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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3040 Journals sorted alphabetically
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.317, h-index: 89)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.789, h-index: 43)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
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Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
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Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 10)
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • Behavioral evidence of emotion dysregulation in binge eaters
    • Authors: Dawn M. Eichen; Eunice Chen; Kerri N. Boutelle; Michael S. McCloskey
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Dawn M. Eichen, Eunice Chen, Kerri N. Boutelle, Michael S. McCloskey
      Binge eating is the most common disordered eating symptom and can lead to the development of obesity. Previous self-report research has supported the hypothesis that individuals who binge eat report greater levels of general emotion dysregulation, which may facilitate binge-eating behavior. However, to date, no study has experimentally tested the relation between binge eating history and in-vivo emotion dysregulation. To do this, a sample of female college students who either endorsed binge eating (n = 40) or denied the presence of any eating pathology (n = 47) completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and a behavioral distress tolerance task (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computer: PASAT-C) known to induce negative affect and distress. The binge eating group was 2.96 times more likely to quit the PASAT-C early (χ2 = 5.04, p = 0.025) and reported greater irritability (F(1,84) = 7.09 p = 0.009) and frustration (F(1,84) = 5.00, p = 0.028) after completing the PASAT-C than controls, controlling for initial levels of these emotions. Furthermore, across the entire sample, quitting early was associated with greater emotion dysregulation on the DERS (rpb = 0.342, p < 0.01). This study is the first to demonstrate that individuals who binge eat show in-vivo emotional dysregulation on a laboratory task. Future studies should examine the PASAT-C to determine its potential clinical utility for individuals with or at risk of developing binge eating.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Appetite loss as a potential predictor of suicidal ideation and self-harm
           in adolescents: A school-based study
    • Authors: Yuko Kitagawa; Shuntaro Ando; Syudo Yamasaki; Jerome Clifford Foo; Yuji Okazaki; Shinji Shimodera; Atsushi Nishida; Fumiharu Togo; Tsukasa Sasaki
      Pages: 7 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Yuko Kitagawa, Shuntaro Ando, Syudo Yamasaki, Jerome Clifford Foo, Yuji Okazaki, Shinji Shimodera, Atsushi Nishida, Fumiharu Togo, Tsukasa Sasaki
      Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescents, but detection of its risk is often challenging. Many mental illnesses share the common symptom of appetite loss and it is also known that people who suffer from these illnesses are at greater risk of suicide. However, the relationship between appetite loss and suicide risk has yet to be examined. For adolescents in particular, questions about appetite loss may be easier to answer than sensitive questions regarding mental health. The present study aims to investigate the association of appetite loss with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents. Rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm associated with appetite-loss were examined in 18,250 Japanese junior and senior high school students (aged 12–18) using a self-report questionnaire. Insomnia, a physical symptom which has previously been associated with suicide risk, was also controlled for in the analysis. Results showed that rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm significantly increased according to the degree of self-reported appetite loss. Similar results were observed for insomnia. Odds ratios (ORs) for suicidal ideation and self-harm were 5.5 and 4.1 for adolescents with appetite loss compared to those without it, and the ORs were 5.5 and 3.5 for those with insomnia compared to those without it, respectively, adjusting for sex and age (p < 0.001). ORs remained statistically significant after adjusting for depression/anxiety (General Health Questionnaire-12 score). In conclusion, self-reported appetite loss was highly associated with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents; adolescents reporting physical symptoms such as loss of appetite or insomnia should be given careful attention.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.026
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Proposal for a breakfast quality index for brazilian population: Rationale
           and application in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey
    • Authors: Jaqueline Lopes Pereira; Michelle Alessandra de Castro; Sinead Hopkins; Carolyn Gugger; Regina Mara Fisberg; Mauro Fisberg
      Pages: 12 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Jaqueline Lopes Pereira, Michelle Alessandra de Castro, Sinead Hopkins, Carolyn Gugger, Regina Mara Fisberg, Mauro Fisberg
      Breakfast has been related to positive nutrition and health outcomes, but criteria for an optimal composition of this meal are not well established. The aim of this study was to propose a breakfast quality index (BQI) for the Brazilian population, and to describe the relationship between breakfast quality, socio-demographic factors, dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day. BQI was constructed based on individual dietary data of 22,279 breakfast consumers, aged 20+ years from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study. The BQI was comprised of food components (cereals, fruit/vegetables, dairy products), and nutrient criteria (energy, fiber, free sugar, saturated fat, calcium and sodium). Mean, percentage and 95% CIs were estimated for variables according to BQI categories. The mean BQI was 4.2, with 71% of individuals falling into medium BQI category and 6% in high category. Individuals in urban areas, in higher categories of income and education and women had higher BQI means. Consumers with high BQI had higher intake of fruits/vegetables and higher breakfast and total daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fiber, total sugar, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate and vitamins B6, A, C, and D, and lower trans fatty acids compared to those in low and medium BQI groups. Promoting a high-quality breakfast may contribute to a better nutrient intake and achievement of daily requirements.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Tracking food intake as bites: Effects on cognitive resources, eating
           enjoyment, and self-control
    • Authors: Danny Weathers; Jennifer Christie Siemens; Steven W. Kopp
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Danny Weathers, Jennifer Christie Siemens, Steven W. Kopp
      While monitoring food intake is critical for controlling eating, traditional tools designed for this purpose can be impractical when one desires real-time feedback. Further, the act of monitoring can deplete valuable cognitive resources. In response to these concerns, technologies have been developed to aid those wanting to control their food intake. Of note, devices can now track eating in number of bites taken as opposed to more traditional units such as pieces or volume. Through two studies, the current research investigates the effects of tracking food portions at the bite level on cognitive resources, enjoyment of the eating experience, and objective and subjective self-control. Results indicate that using wearable technology to track bite portions, as compared to doing so mentally, (1) reduces cognitive resource depletion, (2) is equally as effective for allowing users to successfully achieve eating goals, and (3) does not reduce enjoyment of the eating experience. These results support the viability of tracking food intake at the bite level, which holds a number of potential implications for eating and weight management.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Pre-meal screen-time activities increase subjective emotions, but not food
           intake in young girls
    • Authors: Julia O. Totosy de Zepetnek; Damion Pollard; Jo M. Welch; Melissa Rossiter; Shiva Faghih; Nick Bellissimo
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Julia O. Totosy de Zepetnek, Damion Pollard, Jo M. Welch, Melissa Rossiter, Shiva Faghih, Nick Bellissimo
      Purpose To determine the effect of pre-meal screen-time activities on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and food intake (FI) in 9–14 year-old girls. Methods In this clinical study, 31 girls completed four 45-min treatment conditions of television viewing (TVV), video game playing (VGP), a challenging computer task (CT), and sitting without screen exposure (control) in a randomized order. Each treatment condition was followed immediately by an ad libitum pizza lunch, and FI was calculated from the weight of the consumed pizza. Subjective appetite was assessed at baseline, 15, 30, and 45 min during the treatment condition, and upon trial completion at 75 min. Subjective emotions were assessed at baseline and at 45 min. Results FI was not affected by screen type, but was positively correlated with body composition (fat mass [FM, kg], fat free mass [FFM, kg]) in all treatment conditions. Subjective appetite was not affected by screen type, but increased with time in all treatment conditions (p < 0.0001). Subjective emotions were affected by VGP only. Anger, excitement, frustration, and upset feelings were increased at 45 min following VGP. VGP led to increased frustration compared to control (p = 0.0003), CT (p = 0.007) and TVV (p = 0.0002). Conclusion Exposure to TVV or CT before eating did not affect subjective emotions, subjective appetite, or FI, and no difference was found between screen activities and the control condition for average appetite or FI. Despite a change in subjective emotions during the VGP condition, there was no increase in subjective appetite or subsequent FI. These findings suggest that physiologic signals of satiation and satiety are not overridden by environmental stimuli of pre-meal screen-time exposure among young girls. (Clinical trial number NCT01750177).

