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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2588 journals)

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Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.886, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.387, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.507, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.947, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.173, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 74)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.143, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.316, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.887, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.403, h-index: 127)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.953, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.394, h-index: 43)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.393, h-index: 89)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 67)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.282, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.544, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.485, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.99, h-index: 70)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 98)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.462, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.675, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.519, h-index: 55)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 5)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.321, h-index: 87)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.679, h-index: 24)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 23)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 26)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 55)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.191, h-index: 16)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.114, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 33)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.055, h-index: 62)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 16)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.294, h-index: 27)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.282, h-index: 39)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.255, h-index: 17)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 23)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.212, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.184, h-index: 19)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.748, h-index: 23)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 834, SJR: 1.442, h-index: 33)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 7.294, h-index: 87)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.087, h-index: 37)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 15)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.118, h-index: 1)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 69)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.462, h-index: 96)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 8)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.223, h-index: 73)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 119)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 44)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 32)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 34)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.338, h-index: 44)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 4.815, h-index: 199)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.181, h-index: 104)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 42)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.071, h-index: 71)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 37)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.796, h-index: 65)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.042, h-index: 48)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 47)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.936, h-index: 19)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 6)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 33)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 64)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.004, h-index: 65)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Journal Cover   Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2588 journals]
  • Meat, beyond the plate. Data-driven hypotheses for understanding consumer
           willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): João Graça , Abílio Oliveira , Maria Manuela Calheiros
      A shift towards reduced meat consumption and a more plant-based diet is endorsed to promote sustainability, improve public health, and minimize animal suffering. However, large segments of consumers do not seem willing to make such transition. While it may take a profound societal change to achieve significant progresses on this regard, there have been limited attempts to understand the psychosocial processes that may hinder or facilitate this shift. This study provides an in-depth exploration of how consumer representations of meat, the impact of meat, and rationales for changing or not habits relate with willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was employed to examine participant responses (N = 410) to a set of open-ended questions, free word association tasks and closed questions. Three clusters with two hallmarks each were identified: (1) a pattern of disgust towards meat coupled with moral internalization; (2) a pattern of low affective connection towards meat and willingness to change habits; and (3) a pattern of attachment to meat and unwillingness to change habits. The findings raise two main propositions. The first is that an affective connection towards meat relates to the perception of the impacts of meat and to willingness to change consumption habits. The second proposition is that a set of rationales resembling moral disengagement mechanisms (e.g., pro-meat justifications; self-exonerations) arise when some consumers contemplate the consequences of meat production and consumption, and the possibility of changing habits.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T13:57:21Z
       
  • The association between personality traits and body mass index varies with
           nativity among individuals of Mexican origin
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Angelina R. Sutin , Darrin L. Rogers , Alfonso Mercado , Amy Weimer , Cecilia Colunga Rodriguez , Monica Gonzalez , Richard W. Robins , Seth J. Schwartz , Antonio Terracciano
      Personality traits have been associated consistently with health-related outcomes, but less is known about how aspects of the sociocultural environment modify these associations. This study uses a sample of participants of Mexican origin (N = 1013) to test whether exposure to the United States, indexed by nativity (Mexicans living in Mexico, foreign-born Mexican Americans, and U.S.-born Mexican Americans), moderates the association between personality traits and body mass index (BMI). Higher Conscientiousness was associated with lower BMI, regardless of nativity. In contrast, the association between Neuroticism and BMI was moderated by exposure to the U.S.: Neuroticism was associated with higher BMI among U.S.-born Mexican Americans (partial r = .15) but not among Mexican participants (partial r = .00), an effect strongest and most robust for the impulsivity facet of Neuroticism. This finding suggests that with more exposure to the United States, those who are more emotionally impulsive are at greater risk for obesity. More broadly, these findings suggest that social and psychological vulnerabilities interact to contribute to health outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T13:57:21Z
       
  • “The food represents”: Barbadian foodways in the diaspora
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Jennifer Sweeney Tookes
      As migrants adjust to life in a new country, food practices often shift. The literature shows that many migrants alter their diets to more closely reflect those in the host nation, at least in public venues. Some adjust native dishes to accommodate available ingredients, but may view these changes as rendering foods less “traditional.” However, Barbadian transnational migrants in Atlanta experience these alterations differently. They consciously perform Barbadianness by electing to serve “traditional” foods when eating with each other, or sharing with an American audience. Yet, while numerous changes are made to these “traditional” dishes, this does not make them less authentic. These shifts do not alter the legitimacy of a dish, but rather this interaction between the available ingredients and the attempt to create a traditional food is actually a practice of authenticity. The dynamic change that food undergoes in the migrant experience echoes the changing nature of Barbadian foodways throughout Caribbean history.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T13:57:21Z
       
  • Food reward. What it is and how to measure it
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Peter J. Rogers , Charlotte A. Hardman
      We investigated the contribution of hunger and food liking to food reward, and the relationship between food reward and food intake. We defined liking as the pleasantness of taste of food in the mouth, and food reward as the momentary value of a food to the individual at the time of ingestion. Liking and food reward were measured, respectively, by ratings of the pleasantness of the taste of a mouthful, and ratings of desire to eat a portion, of the food in question. Hunger, which we view as primarily the absence of fullness, was rated without food being present. Study 1 provided evidence that hunger and liking contribute independently to food reward, with little effect of hunger on liking. Food intake reduced liking and reward value more for the eaten food than uneaten foods. The results were ambiguous as to whether this food-specific decline in reward value (‘sensory-specific satiety’) involved a decrease in ‘wanting’ in addition to the decrease in liking. Studies 2 and 3 compared desire to eat ratings with work-for-food and pay-for-food measures of food reward, and found desire to eat to be equal or superior in respect of effects of hunger and liking, and superior in predicting ad libitum food intake. A further general observation was that in making ratings of food liking participants may confuse the pleasantness of the taste of food with the pleasantness of eating it. The latter, which some call ‘palatability,’ decreases more with eating because it is significantly affected by hunger/fullness. Together, our results demonstrate the validity of ratings of desire to eat a portion of a tasted food as a measure of food reward and as a predictor of food intake.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-20T13:57:21Z
       
  • Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely
           attached
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Jordan D. Troisi , Shira Gabriel , Jaye L. Derrick , Alyssa Geisler
      Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its “social utility” (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-03-16T12:48:02Z
       
