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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2812 journals)

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Information Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 51)
Information Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 2.606, h-index: 91)
Information Security Technical Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 15)
Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.529, h-index: 53)
Infosecurity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 3)
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.545, h-index: 37)
Injury     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Injury Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 72)
InmunologĂ­a     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 7)
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 56)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.577, h-index: 51)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 75)
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.703, h-index: 75)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription  
Insulin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.175, h-index: 45)
Integration, the VLSI J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 24)
Integrative Medicine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.025, h-index: 54)
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.912, h-index: 33)
Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.696, h-index: 70)
Internet Interventions : The application of information technology in mental and behavioural health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.162, h-index: 2)
Intl. Biodeterioration & Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 57)
Intl. Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.936, h-index: 48)
Intl. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.353, h-index: 48)
Intl. Dairy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 87)
Intl. Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Emergency Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 23)
Intl. Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 12)
Intl. Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.97, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. for Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.76, h-index: 100)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Drugs and Drug Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 30)
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 78)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 36)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.492, h-index: 55)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.861, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.93, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.234, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.752, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.522, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.721, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Epilepsy     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.916, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.614, h-index: 121)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Gynecology & Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 65)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 116)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 76)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.338, h-index: 122)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.29, h-index: 66)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.913, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.801, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.017, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 1.295, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.363, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.886, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.387, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.507, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.947, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.173, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 74)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.143, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.316, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.887, h-index: 51)

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Journal Cover   Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Indirect effects of exercise on emotional eating through psychological
           predictors of weight loss in women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): James J. Annesi, Nicole Mareno
      An improved understanding of how weight-loss interventions might be tailored to improve emotional eating is required. This study aimed to assess mediation of the relationship between increased exercise and decreased emotional eating so that behavioral treatments might be optimized. After randomization, women with obesity (N = 108; mean age = 48 years) were assigned to either a previously tested treatment of manual-based self-help for nutrition and exercise plus brief phone follow-ups, or a new protocol of cognitive-behavioral methods of exercise support intended to carry-over psychological improvements to better controlled eating and weight loss. A community-based field setting was incorporated. Validated self-report measures were administered over 6 months. Significant overall improvements in exercise outputs, emotional eating, mood, and self-regulation and self-efficacy for controlled eating were found. The newly developed treatment protocol demonstrated significantly greater improvements in exercise outputs and self-regulation. In a multiple mediation analysis, changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood significantly mediated the relationship between changes in exercise and emotional eating. Changes in self-efficacy and mood were significant independent mediators. Within follow-up analyses, the substitution of emotional eating subscales that addressed specific moods, and a subscale of self-efficacy for controlled eating that addressed that factor specifically in the presence of negative emotions, yielded results generally consistent with those of the multiple mediation analysis. Results suggested a psychological pathway of exercise's association with emotional eating changes in women with obesity. Guided by the present findings, tailoring exercise support and leveraging it to induce specific psychological improvements might reduce emotional eating and improve weight-management outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-07-26T21:36:39Z
       
  • The effectiveness of an implementation intentions intervention for fruit
           and vegetable consumption as moderated by self-schema status
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Deborah Kendzierski, Rebecca L. Ritter, Tammy K. Stump, Chelsea L. Anglin
      Two experiments were conducted to determine whether self-schema status moderates the effectiveness of an implementation intentions intervention on nutrition behavior among university students not meeting relevant dietary guidelines. In Experiment 1, students were asked to eat at least 2 servings of fruit and 3 of vegetables daily for a week. Implementation intention condition participants listed what fruits and vegetables they would eat and when and where they would eat them; control condition participants did not. Among those who did not initially meet vegetable targets (n = 108), implementation intentions increased the vegetable consumption of healthy eater schematics, but not of nonschematics. There were no significant effects for fruit consumption among those initially not meeting fruit targets (n = 83). Experiment 2 replicated the moderating effect of healthy eater self-schema status in regard to the effectiveness of an implementation intentions intervention for vegetable consumption among undergraduates who were not initially eating at least 3 servings of vegetables daily (n = 62). Findings are discussed in regard to promoting healthy eating among university students, as well as the implementation intention, self-schema, and self-concordance literatures.


      PubDate: 2015-07-26T21:36:39Z
       
  • Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links
           to each other and well-being could provide an answer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Tracy L. Tylka, Rachel M. Calogero, Sigrún Daníelsdóttir
      Researchers have found that rigid dietary control is connected to higher psychological distress, including disordered and disinhibited eating. Two approaches have been touted by certain scholars and/or health organizations as healthier alternatives: intuitive eating and flexible control—yet these approaches have not been compared in terms of their shared variance with one another and psychological well-being (adjustment and distress). The present study explored these connections among 382 community women and men. Findings revealed that intuitive eating and flexible control are inversely related constructs. Intuitive eating was related to lower rigid control, lower psychological distress, higher psychological adjustment, and lower BMI. In contrast, flexible control was strongly related in a positive direction to rigid control, and was unrelated to distress, adjustment, and BMI. Further, intuitive eating incrementally contributed unique variance to the well-being measures after controlling for both flexible and rigid control. Flexible control was positively associated with psychological adjustment and inversely associated with distress and BMI only when its shared variance with rigid control was extracted. Collectively, these results suggest that intuitive eating is not the same phenomenon as flexible control, and that flexible control demonstrated substantial overlap and entanglement with rigid control, precluding the clarity, validity, and utility of flexible control as a construct. Discussion addresses the implications of this distinction between intuitive eating and flexible control for the promotion of healthy eating attitudes and behaviors.