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.025
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Effect of Ramadan fasting on fatigue, mood, sleepiness, and health-related
           quality of life of healthy young men in summer time in Germany: A
           prospective controlled study
    • Authors: Boya Nugraha; Samaneh Khoshandam Ghashang; Imad Hamdan; Christoph Gutenbrunner
      Pages: 38 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Boya Nugraha, Samaneh Khoshandam Ghashang, Imad Hamdan, Christoph Gutenbrunner
      Muslims around the world fast during the lunar month of Ramadan. The month consists of 29 or 30 days, which vary in length depending on geographic location and the time of year. During this month, Muslims abstain from food, drink, smoking, and sex from dawn until sunset. In 2015, Ramadan fell during the summer. As a result, Muslims in Germany fasted 19 h a day. Previous research has shown associations between fasting and mood enhancement. This study aimed to determine the effect of fasting on young, healthy males who fasted in Germany during Ramadan 2015. In particular, this study examined the impact of fasting on mood, fatigue, and health-related Quality of Life (QoL). This study had 2 groups: fasting group (FG; n = 25), and non-fasting group (NFG; n = 25). In FG, participants were assessed at four different points: one week before Ramadan (T1), mid Ramadan (T2), the last days of Ramadan (T3), and one week after Ramadan (T4). In NFG, participants were assessed only at T1 and T3. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the participants in the FG and the NFG at T1 or T3 for any of the outcomes. However, participants in the FG demonstrated significant improvement from T2 to T4 in fatigue (visual analogue scale p < 0.01; fatigue severity scale:p < 0.01), mood (Beck's Depression Index-II; ANOVA; p < 0.05), and sleepiness during day time (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: ANOVA; p < 0.01). Participants in the FG also experienced significant loss of body weight (ANOVA; p < 0.001), body mass index (ANOVA; p < 0.001), skeletal muscle mass (ANOVA; p < 0.01) and fat free mass (ANOVA; p < 0.01). Findings demonstrate that Ramadan fasting did not significantly influence mood, fatigue and QoL, when compared to NFG. Even, it gives benefit to fasting group with regard to these parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran
    • Authors: Hassan Rahnama; Shayan Rajabpour
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Hassan Rahnama, Shayan Rajabpour
      Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • To squeeze or not to squeeze: How squeeze tubes affect consumers' serving
    • Authors: Elke Huyghe; Maggie Geuens; Iris Vermeir
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Elke Huyghe, Maggie Geuens, Iris Vermeir
      Squeeze tubes increasingly complement traditional packaging. But, would squeeze tubes - besides offering ease of use - also affect consumers' serving sizes? And if so, in what way? To answer these questions, we contrast the motor fluency hypothesis (i.e., bodily movements affect judgments) with the consumption monitoring hypothesis (i.e., paying attention to quantities eaten affects consumption). Two studies reveal that consumers use less of a product when it comes in a squeeze tube versus a traditional container, providing initial evidence for the consumption monitoring hypothesis. A third study also provides evidence that the ease of consumption monitoring drives the squeeze tube effect, which is more prominent for unrestrained eaters. These findings have important implications for consumers, public policy makers, and product manufacturers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.034
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Strategies used by overweight and obese low-income mothers to feed their
           families in urban Brazil
    • Authors: Priscila de Morais Sato; Ramiro Fernandes Unsain; Joel Gittelsohn; João Gabriel Sanches Tavares da Silva; Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Perez; Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Priscila de Morais Sato, Ramiro Fernandes Unsain, Joel Gittelsohn, João Gabriel Sanches Tavares da Silva, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Perez, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      Objective To describe and compare strategies adopted by overweight and obese low-income mothers living in different vulnerable contexts to deal with food constraints and feed their families. Design Qualitative in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed with exploratory content analysis and the number of segments per theme was used to compare neighborhoods. Setting Three low-income neighborhoods in Santos, Brazil. Participants A purposive sample of 21 overweight or obese mothers. Results We identified three main types of strategies, namely, food acquisition, cooking, and eating. Food acquisition included social support and food-sourcing strategies. Social support strategies ranged from macro (governmental programs) to micro (family) levels. Food-sourcing strategies involved price research and use of credit to buy foods. Cooking approaches included optimizing food (e.g., adding water to beans), avoiding wastefulness, and substitutions (e.g., using water instead of milk when making cakes). Eating themes ranged from lack of quantity to lack of quality. Strategies to deal with the lack of food were affected by family dynamics, such as prioritizing provision of fruits to children. Food choices (e.g., low consumption of fruits and high consumption of fatty meats) derived from strategies may help promote overweight and obesity. Furthermore, for participants, financial constraints were perceived as barriers to following nutritionists' recommendations and weight loss. Conclusions This study highlights the barriers that low-income women face in adopting a healthy diet and sheds light on the importance of the symbolic value of food, even in the context of food insecurity. Finally, it suggests that environmental aspects could increase the accessibility to fruits and vegetables. These findings could be used to inform the planning and implementation of interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.033
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • The role of food shopping in later life
    • Authors: Simone Pettigrew; Caitlin Worrall; Nicole Biagioni; Zenobia Talati; Michelle Jongenelis
      Pages: 71 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Simone Pettigrew, Caitlin Worrall, Nicole Biagioni, Zenobia Talati, Michelle Jongenelis
      By the time they reach retirement, individuals are typically highly experienced in sourcing food products and they have strong familiarity with food retailing environments. To investigate the ongoing role of food shopping in later life, the present study explored seniors' attitudes to food shopping and their food-selection behaviours through the lens of their broader lifestyles. The aim was to provide insights of relevance to the development of future efforts to optimise seniors' food shopping experiences and nutrition-related outcomes. Interviews were conducted with 75 Western Australians aged 60 + years to discuss food shopping in the context of their day-to-day lives. The sample was comprised mainly of women (n = 64) and the average age was 74 years. In general, food shopping was perceived to be a manageable but mundane part of life. The findings suggest that there has been an improvement in food retailing practices because many of the numerous areas of concern identified in previous research conducted in this geographical location a decade ago were not nominated as relevant by the interviewees. Instead, food-related issues reported to be most problematic included the difficulties associated with sourcing affordable food products that had been produced locally and that did not contain unacceptable food additives. Seniors' food shopping concerns thus appear to have changed from functional aspects of the physical store environment to product attributes that reflect the increasing industrialisation of the food industry.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.035
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Executive functioning and dietary intake: Neurocognitive correlates of
           fruit, vegetable, and saturated fat intake in adults with obesity
    • Authors: Emily P. Wyckoff; Brittney C. Evans; Stephanie M. Manasse; Meghan L. Butryn; Evan M. Forman
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Emily P. Wyckoff, Brittney C. Evans, Stephanie M. Manasse, Meghan L. Butryn, Evan M. Forman
      Obesity is a significant public health issue, and is associated with poor diet. Evidence suggests that eating behavior is related to individual differences in executive functioning. Poor executive functioning is associated with poorer diet (few fruits and vegetables and high saturated fat) in normal weight samples; however, the relationship between these specific dietary behaviors and executive functioning have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The current study examined the association between executive functioning and intake of saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables in an overweight/obese sample using behavioral measures of executive function and dietary recall. One-hundred-ninety overweight and obese adults completed neuropsychological assessments measuring intelligence, planning ability, and inhibitory control followed by three dietary recall assessments within a month prior to beginning a behavioral weight loss treatment program. Inhibitory control and two of the three indices of planning each independently significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption such that those with better inhibition and planning ability consumed more fruits and vegetables. No relationship was found between executive functioning and saturated fat intake. Results increase understanding of how executive functioning influences eating behavior in overweight and obese adults, and suggest the importance of including executive functioning training components in dietary interventions for those with obesity. Further research is needed to determine causality as diet and executive functioning may bidirectionally influence each other.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.039
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Validation of the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and its
