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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3041 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3041 Journals sorted alphabetically
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.317, h-index: 89)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.789, h-index: 43)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 10)
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [21 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3041 journals]
  • Higher BMI is associated with stronger effects of social cues on everyday
           snacking behaviour
    • Authors: Benjamin Schüz; Sarah Revell; Andrew P. Hills; Natalie Schüz; Stuart G. Ferguson
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Benjamin Schüz, Sarah Revell, Andrew P. Hills, Natalie Schüz, Stuart G. Ferguson
      Discretionary food choices (snacks) contribute up to a third of the daily energy intake and potentially contribute to energy imbalance and weight gain. Individual snack intake behaviour is guided by internal and external cues, with social cues (seeing others eat, being alone) consistently showing large effects. A wide body of (mainly laboratory-based) research suggests marked differences in people's response to eating cues based on BMI. Here, we show that these BMI differences in cue responsiveness also pertain to everyday snacking behaviour. In two combined ecological momentary assessment studies, 122 participants with BMIs ranging from 18.34 to 45.71 kg/m2 logged their everyday snacking behaviour in real-time over two weeks along with the presence or absence of social cues. Random-effects modelling showed that people with higher BMI were more likely to consume high-energy snacks when alone, and were more likely to consume low-energy snacks in the presence of others eating. This suggests BMI differences in cue responsiveness that are in line with impression management theory and underlines the importance of social cues for snacking behaviour and provides avenues for both theory and intervention development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Need of improvement of diet and life habits among university student
           regardless of religion professed
    • Authors: Silvia Navarro-Prado; Emilio González-Jiménez; Javier S. Perona; Miguel A. Montero-Alonso; Marta López-Bueno; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      Pages: 6 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Silvia Navarro-Prado, Emilio González-Jiménez, Javier S. Perona, Miguel A. Montero-Alonso, Marta López-Bueno, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      At present, few studies have assessed the possible influence of culture and religion on healthy eating habits among the university population. The aim of this study was to identify differences in healthy and eating habits among university students of different religions. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample population of 257 students (22.4 ± 4.76 y) at the campus of the University of Granada in Melilla (Spain). The quality of diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet by a validated score (MDS). There were a higher prevalence of overweight in Christian boys and girls compared to Muslims. Muslim students omit breakfast and dinner more often than Christians. Significant differences in sodium intake (p < 0.001) were observed among boys of Christian and Muslim faith, with significantly higher intakes in Christians. In contrast, a higher cholesterol intake (p = 0.038) was observed in Muslim girls compared to Christians. Regarding alcohol intake, its consumption being much higher among students of Christian faith. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the quality of the diet as assessed by HEI, this being of poor, together with a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet in both groups. Muslim university students have a lower risk of drinking alcohol (OR = 7.88, 95% CI = 4.27, 14.54). Few differences were found between girls and boys in both religions although the Mediterranean Diet Score was lower for girls. In conclusion, Melilla university students eat low quality foods and have little adherence to the Mediterranean diet regardless of the religion professed or gender, although Christians tend to drink more alcohol and to smoke more cigarettes and Muslims skip some meals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with
           age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults
    • Authors: Mette Rosenlund Sørensen; Jeppe Matthiessen; Lotte Holm; Vibeke Kildegaard Knudsen; Elisabeth Wreford Andersen; Inge Tetens
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Mette Rosenlund Sørensen, Jeppe Matthiessen, Lotte Holm, Vibeke Kildegaard Knudsen, Elisabeth Wreford Andersen, Inge Tetens
      The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults’ recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011–2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18–75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised ‘unhealthy’, ‘somewhat healthy’ and ‘healthy’. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough ‘to a high degree’, ‘to some degree’ or ‘not at all/only partly’. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Appetite disorders in cancer patients: Impact on nutritional status and
           quality of life
    • Authors: David E. Barajas Galindo; Alfonso Vidal-Casariego; Alicia Calleja-Fernández; Ana Hernández-Moreno; Begoña Pintor de la Maza; Manuela Pedraza-Lorenzo; María Asunción Rodríguez-García; Dalia María Ávila-Turcios; Miran Alejo-Ramos; Rocío Villar-Taibo; Ana Urioste-Fondo; Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez; María D. Ballesteros-Pomar
      Pages: 23 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): David E. Barajas Galindo, Alfonso Vidal-Casariego, Alicia Calleja-Fernández, Ana Hernández-Moreno, Begoña Pintor de la Maza, Manuela Pedraza-Lorenzo, María Asunción Rodríguez-García, Dalia María Ávila-Turcios, Miran Alejo-Ramos, Rocío Villar-Taibo, Ana Urioste-Fondo, Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez, María D. Ballesteros-Pomar
      Cancer patients are at high risk of malnutrition due to several symptoms such as lack of appetite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different appetite disorders in cancer patients and their influence on dietary intake, nutritional status, and quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall, and patients were questioned about the presence of changes in appetite (none, anorexia, early satiety, or both). Quality of life was measured using EORTC-QLQ-C30. Multivariate analysis was performed using linear regression. 128 patients were evaluated. 61.7% experienced changes in appetite: 31% anorexia, 13.3% early satiety, and 17.2% both. Appetite disorders were more common in women and with the presence of cachexia. The combination of anorexia and satiety resulted in a lower weight and BMI. However, there were no significant effects on energy or macronutrient intake among different appetite alterations. Patients with a combination of anorexia and early satiety had worse overall health perception, role function, and fatigue. Appetite disorders are highly prevalent among cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. They have a significant impact on nutritional status and quality of life, especially when anorexia and early satiety are combined.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Intermittent feeding alters sensitivity to changes in reward value
    • Authors: Shauna L. Parkes; Teri M. Furlong; Alanna D. Black; Bernard W. Balleine
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Shauna L. Parkes, Teri M. Furlong, Alanna D. Black, Bernard W. Balleine
      The influence of binge-like feeding schedules on subsequent food-related behavior is not well understood. We investigated the effect of repeated cycles of restriction and refeeding on two food-related behaviors; goal-directed responding for a palatable food reward and sensory-specific satiety. Hungry rats were trained to perform two instrumental actions for two distinct food outcomes and were then subjected to repeated cycles of restricted and unrestricted access to their maintenance chow for 30-days or were maintained on food restriction. Goal-directed control was then assessed using specific satiety-induced outcome devaluation. Rats were given 1 h access to one of theoutcomes and were then immediately given a choice between the two actions. Rats maintained on restriction responded more for the valued than the devalued reward but rats with a history of restriction and refeeding failed to show this effect. Importantly, all rats showed sensory-specific satiety when offered a choice between the two foods, indicating that pre-feeding selectively reduced the value of the pre-fed food. By contrast, sensory-specific satiety was not observed in rats with a history of intermittent feeding when the foods were offered sequentially. These results indicate that, similar to calorically dense diets, intermittent feeding patterns can impair the performance of goal-directed actions as well as the ability to reject a pre-fed food when it is offered alone.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • The effect of real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an
           augmented fork on eating rate, satiation, and food intake
    • Authors: Roel C.J. Hermans; Sander Hermsen; Eric Robinson; Suzanne Higgs; Monica Mars; Jeana H. Frost
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Roel C.J. Hermans, Sander Hermsen, Eric Robinson, Suzanne Higgs, Monica Mars, Jeana H. Frost
      Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation, as people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. Without assistance, eating rate is difficult to modify due to its automatic nature. In the current study, participants used an augmented fork that aimed to decelerate their rate of eating. A total of 114 participants were randomly assigned to the Feedback Condition (FC), in which they received vibrotactile feedback from their fork when eating too fast (i.e., taking more than one bite per 10 s), or a Non-Feedback Condition (NFC). Participants in the FC took fewer bites per minute than did those in the NFC. Participants in the FC also had a higher success ratio, indicating that they had significantly more bites outside the designated time interval of 10 s than did participants in the NFC. A slower eating rate, however, did not lead to a significant reduction in the amount of food consumed or level of satiation. These findings indicate that real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an augmented fork is capable of reducing eating rate, but there is no evidence from this study that this reduction in eating rate is translated into an increase in satiation or reduction in food consumption. Overall, this study shows that real-time vibrotactile feedback may be a viable tool in interventions that aim to reduce eating rate. The long-term effectiveness of this form of feedback on satiation and food consumption, however, awaits further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by
           visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food
    • Authors: Eliza Kostyra; Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans; Katarzyna Śniegocka; Anna Piotrowska
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Eliza Kostyra, Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans, Katarzyna Śniegocka, Anna Piotrowska
      The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Longitudinal associations between maternal feeding and overweight in
           low-income toddlers
    • Authors: Julie C. Lumeng; Niko Kaciroti; Lauren Retzloff; Katherine Rosenblum; Alison L. Miller
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Julie C. Lumeng, Niko Kaciroti, Lauren Retzloff, Katherine Rosenblum, Alison L. Miller
      Maternal feeding is a frequent intervention target for the prevention of early childhood obesity but longitudinal associations between feeding and child overweight are poorly understood. This observational cohort study sought to examine the cross-lagged associations between maternal feeding and overweight across ages 21, 27, and 33 months. Feeding was measured by maternal self-report (n = 222) at each age. Child weight and length were measured. Cross-lagged analysis was used to evaluate longitudinal associations between feeding and overweight, adjusting for infant birth weight, maternal body mass index, maternal education, and maternal depressive symptoms. The sample was 50.5% white, 52.3% male and 37.8% of mothers had a high school education or less. A total of 30.6%, 29.2%, and 26.3% of the sample was overweight at each age, respectively. Pressuring to Finish, Restrictive with regard to Amount, Restrictive with regard to Diet Quality, Laissez-Faire with regard to Diet Quality, Responsiveness to Satiety, Indulgent Permissive, Indulgent Coaxing, Indulgent Soothing, and Indulgent Pampering each tracked strongly across toddlerhood. There were no significant associations between maternal feeding and child overweight either in cross-sectional or cross-lagged associations. Our results do not support a strong causal role for feeding in childhood overweight. Future work longitudinal work should consider alternative approaches to conceptualizing feeding and alternative measurement approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Participation of ghrelin signalling in the reciprocal regulation of
           hypothalamic NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated
    • Authors: Ching-Han Yu; Shu-Chen Chu; Pei-Ni Chen; Yih-Shou Hsieh; Dong-Yih Kuo
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
      Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared. Food intake, body weight and NPY expression decreased, while MC3R expression increased and expressed reciprocally to NPY expression during AMPH treatment. Plasma ghrelin and hypothalamic AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression decreased on Day 1 and Day 2, which was associated with the positive energy metabolism, and returned to normal levels on Day 3 and Day 4, which was associated with the negative energy metabolism; this expression pattern was similar to that of NPY. Infusion with a GHSR1a antagonist or an NPY antisense into the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression and the increase in MC3R expression compared to the AMPH-treated group. Peripheral ghrelin and the central ghrelin system participated in the regulation in AMPH-induced appetite control. These results shed light on the involvement of ghrelin signalling in reciprocal regulation of NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control and may prove useful for the development of anti-obesity drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Perceived eating norms and children's eating behaviour: An informational
           social influence account
    • Authors: Maxine Sharps; Eric Robinson
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Maxine Sharps, Eric Robinson
      There is initial evidence that beliefs about the eating behaviour of others (perceived eating norms) can influence children's vegetable consumption, but little research has examined the mechanisms explaining this effect. In two studies we aimed to replicate the effect that perceived eating norms have on children's vegetable consumption, and to explore mechanisms which may underlie the influence of perceived eating norms on children's vegetable consumption. Study 1 investigated whether children follow perceived eating norms due to a desire to maintain personal feelings of social acceptance. Study 2 investigated whether perceived eating norms influence eating behaviour because eating norms provide information which can remove uncertainty about how to behave. Across both studies children were exposed to vegetable consumption information of other children and their vegetable consumption was examined. In both studies children were influenced by perceived eating norms, eating more when led to believe others had eaten a large amount compared to when led to believe others had eaten no vegetables. In Study 1, children were influenced by a perceived eating norm regardless of whether they felt sure or unsure that other children accepted them. In Study 2, children were most influenced by a perceived eating norm if they were eating in a novel context in which it may have been uncertain how to behave, as opposed to an eating context that children had already encountered. Perceived eating norms may influence children's eating behaviour by removing uncertainty about how to behave, otherwise known as informational social influence.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • The Carnism Inventory: Measuring the ideology of eating animals
    • Authors: Christopher A. Monteiro; Tamara M. Pfeiler; Marcus D. Patterson; Michael A. Milburn
      Pages: 51 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Christopher A. Monteiro, Tamara M. Pfeiler, Marcus D. Patterson, Michael A. Milburn
      Beliefs surrounding the practice of eating animals are widely held, and have been argued to constitute an ideology named carnism (Joy, 2009). We developed and validated the novel Carnism Inventory to measure two positively related components of carnistic beliefs: carnistic defense and carnistic domination. We anticipated that carnistic defense would legitimate the practice of eating animals, while carnistic domination would support the killing of animals for their meat. The Carnism Inventory showed the hypothesized two-dimensional structure as well as good internal consistencies and stability (N = 302, Study 1). We also demonstrated the convergent and discriminant validity of the Carnism Inventory (N = 781, Study 2a). As expected, carnistic defense predicted meat consumption, while carnistic domination was a significant predictor of having slaughtered an animal (N = 478, Study 2b). Both scales were significantly related to sociopolitical beliefs, including right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation, but only carnistic domination was related to symbolic racism and sexism (N = 373, Study 3). Taken together, our findings highlight the utility of the two-dimensional conceptualization and measurement of carnistic beliefs and offer new insights into one of the most common human behaviors: Eating animals is not only a gustatory behavior, as widely believed, but also an ideological one.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A
           test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire
    • Authors: Sophie Schumacher; Eva Kemps; Marika Tiggemann
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Sophie Schumacher, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
      The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Associations of parental food-choice control and use of food to soothe
           with adiposity in childhood and adolescence
    • Authors: Shiau Y. Chong; Catherine R. Chittleborough; Tess Gregory; John W. Lynch; Murthy N. Mittinty; Lisa G. Smithers
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Shiau Y. Chong, Catherine R. Chittleborough, Tess Gregory, John W. Lynch, Murthy N. Mittinty, Lisa G. Smithers
      Background Associations of parental feeding techniques with adiposity are mixed and largely rely on cross-sectional studies. We examined associations between parental food-choice control and using food to soothe at 3.5 years on adiposity at 7 and 15 years. Methods Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7312). Food-choice control was assessed using the item ‘how much choice do you allow him/her in deciding what foods he eats at meals?’. Use of food to soothe was reported by mothers on the item ‘how often do you use sweets or other foods to stop his/her crying or fussing?’. BMI at 7 and 15 years was converted to sex- and age-adjusted z-scores. Fat mass was assessed at 15 years using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results In fully-adjusted models, children given the least choice had 0.08 lower BMI z-score at age 7 years and 0.12 lower BMI z-score,1.46 kg lower fat mass at 15 years than children with the most choices. There was no evidence of an association between using food to soothe and adiposity. Conclusions Contrary to some studies, higher parental control over food choice was associated with lower adiposity, but use of food to soothe was not associated with adiposity at ages 7 and 15.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • The mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship
           between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating
    • Authors: Elisabeth M. Powell; Leslie A. Frankel; Daphne C. Hernandez
      Pages: 78 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Elisabeth M. Powell, Leslie A. Frankel, Daphne C. Hernandez
      Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating, yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 254) completed online questionnaires targeting parent feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child self-regulation in eating. Mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macros in SPSS. Results demonstrated that the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating was partially mediated by child self-regulation in eating, even after controlling for parent and child gender, household income, and race/ethnicity. In summary, parental use of food as a reward leads to children's diminished ability to regulate intake, which then leads to increased emotional over eating. Results of this study have implications for both the prevention of disordered eating behaviors and childhood obesity prevention programs, suggesting the need to assist children in learning how to self-regulate in the presence of food.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis of the satisfaction with
           food-related life scale in university students
    • Authors: Berta Schnettler; Horacio Miranda; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata; Natalia Salinas-Oñate; Klaus G. Grunert; Germán Lobos; José Sepúlveda; Ligia Orellana; Clementina Hueche; Héctor Bonilla
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Berta Schnettler, Horacio Miranda, Edgardo Miranda-Zapata, Natalia Salinas-Oñate, Klaus G. Grunert, Germán Lobos, José Sepúlveda, Ligia Orellana, Clementina Hueche, Héctor Bonilla
      This study examined longitudinal measurement invariance in the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale using follow-up data from university students. We examined this measure of the SWFL in different groups of students, separated by various characteristics. Through non-probabilistic longitudinal sampling, 114 university students (65.8% female, mean age: 22.5) completed the SWFL questionnaire three times, over intervals of approximately one year. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine longitudinal measurement invariance. Two types of analysis were conducted: first, a longitudinal invariance by time, and second, a multigroup longitudinal invariance by sex, age, socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period. Results showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL exhibited strong longitudinal invariance (equal factor loadings and equal indicator intercepts). Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis also showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL displays strong invariance by socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period over time. Nevertheless, it was only possible to demonstrate equivalence of the longitudinal factor structure among students of both sexes, and among those older and younger than 22 years. Generally, these findings suggest that the SWFL scale has satisfactory psychometric properties for longitudinal measurement invariance in university students with similar characteristics as the students that participated in this research. It is also possible to suggest that satisfaction with food-related life is associated with sex and age.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Validation of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 3 year old
           children of a multi-ethnic Asian population: The GUSTO cohort study
    • Authors: Phaik Ling Quah; Yin Bun Cheung; Wei Wei Pang; Jia Ying Toh; Seang-Mei Saw; Keith M. Godfrey; Fabian Yap; Yap Seng Chong; Chong Foong-Fong Mary
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Phaik Ling Quah, Yin Bun Cheung, Wei Wei Pang, Jia Ying Toh, Seang-Mei Saw, Keith M. Godfrey, Fabian Yap, Yap Seng Chong, Chong Foong-Fong Mary
      The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was developed to measure eating behaviors related to obesity risk in children. However, this questionnaire has not been validated for use in South East Asia, where parenting practices are different from those in western countries and child obesity rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CEBQ administered to mothers of children aged 3 years in Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine if the original 35-item, 8-factor model was supported in our cohort. Participants were 636 mother-child dyads (mean (SD) child age = 36.7 (1.6) months), from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort in which the mothers were characterized in pregnancy and children were followed up to age 3 years. The CFA showed a poor model fit; RMSEA = 0.072 (PCLOSE<0.001), SRMR = 0.094, CFI = 0.826, and TLI = 0.805. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35 item, 7-factor structure (factor loadings ≥ 0.35): enjoyment of food, food fussiness, emotional overeating, desire to drink, emotional under eating, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating. Cronbach's alpha estimates ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 for the 7 subscales. Convergent validity tests via correlation analysis revealed that emotional under eating (r = −0.14), slowness in eating (r = −0.16) and satiety responsiveness (r = −0.11) were negatively correlated with BMI z-score at 3 years, while enjoyment of food (r = 0.12) was positively correlated, p < 0.05. In conclusion, we found a revised 7-factor structure of the CEBQ more appropriate for examining eating behavior in 3 year old children in the Singapore setting. Further replication studies in a separate cohort study are warranted before further use of these factor structures generated.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Fourth-grade children's dietary reporting accuracy by meal component:
           Results from a validation study that manipulated retention interval and
    • Authors: Suzanne D. Baxter; David B. Hitchcock; Julie A. Royer; Albert F. Smith; Caroline H. Guinn
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Suzanne D. Baxter, David B. Hitchcock, Julie A. Royer, Albert F. Smith, Caroline H. Guinn
      We examined reporting accuracy by meal component (beverage, bread, breakfast meat, combination entrée, condiment, dessert, entrée, fruit, vegetable) with validation-study data on 455 fourth-grade children (mean age = 9.92 ± 0.41 years) observed eating school meals and randomized to one of eight dietary recall conditions (two retention intervals [short, long] crossed with four prompts [forward, meal-name, open, reverse]). Accuracy category (match [observed and reported], omission [observed but unreported], intrusion [unobserved but reported]) was a polytomous nominal item response variable. We fit a multilevel cumulative logit model with item variables meal component and serving period (breakfast, lunch) and child variables retention interval, prompt and sex. Significant accuracy category predictors were meal component (p < 0.0003), retention interval (p < 0.0003), meal-component × serving-period (p < 0.0003) and meal-component × retention-interval (p = 0.001). The relationship of meal component and accuracy category was much stronger for lunch than breakfast. For lunch, beverages were matches more often, omissions much less often and intrusions more often than expected under independence; fruits and desserts were omissions more often. For the meal-component × retention-interval interaction, for the short retention interval, beverages were intrusions much more often but combination entrées and condiments were intrusions less often; for the long retention interval, beverages were matches more often and omissions less often but fruits were matches less often. Accuracy for each meal component appeared better with the short than long retention interval. For lunch and for the short retention interval, children's reporting was most accurate for entrée and combination entrée meal components, whereas it was least accurate for vegetable and fruit meal components. Results have implications for conclusions of studies and interventions assessed with dietary recalls obtained from children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T22:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Decision-making processes shaping the home food environments of young
           adult women with and without children
    • Authors: Ilana G. Raskind; Rebecca C. Woodruff; Denise Ballard; Sabrina T. Cherry; Sandra Daniel; Regine Haardörfer; Michelle C. Kegler
      Pages: 124 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Ilana G. Raskind, Rebecca C. Woodruff, Denise Ballard, Sabrina T. Cherry, Sandra Daniel, Regine Haardörfer, Michelle C. Kegler
      Although young adult women consume the majority of their total daily energy intake from home food sources, the decision-making processes that shape their home food environments have received limited attention. Further, how decision-making may be affected by the transformative experience of motherhood is unknown. In this study, we explore the factors that influence two key decision-making processes—food choices while grocery shopping and the use of non-home food sources—and whether there are differences by motherhood status. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 women, aged 20–29, living in southwest Georgia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data stratified by whether or not children were present in the home. Decision-making was affected by numerous factors, which differed across groups. In regard to grocery shopping, women with children more frequently discussed the influence of nutrition and the preferences of children, while women without children more frequently discussed the influence of taste and the preferences of other household members. Cost, convenience, weight control, and pre-planning meals emerged as salient in both groups. In regard to the use of non-home food sources, convenience and taste were discussed by both groups, while social factors were only discussed by women without children. The cost of eating out was the only reason cited for eating inside the home, and this factor only emerged among women with children. Motherhood may be an important contributor to the decision-making processes that shape young adult women's home food environments. Interventions may find success in framing messaging to emphasize factors identified as motivating healthy decisions, such as protecting the health of children, and practical strategies may be adapted from those already in use, such as pre-planning and budgeting for healthy meals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Practices and preferences: Exploring the relationships between