      PubDate: 2015-07-26T21:36:39Z
       
  • Self-reported eating traits: Underlying components of food responsivity
           and dietary restriction are positively related to BMI
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Menna Price, Suzanne Higgs, Michelle Lee
      Self-report measures of dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, hedonic response to food and loss of control over eating have been related to over eating, overweight and obesity. Impulsivity has emerged as a potential moderator in this relationship. However, the exact relationship between these measures and obesity is poorly defined. Self-report data was collected from a student and community based sample (N = 496) of males (N = 104) and females, with a wide age (18–73yrs; M = 27.41) and BMI (15.3–43.6; M = 24.2) range. Principle component analysis was used to explore the underlying structure of the sub-scales from a variety of eating behaviour questionnaires. Two emergent components relating to ‘dietary restriction’ and ‘food reward responsivity’ were supported in the analysis. Food reward responsivity component scores positively predicted BMI, but this relationship was moderated by impulsiveness. Dietary restriction component scores positively predicted BMI but were not moderated by impulsiveness. These findings suggest that frequently used eating behaviour measures can be reduced to two underlying components. Food reward responsivity positively predicts BMI, but only when impulsiveness is also high, supporting a dual-system approach where both bottom-up food reward drives and top-down impulse control are associated with overweight and obesity. Dietary restriction is an independent, positive predictor of BMI and is likely to be reflecting repeated unsuccessful attempts at weight control.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Approach bias and cue reactivity towards food in people with high versus
           low levels of food craving
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Timo Brockmeyer, Carolyn Hahn, Christina Reetz, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
      Objective Even though people suffering from high levels of food craving are aware of the negative consequences of binge eating, they cannot resist. Automatic action tendencies (i.e. approach bias) towards food cues that operate outside conscious control may contribute to this dysfunctional behavior. The present study aimed to examine whether people with high levels of food craving show a stronger approach bias for food than those with low levels of food craving and whether this bias is associated with cue-elicited food craving. Method Forty-one individuals reporting either extremely high or extremely low levels of trait food craving were recruited via an online screening and compared regarding approach bias towards visual food cues by means of an implicit stimulus-response paradigm (i.e. the Food Approach-Avoidance Task). State levels of food craving were assessed before and after cue exposure to indicate food cue reactivity. Results As expected, high food cravers showed stronger automatic approach tendencies towards food than low food cravers. Also in line with the hypotheses, approach bias for food was positively correlated with the magnitude of change in state levels of food craving from pre-to post-cue exposure in the total sample. Discussion The findings suggest that an approach bias in early stages of information processing contributes to the inability to resist food intake and may be of relevance for understanding and treating dysfunctional eating behavior.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and
           toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Cynthia A. Stifter, Kameron J. Moding
      The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • The habitual nature of unhealthy snacking: How powerful are habits in
           adolescence?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Emely De Vet, F. Marijn Stok, John B.F. De Wit, Denise T.D. De Ridder
      Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome habitual snacking. A total of 11,392 adolescents aged 10–17 years from nine European countries completed a cross-sectional survey about healthy eating intentions, snacking habit strength, eating self-regulation strategies, and daily intake of unhealthy snacks. The results showed that habit strength was positively associated with intake of unhealthy snack foods, also when healthy eating intentions were accounted for. Use of self-regulation strategies was negatively associated with unhealthy snacking. The interaction effect of habit strength and use of self-regulation strategies was significant. Strong snacking habits were associated with higher consumption, but this effect could be attenuated by use of temptation-oriented self-regulation strategies. The present study highlights that habit strength is associated with unhealthy snacking already in adolescents. The findings suggest that teaching self-regulation strategies may help adolescents to overcome unhealthy snacking habits.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Low demanding parental feeding style is associated with low consumption of
           whole grains among children of recent immigrants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Alison Tovar, Silvina F. Choumenkovitch, Erin Hennessy, Rebecca Boulos, Aviva Must, Sheryl O. Hughes, David M. Gute, Emily Kuross Vikre, Christina D. Economos
      We explored the influence of immigrant mothers feeding style on their children's fruit, vegetable and whole grain intake and how this relationship differed by mother's time in the U.S. Baseline data were collected on mother-child (3–12 yrs) dyads enrolled in Live Well (n = 313), a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention (2008–2013). Socio-demographics, years of residence in the U.S., behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were obtained from the mother. Measured heights and weights were obtained for both mother and child. Child dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Screener. Separate multiple linear regression models were run, adjusting for child and mother covariates. Interactions between feeding styles and years in the U.S. (<5 and ≥ 5 years), ethnicity, and child age were tested. Sixty-nine percent of mothers were overweight or obese, 46% of the children were overweight or obese. For mothers in the U.S. for<5 years, having a low demanding/high responsive style was associated with lower child intake of whole grains in adjusted models vs. a high demanding/high responsive style (p < 0.05). This was not seen for mothers in the U.S. for≥5 years. Thus, the influence of feeding style on dietary intake may change with length of time in the U.S. These hypotheses-generating findings call for future research to understand how broader socio-cultural factors influence the feeding dynamic among immigrants.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs
           and practices among low-income mothers of young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Christy Y.Y. Leung, Alison L. Miller, Julie C. Lumeng, Niko A. Kaciroti, Katherine L. Rosenblum
      Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • The impact of image-size manipulation and sugar content on children's
           cereal consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): E. Neyens, G. Aerts, T. Smits
      Previous studies have demonstrated that portion sizes and food energy-density influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential effects of front-of-pack image-sizes of serving suggestions and sugar content have not been tested. Using a mixed experimental design among young children, this study examines the effects of image-size manipulation and sugar content on cereal and milk consumption. Children poured and consumed significantly more cereal and drank significantly more milk when exposed to a larger sized image of serving suggestion as compared to a smaller image-size. Sugar content showed no main effects. Nevertheless, cereal consumption only differed significantly between small and large image-sizes when sugar content was low. An advantage of this study was the mundane setting in which the data were collected: a school's dining room instead of an artificial lab. Future studies should include a control condition, with children eating by themselves to reflect an even more natural context.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to
           an isoenergetic confectionary snack
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Lewis J. James, Mark P. Funnell, Samantha Milner
      Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m−2; body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (∼5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (P<0.001) after consumption of the BERRY snack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (P<0.001) than the CONF snack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • The way to her heart? Response to romantic cues is dependent on hunger
           state and dieting history: An fMRI pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Alice V. Ely, Anna Rose Childress, Kanchana Jagannathan, Michael R. Lowe
      Normal weight historical dieters (HDs) are prone to future weight gain, and show higher levels of brain activation in reward-related regions after having eaten than nondieters (NDs) in response to food stimuli (Ely, Childress, Jagannathan, & Lowe, 2014), a similar pattern to that seen in obesity. We hypothesized that HDs are differentially sensitive after eating to rewards in general, and thus extended prior findings by comparing the same groups' brain activation when viewing romantic pictures compared to neutral stimuli while being scanned in a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI paradigm in a fasted and fed state. Results show that 1) in fed relative to fasted conditions, both HDs and NDs were more responsive in areas related to reward and 2) in HDs, greater fed versus fasted activation extended to areas linked to perception and goal-directed behavior. HDs relative to NDs were more responsive to romantic cues in the superior frontal gyrus when fasted and the middle temporal gyrus when fed. This pattern of response is similar to HDs' activation when viewing highly palatable food cues, and is consistent with research showing overlapping brain-based responses to sex, drugs and food.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • Maternal intuitive eating as a moderator of the association between