           relationship with depression, sleep quality, “food addiction”, and
           body mass index
    • Authors: Laurence J. Nolan; Allan Geliebter
      Pages: 86 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Laurence J. Nolan, Allan Geliebter
      Night eating syndrome (NES) is commonly assessed using the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), a validated scale of symptom severity, which does not assess all diagnostic criteria. The Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) assesses all diagnostic criteria, but has not been fully validated. The study purpose was to establish convergent validity for the NEDQ with the NEQ. It was also expected that higher NEDQ scores would be associated with elevated depression, poorer sleep quality, “food addiction,” and BMI as in other studies of NES. Students (n = 254) and community members (n = 468) were administered the NEQ, NEDQ, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Zung Self-report Depression Scale (SDS), and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). Convergent validity between the NEDQ and the NEQ was demonstrated; the scores were significantly positively correlated. There was good agreement between the NEDQ and the NEQ in diagnosis of NES; 56% of those diagnosed by the NEDQ met the threshold score on the NEQ, while the other 44% did not. Only 5 participants out of 33 who met the NEQ threshold score for NES did not meet the NEDQ diagnostic criteria. MANOVA revealed that higher NEDQ was associated with higher SDS and YFAS scores and poorer sleep quality. Full-syndrome NES by the NEDQ was associated with higher BMI in the community group unlike the student group. Scores on all the other questionnaires were higher in the community group. The discrepancies between NEDQ and NEQ diagnosis may be due to differences in construction of the questionnaires and specifically due to the NEDQ being designed for diagnosis. The NEQ provides a convenient global score for NES severity, whereas the NEDQ, which shows convergent validity with the NEQ, provides clinically useful diagnostic categories.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • The photo-elicitation of food worlds: A study on the eating behaviors of
           low socioeconomic Chilean women
    • Authors: Galvez E. Patricia; Marcela Vizcarra; Ana María Palomino; Alejandra Valencia; Lorena Iglesias; Andiara Schwingel
      Pages: 96 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Galvez E. Patricia, Marcela Vizcarra, Ana María Palomino, Alejandra Valencia, Lorena Iglesias, Andiara Schwingel
      Traditional methods for studying eating behaviors include quantitative methods such as 24-h dietary recalls or food frequency questionnaires. Recently, visual methods such as photo-elicitation (PE) have been recognized as useful for studying and understanding eating behaviors. PE has been defined as the use of images during an interview. The goals of this study are to demonstrate the potential of PE for exploring the eating behaviors of Chilean women of low socioeconomic status and to show the advantages and disadvantages of PE from the participants’ points of view. The study included 31 participants who were asked to take pictures that represented what they considered important to them in their “food world”. The pictures were developed and participants were invited to participate in an individual interview. Participants were able to talk about their eating behaviors and those of their families, the factors influencing those behaviors, their dietary knowledge and skills, and their reflections on their diet using the photographs. PE proved to be a feasible research technique for the studied population, and was well received and enjoyed by the participants. The participants perceived a few barriers with PE, such as forgetting to take pictures or not having ideas for new pictures. Nevertheless, PE allowed researchers to obtain rich information about eating behaviors, and can therefore be a useful method for working with populations of underserved areas. The PE data that this study collected could be used to create or improve interventions promoting healthy eating within the studied population.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.040
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Consumers' perceptions of food risks: A snapshot of the Italian Triveneto
    • Authors: Barbara Tiozzo; Silvia Mari; Mirko Ruzza; Stefania Crovato; Licia Ravarotto
      Pages: 105 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Barbara Tiozzo, Silvia Mari, Mirko Ruzza, Stefania Crovato, Licia Ravarotto
      This study investigated the food risk perceptions of people living in the Triveneto area (Northeast Italy), a territory characterized by a particular interest in the production of quality foodstuffs, to determine what aspects people associate with food risk and to understand what beliefs underlie these perceptions. Four focus groups were conducted in the major towns of the target area (N = 45). A semi-structured interview was used that focused on beliefs about food risks, the use of information and media sources in relation to food risk, and the behaviours adopted when eating outside the home. A homogeneous view of food risk emerged among the respondents, and a common definition of risky food was identified. The concept of risk was in opposition to the quality and controllability of food, which emerged as major strategies to cope with food risks. Quality was linked to freshness and local origin, whereas controllability reflected a direct (e.g., checking labels, having a relationship with the vendor, cultivating one's own vegetable garden) or indirect (e.g., control guarantees provided by suppliers and the government) means to check the safety and quality of food. Although people seemed quite informed about food risks, a common sense of impotence with regard to one's own protection prevailed, together with a fatalistic sense of incomplete control over risk. The results identified food concerns for consumers living in this specific territory and might represent a starting point for public health authorities to increase compliance with responsible behaviours for risk mitigation and to define successful food policies for this area.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking: A systematic
           review of observational studies
    • Authors: Susanna Mills; Martin White; Heather Brown; Wendy Wrieden; Dominika Kwasnicka; Joel Halligan; Shannon Robalino; Jean Adams
      Pages: 116 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Susanna Mills, Martin White, Heather Brown, Wendy Wrieden, Dominika Kwasnicka, Joel Halligan, Shannon Robalino, Jean Adams
      Many dietary interventions assume a positive influence of home cooking on diet, health and social outcomes, but evidence remains inconsistent. We aimed to systematically review health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking. Given the absence of a widely accepted, established definition, we defined home cooking as the actions required for preparing hot or cold foods at home, including combining, mixing and often heating ingredients. Nineteen electronic databases were searched for relevant literature. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if they focussed mainly on home cooking, and presented post 19th century observational or qualitative data on participants from high/very high human development index countries. Interventional study designs, which have previously been reviewed, were excluded. Themes were summarised using narrative synthesis. From 13,341 unique records, 38 studies – primarily cross-sectional in design – met the inclusion criteria. A conceptual model was developed, mapping determinants of home cooking to layers of influence including non-modifiable, individual, community and cultural factors. Key determinants included female gender, greater time availability and employment, close personal relationships, and culture and ethnic background. Putative outcomes were mostly at an individual level and focused on potential dietary benefits. Findings show that determinants of home cooking are more complex than simply possessing cooking skills, and that potential positive associations between cooking, diet and health require further confirmation. Current evidence is limited by reliance on cross-sectional studies and authors’ conceptualisation of determinants and outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Exposure to food cues moderates the indirect effect of reward sensitivity
           and external eating via implicit eating expectancies
    • Authors: Aimee L. Maxwell; Natalie J. Loxton; Julie M. Hennegan
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Aimee L. Maxwell, Natalie J. Loxton, Julie M. Hennegan
      Previous research has suggested that the expectancy “eating is rewarding” is one pathway driving the relationship between trait reward sensitivity and externally-driven eating. The aim of the current study was to extend previous research by examining the conditions under which the indirect effect of reward sensitivity and external eating via this eating expectancy occurs. Using a conditional indirect effects approach we tested the moderating effect of exposure to food cues (e.g., images) relative to non-food cues on the association between reward sensitivity and external eating, via eating expectancies. Participants (N = 119, M = 18.67 years of age, SD = 2.40) were university women who completed a computerised food expectancies task (E-TASK) in which they were randomly assigned to either an appetitive food cue condition or non-food cue condition and then responded to a series of eating expectancy statements or self-description personality statements. Participants also completed self-report trait measures of reward sensitivity in addition to measures of eating expectancies (i.e., endorsement of the belief that eating is a rewarding experience). Results revealed higher reward sensitivity was associated with faster reaction times to the eating expectancies statement. This was moderated by cue-condition such that the association between reward sensitivity and faster reaction time was only found in the food cue condition. Faster endorsement of this belief (i.e., reaction time) was also associated with greater external eating. These results provide additional support for the proposal that individuals high in reward sensitivity form implicit associations with positive beliefs about eating when exposed to food cues.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.037