  • Season of birth, the dopamine D4 receptor gene and emotional eating in
           males and females. Evidence of a genetic plasticity factor?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Tatjana van Strien , Robert D. Levitan , Rutger C.M.E. Engels , Judith R. Homberg
      Emotional eating has a female preponderance and an understanding of possible genetic and environmental underpinnings is still in the early stages. The current study focuses on the possible role of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) ‘plasticity’ gene in emotional eating and the possible moderator effects of sex and season of birth therein. We tested this in two samples (n = 93 and n = 586) of male and female Caucasian adults by genotyping DRD4 and assessing self-reported emotional eating. Participants were defined as high risk carriers if they had at least one long (7-repeat) allele, which confers hypo-function to DRD4. We also ran analyses that grouped 2- and 7-repeat carriers together. In the first sample there only was a moderator effect of sex. In the second sample there also was a 3 way interaction between season of birth, sex and genotype. In line with the idea that the Drd4 gene functions as a plasticity gene that affects the sensitivity to environmental influences, the moderator effect of sex was only found for the participants born in fall. Only in females the hypo-functional variants of DRD4 were associated with significantly higher degrees of emotional eating. Furthermore, the sex × genotype effects were somewhat stronger when the 2-repeat allele was grouped together with the 7-repeat allele. Our data suggest that DRD4 hypo-functional genetic variants are associated with emotional eating, only in females.


      PubDate: 2015-03-16T12:48:02Z
       
  • Studying the impact of plating on ratings of the food served in a
           naturalistic dining context☆Acknowledgements: CM is the
           Chef-in-residence at the Crossmodal Research Laboratory, University of
           Oxford. CV would like to thank COLFUTURO for part funding his PhD. CS
           would like to thank the AHRC who funded the ‘Rethinking the
           Senses’ project (AH/L007053/1).☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Charles Michel , Carlos Velasco , Paul Fraemohs , Charles Spence
      An experiment conducted in a naturalistic dining context is reported, in which the impact of different styles of plating on diners' experience of the food was assessed. A hundred and sixty three diners were separated into two groups during a luncheon event held in a large dining room. Each group of diners was served the same menu, with a variation in the visual presentation of the ingredients on the plate. The results revealed that the diners were willing to pay significantly more for the appetizer (a salad), when arranged in an artistically-inspired manner (M = £5.94 vs. £4.10). The main course was liked more, and considered more artistic, when the various elements were presented in the centre of the plate, rather than placed off to one side. The participants also reported being willing to pay significantly more for the centred than for the offset plating (M = £15.35 vs. £11.65). These results are consistent with the claim that people “eat first with their eyes”, and that a diner's experience of the very same ingredients can be significantly enhanced (or diminished) simply by changing the visual layout of the food elements of the dish. Results such as these suggest that theories regarding the perception of food can potentially be confirmed (or disconfirmed) outside of the confines of the laboratory (i.e., in naturalistic dining settings).


      PubDate: 2015-03-16T12:48:02Z
       
  • An explanatory framework of teachers' perceptions of a positive mealtime
           environment in a preschool setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Satoko C. Mita , Samuel A. Gray , L. Suzanne Goodell
      Attending a preschool center may help preschoolers with growth and development that encourage a healthy lifestyle, including sound eating behaviors. Providing a positive mealtime environment (PME) may be one of the keys to fostering a child's healthy eating habits in the classroom. However, a specific definition of a PME, the components of a PME, or directions on how to create one have not been established. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore Head Start teachers' perceptions related to a PME and create a conceptual framework representing these perceptions. To achieve this purpose, researchers conducted 65 in-depth phone interviews with Head Start teachers around the US. Applying principles of grounded theory, researchers developed a conceptual framework depicting teachers' perceptions of PME, consisting of five key components: (1) the people (i.e., teachers, kitchen staff, parent volunteers, and children), (2) positive emotional tone (e.g., relaxed and happy), (3) rules, expectations, and routines (e.g., family-style mealtime), (4) operations of a PME (i.e., eating, socialization, and learning), and (5) both short- and long-term outcomes of a PME. With this PME framework, researchers may be able to enhance the effectiveness of nutrition interventions related to a PME, focusing on the factors in the conceptual framework as well as barriers associated with achieving these factors.


      PubDate: 2015-03-16T12:48:02Z
       
  • Investigation of lifestyle choices of individuals following a vegan diet
           for health and ethical reasons
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Cynthia Radnitz , Bonnie Beezhold , Julie DiMatteo
      The proportion of individuals choosing to follow a vegan diet has increased in recent years. The choice is made for different reasons, primarily concern for animals (ethics) and health, which may impact both specific food choices and other lifestyle behaviors linked to health outcomes. To determine the extent to which the reason for following a vegan diet was associated with health behaviors, we conducted an online survey recruiting an international sample of 246 individuals who reported adhering to a vegan diet. We hypothesized that compared to those following the diet for ethical reasons, those doing so for health reasons would consume foods with higher nutritional value and engage in other healthier lifestyle behaviors. Our hypotheses were partially supported in that those citing health reasons (n = 45) reported eating more fruit (U = 3503.00, p = 0.02) and fewer sweets (U = 3347.00, p < 0.01) than did those citing ethical reasons (n = 201). Individuals endorsing ethical reasons reported being on the diet longer (U = 3137.00, p < 0.01), and more frequent consumption of soy (U = 2936.00, p < 0.01), foods rich in vitamin D (U = 3441.00, p = 0.01), high-polyphenol beverages (U = 3124.50, p < 0.01), and vitamin supplements (vitamin D: χ 2  = 4.65, p = 0.04; vitamin B12: χ 2  = 4.46, p = 0.03) than did those endorsing health reasons. As these factors may affect outcome in studies investigating the impact of vegan diets on health, they should be taken into account when studying persons following a vegan diet.


      PubDate: 2015-03-16T12:48:02Z
       
  • Urban farmers' markets: Accessibility, offerings, and produce variety,
           quality, and price compared to nearby stores
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Sean C. Lucan , Andrew R. Maroko , Omar Sanon , Rafael Frias , Clyde B. Schechter
      Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02–0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values <0.02). FM produce items were more frequently local and organic, but often tended toward less-common/more-exotic and heirloom varieties. FMs were more expensive on average (p values <0.001 for pairwise comparisons to stores) – even for more-commonplace and “conventional” produce – especially when discounts or sales prices were considered. Fully, 32.8% of what FMs offered was not fresh produce at all but refined or processed products (e.g., jams, pies, cakes, cookies, donuts, juice drinks). FMs may offer many items not optimal for good nutrition and health, and carry less-varied, less-common fresh produce in neighborhoods that already have access to stores with cheaper prices and overwhelmingly more hours of operation.