           concern about child weight and restrictive child feeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Tracy L. Tylka, Julie C. Lumeng, Ihuoma U. Eneli
      Mothers who are concerned about their young child's weight are more likely to use restrictive feeding, which has been associated with increased food seeking behaviors, emotional eating, and overeating in young children across multiple prospective and experimental studies. In the present study, we examined whether mothers' intuitive eating behaviors would moderate the association between their concern about their child's weight and their use of restrictive feeding. In a sample of 180 mothers of young children, two maternal intuitive eating behaviors (i.e., eating for physical reasons, trust in hunger and satiety cues) moderated this association after controlling for maternal age, body mass index, years of education, race/ethnicity, awareness of hunger and satiety cues and perceptions of child weight. More specifically, concern about child weight was unrelated to restrictive feeding for mothers with higher levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. However, concern about child weight was positively related to restrictive feeding among mothers with lower or average levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. These findings indicate that it may be important address maternal intuitive eating within interventions designed to improve self-regulated eating in children, as mothers who attend these interventions tend to be highly concerned about their child's weight and, if also low in intuitive eating, may be at risk for using restrictive feeding behaviors that interfere with children's self-regulated eating.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • Attached to meat? (Un)Willingness and intentions to adopt a more
           plant-based diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): João Graça, Maria Manuela Calheiros, Abílio Oliveira
      In response to calls to expand knowledge on consumer willingness to reduce meat consumption and to adopt a more plant-based diet, this work advances the construct of meat attachment and the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ). The MAQ is a new measure referring to a positive bond towards meat consumption. It was developed and validated through three sequential studies following from an in-depth approach to consumer representations of meat. The construct and initial pool of items were firstly developed drawing on qualitative data from 410 participants in a previous work on consumers’ valuation of meat. Afterwards, 1023 participants completed these items and other measures, providing data to assess item selection, factor structure, reliability, convergent and concurrent validity, and predictive ability. Finally, a sample of 318 participants from a different cultural background completed the final version of the MAQ along with other measures to assess measurement invariance, reliability and predictive ability. Across samples, a four-factor solution (i.e., hedonism, affinity, entitlement, and dependence) with 16 items and a second-order global dimension of meat attachment fully met criteria for good model fit. The MAQ subscales and global scale were associated with attitudes towards meat, subjective norm, human supremacy beliefs, eating habits, and dietary identity. They also provided additional explanatory variance above and beyond the core TPB variables (i.e. attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) in willingness and intentions concerning meat substitution. Overall, the findings point towards the relevance of the MAQ for the study of meat consumption and meat substitution, and lend support to the idea that holding a pattern of attachment towards meat may hinder a shift towards a more plant-based diet.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • Technology-based interventions in the treatment of overweight and obesity:
           A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Lieke C.H. Raaijmakers, Sjaak Pouwels, Kim A. Berghuis, Simon W. Nienhuijs
      The prevalence of obesity increases worldwide. The use of technology-based interventions can be beneficial in weight loss interventions. This review aims to provide insight in the effectiveness of technology-based interventions on weight loss and quality of life for patients suffering overweight or obesity compared to standard care. Pubmed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CINAHL and Embase were searched from the earliest date (of each database) up to February 2015. Interventions needed to be aimed at reducing or maintaining weight loss in persons with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and have a technology aspect. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used for rating the methodological quality. Twenty-seven trials met inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies showed significant effects on weight loss compared to controls. Most interventions used a web-based approach (42%). Interventions were screened for five technical key components: self-monitoring, counsellor feedback and communication, group support, use of a structured program and use of an individually tailored program. All interventions that used a combination of all five or four components showed significant decreases in weight compared to controls. No significant results for quality of life were found. Outcomes on program adherence were reported in six studies. No significant results were found between weight loss and program adherence. Evidence is lacking about the optimal use of technology in weight loss interventions. However, when the optimal combination of technological components is found, technology-based interventions may be a valid tool for weight loss. Furthermore, more outcomes on quality of life and information about the effect of technology-based intervention after bariatric surgery are needed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • The effect of emotional state on taste perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Corinna Noel , Robin Dando
      Taste perception can be modulated by a variety of extraneously applied influences, such as the manipulation of emotion or the application of acute stress. To evaluate the effect of more commonplace day-to-day emotional variation on taste function, taste intensity ratings and hedonic evaluations were collected from approximately 550 attendees following men's hockey games spanning the 2013–2014 season, a period encompassing 4 wins, 3 losses, and 1 tie. Since different outcomes at competitive sporting events are shown to induce varying affective response, this field study presented a unique environment to evaluate the effect of real-life emotional manipulations on our perception of taste, where previous research focused more on extraneous manipulation within a laboratory environment. Analysis revealed that positive emotions correlated with enhanced sweet and diminished sour intensities while negative emotions associated with heightened sour and decreased sweet tastes. Theoretically, both an increase in sweet and a decrease in sour taste intensity would drive acceptance of a great number of foods. Indeed, hedonic ratings for samples that were less liked (and parenthetically mostly sweet and sour in nature), selectively increased as positive affect grew, possibly due to the perceived decrease in sourness and increase in sweetness. The results of this field study indicate that emotional manipulations in the form of pleasantly or unpleasantly perceived real-life events can influence the intensity perception of taste, driving hedonics for less acceptable foods. These results suggest that such modulation of taste perception could play a role in emotional eating.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of
           high energy nutritional supplements
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Sadia Fatima , Konstantinos Gerasimidis , Charlotte Wright , Melina Tsiountsioura , Eirini-Iro Arvanitidou , Dalia Malkova
      Background The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. Objectives To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Design Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m2 consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Results Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the HENSD trial but the net cumulative effect on energy intake was 1.07 ± 0.34 MJ higher in the HENSD compared to PLACEBO. Plasma concentration of CCK and PYY and insulin and were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENSD trial while appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Conclusion Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Perceptions and attitudes towards food choice in adolescents in Gaborone,
           Botswana
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Corbett Brown , Sheila Shaibu , Segametsi Maruapula , Leapetswe Malete , Charlene Compher