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Identifying eating behavior phenotypes and their correlates: A novel
           direction toward improving weight management interventions
    • Authors: Sofia Bouhlal; Colleen M. McBride; Niraj S. Trivedi; Tanya Agurs-Collins; Susan Persky
      Pages: 142 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Sofia Bouhlal, Colleen M. McBride, Niraj S. Trivedi, Tanya Agurs-Collins, Susan Persky
      Common reports of over-response to food cues, difficulties with calorie restriction, and difficulty adhering to dietary guidelines suggest that eating behaviors could be interrelated in ways that influence weight management efforts. The feasibility of identifying robust eating phenotypes (showing face, content, and criterion validity) was explored based on well-validated individual eating behavior assessments. Adults (n = 260; mean age 34 years) completed online questionnaires with measurements of nine eating behaviors including: appetite for palatable foods, binge eating, bitter taste sensitivity, disinhibition, food neophobia, pickiness and satiety responsiveness. Discovery-based visualization procedures that have the combined strengths of heatmaps and hierarchical clustering were used to investigate: 1) how eating behaviors cluster, 2) how participants can be grouped within eating behavior clusters, and 3) whether group clustering is associated with body mass index (BMI) and dietary self-efficacy levels. Two distinct eating behavior clusters and participant groups that aligned within these clusters were identified: one with higher drive to eat and another with food avoidance behaviors. Participants’ BMI (p = 0.0002) and dietary self-efficacy (p < 0.0001) were associated with cluster membership. Eating behavior clusters showed content and criterion validity based on their association with BMI (associated, but not entirely overlapping) and dietary self-efficacy. Identifying eating behavior phenotypes appears viable. These efforts could be expanded and ultimately inform tailored weight management interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Main meal quality in Brazil and United Kingdom: Similarities and
    • Authors: Bartira Mendes Gorgulho; Gerda Karolien Pot; Flavia Mori Sarti; Dirce Maria Marchioni
      Pages: 151 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Bartira Mendes Gorgulho, Gerda Karolien Pot, Flavia Mori Sarti, Dirce Maria Marchioni
      Consumption of fast food and ready-to-eat meals has been positively associated with obesity. In the UK, ready-made meals are more often consumed than in Brazil, a country in which nutrition transition is relatively low. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of the main meal consumed by adults in Brazil and UK. Food record data was obtained from representative samples from UK and Brazil databases. The Main Meal Quality Index (MMQI) was applied to estimate the quality of the main meal consumed in Brazil and UK. Differences in food groups consumed in the main meal in Brazil and UK were observed using classification decision tree. Meals with higher average energy content were lunch for Brazil, and dinner for the UK. On average, the Brazilian main meal had better nutritional quality (4.42 times higher), independently of sex, age, family income, nutritional status and energy consumed, with higher scores of fiber, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat and energy density. However, UK's main meal included more fruits and vegetables. Food preparations combined with rice and beans were classified as Brazilian main meal, while combinations with fast food items, as fried potatoes, sandwiches and sugary beverages, were classified as UK main meals. In Brazil, the main meal quality was lower among women and obese individuals, presenting significant positive association with age, and negative association with energy intake and family income; while in UK, only age was positively associated with MMQI. Although main meals in Brazil had higher nutritional quality compared to the UK, main meals consumed in both countries need nutritional improvement.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.038
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Higher sensitivity to sweet and salty taste in obese compared to lean
    • Authors: Samyogita Hardikar; Richard Höchenberger; Arno Villringer; Kathrin Ohla
      Pages: 158 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Samyogita Hardikar, Richard Höchenberger, Arno Villringer, Kathrin Ohla
      Although putatively taste has been associated with obesity as one of the factors governing food intake, previous studies have failed to find a consistent link between taste perception and Body Mass Index (BMI). A comprehensive comparison of both thresholds and hedonics for four basic taste modalities (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) has only been carried out with a very small sample size in adults. In the present exploratory study, we compared 23 obese (OB; BMI > 30), and 31 lean (LN; BMI < 25) individuals on three dimensions of taste perception – recognition thresholds, intensity, and pleasantness – using different concentrations of sucrose (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl; salty), citric acid (sour), and quinine hydrochloride (bitter) dissolved in water. Recognition thresholds were estimated with an adaptive Bayesian staircase procedure (QUEST). Intensity and pleasantness ratings were acquired using visual analogue scales (VAS). It was found that OB had lower thresholds than LN for sucrose and NaCl, indicating a higher sensitivity to sweet and salty tastes. This effect was also reflected in ratings of intensity, which were significantly higher in the OB group for the lower concentrations of sweet, salty, and sour. Calculation of Bayes factors further corroborated the differences observed with null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Overall, the results suggest that OB are more sensitive to sweet and salty, and perceive sweet, salty, and sour more intensely than LN.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Nutrition knowledge and Mediterranean diet adherence in the southeast
           United States: Validation of a field-based survey instrument
    • Authors: Mary Rose Bottcher; Patricia Z. Marincic; Katie L. Nahay; Brittany E. Baerlocher; Amy W. Willis; Jieun Park; Philippe Gaillard; Michael W. Greene
      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mary Rose Bottcher, Patricia Z. Marincic, Katie L. Nahay, Brittany E. Baerlocher, Amy W. Willis, Jieun Park, Philippe Gaillard, Michael W. Greene
      The Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce chronic disease risk and is a recommended diet for prevention and management of diabetes. Adherence to the MD in the southeast United States where obesity and diabetes are highly prevalent is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) construct a survey instrument relevant to the general population integrating both MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence questions from previously validated instruments, and 2) assess MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence in a sample population in the southest United States. Adherance was assessed using the validated short MD Adherence Screener (MEDAS). A MD nutrition knowledge (MDNK) questionnaire was developed from previously validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaires and was validated using 127 university students enrolled in three courses with varying levels of nutrition education. Cronbach's α for internal validity of MDNK was acceptable for a short questionnaire (0.653). Test-retest reliability was established (r = 0.853). Field validation of the three-part survey instrument (MEDAS, MDNK and demographic questions) was subsequently performed in 230 adults shopping at supermarkets and farmers markets in eastern Alabama. Total MDNK and MEDAS scores were significantly higher in students with formal nutrition education and in patrons of farmers markets. Greater MD adherence, assessed by dividing MEDAS scores into thirds, was found with increasing formal nutrition education in university students (p = 0.002) and in farmers market participants (p < 0.001). There was a weak but significant association between MDNK and MEDAS scores within university students and participants in the field. Together, the MDNK-MEDAS survey instrument is an effective tool for assessing baseline knowledge and adherence and can be used to target nutritional interventions to improve MD adherence for prevention and management of diabetes and other chronic disease.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.029
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Corrigendum to “Perceptions of food intake and weight status among
           parents of picky eating infants and toddlers in China: A cross-sectional
           study” [Appetite 108 (2017) 456–463]
    • Authors: Ziyi Li; Klazine van der Horst; Lisa R. Edelson-Fries; Kai Yu; Lili You; Yumei Zhang; Gerard Vinyes-Pares; Peiyu Wang; Defu Ma; Xiaoguang Yang; Liqiang Qin; Jiaji Wang
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Ziyi Li, Klazine van der Horst, Lisa R. Edelson-Fries, Kai Yu, Lili You, Yumei Zhang, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Peiyu Wang, Defu Ma, Xiaoguang Yang, Liqiang Qin, Jiaji Wang

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.036
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
  • Acute hunger modifies responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire
           hunger and disinhibition, but not restraint, scales
    • Authors: Martin R. Yeomans; Keri McCrickerd
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Martin R. Yeomans, Keri McCrickerd