      PubDate: 2015-03-16T12:48:02Z
       
  • Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child
           Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers
           with preschool-age children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Angela Kong , Ganga Vijayasiri , Marian L. Fitzgibbon , Linda A. Schiffer , Richard T. Campbell
      Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: ‘perceived responsibility’, ‘concern about child's weight’, ‘restriction’, ‘pressure to eat’, and ‘monitoring’ and the 6-factor model also tested ‘food as a reward’. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from ‘restriction’ and one low-variance item from ‘perceived responsibility’ were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that ‘food as a reward’ is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.


      PubDate: 2015-03-16T12:48:02Z
       
  • Development and validation of a measure of food choice values
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jordan E. Lyerly , Charlie L. Reeve
      Food choice values (FCVs) are factors that individuals consider when deciding which foods to purchase and/or consume. Given the potentially important implications for health, it is critical for researchers to have access to a validated measure of FCV. Though there is an existing measure of FCV, this measure was developed 20 years ago and recent research suggests additional FCVs exist that are not included in this measure. A series of four studies was conducted to develop a new expanded measure of FCV. An eight-factor model of FCV was supported and confirmed. In aggregate, results from the four studies indicate that the measure is content valid, and has internally consistent scales that also demonstrated acceptable temporal stability and convergent validity. In addition, the eight scales of the measures were independent of social desirability, met criteria for measurement invariance across income groups, and predicted dietary intake. The development of this new measure of FCV may be useful for researchers examining FCVs (FCVs) in the future, as well as for use in intervention and prevention efforts targeting dietary choices.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and
           breakfast skipping among boys and girls
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga , Jacqueline Willmore
      The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose–response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose–response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • That's why I take my ONS. Means-end chain as a novel approach to elucidate
           the personally relevant factors driving ONS consumption in nutritionally
           frail elderly users
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Louise C. den Uijl , Stefanie Kremer , Gerry Jager , Annelies J. van der Stelt , Cees de Graaf , Peter Gibson , James Godfrey , J. Ben. Lawlor
      Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are a recommended form of nutritional intervention for older malnourished persons when a ‘food first’ approach and/or food fortification prove ineffective. The efficacy of ONS will depend on, amongst other factors, whether persons do, or do not, consume their prescribed amount. Factors influencing ONS consumption can be product, context, or person related. Whereas product and context have received some attention, little is known about the person factors driving ONS consumption. In addition, the relative importance of the product, context, and person factors to ONS consumption is not known. Using the means-end chain (MEC) method, the current study elucidated personally relevant factors (product, context, and person factors) related to ONS consumption in two groups of older nutritionally frail ONS users: community-dwelling persons and care home residents with mainly somatic disorders. To our knowledge, the current work is the first to apply the MEC method to study older nutritionally frail ONS users. Forty ONS users (n = 20 per group) were recruited via healthcare professionals. The level of frailty was assessed using the FRAIL scale. Both groups were interviewed for 30 to 45 minutes using the soft laddering technique. The laddering data were analysed using LadderUX software™. The MEC method appeared to work well in both groups. The majority of the participants took ONS on their doctor's or dietician's prescription as they trusted their advice. The community-dwelling group took ONS to prolong their independence, whereas the care home group reported values that related more to small improvements in quality of life. In addition, care home residents perceived themselves as dependent on their caregiver for their ONS arrangements, whereas this dependence was not reported by community-dwelling persons. Key insights from this work will enable doctors and dieticians to customize their nutritional interventions to ONS users' personal needs and thus positively impact health outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Perceived recollection of frequent exposure to foods in childhood is
           associated with adulthood liking
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Devina Wadhera , Elizabeth D. Capaldi Phillips , Lynn M. Wilkie , May M. Boggess
      Food preferences and habits learned at a young age can influence adulthood dietary patterns and weight, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of perceived recollections of early food experiences on current liking for those foods by 670 college students. We showed that the perceived recollection of frequent consumption of foods in childhood was significantly related to current liking for the vast majority of the foods, including nutritious foods such as vegetables. Similarly, parental encouragement and modeling was positively related with current liking, even for foods that were disliked in childhood. Additionally, perceived recollections of parental restriction or forced consumption were significantly negatively related with current liking. Lastly, we demonstrated that perceived recollections by college students of childhood eating practices were in moderate agreement with those of their parents, lending credibility to the retrospective survey methodology in determining long-term effects of exposure on current food habits. These findings show that the perceived recalled frequency of consumption of foods is one determinant of the food preferences of adults, demonstrating a long-term effect of frequency of exposure, a finding consistent with experimentally controlled short-term studies. Frequent exposure to foods in childhood could be a simple and effective way for parents and caregivers to instill healthy eating habits in children.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive
           function on binge eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Stephanie M. Manasse , Hallie M. Espel , Evan M. Forman , Anthony C. Ruocco , Adrienne S. Juarascio , Meghan L. Butryn , Fengqing Zhang , Michael R. Lowe
      Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and
           weight status in low-income preschool children: How do they relate?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Sheryl O. Hughes , Thomas G. Power , Teresia M. O'Connor , Jennifer Orlet Fisher
      The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety responsiveness and food responsiveness were used to assess child eating self-regulation. Two laboratory tasks assessing executive functioning, a parent questionnaire assessing child effortful control (a temperament dimension related to executive functioning), and the delay of gratification and gift delay tasks assessing child emotion regulation were used to assess child non-eating self-regulation. Bivariate correlations were run among all variables in the study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses assessed: (1) child eating self-regulation associations with the demographic, executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation measures; and (2) child BMI z-score associations with executive functioning, effortful control, emotion regulation measures, and eating self-regulation measures. Within child eating self-regulation, only the two parent-report measures were related. Low to moderate positive correlations were found between measures of executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation. Only three relationships were found between child eating self-regulation and other forms of child self-regulation: eating in the absence of hunger was positively associated with delay of gratification, and poor regulation on the gift delay task was associated positively with maternal reports of food responsiveness and negatively with parent-reports of satiety responsiveness. Regression analyses showed that child eating self-regulation was associated with child BMIz but other forms of child self-regulation were not. Implications for understanding the role of self-regulation in the development of child obesity are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Forefronts in portion size. An overview and synthesis of a roundtable
           discussion
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 88
      Author(s): J.O. Fisher , M.I. Goran , S. Rowe , M.M. Hetherington