           food-related parenting practices and child food preferences for high fat
           and/or sugar foods, fruits, and vegetables
    • Authors: Rachel L. Vollmer; Jamey Baietto
      Pages: 134 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Rachel L. Vollmer, Jamey Baietto
      The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3–7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = −0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p < 0.001), pressured the child to eat more food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = −0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = −0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = −0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Consumers’ acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and
           functional dairy products: A systematic review
    • Authors: Francesco Bimbo; Alessandro Bonanno; Giuseppe Nocella; Rosaria Viscecchia; Gianluca Nardone; Biagia De Devitiis; Domenico Carlucci
      Pages: 141 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Francesco Bimbo, Alessandro Bonanno, Giuseppe Nocella, Rosaria Viscecchia, Gianluca Nardone, Biagia De Devitiis, Domenico Carlucci
      This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional dairy products, such as yogurt enriched with calcium, fiber and probiotics. Acceptance for functional dairy products increases among consumers with higher diet/health related knowledge, as well as with aging. General interest in health, food-neophobia and perceived self-efficacy seem also to contribute shaping the acceptance for functional dairy products. Furthermore, products with “natural” matches between carriers and ingredients have the highest level of acceptance among consumers. Last, we find that brand familiarity drives consumers with low interest in health to increase their acceptance and preference for health-enhanced dairy products, such as probiotic yogurts, or those with a general function claim.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Consumer underestimation of sodium in fast food restaurant meals: Results
           from a cross-sectional observational study
    • Authors: Alyssa J. Moran; Maricelle Ramirez; Jason P. Block
      Pages: 155 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Alyssa J. Moran, Maricelle Ramirez, Jason P. Block
      Restaurants are key venues for reducing sodium intake in the U.S. but little is known about consumer perceptions of sodium in restaurant foods. This study quantifies the difference between estimated and actual sodium content of restaurant meals and examines predictors of underestimation in adult and adolescent diners at fast food restaurants. In 2013 and 2014, meal receipts and questionnaires were collected from adults and adolescents dining at six restaurant chains in four New England cities. The sample included 993 adults surveyed during 229 dinnertime visits to 44 restaurants and 794 adolescents surveyed during 298 visits to 49 restaurants after school or at lunchtime. Diners were asked to estimate the amount of sodium (mg) in the meal they had just purchased. Sodium estimates were compared with actual sodium in the meal, calculated by matching all items that the respondent purchased for personal consumption to sodium information on chain restaurant websites. Mean (SD) actual sodium (mg) content of meals was 1292 (970) for adults and 1128 (891) for adolescents. One-quarter of diners (176 (23%) adults, 155 (25%) adolescents) were unable or unwilling to provide estimates of the sodium content of their meals. Of those who provided estimates, 90% of adults and 88% of adolescents underestimated sodium in their meals, with adults underestimating sodium by a mean (SD) of 1013 mg (1,055) and adolescents underestimating by 876 mg (1,021). Respondents underestimated sodium content more for meals with greater sodium content. Education about sodium at point-of-purchase, such as provision of sodium information on restaurant menu boards, may help correct consumer underestimation, particularly for meals of high sodium content.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Impossible meals? The food and meal situation of flight attendants in
           Scandinavia – A qualitative interview study
    • Authors: Maria Nyberg; Maria Lennernäs Wiklund
      Pages: 162 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Maria Nyberg, Maria Lennernäs Wiklund
      The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.033
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Attitudes toward health and taste of food among women with bulimia nervosa
           and women of a non-clinical sample
    • Authors: Priscila Koritar; Sonia Tucunduva Philippi; Marle dos Santos Alvarenga
      Pages: 172 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Priscila Koritar, Sonia Tucunduva Philippi, Marle dos Santos Alvarenga
      Taste preferences and health concerns play important roles in determining eating attitudes, thus influencing food choices. Disordered eating attitudes are common among women, and can lead to the development and maintenance of eating disorders (ED). Attitudes toward health and taste of food among ED patients and its comparison with non-clinical women are not well known, and this knowledge could improve eating interventions. In this study, we compared taste preferences and health concerns in 27 women with diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN) and 216 women of a non-clinical sample. All participants completed the Health and Taste Attitude Scale (HTAS). Using analysis of covariance we compared the HTAS scores of the BN patients with those of the college students. Risk behaviors for ED (assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test) were identified in 54 (25%) of the non-clinical sample, all of whom were therefore excluded in comparison of BN patients. Non-clinical sample, compared to patients, scored higher on the HTAS Taste domain (p < 0.001) and its pleasure subscale (p < 0.001), whereas patients scored higher on the HTAS Health domain (p < 0.05) and its light product interest subscale (p < 0.05). Based on our data, eating attitudes of women of non-clinical sample are related to taste and pleasure, whereas women with BN are concerned with adopting a diet regarded as healthy, thus increasing their interest in “light” products. Therefore, the taste and health concerns must be considered in nutrition interventions for women in general, and prevention and treatment of ED as determinants of food choice.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Genetic variations in taste perception modify alcohol drinking behavior in
    • Authors: Jeong-Hwa Choi; Jeonghee Lee; Sarah Yang; Jeongseon Kim
      Pages: 178 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Sarah Yang, Jeongseon Kim
      The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59–0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06–2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11–2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14–2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Eating behaviour among nutrition students and social desirability as a
    • Authors: Dóris Freitas; Bruno MPM Oliveira; Flora Correia; Sílvia Pinhão; Rui Poínhos
      Pages: 187 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Dóris Freitas, Bruno MPM Oliveira, Flora Correia, Sílvia Pinhão, Rui Poínhos
      Introduction The study of eating behaviour should consider the presence of potential sources of bias, including social desirability. This is particularly relevant among students of Nutrition Sciences, since they have a higher risk of eating disorders. Objective To analyse the effect of social desirability in the assessment of eating behaviour dimensions among nutrition students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we analysed data from 149 students of Nutrition Sciences. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing social desirability and eating behaviour dimensions (emotional, external and binge eating, flexible and rigid control, and eating self-efficacy). Results Among males, social desirability had a negative association with binge eating, while among women it had a negative association with emotional, external and binge eating and a positive association with eating self-efficacy. In both subsamples, social desirability showed no significant association with any of the two types of dietary restraint (rigid and flexible control). Discussion Overall, the association between social desirability and eating behaviour dimensions among students of Nutrition Sciences occurs in the same direction as found in students from other areas. However, alongside these similarities, there is a stronger association between social desirability and binge eating among male students of Nutrition Sciences. We hypothesize that this may be related with the different knowledge of students from different areas, and the way they perceive and face the treatment of eating disorders. Conclusion Our study shows that social desirability should be considered while assessing eating behaviour among nutrition students, particularly when studying external eating, binge eating and eating self-efficacy. Moreover, when tailoring interventions to reduce the possible effects of eating behaviour on nutritionists and dieticians' practice, we should consider the influence of social desirability.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.036
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Not so fast: The impact of impulsivity on weight loss varies by treatment
    • Authors: Stephanie M. Manasse; Daniel Flack; Cara Dochat; Fengqing Zhang; Meghan L. Butryn; Evan M. Forman
      Pages: 193 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Stephanie M. Manasse, Daniel Flack, Cara Dochat, Fengqing Zhang, Meghan L. Butryn, Evan M. Forman
      Behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatments result in suboptimal weight losses for many individuals. Impulsivity appears to be a maintenance factor of obesity, yet few studies have examined impulsivity as a predictor of outcomes from BWL. We examined specific facets of impulsivity (inhibitory control and delay discounting) as moderators of outcome in BWL. Overweight adults (n = 190) were randomized to standard behavioral treatment (SBT) or acceptance-based behavioral treatment (ABT). We hypothesized that impulsivity would be inversely associated with weight loss, and that the association between impulsivity and outcome would be attenuated in the ABT condition. Poorer general inhibitory control predicted lower percent weight lost at 12 months across conditions at the trend level (b = −0.003, p = 0.06). The negative impact of low inhibitory control on weight loss was attenuated by assignment to ABT versus SBT (b = 0.004, p = 0.03). Treatment condition, at trend level, also moderated the impact of delay discounting (b = −0.011, p = .098) and food-specific inhibitory control (b = 0.003, p = 0.06) on percent weight loss such that those with greater impulsivity benefitted most from ABT. Results reveal a potential pattern that impulsivity reduces benefit derived from SBT but not ABT. Further research on the moderating effect of impulsivity is necessary to inform the development of targeted treatments for clinically meaningful subtypes of patients.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.042
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • “Why some consumers don't care”: Heterogeneity in household
           responses to a food scandal
    • Authors: Jörg Rieger; Daniela Weible; Sven Anders
      Pages: 200 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Jörg Rieger, Daniela Weible, Sven Anders
      In the aftermath of food scandals, household perceptions about the health risks posed by failures in food safety play a central role in determining their mitigating behavior. A stream of literature has shown that factors including media coverage of a scandal, risk perceptions, trust in food safety information, and consumption habits matter. This paper deviates from the standard assumption of a homogeneous response to media information across all households exposed to a food scandal. Instead, we present an innovative multi-method approach to investigate the impacts of household heterogeneity in underlying psychological and behavioral, media usage patterns and consumption habits on poultry demand in the aftermath of the 2011 German dioxin scandal. The analysis employs weekly retail purchase and matching survey data for 6133 households covering pre and post scandal periods. The supplementary survey data elicits household respondent's risk perceptions and risk attitudes, product label and media information behavior. Initial factor and cluster analysis identify household segments based on psychographic and behavioral indicators. We then estimate a correlated random effect Tobit model to account for clustered household responses to quantify the influence of media effects distinguishing between short-term risk mitigation behavior and longer-term habit persistence. Our results confirm significant heterogeneity in household's media-induced risk-mitigation responses to the dioxin scandal across three clusters. However, we find that habit persistence in the form of consumption preferences for the affected products were able to largely compensate for demand-reducing media effects across household clusters. Considering heterogeneity in household's risk mitigation behaviors to food scandals holds implications for policy makers and food industry alike.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.038
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts,
           cravings, and consumption
    • Authors: Anna Richard; Adrian Meule; Julia Reichenberger; Jens Blechert
      Pages: 215 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Anna Richard, Adrian Meule, Julia Reichenberger, Jens Blechert
      Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals’ behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.037
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Appetite suppressing effect of Spinacia oleracea in rats: Involvement of
           the short term satiety signal cholecystokinin
    • Authors: Vandana Panda; Priyanka Shinde
      Pages: 224 - 230
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Vandana Panda, Priyanka Shinde
      Spinacia oleracea (spinach) is a green leafy vegetable rich in antioxidant phyto-constituents such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids and vitamins. Fruits and vegetables rich in flavonoids are known to prevent weight gain by inducing satiety. The present study evaluates the appetite suppressing effect of a flavonoid rich extract of the spinach leaf (SOE) in rats. HPTLC of SOE was performed for detecting flavonoids. Rats were administered SOE (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p. o) and fluoxetine (6 mg/kg i. p) as a pre-meal for 14 days. Food intake and weight gain was observed daily during the treatment period. Serum levels of the short term satiety signals cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucose were measured on the 7th and 14thdays at different time points after start of meal to study the satiety inducing effect of SOE. HPTLC showed the presence of 14 flavonoids in SOE. SOE and fluoxetine treated rats showed a significant reduction in food intake and weight gain when compared with the normal control rats. On the 7th day of treatment, peak CCK levels were reached in 30 min after start of meal in fluoxetine treated rats and in 60 min in the remaining rats. On the 14th day, CCK peaking was observed in 30 min after start of meal in the fluoxetine as well as SOE 400 mg/kg treated rats. Peak glucose levels in all treatment groups were obtained in 60 min after start of feeding on both days of the study. It maybe concluded that SOE exhibited a promising appetite suppressing effect by inducing a quicker than normal release of CCK, thus eliciting an early onset of satiety in rats. This effect may be due to its high flavonoid content.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.030
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Disruption of re-intake after partial withdrawal of gastric food contents
           in rats lesioned in the gelatinous part of the nucleus of the solitary
    • Authors: María A. Zafra; Antonio D. Agüera; Filomena Molina; Amadeo Puerto
      Pages: 231 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): María A. Zafra, Antonio D. Agüera, Filomena Molina, Amadeo Puerto
      Sensory information from the upper gastrointestinal tract is critical in food intake regulation. Signals from different levels of the digestive system are processed to the brain, among other systems, via the vagus nerve, which mainly projects towards the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). The objective of this study was to analyze the participation of the gelatinous part (SolG) of the NST in short-term food intake. One-third of the stomach food content was withdrawn at 5 min after the end of a meal, and food was then available ad libitum for different time periods. SolG-lesioned and control animals ingested a similar amount of the initial liquid meal, but the former consumed significantly smaller amounts and failed to compensate for the food deficit, whereas the controls re-ingested virtually the same amount as extracted. These data suggest that the SolG, as in the case of related anatomical structures such as the vagus nerve or external lateral parabrachial subnucleus, may be relevant in particular circumstances that require the rapid processing of vagal-related food intake adjustment associated to the upper gastrointestinal tract.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.040
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Taste assessment in normal weight and overweight individuals with
           co-occurring Binge Eating Disorder
    • Authors: Jean M. Arlt; Gregory S. Smutzer; Eunice Y. Chen
      Pages: 239 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Jean M. Arlt, Gregory S. Smutzer, Eunice Y. Chen
      Background Taste perception influences food choice, and may contribute to both weight status and disordered eating. Relatively little work has attempted to disentangle contributions of weight status and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) to human taste perception. We predicted weight status and BED would interact, showing difference in taste perception from non-eating disorder matched groups. Methods The four study groups included: normal weight BED (NW BED), normal weight healthy controls (NW HC), overweight BED (OW BED), and overweight healthy controls (OW HC) (N = 60). Groups were matched for age (±5 years), ethnicity, and weight status. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, the Eating Disorder Examination Version 16.0, and the NIH Toolbox Gustatory Assessment with additional taste solutions and taste stimulus delivered with edible taste strips. Results Interactions were found between weight status and diagnosis on measures of regional taste intensity for quinine hydrochloride (CI 95% [44.61, 56.31], p = 0.018), sucrose (CI 95% [46.79, 56.45], p = 0.003), and 6-n-propylthiouracil (CI 95% [25.557, 39.269], p = 0.015). OW BED participants perceived these taste stimuli significantly less intensely than OW HC and NW BED. Whole mouth taste intensity tests at suprathreshold amounts did not reveal group differences. All four groups reported similar hedonic response to taste stimuli. Edible taste strips had medium to large significant correlations with NIH Gustatory Assessment taste stimuli. Conclusions There were significant differences in the taste perception of OW BED relative to the other three groups. These findings may provide partial explanation as to why previous studies correlating taste and weight status have mixed results. Replication in larger samples assessed longitudinally is needed to extend this work.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.034
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Consumer preferences for sustainable aquaculture products: Evidence from
           in-depth interviews, think aloud protocols and choice experiments
    • Authors: Antje Risius; Meike Janssen; Ulrich Hamm
      Pages: 246 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Antje Risius, Meike Janssen, Ulrich Hamm
      Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Development of novel tools to measure food neophobia in children
    • Authors: Marie Damsbo-Svendsen; Michael Bom Frøst; Annemarie Olsen
      Pages: 255 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Marie Damsbo-Svendsen, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
