of full mediation. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who owned a greater variety of pets in childhood endorse more concerns regarding animal use. This, in turn, appears to predict the decision to refrain from animal products in adulthood. The possibility that an enhanced ability to generalize empathy from companion to laboratory, farm, and wildlife animals underlies this relationship should be examined in future research.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:04:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Effects of healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions
           on feeding practices and dietary intake: A systematic review
    • Authors: Karen Matvienko-Sikar; Elaine Toomey; Lisa Delaney; Janas Harrington; Molly Byrne; Patricia M. Kearney
      Pages: 56 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Elaine Toomey, Lisa Delaney, Janas Harrington, Molly Byrne, Patricia M. Kearney
      Background Childhood obesity is a global public health challenge. Parental feeding practices, such as responsive feeding, are implicated in the etiology of childhood obesity. Purpose This systematic review aimed to examine of effects of healthcare professional-delivered early feeding interventions, on parental feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes for children up to 2 years. The role of responsive feeding interventions was also specifically examined. Methods Databases searched included: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. Inclusion criteria: participants are parents of children ≤2 years; intervention includes focus on early child feeding to prevent overweight and obesity; intervention delivered by healthcare professionals. Results Sixteen papers, representing 10 trials, met inclusion criteria for review. Six interventions included responsive feeding components. Interventions demonstrated inconsistent effects on feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes. Findings suggest some reductions in pressure to eat and infant consumption of non-core beverages. Responsive feeding based interventions demonstrate greater improvements in feeding approaches, and weight outcomes. Conclusions The findings of this review highlight the importance of incorporating responsive feeding in healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Observed inconsistencies across trials may be explained by methodological limitations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:04:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Examination of emotion-induced changes in eating: A latent profile
           analysis of the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire
    • Authors: L. Bourdier; Y. Morvan; G. Kotbagi; L. Kern; L. Romo; S. Berthoz
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): L. Bourdier, Y. Morvan, G. Kotbagi, L. Kern, L. Romo, S. Berthoz
      It is now recognized that emotions can influence food intake. While some people report eating less when distressed, others report either no change of eating or eating more in the same condition. The question whether this interindividual variability also occurs in response to positive emotions has been overlooked in most studies on Emotional Eating (EE). Using the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) and Latent Profile Analysis, this study aimed to examine the existence of latent emotion-induced changes in eating profiles, and explore how these profiles differ by testing their relations with 1) age and sex, 2) BMI and risk for eating disorders (ED) and 3) factors that are known to be associated with EE such as perceived positive/negative feelings, depression, anxiety, stress symptoms and impulsivity. Among 401 university students (245 females) who completed the EMAQ, 3 profiles emerged (P1:11.2%, P2:60.1%, P3:28.7%), with distinct patterns of eating behaviors in response to negative emotions and situations but few differences regarding positive ones. Negative emotional overeaters (P1) and negative emotional undereaters (P3) reported similar levels of emotional distress and positive feelings, and were at greater risk for ED. However, the people in the former profile i) reported decreasing their food intake in a positive context, ii) were in majority females, iii) had higher BMI and iv) were more prone to report acting rashly when experiencing negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a person-centred analysis of the EMAQ scores offers a promising way to capture the inter-individual variability of emotionally-driven eating behaviors. These observations also add to the growing literature underscoring the importance of further investigating the role of different facets of impulsivity in triggering overeating and to develop more targeted interventions of EE.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:04:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.108
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
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