      It is widely assumed that responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) represent long-term (trait) attitudes to eating behaviour. However, the questionnaire requires agreement with a number of food related statements, and it is possible that some are easier to agree with when assessed hungry than sated. To test this potential state-dependency, participants completed a 100 mm visual analogue scale rating of their current hunger at the time they completed the TFEQ. Data were collected from two cohorts: Cohort 1 (507 women and 119 men) completed both measures on paper, while the hunger rating was computerised in Cohort 2 (179 women). Regression analysis revealed significant effects of rated hunger on scores on the hunger (TFEQ-H) and disinhibition (TFEQ-D) but not restraint (TFEQ-R) subscales, with higher TFEQ-H and TFEQ-D scores when participants were more hungry. In addition, 61 women and two men from Cohort 1 completed the measures on two separate occasions. Here, scores on TFEQ-H were higher on days when these participants were hungrier, but no differences in TFEQ-D or TFEQ-R were found. Overall these data suggest TFEQ-H could be interpreted as an indirect measure of current hunger, that scores on TFEQ-D are partly moderated by hunger but TFEQ-R is a more trait-like measure of restraint.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T12:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Behavioural measures of child's eating temperament and their link with BMI
    • Authors: Valérie Godefroy; Laura Trinchera; Nicolas Darcel; Natalie Rigal
      Pages: 6 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Valérie Godefroy, Laura Trinchera, Nicolas Darcel, Natalie Rigal
      Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self-regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p-value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T12:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on
           food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight
           and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled, and crossover study
    • Authors: Alvin Ibarra; Kaisa Olli; Wilrike Pasman; Henk Hendriks; Esa Alhoniemi; Ghulam Shere Raza; Karl-Heinz Herzig; Kirsti Tiihonen
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Alvin Ibarra, Kaisa Olli, Wilrike Pasman, Henk Hendriks, Esa Alhoniemi, Ghulam Shere Raza, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Kirsti Tiihonen
      Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females. Per earlier studies, the primary outcome was defined as the difference in subsequent EI when PDX was consumed at midmorning versus placebo. Thirty-two volunteers were enrolled in this acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, and crossover trial to examine the effects of 12.5 g of PDX, administered as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI, subjective feelings of appetite, well-being, and mood. Gastric emptying rates and the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine were measured in the group that received PDX as part of their breakfast. There were no differences in EI between volunteers who were fed PDX and placebo. PDX intake with breakfast tended to elevate blood glucose (P = 0.06) during the postabsorptive phase, significantly lowered insulin by 15.7% (P = 0.04), and increased GLP-1 by 39.9% (P = 0.02); no other effects on blood parameters or gastric emptying rates were observed. PDX intake at midmorning reduced hunger by 31.4% during the satiation period (P = 0.02); all other subjective feelings of appetite were unaffected. Volunteers had a uniform mood profile during the study. PDX was well tolerated, causing one mild adverse event throughout the trial.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T12:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Predictors of food decision making: A systematic interdisciplinary mapping
           (SIM) review
    • Authors: Claudia Symmank; Robert Mai; Stefan Hoffmann; F. Marijn Stok; Britta Renner; Nanna Lien; Harald Rohm
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Claudia Symmank, Robert Mai, Stefan Hoffmann, F. Marijn Stok, Britta Renner, Nanna Lien, Harald Rohm
      The number of publications on consumer food decision making and its predictors and correlates has been steadily increasing over the last three decades. Given that different scientific disciplines illuminate this topic from different perspectives, it is necessary to develop an interdisciplinary overview. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic interdisciplinary mapping (SIM) review by using rapid review techniques to explore the state-of-the-art, and to identify hot topics and research gaps in this field. This interdisciplinary review includes 1,820 publications in 485 different journals and other types of publications from more than ten disciplines (including nutritional science, medicine/health science, psychology, food science and technology, business research, etc.) across a period of 60 years. The identified predictors of food decision making were categorized in line with the recently proposed DONE (Determinants Of Nutrition and Eating behavior) framework. After applying qualitative and quantitative analyses, this study reveals that most of the research emphasizes biological, psychological, and product-related predictors, whereas policy-related influences on food choice are scarcely considered.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T12:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • How parents describe picky eating and its impact on family meals: A
           qualitative analysis
    • Authors: Amanda C. Trofholz; Anna K. Schulte; Jerica M. Berge
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Amanda C. Trofholz, Anna K. Schulte, Jerica M. Berge
      Children are frequently described as being picky eaters. However, this term has been inconsistently defined in prior research. There is limited qualitative research investigating how parent's define picky eating, how they respond to it, or how they see picky eating impacting their child's dietary intake or the family meal. For this study, parents (n = 88) of siblings (ages 2–18 years old) were interviewed in their homes. The semi-structured interviews focused on parent feeding practices and child eating behaviors. A qualitative content analysis approach was used to analyze the data; themes regarding picky eating emerged. Results of this study show that the majority of parents (94% female; mean age 35 years) were from minority and low income homes. The following themes regarding picky eating were identified: 1) children were frequently described as being picky eaters; 2) parents defined picky eating in a variety of ways (i.e., not liking a few foods; limited intake; resisting texture or appearance of foods; resistance to new foods); 3) picky eating impacted the family meal (i.e., promotes meal-related parent stress; impacts meal preparation); and 4) parents responded to picky eating in a variety of ways (i.e., require child tries food; allow child to make separate meal; allow child not to eat; parent makes a separate meal; allows child to choose only food he/she likes; requires child to eat anyway). This study demonstrates that many parents experience child picky eating and report that it impacts family meals. Additionally, study results provide information on the specific ways pickiness impacts the family meal and how parents respond to pickiness. This study also provides guidance for future studies wishing to define picky eating or evaluate the prevalence of child pickiness.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T17:44:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.027
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • An experimental analysis of the affect regulation model of binge eating
    • Authors: Sarah L. Russell; Ann F. Haynos; Scott J. Crow; Alan E. Fruzzetti
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Sarah L. Russell, Ann F. Haynos, Scott J. Crow, Alan E. Fruzzetti
      There is research suggesting that binge eating may serve an affect regulation function. However, experimental evidence supporting this model in adults is sparse and studies have been mixed regarding whether negative affect impacts objective energy intake. This study examined the impact of a real-time interpersonal stressor on laboratory test meal intake between individuals endorsing recent objective binge eating (≥1×/week) and those denying disordered eating. Generalized linear modeling was used to compare individuals with recent binge eating (BE group; n = 52) to those denying recent eating pathology (HC group; n = 51) on test meal intake following a stressor (stressful condition) or neutral stimulus (non-stressful condition). Moderated mediation analyses were used to examine whether negative affect mediated the impact of condition on intake differently between BE and HC groups. The BE group did not have significantly higher energy intake than the HC group in the stressful verses non-stressful condition. However, the BE group was more likely to engage in extreme intake (i.e., over- or under-consumption) than the HC group in the stressful versus non-stressful condition (p = 0.02). Changes in negative affect did not significantly mediate the relationship between condition and intake extremes for the BE group. The results indicate that both over- and under-consumption are triggered by stress among individuals with recent binge eating. Continued research investigating both binge eating and restriction as a means of affect regulation in binge-eating samples is encouraged.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T17:44:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • The migrant suitcase: Food, belonging and commensality among Indian
           migrants in The Netherlands
    • Authors: Ajay Bailey
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Ajay Bailey
      The Migrant Suitcase is a metaphor to understand how social remittances are taken, brought back and transformed. Migrants bring with them different cultural norms, food and eating practices. In this paper I review the concept of social remittances in light of material culture, food and eating practices and examine the linkages between food, belonging, commensality and care and then provide empirical examples from the suitcases of Indian migrants. This paper is based on 30 in-depth interviews conducted among Indian migrants living in The Netherlands. The main themes from the data included food from home, cooking practices, food sharing and family relationships. Migrants' sense of belonging was intrinsically related to the food they brought from home and the memories it generates. The practices of cooking and sensorial experiences surrounding them demonstrate the place and home making processes. Commensality with co-ethnics led to a sense of community and stronger community bonds. Commensality with other non-Indian groups was perceived to be problematic. The exchanges of food, eating practices, and care create a sense of 'co-presence' in lives migrants and their transnational families.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T17:44:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • A high-fat high-sugar diet-induced impairment in place-recognition memory