      Background The main tool currently used to measure food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale, FNS, developed by Pliner & Hobden, 1992) may not remain optimal forever. It was developed around 25 years ago, and the perception and availability of “novel” and “ethnic” foods may have changed in the meantime. Consequently, there is a need for developing updated tools for measuring food neophobia. Objective To develop novel tools to measure food neophobia in children. Design Based on a review of 13 designs to assess food neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, a Food Neophobia Test Tool (FNTT) was developed. A questionnaire including the FNS, a 19-item FNTT, items about willingness to taste novel foods in different surroundings and a behavioral test was administered to 235 children aged 9–13 years. Reliability and validity of the FNS and FNTT were assessed through calculations of Cronbach's alpha, item-item and item-rest correlations. Comprehension issues related to tools were evaluated based on qualitative observations and finally, behavioral validity was assessed. Results A considerable number of children indicated difficulties understanding certain items in the original FNS. FNTT could be reduced to a 6- and 9-item tool with high validity (item-rest coefficients, r = 0.60–0.80). Internal consistency of the FNTT (Cronbach α ≥ 0.90) was higher relative to the FNS (Cronbach α ≥ 0.72). Scores from the FNTT correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with results from the behavioral test confirming construct validity of the FNTT as a measure of neophobic behavior. Conclusions Results from this study provide evidence for the FNTT as reliable and valid tool for measuring food neophobia in children aged 9–13 years. Moreover, when modified, the FNS continue to produce reliable and valid results.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.035
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Effects of twelve weeks of capsaicinoid supplementation on body
           composition, appetite and self-reported caloric intake in overweight
    • Authors: Stacie L. Urbina; Michael D. Roberts; Wesley C. Kephart; Katelyn B. Villa; Emily N. Santos; Alyssa M. Olivencia; Haley M. Bennett; Marissa D. Lara; Cliffa A. Foster; Martin Purpura; Ralf Jäger; Lem W. Taylor; Colin D. Wilborn
      Pages: 264 - 273
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Stacie L. Urbina, Michael D. Roberts, Wesley C. Kephart, Katelyn B. Villa, Emily N. Santos, Alyssa M. Olivencia, Haley M. Bennett, Marissa D. Lara, Cliffa A. Foster, Martin Purpura, Ralf Jäger, Lem W. Taylor, Colin D. Wilborn
      We examined if 12 weeks of capsaicinoid (CAP) supplementation affected appetite, body composition and metabolic health markers. Seventy seven healthy male and female volunteers (30 ± 1 y, 171.2 ± 9.8 cm, 81.0 ± 2.2 kg, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to ingest either low-dose CAP (2 mg/d; L-CAP, n = 27), high-dose CAP (4 mg/d; H-CAP, n = 22) from Capsimax or placebo (corn starch; PLA, n = 28) for 12 weeks. At baseline (0 WK), 6 weeks (6 WK) and 12 weeks (12 WK) waist: hip ratio, body composition via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, 0 WK and 12 WK only), self-reported Calorie intakes, appetite levels via Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and serum metabolic health markers (0 WK and 12 WK only) were analyzed. Moreover, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered at 0 WK and 12 WK, and serum glucose and insulin responses were examined 30–120 min post test-drink consumption. Waist: hip ratio significantly decreased in L-CAP from 0 WK to 6 WK (p < 0.05), although supplementation did not significantly affect body composition. H-CAP consumed less kcal/d compared to PLA at 12 WK (difference = 257 kcal/d, p < 0.05) and L-CAP participants at 12 WK (difference = 247, p < 0.05). Twenty-three percent (9/39) of the originally-enrolled H-CAP participants reported GI distress, although no participants in the L-CAP group reported such adverse events. Interestingly, H-CAP participants presented significant increases in serum insulin as well as significant decreases in serum HDL cholesterol levels from WK0 to WK12. However, supplementation did not affect the insulin response to the administered OGTT and/or other indices of insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that H-CAP supplementation reduces self-reported energy intake after 12 weeks of supplementation, and L-CAP supplementation also reduces waist: hip ratio. Longer-term effects of capsaicinoid supplementation on basal insulin and cholesterol levels warrant further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Development of a new in-home testing method to assess infant food liking
    • Authors: J. Madrelle; C. Lange; I. Boutrolle; O. Valade; H. Weenen; S. Monnery-Patris; S. Issanchou; S. Nicklaus
      Pages: 274 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): J. Madrelle, C. Lange, I. Boutrolle, O. Valade, H. Weenen, S. Monnery-Patris, S. Issanchou, S. Nicklaus
      The objective of this study was to develop a new elaborate method to evaluate infants' liking of foods that could be applied at home and to compare the results of this elaborate method with those of a basic method. Mothers of infants aged 4 to 7 (n = 44) and 12–15 months (n = 46) participated in this study. For the basic method, mothers were asked to assess their infant's global liking at the end of a meal. Then, for the elaborate method, mothers received detailed instructions on how to feed their infant, how infants might express like/dislike and when to stop the meal. During the first nine spoons, they were asked to report the presence/absence of positive and negative behaviours after each spoon, and the infant's initial liking was reported after each triplet of spoons. They also assessed their infant's global liking at the end of the meal. Both methods were applied using three commercial familiar baby foods adapted to each age range. In 4-7-month-olds, the elaborate method showed a significant difference across products for liking, whereas the basic method did not show any difference. In 12-15-month-olds, the elaborate method showed more differences across products for liking than the basic method. In both age groups, negative behaviours, despite being less frequently reported, provided better liking discrimination than positive behaviours. In conclusion, the elaborate method produced better product liking discrimination than the basic method by focusing maternal attention on infants' eating behaviours since the first spoons.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:38:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • The effect of moderate versus severe simulated altitude on appetite, gut
           hormones, energy intake and substrate oxidation in men
    • Authors: Jamie Matu; Kevin Deighton; Theocharis Ispoglou; Lauren Duckworth
      Pages: 284 - 292
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Jamie Matu, Kevin Deighton, Theocharis Ispoglou, Lauren Duckworth
      Acute exposure to high altitude (>3500 m) is associated with marked changes in appetite regulation and substrate oxidation but the effects of lower altitudes are unclear. This study examined appetite, gut hormone, energy intake and substrate oxidation responses to breakfast ingestion and exercise at simulated moderate and severe altitudes compared with sea-level. Twelve healthy males (mean ± SD; age 30 ± 9years, body mass index 24.4 ± 2.7 kg·m−2) completed in a randomised crossover order three, 305 min experimental trials at a simulated altitude of 0 m, 2150 m (∼15.8% O2) and 4300 m (∼11.7% O2) in a normobaric chamber. Participants entered the chamber at 8am following a 12 h fast. A standardised breakfast was consumed inside the chamber at 1 h. One hour after breakfast, participants performed a 60 min treadmill walk at 50% of relative V ˙ O 2 max . An ad-libitum buffet meal was consumed 1.5 h after exercise. Blood samples were collected prior to altitude exposure and at 60, 135, 195, 240 and 285 min. No trial based differences were observed in any appetite related measure before exercise. Post-exercise area under the curve values for acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and composite appetite score were lower (all P < 0.05) at 4300 m compared with sea-level and 2150 m. There were no differences in glucagon-like peptide-1 between conditions (P = 0.895). Mean energy intake was lower at 4300 m (3728 ± 3179 kJ) compared with sea-level (7358 ± 1789 kJ; P = 0.007) and 2150 m (7390 ± 1226 kJ; P = 0.004). Proportional reliance on carbohydrate as a fuel was higher (P = 0.01) before breakfast but lower during (P = 0.02) and after exercise (P = 0.01) at 4300 m compared with sea-level. This study suggests that altitude-induced anorexia and a subsequent reduction in energy intake occurs after exercise during exposure to severe but not moderate simulated altitude. Acylated ghrelin concentrations may contribute to this effect.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.041
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Self-compassion directly and indirectly predicts dietary adherence and
           quality of life among adults with celiac disease
    • Authors: A. Justine Dowd; Mary E. Jung
      Pages: 293 - 300
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): A. Justine Dowd, Mary E. Jung
      Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for preventing both short- and long-term consequences of celiac disease. Given that following a strict GFD can be difficult, evidence-based strategies are needed to improve the psychological experience of living with celiac disease and following the GFD. Self-compassion appears to be an important component of effectively self-regulating one's behavior to cope with a chronic disease. The main goal of this study was to examine the relationships between self-compassion and management of celiac disease as assessed by (a) adherence to a strict GFD and (b) celiac-specific quality of life (CQoL). The secondary goal of this study was to explore self-regulatory efficacy (i.e., confidence in one's ability to self-manage behavior to follow a strict GFD) and concurrent self-regulatory efficacy (i.e., one's confidence to self-manage other valued life goals while following a strict GFD) as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and the primary outcomes (adherence and CQoL). In this prospective study, 200 North American adults diagnosed with celiac disease completed online questionnaires at two time points (baseline and 1 month later). Self-compassion at baseline directly predicted stricter adherence (at Time 2; b = −0.63, p = 0.006) and enhanced CQoL (at Time 2; b = −0.50, p = 0.001). Further, self-compassion (at Time 1) also indirectly predicted stricter Time 2 adherence through self-regulatory efficacy (at Time 1; b = −0.26, 95% CI [-0.58, -0.04], R 2 = 0.29) and enhanced Time 2 CQoL through concurrent self-regulatory efficacy (at Time 1; b = −0.07, 95% CI [-0.14, -0.03], R 2 = 0.33). This was the first study to assess the effects of self-compassion in relation to the psychological experience of coping with celiac disease and following a GFD. The findings indicate that self-compassion, self-regulatory efficacy and concurrent self-regulatory efficacy are important cognitions in understanding adherence to a GFD and CQoL among adults with celiac disease.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • High body mass index is associated with impaired cognitive control