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the factors that influence adolescent and adult perceptions and attitudes related to adolescent diet in Botswana. A series of 15 focus groups [12 adolescent focus groups (6 male and 6 female) & 3 parent focus groups] of approximately six to eleven members each were conducted in Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana in 2009–2010. Adolescents and parents of adolescents suggest that the main drivers of adolescent food choices have much to do with where the adolescent is in terms of time of day as well as with whom the adolescent is with. Outside of the home adolescents suggest that the real or perceived influence of companions place social standing on the ability to purchase and consume non-traditional foods, and that traditional foods leave adolescents open to ridicule. Additionally parents of adolescents suggest that while they prefer for their children to consume healthy foods, they frequently purchase unhealthy food items for their children based on the child's taste preferences as well as social influence to prove you can buy “nice things” for one's family. Adolescents and parents of adolescents suggest that increasing the availability and decreasing the costs of healthy food options are preferred possible interventions to increase healthful eating among adolescents. However, the adolescents also suggest that these healthy food options should not crowd out or completely replace unhealthy options, thus preserving the adolescents' freedom to choose. This could pose a major challenge in any school-based adolescent obesity prevention program.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Energy-dense snacks can have the same expected satiation as
           sugar-containing beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Ashley A. Martin , Liam R. Hamill , Sarah Davies , Peter J. Rogers , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative ‘expected satiation’ (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expected satiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500 ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p < 0.05). Further, Experiment 2 showed that this difference was greater in participants who were familiar with our test beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5–205.2 kcal; p = 0.87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • “He just has to like ham” – The centrality of meat in
           home and consumer studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Ingela Bohm , Cecilia Lindblom , Gun Åbacka , Carita Bengs , Agneta Hörnell
      This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited time frames and resources of Home and Consumer Studies.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Eating behaviour in treatment-seeking obese subjects – Influence of
           sex and BMI classes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Barbara Ernst , Britta Wilms , Martin Thurnheer , Bernd Schultes
      Obese subjects frequently show an adversely altered eating behaviour. However, little is known on differences in eating behaviour across different degree of obesity. We analysed data on the three factor eating questionnaire assessing cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger that were filled in by 664 obese patients (469 women) who seeked treatment in our Interdisciplinary Obesity Center. Patients were divided in five BMI classes (30 – <35 kg/m2, 35 – <40 kg/m2, 40 – <50 kg/m2, and >50 kg/m2). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that sex was significantly related to all three eating behaviour traits (all P < 0.042) but no significant relation to BMI (as a continuous variable) was observed. Women in comparison to men showed significantly higher cognitive restraint (9.7 ± 4.3 vs. 7.7 ± 4.4; P < 0.001) and disinhibition (9.0 ± 3.5 vs. 7.7 ± 3.5; P < 0.001) scores and also showed higher hunger scores (6.9 ± 3.7 vs. 6.3 ± 3.5; P = 0.042). Analyses on different BMI classes revealed that cognitive restraint decreased (P = 0.016) while disinhibition (P = 0.010) and hunger (P = 0.044) increased independently of sex with increasing BMI classes. However, above the obesity grade I class (i.e. BMI 30 – < 35 kg/m2) there were no differences in eating behaviour variables between the remaining BMI classes. Data indicate profound differences in eating behaviour between women and men that persist across a wide range of obesity. Furthermore, data suggest that while grade I obese patients show higher cognitive restraint and less disinhibition and hunger scores than more severe obese patients these dimensions of eating behaviour do not systematically vary across higher BMI classes.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Individual differences in the interoceptive states of hunger, fullness and
           thirst
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Richard J. Stevenson , Mehmet Mahmut , Kieron Rooney
      Interoception is the ability to perceive internal bodily states. This involves the detection and awareness of static and changing afferent signals from the viscera, motivational states, affective reactions, and associated cognitions. We examined whether there are individual differences in any or all of these aspects of ingestion-related interoception and their possible causes. Individual variation in almost all aspects of interoception was documented for hunger, fullness and thirst – including how participants use, prioritise and integrate visceral, motivational, affective and cognitive information. Individual differences may arise from multiple causes, including genetic influences, developmental changes hypothesised to result from child feeding practices, and from conditions such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and certain subtypes of obesity. A nutritionally poor diet, and dietary restraint, may also affect ingestion-related interoception. Finally, certain forms of brain injury, notably to the medial temporal lobes are associated with impaired ingestion-related interoception. We conclude by examining the practical and theoretical consequences of these individual differences.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • “It's like giving him a piece of me.”: Exploring UK and
           Israeli women's accounts of motherhood and feeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): N. Shloim , S. Hugh-Jones , M.C.J. Rudolf , R.G. Feltbower , O. Lans , M.M. Hetherington
      Objective The present study explored how Israeli and UK mothers integrate feeding into their conceptualisations of mothering 2–6 months post-partum. Background The nature and importance of motherhood is subject to differential contextual, cultural, political and historical influences. We set out to compare experiences of motherhood and feeding between these two countries using a qualitative approach. Methods Forty one women (mean age 36.4 ± 2.7 years) from Israel and the UK, mostly married or in a committed relationship were interviewed about their experience of pregnancy, motherhood and feeding. Data were analysed thematically. Results The experience of motherhood in the early postnatal period was dominated, for all mothers, by the experience of breastfeeding and clustered around three representations of mothering, namely; 1) a devoted mother who ignores her own needs; 2) a mother who is available for her infant but acknowledges her needs as well; and 3) a struggling mother for whom motherhood is a burden. Such representations existed within both cultural groups and sometimes coexisted within the same mothers. UK women described more struggles within motherhood whereas a tendency towards idealising motherhood was observed for Israeli women. Conclusion There are similarities in the ways that UK and Israeli women experienced motherhood and feeding. Where family life is strongly emphasized, mothers reported extremes of idealism and burden and associated an “ideal” mother with a breastfeeding mother. Where motherhood is represented as just one of many roles women take up, they are more likely to represent a “good enough” approach to mothering. Understanding the experience of motherhood and feeding in different cultural settings is important to provide the context for postnatal care specifically where mothers are reluctant to share problems or difficulties encountered.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Shiri Sadeh-Sharvit , Rachel Levy-Shiff , Talya Feldman , Anca Ram , Eitan Gur , Eynat Zubery , Evelyne Steiner , Yael Latzer , James D. Lock
      Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Impact of olfactory and auditory priming on the attraction to foods with
           high energy density
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): S. Chambaron , Q. Chisin , C. Chabanet , S. Issanchou , G. Brand
      Recent research suggests that non-attentively perceived stimuli may significantly influence consumers' food choices. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether an olfactory prime (a sweet-fatty odour) and a semantic auditory prime (a nutritional prevention message), both presented incidentally, either alone or in combination can influence subsequent food choices. The experiment included 147 participants who were assigned to four different conditions: a control condition, a scented condition, an auditory condition or an auditory-scented condition. All participants remained in the waiting room during15 min while they performed a ‘lure’ task. For the scented condition, the participants were unobtrusively exposed to a ‘pain au chocolat’ odour. Those in the auditory condition were exposed to an audiotape including radio podcasts and a nutritional message. A third group of participants was exposed to both olfactory and auditory stimuli simultaneously. In the control condition, no stimulation was given. Following this waiting period, all participants moved into a non-odorised test room where they were asked to choose, from dishes served buffet-style, the starter, main course and dessert that they would actually eat for lunch. The results showed that the participants primed with the odour of ‘pain au chocolat’ tended to choose more desserts with high energy density (i.e., a waffle) than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.06). Unexpectedly, the participants primed with the nutritional auditory message chose to consume more desserts with high energy density than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.03). In the last condition (odour and nutritional message), they chose to consume more desserts with high energy density than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.01), and the data reveal an additive effect of the two primes.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92