           is reversible and training-dependent
    • Authors: Dominic M.D. Tran; R. Frederick Westbrook
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Dominic M.D. Tran, R. Frederick Westbrook
      A high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet is associated with cognitive deficits in people and produces spatial learning and memory deficits in rodents. Notable, such diets rapidly impair place-, but not object-recognition memory in rats within one week of exposure. Three experiments examined whether this impairment was reversed by removal of the diet, or prevented by pre-diet training. Experiment 1 showed that rats switched from HFHS to chow recovered from the place-recognition impairment that they displayed while on HFHS. Experiment 2 showed that control rats (“Untrained”) who were exposed to an empty testing arena while on chow, were impaired in place-recognition when switched to HFHS and tested for the first time. However, rats tested (“Trained”) on the place and object task while on chow, were protected from the diet-induce deficit and maintained good place-recognition when switched to HFHS. Experiment 3 examined the conditions of this protection effect by training rats in a square arena while on chow, and testing them in a rectangular arena while on HFHS. We have previously demonstrated that chow rats, but not HFHS rats, show geometry-based reorientation on a rectangular arena place-recognition task (Tran & Westbrook, 2015). Experiment 3 assessed whether rats switched to the HFHS diet after training on the place and object tasks in a square area, would show geometry-based reorientation in a rectangular arena. The protective benefit of training was replicated in the square arena, but both Untrained and Trained HFHS failed to show geometry-based reorientation in the rectangular arena. These findings are discussed in relation to the specificity of the training effect, the role of the hippocampus in diet-induced deficits, and their implications for dietary effects on cognition in people.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T04:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Predicting dietary intake among children classified as overweight or at
           risk for overweight: Independent and interactive effects of parenting
           practices and styles
    • Authors: Shelby L. Langer; Elisabeth Seburg; Meghan M. JaKa; Nancy E. Sherwood; Rona L. Levy
      Pages: 72 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Shelby L. Langer, Elisabeth Seburg, Meghan M. JaKa, Nancy E. Sherwood, Rona L. Levy
      Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory finding warrants further investigation.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T17:44:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Shame and eating psychopathology in Portuguese women: Exploring the roles
           of self-judgment and fears of receiving compassion
    • Authors: Vanessa Raquel Oliveira; Cláudia Ferreira; Ana Laura Mendes; Joana Marta-Simões
      Pages: 80 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Vanessa Raquel Oliveira, Cláudia Ferreira, Ana Laura Mendes, Joana Marta-Simões
      Shame has been for long associated with the development and maintenance of body image and eating-related difficulties. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the mechanisms of self-judgment and fears of receiving compassion from others in the association between external shame and disordered eating, while controlling for body mass index (BMI). Participants in this study were 400 women from the general population, aged between 18 and 55 years old. Correlation analyses revealed significant and positive relationships between external shame, self-judgment, fears of receiving compassion from others and eating psychopathology. A path analysis confirmed that, when controlling for the effect of BMI, external shame has a direct effect on disordered eating severity, and also an indirect effect, mediated by higher levels of self-judgment and increased fears of receiving others' kindness and compassion. Results showed the plausibility of the tested model which explained 36% of the variance of disordered eating. These findings seem to support that women who perceive that others view them negatively tend to be defensive and engage in maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (such as harsh critical attitudes towards the self and being resistant to others' compassion), which may trigger maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviours. The current research appears to be an innovative study in the field of body image and eating-related psychopathology and seems to represent a new avenue for future research and for the development of intervention programs.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T04:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Women's social eating environment and its associations with dietary
           behavior and weight management
    • Authors: Sonja Mötteli; Michael Siegrist; Carmen Keller
      Pages: 86 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Sonja Mötteli, Michael Siegrist, Carmen Keller
      As an unhealthy social eating environment is considered a risk factor for obesity, this study aimed to examine women's regular eating networks and the extent to which diet-related variables were associated with those of their regular eating companions. In Study Part I (N = 579), an egocentric network approach was used to investigate women's perceptions of their eating networks. In Study Part II (N = 262), the participants' most important eating companions responded to a similar survey, and the corresponding answers were matched. The results showed that women shared their meals most frequently with spouses and other family members. Women who dined more often with healthy eaters reported on average a higher diet quality and a lower body mass index (BMI), which were also significant after controlling for individual factors. Study Part II expanded these results by showing that different diet-related factors such as diet quality, eating styles and BMI were correlated between women and their most important eating companions (r = 0.16–0.30, p < 0.05). Moreover, an actor–partner interdependence model revealed that a higher diet quality of the eating companions was associated with a lower BMI in women, controlled for their own eating behavior (b = −0.45, p < 0.05). This study showed similarities and interdependence between women's dietary behavior and body weight and those of their regular eating companions. This might indicate that regular eating networks have a shared understanding of what constitutes a normal diet, which might be an important factor to consider in the promotion of healthy eating.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T04:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • A nudge in a healthier direction: How environmental cues help restrained
           eaters pursue their weight-control goal
    • Authors: Aline E. Stämpfli; Sabrina Stöckli; Thomas A. Brunner
      Pages: 94 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Aline E. Stämpfli, Sabrina Stöckli, Thomas A. Brunner
      Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use. Therefore, two laboratory studies were conducted. They examined the Giacometti sculptures' effects on unhealthy and healthy food intake (Study 1) and on the completion of weight- and health-related fragmented words (Study 2). Study 1 indicated that the sculptures are weight-related by showing that they reduced food intake independent of food healthiness. Furthermore, the “Giacometti effect” was moderated by restrained eating. Restrained eaters, who are known for their weight-control goal, ate less after having been exposed to the thin sculptures. The results of Study 2 pointed in the same direction. Restrained eaters completed more weight-related words after being exposed to the sculptures. Overall, these studies suggest that the thin sculptures are primarily weight-related cues and particularly helpful for restrained eaters. Environmental weight-control cues such as the Giacometti sculptures could act as a counterforce to our obesogenic environment and help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal. In this way, they could nudge food decisions in a healthier direction.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T04:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.037
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Gender differences in eating behavior and eating pathology: The mediating
           role of rumination
    • Authors: Mareile Opwis; Jennifer Schmidt; Alexandra Martin; Christel Salewski
      Pages: 103 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Mareile Opwis, Jennifer Schmidt, Alexandra Martin, Christel Salewski
      Objective Rumination is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy which contributes to psychopathology and is more frequently used by women than men. It has been found to mediate the relationship between gender and the occurrence of anxiety disorders or depression. Since gender differences also appear in dysfunctional eating, the aim of the study is to test, whether rumination mediates the association between gender and several facets of eating pathology. Method A total of 295 participants (205 women) completed an online-questionnaire including the assessment of different facets of dysfunctional eating and rumination. Mediation analyses were conducted with PROCESS. Results Women reported significantly higher levels in both, rumination and eating pathology. Moreover, rumination mediated the relationship between gender and all assessed aspects of dysfunctional eating. Discussion The present study extends findings on the mediating role of rumination accounting for gender differences in psychopathology to eating pathology in a community sample. Results suggest that cognitive factors play a substantial role in explaining gender differences in eating pathology which tend to be reduced to biologicals factors and beauty ideals.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T04:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • Is there an association between food patterns and life satisfaction among
           Norway's inhabitants ages 65 years and older?