      Establishing eating habits in early life that include appropriate portion sizes of foods which are nutrient dense and low in energy density is considered important in the prevention of obesity in children. This special supplement presents the proceedings of a symposium focusing on advances in scientific understanding of the development of healthy food portion sizes in children and their families. Recent basic research highlights individual differences in children's responsiveness to portion size as well as potential mechanisms of portion size effects. Quantitative approaches highlight the influence of maternal serving in determining intake, while qualitative approaches seek to elaborate caregiver decisions around child portion sizes at meals and snacks. Family-based environmental interventions for child weight control involving food portion size are outlined. An overview of the overarching issues and roundtable discussion on the forefronts of portion size research are presented as well as policy considerations to promote healthy portion control.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • What are the main barriers to healthy eating among families? A
           qualitative exploration of perceptions and experiences of Tehranian men
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Maryam Farahmand , Parisa Amiri , Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani , Amir Abbas Momenan , Parvin Mirmiran , Fereidoun Azizi
      Despite women playing a pivotal role in shaping nutritional patterns in their families, it is the men whose ideas and preferences, after children, influence the selection and consumption of daily foods among Iranian families. This study focused on exploring the main barriers to healthy eating as experienced by male participants of the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS). A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing participants' experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Participants were 98 men, aged 25–65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. Data collection was conducted through fourteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. The most important barriers to healthy eating were: (i) Personal factors, which included two subthemes – lack of knowledge and personal taste, (ii) Communication and modeling included two subthemes – other individuals and media/advertisements; (iii) Modernization included two subthemes – nutrition transition and women's role; and (iv) Lack of access to healthy foods, which included four subthemes – Inadequate confidence, perceived risk, high cost and time limitations. Appropriate attention and prioritized policy-making to modify the socio-environmental barriers to healthy eating were explored in the current study, along with effective educational programs that could help to promote healthy eating among Iranian families.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Two inhibitory control training interventions designed to improve eating
           behaviour and determine mechanisms of change
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Vanessa Allom , Barbara Mullan
      Inhibitory control training has been shown to influence eating behaviour in the laboratory; however, the reliability of these effects is not yet established outside the laboratory, nor are the mechanisms responsible for change in behaviour. Two online Stop-Signal Task training interventions were conducted to address these points. In Study 1, 72 participants completed baseline and follow-up measures of inhibitory control, self-regulatory depletion, fat intake and body-mass index. Participants were randomly assigned to complete one of three Stop-Signal Tasks daily for ten days: food-specific inhibition – inhibition in response to unhealthy food stimuli only, general inhibition – inhibition was not contingent on type of stimuli, and control – no inhibition. While fat intake did not decrease, body-mass index decreased in the food-specific condition and change in this outcome was mediated by changes in vulnerability to depletion. In Study 2, the reliability and longevity of these effects were tested by replicating the intervention with a third measurement time-point. Seventy participants completed baseline, post-intervention and follow-up measures. While inhibitory control and vulnerability to depletion improved in both training conditions post-intervention, eating behaviour and body-mass index did not. Further, improvements in self-regulatory outcomes were not maintained at follow-up. It appears that while the training paradigm employed in the current studies may improve self-regulatory outcomes, it may not necessarily improve health outcomes. It is suggested that this may be due to the task parameters, and that a training paradigm that utilises a higher proportion of stop-signals may be necessary to change behaviour. In addition, improvements in self-regulation do not appear to persist over time. These findings further current conceptualisations of the nature of self-regulation and have implications for the efficacy of online interventions designed to improve eating behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool
           age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Rachel L. Vollmer , Kari Adamsons , Jaime S. Foster , Amy R. Mobley
      The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = −.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = −.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by
           inattentional blindness
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Xiaoming Li , Qian Tao , Ya Fang , Chen Cheng , Yangyang Hao , Jianjun Qi , Yu Li , Wei Zhang , Ying Wang , Xiaochu Zhang
      The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Appetite and gut hormone responses to moderate-intensity continuous
           exercise versus high-intensity interval exercise, in normoxic and hypoxic
           conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Daniel P. Bailey , Lindsey R. Smith , Bryna C. Chrismas , Lee Taylor , David J. Stensel , Kevin Deighton , Jessica A. Douglas , Catherine J. Kerr
      This study investigated the effects of continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in combination with short exposure to hypoxia on appetite and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Twelve healthy males completed four, 2.6 h trials in a random order: (1) MIE-normoxia, (2) MIE-hypoxia, (3) HIIE-normoxia, and (4) HIIE-hypoxia. Exercise took place in an environmental chamber. During MIE, participants ran for 50 min at 70% of altitude-specific maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) and during HIIE performed 6 × 3 min running at 90% V ˙ O 2 max interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% V ˙ O 2 max with a 7 min warm-up and cool-down at 70% V ˙ O 2 max (50 min total). In hypoxic trials, exercise was performed at a simulated altitude of 2980 m (14.5% O2). Exercise was completed after a standardised breakfast. A second meal standardised to 30% of participants' daily energy requirements was provided 45 min after exercise. Appetite was suppressed more in hypoxia than normoxia during exercise, post-exercise, and for the full 2.6 h trial period (linear mixed modelling, p < 0.05). Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower in hypoxia than normoxia post-exercise and for the full 2.6 h trial period (p < 0.05). PYY concentrations were higher in HIIE than MIE under hypoxic conditions during exercise (p = 0.042). No differences in GLP-1 were observed between conditions (p > 0.05). These findings demonstrate that short exposure to hypoxia causes suppressions in appetite and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations. Furthermore, appetite responses to exercise do not appear to be influenced by exercise modality.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Emotional eating and Pavlovian learning: Does negative mood facilitate
           appetitive conditioning?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Peggy Bongers , Karolien van den Akker , Remco Havermans , Anita Jansen
      Objective: Emotional eating has been suggested to be a learned behaviour; more specifically, classical conditioning processes might be involved in its development. In the present study we investigated whether a negative mood facilitates appetitive conditioning and whether trait impulsivity influences this process. Method: After undergoing either a negative or neutral mood induction, participants were subjected to a differential classical conditioning procedure, using neutral stimuli and appetizing food. Two initially neutral distinctive vases with flowers were (CS+) or were not (CS−) paired with chocolate mousse intake. We measured participants' expectancy and desire to eat (4 CS+ and 4 CS− trials), salivation response, and actual food intake. The BIS-11 was administered to assess trait impulsivity. Results: In both mood conditions, participants showed a classically conditioned appetite. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of facilitated appetitive learning in a negative mood with regard to expectancy, desire, salivation, or intake. However, immediately before the taste test, participants in the negative mood condition reported a stronger desire to eat in the CS+ compared to the CS− condition, while no such effect occurred in the neutral group. An effect of impulsivity was found with regard to food intake in the neutral mood condition: high-impulsive participants consumed less food when presented with the CS+ compared to the CS−, and also less than low-impulsive participants. Discussion: An alternative pathway to appetitive conditioning with regard to emotions is that it is not the neutral stimuli, but the emotions themselves that become conditioned stimuli and elicit appetitive responses.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Parent feeding interactions and practices during childhood cancer