      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
  • Guidelines on design and statistics for Appetite
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Nori Geary , Suzanne Higgs



      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
  • Consumers’ view on determinants to food satisfaction. A qualitative
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Barbara Vad Andersen , Grethe Hyldig
      The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the multiple determinants to food satisfaction from a consumer perspective. The study includes two focus groups with a total of 20 consumers varying in gender, age, employment and food interest. The results were divided into sections based on the main themes that arose from analysing the focus groups; i) sensory properties, ii) physical wellbeing, iii) expectations and desires, iv) the food context and v) comparison of the importance of the various determinants to satisfaction. Factors important for food satisfaction appear before as well as during and after intake. Before intake, the important factors are; expectations and desires based on memories about previous food experiences and the context in which the food is perceived. Physical wellbeing was mentioned important for the feeling of satisfaction, included in physical wellbeing is the experience of an appropriate energy level after intake. In general the sensory experience seems to be the primary determinant to satisfaction. The hedonic experience of eating could be enhanced by the social company and knowledge about the food inclusive health value and origin. Findings from the study will prospectively be used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire will be applied in case studies to measure factors influential in food satisfaction.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
  • Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and
           reduced energy intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Natalia S. Lawrence , Jamie O'Sullivan , David Parslow , Mahmood Javaid , Rachel C. Adams , Christopher D. Chambers , Katarina Kos , Frederick Verbruggen
      The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
  • Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary
           behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: Results of
           the JAGES
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Yukako Tani , Naoki Kondo , Daisuke Takagi , Masashige Saito , Hiroyuki Hikichi , Toshiyuki Ojima , Katsunori Kondo
      We examined whether eating alone is associated with dietary behaviors and body weight status, and assessed the modifying effects of cohabitation status in older Japanese people. Data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, with a self-reported questionnaire for 38,690 men and 43,674 women aged ≥65 years, were used. Eating status was classified as eating with others, sometimes eating alone, or exclusively eating alone. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity, and underweight, adjusting for age, education, income, disease, and dental status using Poisson regression. Overall, 16% of men and 28% of women sometimes or exclusively ate alone. Among those who exclusively ate alone, 56% of men and 68% of women lived alone. Men who exclusively ate alone were 3.74 times more likely to skip meals than men who ate with others. Among men who exclusively ate alone, those who lived alone had a higher APR than men who lived with others. Compared with subjects who ate and lived with others, the APRs of being obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) among men who exclusively ate alone were 1.34 (1.01–1.78) in those who lived alone and 1.17 (0.84–1.64) in those who lived with others. These combined effects of eating and living alone were weaker in women, with a potential increase in the APRs among those who ate alone despite living with others. Men who exclusively ate alone were more likely to be underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) than men who ate with others in both cohabitation statuses. Eating alone and living alone may be jointly associated with higher prevalence of obesity, underweight and unhealthy eating behaviors in men.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
  • “Dinner's ready!” A qualitative exploration of the food domain
           across the lifecourse
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Carolyn May Hooper , Vivienne Chisholm Ivory , Geoff Fougere
      The influence of the childhood food domain on adult food-related practices is only partially understood. Through an interpretive study using in-depth life-story interviewing and narrative analysis, we aimed to discover how preferences and perceptions relating to the food domain become embodied during childhood, and once embodied, how these influence practices in adulthood. We observed distinct ‘food mood’ pathways seemingly anchored in childhood memories about dinnertime. One pathway led to food philosophies participants perceived to be beneficial for their health and wellbeing, whilst another led to perceptions of food as a chore and bore they would rather ignore. Parental attitudes were very important to the food domain of childhood, as this is now recalled through life-story narratives. Our findings suggest a positive relationship with the food domain needs to be fostered during childhood for the long-term protection and promotion of health and wellbeing in adulthood.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Clinical differences in children with autism spectrum disorder with and
           without food selectivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Valentina Postorino , Veronica Sanges , Giulia Giovagnoli , Laura Maria Fatta , Lavinia De Peppo , Marco Armando , Stefano Vicari , Luigi Mazzone
      Several studies have described the atypical eating behaviors frequently occurring in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and food selectivity is the most frequent of these problems. The everyday management of mealtime behaviors among children with ASD can have a negative impact on family routines and become a significant stressor for families. However, much remains unknown about why food selectivity is so prevalent among individuals with ASD. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and behavioral features in individuals with ASD with the aim of identifying distinctive clinical profiles in children with and without food selectivity. A total of 158 children with ASD were enrolled in this study: 79 participants with food selectivity (FS) were age and sex matched with 79 participants without food selectivity (No FS). All participants and their parents completed a battery of psychological tests for a comprehensive evaluation of ASD symptoms, cognitive abilities, adaptive skills, behavioral problems and parental stress level. No statistically significant difference on gastrointestinal symptoms and growth adequacy was found between the FS group and the No FS group. Overall, the FS group showed significantly higher rates of ASD symptoms as compared to the No FS group in the questionnaires completed by parents. Furthermore, parents of the FS group reported significantly higher levels of parental stress and a larger degree of their children's behavioral problems as compared to the No FS group. Finally, there were no differences between the FS and the No FS group on any adaptive skill domain. Our findings suggest that the identification of distinctive clinical and behavioral patterns in children with ASD and food selectivity is a crucial issue for parents and therapists in the daily management.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • The use of a wearable camera to capture and categorise the environmental
           and social context of self-identified eating episodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Luke Gemming , Aiden Doherty , Jennifer Utter , Emma Shields , Cliona Ni Mhurchu
      Research investigating the influence of the environmental and social factors on eating behaviours in free-living settings is limited. This study investigates the utility of using wearable camera images to assess the context of eating episodes. Adult participants (N = 40) wore a SenseCam wearable camera for 4 days (including 1 familiarisation day) over a 15-day period in free-living conditions, and had their diet assessed using three image-assisted multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recalls. The images of participants' eating episodes were analysed and annotated according to their environmental and social contexts; including eating location, external environment (indoor/outdoor), physical position, social interaction, and viewing media screens. Data for 107 days were used, with a total of 742 eating episodes considered for annotation. Twenty nine per cent (214/742) of the episodes could not be categorised due to absent images (12%, n = 85), dark/blurry images (8%, n = 58), camera not worn (7%, n = 54) and for mixed reasons (2%, n = 17). Most eating episodes were at home (59%) and indoors (91%). Meals at food retailers were 24.8 minutes longer (95% CI: 13.4 to 36.2) and were higher in energy (mean difference = 1196 kJ 95% CI: 242, 2149) than at home. Most episodes were seated at tables (27%) or sofas (26%), but eating standing (19%) or at desks (18%) were common. Social interaction was evident for 45% of episodes and media screens were viewed during 55% of episodes. Meals at home watching television were 3.1 minutes longer (95% CI: −0.6 to 6.7) and higher in energy intake than when no screen was viewed (543 kJ 95% CI: −32 to 1120). The environmental and social context that surrounds eating and dietary behaviours can be assessed using wearable camera images.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • How well do preschoolers identify healthy foods? Development and