    • Authors: Beate André; Helena Canhão; Geir A. Espnes; Ana Maria Ferreira Rodrigues; Maria João Gregorio; Camilla Nguyen; Rute Sousa; Kjersti Grønning
      Pages: 108 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 110
      Author(s): Beate André, Helena Canhão, Geir A. Espnes, Ana Maria Ferreira Rodrigues, Maria João Gregorio, Camilla Nguyen, Rute Sousa, Kjersti Grønning
      The lack of information regarding older adults' health and lifestyles makes it difficult to design suitable interventions for people at risk of developing unhealth lifestyles. Therefore, there is a need to increase knowledge about older adults’ food patterns and quality of life. Our aim was to determine associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction in Norwegian inhabitants ages 65+. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (The HUNT Study) is a large, population-based cohort study that includes data for 125 000 Norwegian participants. The cohort used for this study is wave three of the study, consisting of 11 619 participants age 65 and over. Cluster analysis was used to categorize the participants based on similarities in food consumption; two clusters were identified based on similarities regarding food consumption among participants. Significant differences between the clusters were found, as participants in the healthy food-patterns cluster had higher life satisfaction and lower anxiety and depression than those in the unhealthy food-patterns cluster. The associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction among older adults show the need for increased focus on interactions among food patterns, food consumption, and life satisfaction among the elderly in order to explore how society can influence these patterns.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T04:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2016)
  • A qualitative study of Southern U.S. consumers' top of the mind beliefs
           about the safety of local beef
    • Authors: Amy L. Telligman; Michelle R. Worosz; Christy L. Bratcher
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Amy L. Telligman, Michelle R. Worosz, Christy L. Bratcher
      Following the Reasoned Action Approach, the aim of this study was to explore consumers' top-of-mind food safety beliefs about local beef. Beef consumers recruited from farmers' markets (N = 101) and grocery stores (N = 174) across the state of Alabama participated in face-to-face intercept surveys. The survey included closed- and open-ended questions designed to elicit consumers' food safety beliefs about local beef. Results indicate that beef safety was not a top-of-mind concern for a majority of participants, however of the total number of participants familiar with the term “local beef” (n = 168, 61%), a majority (n = 105, 63%) associated local beef with improved food safety. Content analysis of verbatim text revealed that consumers believed local beef was safer because they possess greater knowledge about the product and less shipping was involved. Respondents also believe that locally processed meat is derived from small-scale operations which provided the assurance that local beef is more likely to meet U.S. regulatory standards and therefore be safer. Consumers believe they have more oversight of local beef due to both their relationships with supply chain actors and proximity which also provided food safety assurances.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T20:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.031
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Training response inhibition to reduce food consumption: Mechanisms,
           stimulus specificity and appropriate training protocols
    • Authors: Rachel C. Adams; Natalia S. Lawrence; Frederick Verbruggen; Christopher D. Chambers
      Pages: 11 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Rachel C. Adams, Natalia S. Lawrence, Frederick Verbruggen, Christopher D. Chambers
      Training individuals to inhibit their responses towards unhealthy foods has been shown to reduce food intake relative to a control group. Here we aimed to further explore these effects by investigating the role of stimulus devaluation, training protocol, and choice of control group. Restrained eaters received either inhibition or control training using a modified version of either the stop-signal or go/no-go task. Following training we measured implicit attitudes towards food (Study 1) and food consumption (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 1 we used a modified stop-signal training task with increased demands on top-down control (using a tracking procedure and feedback to maintain competition between the stop and go processes). With this task, we found no evidence for an effect of training on implicit attitudes or food consumption, with Bayesian inferential analyses revealing substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. In Study 2 we removed the feedback in the stop-signal training to increase the rate of successful inhibition and revealed a significant effect of both stop-signal and go/no-go training on food intake (compared to double-response and go training, respectively) with a greater difference in consumption in the go/no-go task, compared with the stop-signal task. However, results from an additional passive control group suggest that training effects could be partly caused by increased consumption in the go control group whereas evidence for reduced consumption in the inhibition groups was inconclusive. Our findings therefore support evidence that inhibition training tasks with higher rates of inhibition accuracy are more effective, but prompt caution for interpreting the efficacy of laboratory-based inhibition training as an intervention for behaviour change.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Binge eating behaviours and food cravings in women with Polycystic Ovary
    • Authors: Y.M. Jeanes; S. Reeves; E.L. Gibson; C. Piggott; V.A. May; K.H. Hart
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Y.M. Jeanes, S. Reeves, E.L. Gibson, C. Piggott, V.A. May, K.H. Hart
      Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine condition in women, is often anecdotally associated with binge eating behaviours and food cravings; however there is a paucity of research. This study aimed to report the prevalence of binge eating and food cravings and their relation to obesity risk in women with PCOS. Participants completed an online survey including the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh, Food Cravings-Trait Questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire revised-18. The study included obese (n = 340), overweight (n = 70) and lean (n = 45) women with PCOS and lean healthy women (n = 40). Sixty percent of obese women with PCOS were categorised with binge-eating behaviour, with 39% presenting with clinically significant behaviour. Obese women with PCOS presented with high mean food cravings-trait scores (131.6 ± 28.9) that were significantly greater compared with lean (114.0 ± 34.9) and overweight women with PCOS (120.1 ± 29.5; p < 0.001). Multiple regression exploring relations between eating styles and adiposity explained 57% of the variance in binge eating symptom scores in women with PCOS (F = 130.4; p < 0.001, n = 463): significant predictors were food cravings total score (beta = 0.53; p < 0.001), emotional eating score (beta = 0.18; p < 0.001), body mass index (beta = 0.11; p < 0.001) and uncontrolled eating score (beta = 0.009; p = 0.02). Compared with lean healthy women, lean women with PCOS exhibited significantly higher binge eating symptom scores (10.9 ± 7.8 versus 7.4 ± 6.0; p < 0.05), though similar total food craving scores (114.0 ± 34.9 versus 105.6 ± 26.6: NS). This study is the largest, to date, to robustly report that a high proportion of women with PCOS exhibit binge eating behaviours. We recommend screening women with PCOS for binge eating behaviours to help inform the choice of weight management approach for this clinical population.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Racial and gender disparities in sugar consumption change efficacy among
           first-year college students
    • Authors: Marino A. Bruce; Bettina M. Beech; Roland J. Thorpe; Krista Mincey; Derek M. Griffith
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Marino A. Bruce, Bettina M. Beech, Roland J. Thorpe, Krista Mincey, Derek M. Griffith