           treatment. A qualitative investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Catharine A.K. Fleming , Jennifer Cohen , Alexia Murphy , Claire E. Wakefield , Richard J. Cohn , Fiona L. Naumann
      In the general population it is evident that parent feeding practices can directly shape a child's life long dietary intake. Young children undergoing childhood cancer treatment may experience feeding difficulties and limited food intake, due to the inherent side effects of their anti-cancer treatment. What is not clear is how these treatment side effects are influencing the parent–child feeding relationship during anti-cancer treatment. This retrospective qualitative study collected telephone based interview data from 38 parents of childhood cancer patients who had recently completed cancer treatment (child's mean age: 6.98 years). Parents described a range of treatment side effects that impacted on their child's ability to eat, often resulting in weight loss. Sixty-one percent of parents (n = 23) reported high levels of stress in regard to their child's eating and weight loss during treatment. Parents reported stress, feelings of helplessness, and conflict and/or tension between parent and the child during feeding/eating interactions. Parents described using both positive and negative feeding practices, such as: pressuring their child to eat, threatening the insertion of a nasogastric feeding tube, encouraging the child to eat and providing home cooked meals in hospital. Results indicated that parent stress may lead to the use of coping strategies such as positive or negative feeding practices to entice their child to eat during cancer treatment. Future research is recommended to determine the implication of parent feeding practice on the long term diet quality and food preferences of childhood cancer survivors.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Consumption of a high-fat soup preload leads to differences in short-term
           energy and fat intake between PROP non-taster and super-taster women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Yasmine Shafaie , Daniel J. Hoffman , Beverly J. Tepper
      Taste blindness to the bitterness of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been used as a genetic marker for food selection and adiposity. We have shown that PROP non-taster (NT) women have higher BMIs and habitually consume more fat and energy than either medium-taster (MT) or super-taster (ST) women. These data imply that differences in dietary selection underlie the body weight differences among PROP taster groups. However, no studies investigated energy compensation in women classified by PROP status. We investigated if NTs would compensate less accurately for the calories and fat in a high-fat soup preload in a subsequent test meal compared to MTs and STs. Energy intake from a buffet meal was measured in 75 healthy non-diet-restrained, lean women 30 min after the ingestion of a high-fat soup preload (0.8 kcal/g; 55% calories from fat), calculated to represent 10% of resting energy expenditure for each subject, or the same volume of water. Subjects (n = 20–28/taster group) ate a standard breakfast followed 3 hr later by an ad-libitum buffet lunch, on two occasions. There were no differences in energy intake or macronutrient selection across taster groups after water. After soup, NTs consumed more energy than STs. Fat intake (as %-energy) was higher in NTs (46.4% ± 2.4) compared to either MTs (36.1 ± 1.9%) or STs (38.1% ± 2.3; p < 0.05). NTs overate by 11% ± 5 after the soup compared to MTs and STs who underrate by 16% ± 6 and 26% ± 10, respectively (p < 0.01). These data suggest that small discrepancies in short-term energy compensation and selection of fat after a mixed-nutrient, high-fat preload may play a role in positive energy balance and increased adiposity in women with the PROP non-taster phenotype.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Eating habits and subjective well-being. A typology of students in Chilean
           state universities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Berta Schnettler , Horacio Miranda , Germán Lobos , Ligia Orellana , José Sepúlveda , Marianela Denegri , Soledad Etchebarne , Marcos Mora , Klaus G. Grunert
      The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • An experimental field study of weight salience and food choice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Angela C. Incollingo Rodriguez , Laura E. Finch , Julia Buss , Christine M. Guardino , A. Janet Tomiyama
      Laboratory research has found that individuals will consume more calories and make unhealthy food choices when in the presence of an overweight individual, sometimes even regardless of what that individual is eating. This study expanded these laboratory paradigms to the field to examine how weight salience influences eating in the real world. More specifically, we tested the threshold of the effect of weight salience of food choice to see if a more subtle weight cue (e.g., images) would be sufficient to affect food choice. Attendees (N = 262) at Obesity Week 2013, a weight-salient environment, viewed slideshows containing an image of an overweight individual, an image of a thin individual, or no image (text only), and then selected from complimentary snacks. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that participants who viewed the image of the overweight individual had higher odds of selecting the higher calorie snack compared to those who viewed the image of the thin individual (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.04, 3.04]), or no image (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = [1.29, 4.54]). Perceiver BMI category did not moderate the influence of image on food choice, as these results occurred regardless of participant BMI. These findings suggest that in the context of societal weight salience, weight-related cues alone may promote unhealthy eating in the general public.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Taste perception in normal and overweight Mexican adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Erika Martinez-Cordero , Juan Manuel Malacara-Hernandez , Claudia Martinez-Cordero
      The prevalence of obesity in Mexico is the highest in the world, with almost 70% of adults being classified as overweight or obese. The increased prevalence of obesity in Mexico, and globally, may be related to the changing food environment, providing increased access to highly palatable, but obesogenic, food products. One potential mechanism for this association is changing food perceptions, an area poorly studied in transitional countries. Thus, we conducted a study to determine the degree to which perception thresholds for four basic tastes are associated with anthropometric variables, hormone levels, and energy intake. Bitter and sweet taste had the lowest and highest thresholds, respectively, and women reported a greater sensitivity to these flavors compared to men. Overall, the perception thresholds to each flavor were not associated with energy intake or body mass index (BMI), while the perception threshold of aspartame was negatively associated with energy intake. Based on the results of our study, in a sample of Mexican adults, sensory taste response to basic flavors is not associated with energy intake or BMI.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent
           three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive
           pre-menopausal women taking oral contraceptives
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Joel Rocha , Jenny Paxman , Caroline Dalton , Edward Winter , David Broom
      This study examined the effects of an acute bout of exercise of low-intensity on food intake and energy expenditure over four days in women taking oral contraceptives. Twenty healthy, active (n = 10) and inactive (n = 10) pre-menopausal women taking oral contraceptives completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised, crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary to measure food intake and wore an Actiheart to measure energy expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. There was a condition effect for absolute energy intake (exercise vs. control: 3363 ± 668 kJ vs. 3035 ± 752 kJ; p = 0.033, d = 0.49) and relative energy intake (exercise vs. control: 2019 ± 746 kJ vs. 2710 ± 712 kJ; p < 0.001, d = −1.00) at the ad libitum lunch. There were no significant differences in energy intake over the four days in active participants and there was a suppression of energy intake on the first day after the exercise experimental day compared with the same day of the control condition in inactive participants (mean difference = −1974 kJ; 95% CI −1048 to −2900 kJ, p = 0.002, d = −0.89). There was a group effect (p = 0.001, d = 1.63) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive participants during this period. However, there were no compensatory changes in daily physical activity energy expenditure. These results support the use of low-intensity aerobic exercise as a method to induce a short-term negative energy balance in inactive women taking oral contraceptives.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • The perception of food quality. Profiling Italian consumers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Giulia Mascarello , Anna Pinto , Nicoletta Parise , Stefania Crovato , Licia Ravarotto