           preliminary validation of the Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional
           Awareness (DIANA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Paulo A. Graziano
      The current study aimed to develop and initially validate a brief Dietary Interview Assessing Nutritional Awareness (DIANA) that mapped onto the Stop-Light Diet System. Participants for this study included 69 preschool children (83% boys; mean age = 5.13 years; 86% Latino) recruited from two summer programs. Children were presented with 24 pictures and were asked to name the food and indicate how healthy they felt each food was by pointing to a smiley face (very healthy = Green/Go food), neutral face (somewhat healthy = Yellow/Slow food), or a sad face (not healthy at all = Red/Whoa foods). Psychometric properties of the DIANA were assessed via a baseline assessment while children were re-administered the DIANA within 4–6 weeks to ascertain the test–retest reliability. Discriminant validity was also assessed in an exploratory fashion with a small subsample (n = 11) of children who participated in a healthy-lifestyle intervention program (HIP). Results indicated that the internal consistency of the DIANA for both the expressive knowledge and the health classification scales was acceptable (α = .83 and .82, respectively) along with the test–retest reliability (ICC = .86 and .81, respectively). Lastly, children who participated in HIP experienced greater gains in their ability to classify food based on the Stop-Light System and greater expressive knowledge of Green/Go foods compared to children who did not participate in the intervention suggesting adequate construct validity. These findings highlight the feasibility and utility of the DIANA in assessing young children's knowledge of foods and their relative healthiness as well as its potential sensitivity to intervention effects.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Gender differences in the roles for social support in ensuring adequate
           fruit and vegetable consumption among older adult Canadians
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Emily J. Rugel , Richard M. Carpiano
      Background: Adequate fruit and vegetable consumption has been linked to reductions in all-cause mortality, stroke, and cancer. Unfortunately, less than half of Canadians aged 65+ meet the standard international guideline for adequate consumption (≥5 servings per day). Among older adults, social isolation and low social support are barriers to proper nutrition, but the effects of specific types of social support on adequate fruit and vegetable consumption are unknown. Objective: This study sought to test hypotheses regarding direct and indirect pathways through which tangible and emotional/informational social support may facilitate adequate fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults. Methods: Analyzing 2008–2009 Canadian Community Health Survey – Healthy Aging component data (n = 14,221), logistic regression models were developed to examine associations between tangible and emotional/informational social support, eating behaviors (eating alone and preparing one's own meals), and meeting the recommended guideline of consuming ≥5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day. Results: In pooled models, emotional/informational support was positively associated with adequate fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.27). Among men, neither social support form was directly or indirectly associated with adequate consumption; among women, adequate consumption was negatively associated with tangible support but positively associated with higher emotional/informational support. Both of these associations were mediated by not usually cooking one's own meals. Conclusions: Programs and policies that seek to foster social support for older adults as a means of ensuring proper nutrition should consider the nuanced mechanisms through which different social support forms may operate for men and women.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style
           and feeding strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Samantha B. Boots , Marika Tiggemann , Nadia Corsini , Julie Mattiske
      One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2–7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Genotype status of the dopamine-related catechol-O-methyltransferase
           (COMT) gene corresponds with desirability of “unhealthy” foods
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Deanna L. Wallace , Esther Aarts , Federico d'Oleire Uquillas , Linh C. Dang , Stephanie M. Greer , William J. Jagust , Mark D'Esposito
      The role of dopamine is extensively documented in weight regulation and food intake in both animal models and humans. Yet the role of dopamine has not been well studied in individual differences for food desirability. Genotype status of the dopamine-related catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been shown to influence dopamine levels, with greater COMT enzymatic activity in val/val individuals corresponding to greater degradation of dopamine. Decreased dopamine has been associated with poorer cognitive control and diminished goal-directed behavior in various behavioral paradigms. Additionally, dopaminergic-rich regions such as the frontal cortex and dorsal striatum have been shown to be important for supporting food-related decision-making. However, the role of dopamine, as assessed by COMT genotype status, in food desirability has not been fully explored. Therefore, we utilized an individual's COMT genotype status (n = 61) and investigated food desirability based on self-rated “healthy” and “unhealthy” food perceptions. Here we found val/val individuals (n = 19) have greater desirability for self-rated “unhealthy” food items, but not self-rated “healthy” food items, as compared to val/met (n = 24) and met/met (n = 18) individuals (p < 0.005). Utilizing an objective health measure for the food items, we also found val/val and val/met individuals have greater desirability for objectively defined “unhealthy” food items, as compared to met/met individuals (p < 0.01). This work further substantiates the role of dopamine in food-related behaviors and more specifically in relationship to food desirability for “unhealthy” food items.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Higher proportion of total and fat energy intake during the morning may
           reduce absolute intake of energy within the day. An observational study in
           free-living Japanese adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Yukako Tani , Keiko Asakura , Satoshi Sasaki , Naoko Hirota , Akiko Notsu , Hidemi Todoriki , Ayako Miura , Mitsuru Fukui , Chigusa Date
      Background: Although the distribution of energy intake throughout the day appears to impact overall daily energy intake, little is known about the ad libitum distribution of energy intake. Objective: Our aim was to investigate associations between the distribution of energy intake during the day and subsequent or overall energy intake, and food choice in free-living adults. Design: A total of 119 women and 116 men completed 16-day semi-weighed dietary records. The longitudinal dietary intake data for each participant were analyzed using a mixed model to examine the effect of energy intake at various times of day on subsequent or overall energy intake. Results: Mean proportion of total energy intake in the morning (4:00 a.m.–10:29 a.m.), afternoon (10:30 a.m.–4:59 p.m.) and evening (5:00 p.m.–3:59 a.m.) meal was 22.6%, 33.8% and 43.6% in men, and 24.7%, 36.5%, 38.8% in women, respectively. Proportion of energy intake (%) in the morning meal was significantly and negatively associated with energy intake (kcal) in the subsequent afternoon and evening meals, and consequently in the whole day in both sexes. This significant and negative association was also observed for proportion of energy intake (%) of fat, but not of carbohydrate or protein, in both sexes. Proportion of energy intake (%) in the morning meal was negatively associated with overall energy intake (kcal) from the group of meats, fish, and eggs in both sexes, and from the group of confectioneries and soft drinks in women. Conclusions: More energy in the morning meal may reduce energy intake, especially that from fat, in the subsequent meals, and consequently in the whole day.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Eating in the absence of hunger in college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Taylor A. Arnold , Carol S. Johnston , Chong D. Lee , Andrea M. Garza
      Nearly one-third of college students are overweight or obese. Disinhibited eating, a phenomenon defined as the lack of self-restraint over food consumption prompted by emotional or external factors, is prevalent among college students and may be a target for intervention in this population. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is a form of disinhibited eating that has been studied extensively in children and adolescents, but there is little investigation of EAH among college students. In this research, a validated measure for assessing continual and beginning EAH in children and adolescents was modified and assessed in a free-living college population (n = 457; 84% F; 24.5 ± 7.6 years; 23.4 ± 4.8 kg/m2). Nine subscales grouped into three latent factors (emotion, external, and physical) accounted for 68% of the variance in continual EAH, and a separate set of nine subscales grouped into the same latent factors accounted for 71% of the variance in beginning EAH (Cronbach's alpha: 0.82 for continual EAH and 0.81 for beginning EAH). Female sex and sedentary behavior were significantly related to continual EAH, relationships driven by scores for the emotion factor, and to beginning EAH, relationships driven by scores for the physical factor. BMI was weakly related to the emotion factor (p = 0.06) for continuing EAH only. The observation that a sedentary lifestyle was associated to EAH (both continuing and beginning EAH) in a college population is a novel finding and reveals a possible strategy to moderate EAH.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and