    • Authors: Roberta Sellaro; Lorenza S. Colzato
      Pages: 301 - 309
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Roberta Sellaro, Lorenza S. Colzato
      The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI < 25) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) university students on a task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 replicated previous findings that found less efficient inhibitory control in overweight individuals. Experiment 2 complemented these findings by showing that cognitive control impairments associated with high BMI also extend to the ability to resolve stimulus-induced response conflict and to engage in conflict-driven control adaptation. The present results are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that high BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with less efficient cognitive control functioning.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Exploring perceptions and beliefs about the cost of fruit and vegetables
           and whether they are barriers to higher consumption
    • Authors: Kathryn Chapman; David Goldsbury; Wendy Watson; Michelle Havill; Lyndal Wellard; Clare Hughes; Adrian Bauman; Margaret Allman-Farinelli
      Pages: 310 - 319
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Kathryn Chapman, David Goldsbury, Wendy Watson, Michelle Havill, Lyndal Wellard, Clare Hughes, Adrian Bauman, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
      Background Fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is below recommendations, and cost may be a barrier to meeting recommendations. Limited evidence exists on individual perceptions about the cost, actual spending and consumption of F&V. This study investigated perceptions and beliefs about cost of F&V and whether this is a barrier to higher consumption. Methods An online survey of Australian adults (n = 2474) measured F&V consumption; expenditure on F&V and food; and perceived barriers to consumption. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between participants' responses about cost of F&V and demographic factors, and with actual consumption and expenditure on F&V. Results Cost was identified as a barrier for 29% of people not meeting recommended fruit servings and for 14% of people not meeting recommendations for vegetables. Cost was a more common barrier for those on lower incomes (fruit aOR 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.98 and vegetables aOR 2.94; 95% CI 1.97–4.39) and less common for older participants (fruit aOR 0.33; 95% CI 0.17–0.62 and vegetables aOR 0.31; 95% CI 0.18–0.52). There was no association between the perceived barriers and actual F&V spending. Twenty percent of participants said F&V were not affordable; 39% said cost made it difficult to buy F&V, and for 23% the cost of F&V meant they bought less than desired. Conclusions A minority reported F&V were not affordable where they shopped and that cost was a barrier to higher consumption. However, it is apparent that young adults and those on low incomes eat less than they would like because of cost. Strategies that remove financial impediments to consumption are indicated for these population sub-groups.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.043
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Importance of perceived naturalness for acceptance of food additives and
           cultured meat
    • Authors: Michael Siegrist; Bernadette Sütterlin
      Pages: 320 - 326
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Michael Siegrist, Bernadette Sütterlin
      Four experiments examined some factors influencing the perceived naturalness of food products and their biasing effect on risk perception. The results of Experiment 1a showed that three food additives displaying their respective E-numbers (i.e., codes for food additives in the European Union and Switzerland) decreased perceived naturalness. Experiment 1b demonstrated that mentioning possible health effects decreased the perceived naturalness of a plant-based food additive. This experiment further showed that it would not matter for perceived naturalness whether the food was synthetic or nature-identical. Moreover, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggested that the same risk associated with meat consumption was much more acceptable for traditionally produced meat compared with in-vitro meat. Experiment 3 further indicated that the perceived naturalness of the meat (i.e., traditional or cultured meat) had a full mediation effect on participants' evaluation of the acceptability of the risk of colon cancer associated with the meat consumption. Even if the new production method (i.e., cultured meat) was more environmentally friendly and less harmful to animals, the perceived lack of naturalness might reduce the acceptability of the risk associated with such a product. The present study provides evidence that consumers rely on symbolic information when evaluating foods, which may lead to biased judgments and decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research
    • Authors: Patricia DeCosta; Per Møller; Michael Bom Frøst; Annemarie Olsen
      Pages: 327 - 357
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Patricia DeCosta, Per Møller, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
      The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children's attitudes and eating behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia
    • Authors: Marie Damsbo-Svendsen; Michael Bom Frøst; Annemarie Olsen
      Pages: 358 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Marie Damsbo-Svendsen, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
      Background Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. Objective We evaluate strengths and weaknesses of previously developed instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Design Literature was searched through the databases Web of Science and Google Scholar. We identified 255 studies concerning neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Of these, 13 studies encompassing 13 instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods were included in the review. Results are summarized and evaluated with a narrative approach. Results In the 13 instruments to assess neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, 113 to 16.644 subjects aged 2–65 years were involved, scales with 3–7 response categories were used and behavioral validation tests were included in 6 studies. Conclusions Several instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods exist. We recommend selecting one or more among the 13 instruments reviewed in this paper to assess relevant aspects of neophobia.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • The application of defaults to optimize parents' health-based choices for
    • Authors: Katharine L. Loeb; Cynthia Radnitz; Kathleen Keller; Marlene B. Schwartz; Sue Marcus; Richard N. Pierson; Michael Shannon; Danielle DeLaurentis
      Pages: 368 - 375
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Katharine L. Loeb, Cynthia Radnitz, Kathleen Keller, Marlene B. Schwartz, Sue Marcus, Richard N. Pierson, Michael Shannon, Danielle DeLaurentis
      Optimal defaults is a compelling model from behavioral economics and the psychology of human decision-making, designed to shape or “nudge” choices in a positive direction without fundamentally restricting options. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of optimal (less obesogenic) defaults and parent empowerment priming on health-based decisions with parent-child (ages 3–8) dyads in a community-based setting. Two proof-of-concept experiments (one on breakfast food selections and one on activity choice) were conducted comparing the main and interactive effects of optimal versus suboptimal defaults, and parent empowerment priming versus neutral priming, on parents' health-related choices for their children. We hypothesized that in each experiment, making the default option more optimal will lead to more frequent health-oriented choices, and that priming parents to be the ultimate decision-makers on behalf of their child's health will potentiate this effect. Results show that in both studies, default condition, but not priming condition or the interaction between default and priming, significantly predicted choice (healthier vs. less healthy option). There was also a significant main effect for default condition (and no effect for priming condition or the interaction term) on the quantity of healthier food children consumed in the breakfast experiment. These pilot studies demonstrate that optimal defaults can be practicably implemented to improve parents' food and activity choices for young children. Results can inform policies and practices pertaining to obesogenic environmental factors in school, restaurant, and home environments.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.039
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Perceived impact of Nepalese food and food culture in diabetes
    • Authors: Sujata Sapkota; Jo-anne E Brien; Josephine Gwynn; Victoria Flood; Parisa Aslani
      Pages: 376 - 386
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Sujata Sapkota, Jo-anne E Brien, Josephine Gwynn, Victoria Flood, Parisa Aslani