      This study aims to analyse the elements which, according to Italian consumers, contribute most to defining the quality of a food product. A sample of 1000 consumers, in charge of purchases for the household, was interviewed by telephone. The data analysis has made it possible to categorise Italian consumers into two main groups: on the one hand those who mainly use criteria associated with organoleptic elements, and, on the other, those who make their choice based on place and methods of production. Both categories were studied with a view to identifying their distinctive socio-demographic and behavioural features. Geographical provenance, age, propensity to read the label on products, scientific knowledge and self-assessment of knowledge on food safety-related issues emerged as the main differences between the two groups. The perception of quality appears to affect purchase decisions and dietary patterns. The description of the consumer groups who use the same elements to define quality provided a useful insight into consumer choices and potential risk-exposure behaviours. The study of these aspects is therefore relevant for the purpose of designing effective and targeted communication actions, not only for companies but also for public institutions in charge of safeguarding public health.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Investigating key beliefs guiding mothers' dietary decisions for their
           2–3 year old
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Teagan Spinks , Kyra Hamilton
      Currently, there is no research in Australia that systematically investigates the underlying beliefs for mothers' decisions regarding their young child's nutritional needs based on current guidelines. We aimed to determine, using a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) belief-based approach, key beliefs that guide mothers' decisions with regards to: (a) providing their child with a wide range of foods from the five food groups (‘healthy eating’); and (b) limiting their child's intake of ‘discretionary choices’ (e.g. lollies). Mothers (N = 197, M age = 34.39, SD = 5.65) completed a main questionnaire either online or on hard copy (paper-based), with a 1-week phone follow-up of the target behaviours (N = 161). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted, and a number of key behavioural, normative, and control beliefs emerged for both healthy eating and discretionary choice behaviours. For healthy eating, mothers identified behavioural beliefs ‘improving my child's health’ and ‘resistance from my child’; normative beliefs ‘other family members’ and ‘spouse/partner’; and control beliefs ‘child's food preferences’. For discretionary choices, behavioural beliefs ‘maintain consistent energy levels in my child’ for intentions, and ‘give my child their required nutritional intake’; normative beliefs ‘spouse/partner’, ‘healthcare professionals’ and ‘friends’; and control beliefs ‘child's food preferences’ were identified. These findings can inform the development of future intervention programmes aimed at modifying mothers' child feeding practices to encourage healthy eating and limit discretionary choice intake and, ultimately, increase the life expectancy of the current generation of children.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Family meal frequency, weight status and healthy management in children,
           young adults and seniors. A study in Sardinia, Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Gianfranco Nuvoli
      Objective: To examine family meal frequency, and weight management as a protective factor throughout life. Participants: Selected by city and by town in Sardinia (Italy), the 522 participants were divided into 162 children (7–11 years), 187 young adults (19–30 years), and 173 seniors (65–90 years). Method: Chi-square analyses were used to compare the frequency of family meals, weight (self-reported and perceived) and healthy management (physical activity, dieting, perceived appetite) between age groups. In addition, multinomial regression analyses were carried out to find associations, with age group as the dependent variable and frequency of family meal, weight status, and healthy management categories as independent variables, adjusted for moderating effects. Results: Significant associations with age variables were observed in mealtime frequency (skipping breakfast and mid-morning snack in adults and lunch in children and seniors), in decreasing self-reported normal weight with age and increasing perceived overweight with age, and in physical activity, dieting and perceived appetite. Conclusions and Implications: The results suggest the protective nature of family meals for adults and seniors, and identify significant associations (and some differences) between age groups. Discrepancies suggest the importance of education about body weight awareness throughout life.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Meat and masculinity among young Chinese, Turkish and Dutch adults in the
           Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Hanna Schösler , Joop de Boer , Jan J. Boersema , Harry Aiking
      The achievement of sustainability and health objectives in Western countries requires a transition to a less meat-based diet. This article investigates whether the alleged link between meat consumption and particular framings of masculinity, which emphasize that ‘real men’ eat meat, may stand in the way of achieving these objectives. From a theoretical perspective, it was assumed that the meat–masculinity link is not invariant but dependent on the cultural context, including ethnicity. In order to examine the link in different contexts, we analyzed whether meat-related gender differences varied across ethnic groups, using samples of young second generation Chinese Dutch, Turkish Dutch and native Dutch adults (aged 18–35) in the Netherlands. The Turkish group was the most traditional; it showed the largest gender differences and the strongest meat–masculinity link. In contrast, the native group showed the smallest gender differences and the weakest meat–masculinity link. The findings suggest that the combination of traditional framings of masculinity and the Western type of food environment where meat is abundant and cheap is bound to seriously hamper a transition to a less meat-based diet. In contrast, less traditional framings of masculinity seem to contribute to more healthy food preferences with respect to meat. It was concluded that cultural factors related to gender and ethnic diversity can play harmful and beneficial roles for achieving sustainability and health objectives.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • The time-varying association between perceived stress and hunger within
           and between days
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jimi Huh , Mariya Shiyko , Stefan Keller , Genevieve Dunton , Susan M. Schembre
      Objective: Examine the association between perceived stress and hunger continuously over a week in free-living individuals. Methods: Forty five young adults (70% women, 30% overweight/obese) ages 18 to 24 years (Mean = 20.7, SD = 1.5), with BMI between 17.4 and 36.3 kg/m2 (Mean = 23.6, SD = 4.0) provided between 513 and 577 concurrent ratings of perceived stress and hunger for 7 days via hourly, text messaging assessments and real-time eating records. Time-varying effect modeling was used to explore whether the within-day fluctuations in stress are related to perceived hunger assessed on a momentary basis. Results: A generally positive stress–hunger relationship was confirmed, but we found that the strength of the relationship was not linear. Rather, the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and hunger changed throughout the day such that only during specific time intervals were stress and hunger significantly related. Specifically, the strength of the positive association peaked during late afternoon hours on weekdays (β = 0.31, p < .05) and it peaked during evening hours on weekend days (β = 0.56, p < .05). Conclusion: This is the first empirical study to demonstrate potentially maladaptive, nonlinear stress–hunger associations that peak in the afternoon or evening hours. While we are unable to infer causality from these analyses, our findings provide empirical evidence for a potentially high-risk time of day for stress-induced eating. Replication of these findings in larger, more diverse samples will aid with the design and implementation of real-time intervention studies aimed at reducing stress-eating.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Education, progressive muscle relaxation therapy, and exercise for the