           healthy eating among women in a Latin American city
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Ietza Bojorquez , Claudia Unikel , Irene Cortez , Diego Cerecero
      Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward “healthy eating” could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional–modern–healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico–United States (US) border. Women 18–65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: “tortillas,” “hamburgers” and “vegetables.” Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the “hamburgers” pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the “vegetables” pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the “hamburgers” pattern.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Leonardo de Sousa Fortes , Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira , Saulo Melo Fernandes de Oliveira , Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino , Sebastião Sousa Almeida
      The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X2  = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R2  = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R2  = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R2  = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R2  = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R2  = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R2  = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R2  = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Menu label accuracy at a university's foodservices. An exploratory recipe
           nutrition analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Charles Feldman , Douglas Murray , Stephanie Chavarria , Hang Zhao
      The increase in the weight of American adults and children has been positively associated with the prevalence of the consumption of food-away-from-home. The objective was to assess the accuracy of claimed nutritional information of foods purchased in contracted foodservices located on the campus of an institution of higher education. Fifty popular food items were randomly collected from five main dining outlets located on a selected campus in the northeastern United States. The sampling was repeated three times on separate occasions for an aggregate total of 150 food samples. The samples were then weighed and assessed for nutrient composition (protein, cholesterol, fiber, carbohydrates, total fat, calories, sugar, and sodium) using nutrient analysis software. Results were compared with foodservices' published nutrition information. Two group comparisons, claimed and measured, were performed using the paired-sample t-test. Descriptive statistics were used as well. Among the nine nutritional values, six nutrients (total fat, sodium, protein, fiber, cholesterol, and weight) had more than 10% positive average discrepancies between measured and claimed values. Statistical significance of the variance was obtained in four of the eight categories of nutrient content: total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol (P < .05). Significance was also reached in the variance of actual portion weight compared to the published claims (P < .001). Significant differences of portion size (weight), total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol were found among the sampled values and the foodservices' published claims. The findings from this study raise the concern that if the actual nutritional information does not accurately reflect the declared values on menus, conclusions, decisions and actions based on posted information may not be valid.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old
           children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Catarina Durão , Valeska Andreozzi , Andreia Oliveira , Pedro Moreira , António Guerra , Henrique Barros , Carla Lopes
      This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort – Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4–7 times/day; dairy 3–5 times/day; meat and eggs 5–10 times/week; fish 2–4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11–18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14–27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher possibility of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • A nudge in a healthy direction. The effect of nutrition labels on food
           purchasing behaviors in university dining facilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Catherine E. Cioffi , David A. Levitsky , Carly R. Pacanowski , Fredrik Bertz
      Background: Despite legislation that requires restaurants to post nutritional labels on their products or menu items, the scientific literature provides inconsistent support for the idea that adding labels to foods will change buying patterns. Lack of success of previous research may be that sample sizes have been too small and durations of studies too short. Objective: To assess the effect of nutrition labeling on pre-packaged food purchases in university dining facilities. Design: Weekly sales data for a sample of pre-packaged food items were obtained and analyzed, spanning three semesters before and three semesters after nutritional labels were introduced on to the sample of foods. The labels summarized caloric content and nutrient composition information. Mean nutrient composition purchased were calculated for the sample of foods. Labeled food items were categorized as high-calorie, low-calorie, high-fat, or low-fat foods and analyzed for change as a function of the introduction of the labels. Setting: Data were obtained from all retail dining units located at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY where the pre-packaged food items were sold. Results: Results indicated that the introduction of food labels resulted in a 7% reduction of the mean total kcals purchased per week (p < 0.001) from the labeled foods. Total fat purchased per week were also reduced by 7% (p < 0.001). Percent of sales from “low-calorie” and “low-fat” foods (p < 0.001) increased, while percent of sales from “high-calorie” and “high-fat” foods decreased (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods in a large university dining hall produces a small but significant reduction of labeled high calorie and high fat foods purchased and an increase in low calorie, low fat foods.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Kristin Keller , Santiago Rodríguez López , Margarita M. Carmenate Moreno
      The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20–79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health “Semanas del Corazon” events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41–0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05–1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84–1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63–1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • A systematic review of adherence to restricted diets in people with
           functional bowel disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Tanya Osicka , Emily Kothe , Lina Ricciardelli
      Functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome are commonly experienced within the population, and have an adverse impact on emotions, physical well-being, social activity, and occupational output. Adherence to a restricted diet can reduce symptoms, which in turn leads to increased quality of life and well-being. The aim of this review was to assess the extent to which predictors of dietary adherence have been considered in studies relating to functional bowel disorders and following a restricted diet. This was done firstly by examining such studies which contained a measure or indicator of adherence, and then by examining predictors of adherence within and between studies. A search of PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases was performed during July 2014, with the search criteria including relevant terms such as gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, diet, and adherence. Of an initial 7927 papers, 39 were suitable for inclusion. Fourteen of the 39 studies included had a structured measure or indicator of dietary adherence, and the remaining 25 mentioned adherence without any structured levels of adherence. There was little investigation into the predictors of adherence, with symptom relief or induction being the primary goal of most of the studies. This review indicates that predictors of dietary adherence are rarely considered in research regarding functional bowel disorders. Further investigation is needed into the variables which contribute to rates of adherence to restricted diets, and more rigorous research is needed to characterise those individuals most likely to be non-adherent. Such research is necessary to ensure that people with these conditions can be provided with appropriate support and interventions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-11T12:36:47Z
       