      Consuming a healthy diet forms an important component of diabetes management; however, adhering to a healthy diet is challenging. Dietary behaviour is often guided by socio-cultural, environmental and emotional factors, and not necessarily by physical and nutritional needs. This study explored Nepalese patients' perceptions of the impact of diet, diet management requirement for diabetes and how Nepalese food culture in particular influenced diet management. Interviews were conducted with Nepalese participants with type 2 diabetes in Sydney and Kathmandu; and data was thematically analysed. Diet was recognized as a cause of, and a key treatment modality, in diabetes. Besides doctors, participants in Nepal received a large amount of dietary information from the community. Dietary changes formed a major component of lifestyle modifications adopted after diagnosis, and mostly consisted of removal of foods with added sugar and foods with high total sugar content from the diet, and a reduction in overall quantity of foods consumed. Perceived dietary restriction requirements created social and emotional discomfort to patients. Most participants perceived the Nepalese food culture as a barrier to effective diet management. Meals high in carbohydrates, limited food choices, and food preparation methods were identified as barriers, particularly in Nepal. In Australia, participants reported greater availability and easier access to appropriate food, and healthier cooking options. The socio-cultural aspects of food behaviour, mainly, food practices during social events were identified as significant barriers. Although diet was acknowledged as an important component of diabetes care, and most adopted changes in their diet post-diagnosis, effective and sustained changes were difficult to achieve. Future public health campaigns and education strategies should focus on improving diet knowledge, awareness of food options for diabetes, and effective dietary management.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Towards a reduced meat diet: Mindset and motivation of young vegetarians,
           low, medium and high meat-eaters
    • Authors: Joop de Boer; Hanna Schösler; Harry Aiking
      Pages: 387 - 397
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Joop de Boer, Hanna Schösler, Harry Aiking
      This study provides insight into differences and similarities in the mindset and motivation of four dietary groups (young self-declared vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters) to support the development of strategies for a general transition to a less meat-based diet. The paper highlights the value of the identity concept for our understanding of both vegetarians and meat eaters. The analysis involves a comparison of the four dietary groups focusing on the strength and the profile of their food-related motivation and their reasons for and against frequent meat eating. To check for the generalizability of the results, the analyses were performed in two samples of adults (aged 18–35) in the Netherlands (native Dutch, n = 357, and second generation Chinese Dutch, n = 350). In both samples, the vegetarians had the same level of food-related motivation as the other groups, but a different motivational profile and distinctive, taste- and animal-welfare related reasons to justify their abstinence from eating meat. The low and medium meat-eaters often considered health a reason to eat meat as well as to moderate meat eating, plus they liked to vary their meals. In these aspects they were different from both the vegetarians and the high meat-eaters. The findings are relevant for (non) governmental organizations that aim to influence dietary choices, as well as for businesses that operate in the market of meat substitutes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Impulsivity and test meal intake among women with bulimia nervosa
    • Authors: Robyn Sysko; Rachel Ojserkis; Janet Schebendach; Suzette M. Evans; Tom Hildebrandt; B. Timothy Walsh
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Robyn Sysko, Rachel Ojserkis, Janet Schebendach, Suzette M. Evans, Tom Hildebrandt, B. Timothy Walsh
      Many patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) also meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). In order to understand possible mechanisms contributing to the co-occurrence and perpetuation of these disorders, this study investigated the importance of impulsivity and test meal intake among patients with BN by comparing women with BN only (n = 18), BN and current/past AUDs (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 12). All participants completed assessments of eating disorder symptoms, frequency of alcohol use, binge eating, and purging via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews over two sessions. Measures of impulsivity consisted of computerized and self-report measures, and laboratory test meals. Significant differences between individuals with BN with/without comorbid AUDs were not found for test meal intake, impulsivity measures, or self-reported psychological symptoms. As hypothesized, compared to healthy controls, individuals with BN had significantly higher scores on two subscales and the total score of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a trait measure of impulsivity, and consumed significantly more calories in the binge instruction meal. Total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores were also significantly related to kcal consumed during the laboratory test meal when individuals were instructed to binge eat (BN groups). Data from this study add to the existing literature implicating impulsivity in the psychopathology of disorders of binge eating, including BN, and also support the use of laboratory meals as a symptom-specific measure of this trait in eating disorder populations.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T21:10:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Reward sensitivity and body weight: the intervening role of food
           responsive behavior and external eating
    • Authors: Laura Vandeweghe; Sandra Verbeken; Leentje Vervoort; Ellen Moens; Caroline Braet
      Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Laura Vandeweghe, Sandra Verbeken, Leentje Vervoort, Ellen Moens, Caroline Braet
      Background During the last three decades, the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased worldwide. It is well established that different child-related factors such as food approach behaviors (i.e. eating behaviors that imply movements towards food) contribute to the development of overweight. However, research is lacking on the underlying mechanisms leading to food approach behaviors, which in turn lead to overweight. Subject/Methods Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigated the relation between the personality trait reward sensitivity and body weight in a convenience sample of 211 children aged 2.5–9 years. We further investigated the intervening role of food approach behaviors in the association between reward sensitivity and body weight. Results Unexpectedly, there was no direct association between reward sensitivity and body weight. Despite the absence of a direct effect, a significant indirect association was found between reward sensitivity and body weight through the intervening food approach variables (i.e. food responsive behavior and external eating). Conclusions These results highlight the importance of the focus on eating behaviors as well as trait characteristics in prevention programs for overweight.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A
           literature review
    • Authors: Navdeep Kaur; Devinder Pal Singh
      Pages: 167 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Navdeep Kaur, Devinder Pal Singh
      This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating various facets of consumer behaviour towards functional foods. It focuses on published international research on functional food attitude and behaviour from across the world. Research papers (n = 112) that were identified were coded in terms of study type, variables studied, product type, participant profile, research methodology and analysis details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which behaviour towards functional foods have been examined in the past and provide a synthesis of findings in four categories of determinants, namely (1) Personal Factors, (2) Psychological Factors, (3) Cultural & Social Factors, and (4) Factors relating to the functional food product. A reference model for the relationships between these factors and behaviour of consumers is derived.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T10:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.033
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Predicting organic food consumption: A meta-analytic structural equation
           model based on the theory of planned behavior
    • Authors: Andrea Scalco; Stefano Noventa; Riccardo Sartori; Andrea Ceschi
      Pages: 235 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Andrea Scalco, Stefano Noventa, Riccardo Sartori, Andrea Ceschi
      During the last decade, the purchase of organic food within a sustainable consumption context has gained momentum. Consequently, the amount of research in the field has increased, leading in some cases to discrepancies regarding both methods and results. The present review examines those works that applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework in order to understand and predict consumers’ motivation to buy organic food. A meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the strength of the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention, as well as between intention and behavior. Results confirm the major role played by individual attitude in shaping buying intention, followed by subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Intention-behavior shows a large effect size, few studies however explicitly reported such an association. Furthermore, starting from a pooled correlation matrix, a meta-analytic structural equation model has been applied to jointly evaluate the strength of the relationships among the factors of the original model. Results suggest the robustness of the TPB model. In addition, mediation analysis indicates a potential direct effect from subjective norms to individual attitude in the present context. Finally, some issues regarding methodological aspects of the application of the TPB within the context of organic food are discussed for further research developments.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
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