           treatment of night eating syndrome. A pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jillon S. Vander Wal , Toni M. Maraldo , Allison C. Vercellone , Danielle A. Gagne
      Night eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian rhythm disorder in which food intake is shifted toward the end of the day, interfering with sleep. According to the biobehavioral model of NES, the disorder is the result of a genetic predisposition that, coupled with stress, leads to enhanced reuptake of serotonin, thereby dysregulating circadian rhythms and decreasing satiety. Using the biobehavioral model as a guide, we developed a brief behavioral intervention using education, relaxation strategies, and exercise to address the core symptoms of NES. In this pilot randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 participants with NES were randomly assigned to an educational group (E; n = 14), E plus progressive muscle relaxation therapy (PMR; n = 15); or PMR plus exercise (PMR Plus, n = 15). Participants received a baseline intervention with 1- and 3-week follow-up sessions. Effectiveness analyses showed that participants in all three groups evidenced significant reductions on measures of NES symptoms (p < .001), depression (p < .05), anxiety (p < .01), and perceived stress (p < .05). However, the only significant between group change was for the percent of food eaten after the evening meal, with the PMR group showing the greatest reduction (−30.54%), followed by the PMR Plus group (−20.42%) and the E group (−9.5%); only the difference between the PMR and E groups was statistically significant (p = .012). Reductions in NES scores were significantly associated with reductions on measures of depression (r = .47; p < .01) and perceived stress (r = .37; p < .05), but not anxiety (r = .26, p = ns). Results support the role of education and relaxation in the behavioral treatment of NES.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • What menu changes do restaurants make after joining a voluntary restaurant
           recognition program?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Lauren N. Gase , Mandip Kaur , Lauren Dunning , Christine Montes , Tony Kuo
      Programs that recognize restaurants for offering healthful options have emerged as a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic; however, program fidelity and business responses to such programs are rarely assessed. This study sought to examine how retail restaurants in Los Angeles County chose to comply with participation criteria required by the Choose Health LA Restaurants initiative in the region; the program recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size portions and healthy children's meals. Menus of all restaurants that joined within 1 year of program launch (n = 17 restaurant brands) were assessed for changes. Nine of the 17 brands made changes to their menus to meet participation criteria for reduced-size portions while 8 of the 10 restaurant brands that offered children's menus made changes to improve the healthfulness of children's meals. Results of this comparative assessment lend support to restaurant compliance with program criteria and menu improvements, even though they are voluntary, representing an important step toward implementing this strategy in the retail environment.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating
           practices among Dutch adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Emily Swan , Laura Bouwman , Gerrit Jan Hiddink , Noelle Aarts , Maria Koelen
      Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n = 703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p < .05) to the predictive ability of the overall model: being female; living with a partner; a strong sense of coherence (construct from the salutogenic framework), flexible restraint of eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in
           children's food preferences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Siril Alm , Svein Ottar Olsen , Pirjo Honkanen
      This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals
           away from home
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jonas Nordström , Linda Thunström
      Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of
           savoury foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Ilse C. Schrieks , Annette Stafleu , Sanne Griffioen-Roose , Cees de Graaf , Renger F. Witkamp , Rianne Boerrigter-Rijneveld , Henk F.J. Hendriks
      The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P < 0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French
           family dinners
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Tamar Kremer-Sadlik , Aliyah Morgenstern , Chloe Peters , Pauline Beaupoil , Stéphanie Caët , Camille Debras , Marine le Mené
      The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner – what, when and how food is served – and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding
           practices to body esteem in 1st grade children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Lenka H. Shriver , Laura Hubbs-Tait , Amanda W. Harrist , Glade Topham , Melanie Page
      Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls – 29%; boys – 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = −.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = −1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Examining evidence for behavioural mimicry of parental eating by
           adolescent females. An observational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Maxine Sharps , Suzanne Higgs , Jackie Blissett , Arie Nouwen , Magdalena Chechlacz , Harriet A. Allen , Eric Robinson
      Behavioural mimicry is a potential mechanism explaining why adolescents appear to be influenced by their parents' eating behaviour. In the current study we examined whether there is evidence that adolescent females mimic their parents when eating. Videos of thirty-eight parent and female adolescent dyads eating a lunchtime meal together were examined. We tested whether a parent placing a food item into their mouth was associated with an increased likelihood that their adolescent child would place any food item (non-specific mimicry) or the same item (specific mimicry) in their mouth at three different time frames, namely, during the same second or within the next fifteen seconds (+15), five seconds (+5) or two second (+2) period. Parents and adolescents' overall food intake was positively correlated, whereby a parent eating a larger amount of food was associated with the adolescent eating a larger meal. Across all of the three time frames adolescents were more likely to place a food item in their mouth if their parent had recently placed that same food item in their mouth (specific food item mimicry); however, there was no evidence of non-specific mimicry. This observational study suggests that when eating in a social context there is evidence that adolescent females may mimic their parental eating behaviour, selecting and eating more of a food item if their parent has just started to eat that food.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex modulates
           implicit attitudes towards food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Giulia Mattavelli , Pablo Zuglian , Elisa Dabroi , Guia Gaslini , Massimo Clerici , Costanza Papagno
      The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to be associated with food representation and monitoring of eating behaviour, but the neural mechanisms underlying attitudes towards food are still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used in combination with the implicit association test (IAT) to investigate the causal role of mPFC in controlling implicit food evaluation in healthy volunteers. Participants performed an IAT on tasty and tasteless food to test TMS interaction with food evaluation. Moreover, IATs assessing self-related concepts and attitude towards flowers and insects were carried out to control whether TMS could also affect self-representation or, more in general, the cognitive mechanisms required by the IAT. TMS was applied over mPFC; the left parietal cortex (lPA) was also stimulated as control site. Results revealed that mPFC-TMS selectively affected IAT on food, increasing implicit preference for tasty than tasteless food, only in a subgroup of participants who did not show extreme explicit evaluation for tasty and tasteless food. This demonstrates that mPFC has a critical causal role in monitoring food preference and highlights the relevance of considering individual differences in studying food representation and neural mechanisms associated with eating behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect
           children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Junilla K. Larsen , Roel C.J. Hermans , Ester F.C. Sleddens , Rutger C.M.E. Engels , Jennifer O. Fisher , Stef S.P.J. Kremers
      Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent–child overweight preventive interventions.