  • The effects of nutrition knowledge on food label use. A review of the
           literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Lisa M. Soederberg Miller , Diana L. Cassady
      Nutrition information on food labels is an important source of nutrition information but is typically underutilized by consumers. This review examined whether consumer nutrition knowledge is important for communication of nutrition information through labels on packaged foods. A cognitive processing model posits that consumers with prior knowledge are more likely to use label information effectively, that is, focus on salient information, understand information, and make healthful decisions based on this information. Consistent with this model, the review found that nutrition knowledge provides support for food label use. However, nutrition knowledge measures varied widely in terms of the dimensions they included and the extensiveness of the assessment. Relatively few studies investigated knowledge effects on the use of ingredient lists and claims, compared to nutrition facts labels. We also found an overreliance on convenience samples relying on younger adults, limiting our understanding of how knowledge supports food label use in later life. Future research should 1) investigate which dimensions, or forms, of nutrition knowledge are most critical to food label use and dietary decision making and 2) determine whether increases in nutrition knowledge can promote great use of nutrition information on food labels.


      PubDate: 2015-06-07T18:38:39Z
       
  • Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Colleen X. Muñoz , Evan C. Johnson , Amy L. McKenzie , Isabelle Guelinckx , Gitte Graverholt , Douglas J. Casa , Carl M. Maresh , Lawrence E. Armstrong
      Acute negative and positive mood states have been linked with the development of undesirable and desirable health outcomes, respectively. Numerous factors acutely influence mood state, including exercise, caffeine ingestion, and macronutrient intake, but the influence of habitual total water intake remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe relationships between habitual water intake and mood. One hundred twenty healthy females (mean ± SD; age = 20 ± 2 y, BMI = 22.9 ± 3.5 kg⋅m−2 ) recorded all food and fluids consumed for 5 consecutive days. Investigators utilized dietary analysis software to determine Total Water Intake (TWI; total water content in foods and fluids), caffeine, and macronutrient consumption (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, fat). On days 3 and 4, participants completed the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, which examined tension, depression, anger, vigor, and confusion, plus an aggregate measure of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD). For comparison of mood, data were separated into three even groups (n = 40 each) based on TWI: low (LOW; 1.51 ± 0.27 L/d), moderate (MOD; 2.25 ± 0.19 L/d), and high (HIGH; 3.13 ± 0.54 L/d). Regression analysis was performed to determine continuous relationships between measured variables. Group differences (p < 0.05) were observed for tension (MOD = 7.2 ± 5.4, HIGH = 4.4 ± 2.9), depression (LOW = 4.5 ± 5.9, HIGH = 1.7 ± 2.3), confusion (MOD = 5.9 ± 3.4, HIGH = 4.0 ± 2.1), and TMD (LOW=19.0 ± 21.8, HIGH=8.2 ± 14.2). After accounting for other mood influencers, TWI predicted TMD (r2 = 0.104; p = 0.050). The above relationships suggest the amount of water a woman consumes is associated with mood state.


      PubDate: 2015-06-01T13:27:43Z
       
  • Appetite, appetite hormone and energy intake responses to two consecutive
           days of aerobic exercise in healthy young men
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Jessica A. Douglas , James A. King , Ewan McFarlane , Luke Baker , Chloe Bradley , Nicole Crouch , David Hill , David J. Stensel
      Single bouts of exercise do not cause compensatory changes in appetite, food intake or appetite regulatory hormones on the day that exercise is performed. It remains possible that such changes occur over an extended period or in response to a higher level of energy expenditure. This study sought to test this possibility by examining appetite, food intake and appetite regulatory hormones (acylated ghrelin, total peptide-YY, leptin and insulin) over two days, with acute bouts of exercise performed on each morning. Within a controlled laboratory setting, 15 healthy males completed two, 2-day long (09:00–16:00) experimental trials (exercise and control) in a randomised order. On the exercise trial participants performed 60 min of continuous moderate-high intensity treadmill running (day one: 70.1 ± 2.5% VO2max, day two: 70.0 ± 3.2% VO2max (mean ± SD)) at the beginning of days one and two. Across each day appetite perceptions were assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite regulatory hormones were measured from venous blood samples. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were determined from meals provided two and six hours into each day and from a snack bag provided in-between trial days. Exercise elicited a high level of energy expenditure (total = 7566 ± 635 kJ across the two days) but did not produce compensatory changes in appetite or energy intake over two days (control: 29,217 ± 4006 kJ; exercise: 28,532 ± 3899 kJ, P > 0.050). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any main effects for acylated ghrelin or leptin (all P > 0.050). However a significant main effect of trial (P = 0.029) for PYY indicated higher concentrations on the exercise vs. control trial. These findings suggest that across a two day period, high volume exercise does not stimulate compensatory appetite regulatory changes.


      PubDate: 2015-05-26T16:43:53Z
       
  • The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals.
           Cross-sectional analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Jennifer Remnant , Jean Adams
      Background: Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. Methods: We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges (‘healthier’, luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. Results: 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of ‘healthier’ meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Conclusions: Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available – particularly amongst meals specifically marked as ‘healthier’. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as ‘healthier’.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
 
 
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