      PubDate: 2015-03-12T12:46:56Z
       
  • What information do consumers consider, and how do they look for it, when
           shopping for groceries online?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Yael Benn , Thomas L. Webb , Betty P.I. Chang , John Reidy
      Previous research investigating what information shoppers seek when purchasing groceries has used either lab-experiments or observed shoppers in supermarkets. The present research investigates this question in a relatively naturalistic online-grocery environment. Forty participants completed their weekly shopping online while their eye-movements were recorded. Ten of the participants were subsequently interviewed to gain insight into their information seeking behaviour. We found that, when looking for products, 95% of participants navigated through the ‘virtual departments’, 80% used the ‘search’ facility, and 68% browsed the special offer pages. Once on the product pages, participants tended to look at the pictures of products, rather than examine detailed product information. To explain these findings, we suggest that online grocery sites simulate familiar supermarket environments, which may explain why consumers prefer to browse categories of products rather than use search terms. We also suggest that additional strategies are needed if consumers are to be encouraged to view detailed product information.


      PubDate: 2015-03-07T20:26:27Z
       
  • Priming healthy eating. You can't prime all the people all of the time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Suzanna E. Forwood , Amy L. Ahern , Gareth J. Hollands , Yin-Lam Ng , Theresa M. Marteau
      Objective In the context of a food purchasing environment filled with advertising and promotions, and an increased desire from policy makers to guide individuals toward choosing healthier foods, this study tests whether priming methods that use healthy food adverts to increase preference for healthier food generalize to a representative population. Methods In two studies (Study 1 n = 143; Study 2 n = 764), participants were randomly allocated to a prime condition, where they viewed fruit and vegetable advertisements, or a control condition, with no advertisements. A subsequent forced choice task assessed preference between fruits and other sweet snacks. Additional measures included current hunger and thirst, dietary restraint, age, gender, education and self-reported weight and height. Results In Study 1, hunger reduced preferences for fruits (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.26–0.56), p < 0.0001), an effect countered by the prime (OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.33–3.96), p = 0.003). In Study 2, the effect of the prime did not generalize to a representative population. More educated participants, as used in Study 1, chose more fruit when hungry and primed (OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.13–1.79), p = 0.003), while less educated participants' fruit choice was unaffected by hunger or the prime. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that the effects of adverts on healthy eating choices depend on key individual traits (education level) and states (hunger), do not generalize to a broader population and have the potential to increase health inequalities arising from food choice.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T07:21:33Z
       
  • Effects of meal variety on expected satiation: Evidence for a
           ‘perceived volume’ heuristic
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Gregory S. Keenan , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom , Danielle Ferriday
      Meal variety has been shown to increase energy intake in humans by an average of 29%. Historically, research exploring the mechanism underlying this effect has focused on physiological and psychological processes that terminate a meal (e.g., sensory-specific satiety). We sought to explore whether meal variety stimulates intake by influencing pre-meal planning. We know that individuals use prior experience with a food to estimate the extent to which it will deliver fullness. These ‘expected satiation’ judgments may be straightforward when only one meal component needs to be considered, but it remains unclear how prospective satiation is estimated when a meal comprises multiple items. We hypothesised that people simplify the task by using a heuristic, or ‘cognitive shortcut.’ Specifically, as within-meal variety increases, expected satiation tends to be based on the perceived volume of food(s) rather than on prior experience. In each trial, participants (N = 68) were shown a plate of food with six buffet food items. Across trials the number of different foods varied in the range one to six. In separate tasks, the participants provided an estimate of their combined expected satiation and volume. When meal variety was high, judgments of perceived volume and expected satiation ‘converged.’ This is consistent with a common underlying response strategy. By contrast, the low variety meals produced dissociable responses, suggesting that judgments of expected satiation were not governed solely by perceived volume. This evidence for a ‘volume heuristic’ was especially clear in people who were less familiar with the meal items. Together, these results are important because they expose a novel process by which meal variety might increase food intake in humans.


      PubDate: 2015-02-09T01:45:55Z
       
 
 
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