      Reducing excess dietary sugar intake among emerging adults involves replacing sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and sugary snacks (SSN) with healthier options. Few studies have assessed the perceived degree of difficulty associated with making lifestyle modifications among a diverse group of emerging adults. The purpose of this study was to assess race and gender disparities in SSB and SSN behavioral modification efficacy among African American and White first year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen (n = 499) at a medium-sized southern university. Key outcome variables were self-efficacy in reducing consumption of SSBs and SSNs, respectively. Primary independent variables were BMI, concerns about weight, and attempts to lose weight, takeout food consumption frequency, and physical activity. Half of the sample was African American (50.1%) and a majority of participants were female (59.3%). Fewer African Americans than Whites were very sure they could substitute SSBs with water (48.8% vs 64.7%, p < 0.001) or eat fewer SSNs (39.2% vs 48.2%, p < 0.04). A smaller segment of males reported being confident in their ability replace SSBs with water (51.2% vs 60.5%, p < 0.04). African Americans (OR = 0.38, CI: 0.22–0.64) and males (OR = 0.49, CI: 0.27–0.88) had lower odds of being more confident in their ability to change their SSB intake. Race and gender differences were not present in models predicting confidence to reduce SSN consumption. These findings highlight the need to consider race and gender in interventions seeking to increase self-efficacy to make lifestyle modifications.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Understanding the attitudes and perceptions of vegetarian and plant-based
           diets to shape future health promotion programs
    • Authors: Tricia Corrin; Andrew Papadopoulos
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Tricia Corrin, Andrew Papadopoulos
      Vegetarian diets have become a prominent area of interest. However, little research has focused on the attitudes and perceptions on vegetarian diets. The purpose of this scoping review was to methodologically search the literature and summarize public perceptions and attitudes towards a vegetarian diet. Using the information found from this review, the Health Belief Model can be applied to shape future health promotion initiatives to move individuals towards a vegetarian or plant-based diet. The main findings indicate that vegetarian diets are generally perceived in a positive light. There are many barriers to consuming this diet such as health concerns, an unwillingness to make dietary changes, and an enjoyment of eating meat.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • The effects of partial sleep restriction and altered sleep timing on
           appetite and food reward
    • Authors: Jessica McNeil; Geneviève Forest; Luzia Jaeger Hintze; Jean-François Brunet; Graham Finlayson; John E. Blundell; Éric Doucet
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Jessica McNeil, Geneviève Forest, Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Jean-François Brunet, Graham Finlayson, John E. Blundell, Éric Doucet
      We examined the effects of partial sleep restriction (PSR) with an advanced wake-time or delayed bedtime on measures of appetite, food reward and subsequent energy intake (EI). Twelve men and 6 women (age: 23 ± 4 years, body fat: 18.8 ± 10.1%) participated in 3 randomized crossover sessions: control (habitual bed- and wake-time), 50% PSR with an advanced wake-time and 50% PSR with a delayed bedtime. Outcome variables included sleep architecture (polysomnography), ad libitum EI (validated food menu), appetite sensations (visual analogue scales), satiety quotient (SQ; mm/100 kcal) and food reward (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire and the relative-reinforcing value (RRV) of preferred food task). Increased fasting and post-standard breakfast appetite ratings were noted following PSR with an advanced wake-time compared to the control and PSR with a delayed bedtime sessions (Fasting hunger ratings: 77 ± 16 vs. 65 ± 18 and 64 ± 16; P = 0.01; Post-meal hunger AUC: 5982 ± 1781 vs. 4508 ± 2136 and 5198 ± 2201; P = 0.03). Increased explicit wanting and liking for high- relative to low-fat foods were also noted during the advanced wake-time vs. control session (Explicit wanting: −3.5 ± 12.5 vs. −9.3 ± 8.9, P = 0.01; Explicit liking: −1.6 ± 8.5 vs. −7.8 ± 9.6, P = 0.002). No differences in the RRV of preferred food, SQ and ad libitum lunch intake were noted between sessions. These findings suggest that appetite sensations and food reward are increased following PSR with an advanced wake-time, rather than delayed bedtime, vs. control. However, this did not translate into increased EI during a test meal. Given the increasing prevalence of shift workers and incidences of sleep disorders, additional studies are needed to evaluate the prolonged effects of voluntary sleep restriction with altered sleep timing on appetite and EI measurements.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • The role of food in the Polish migrant adjustment journey
    • Authors: Dr Lorraine Brown; Irena Paszkiewicz
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Dr Lorraine Brown, Irena Paszkiewicz
      In 2015, there were 916,000 Poles living in the UK, making them the largest group of non-UK nationals at 16.5 percent of the population. Though increasingly research has focused on the consequences of this migration for both migrants themselves and the receiving country, little research has looked at food habits. This paper will explore the role of food in the Polish migrant adjustment journey. A qualitative approach was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with nine Polish migrants. In this study, Polish migrants described the move to a new culture as a time of stress and loneliness. Due to a lack of money, they were forced to eat local food, which exacerbated their unease, as they found it to be tasteless and unhealthy. As soon as their financial situation improved, they reverted to a Polish diet, relying on ingredients brought from home, from London, or more recently, purchased from local Polish shops. This gave them comfort, and all participants acknowledged the vital role of food in their adjustment to life in a new culture.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Do interoceptive awareness and interoceptive responsiveness mediate the
           relationship between body appreciation and intuitive eating in young
    • Authors: Alana Oswald; Janine Chapman; Carlene Wilson
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Alana Oswald, Janine Chapman, Carlene Wilson
      The extent to which an individual appreciates their own body is recognised as a proximal predictor of intuitive eating, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clearly understood. This study tested whether two partially independent, self-reported facets of interoceptive ability: ‘interoceptive awareness’ (defined as the ability to detect internal bodily cues) and ‘interoceptive responsiveness’ (the way in which individuals value and respond to these cues) mediated the relationship between body appreciation and three subscales of intuitive eating: ‘unconditional permission to eat’; ‘reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues’, and ‘eating for physical rather than emotional reasons’. Multiple mediation analyses of data from an online survey of Australian college women (n = 200) showed that: (1) interoceptive awareness partially mediated the relationship between body appreciation and ‘reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues’, and (2) interoceptive responsiveness partially mediated the relationship between all three subscales of intuitive eating. Although preliminary, this work lends support to the theoretical framework of the acceptance model of intuitive eating and extends it by suggesting that the different facets of intuitive eating may have distinct underlying mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Signalling product healthiness through symbolic package cues: Effects of
           package shape and goal congruence on consumer behaviour
    • Authors: Iris van Ooijen; Marieke L. Fransen; Peeter W.J. Verlegh; Edith G. Smit
      Pages: 73 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Iris van Ooijen, Marieke L. Fransen, Peeter W.J. Verlegh, Edith G. Smit
      Three studies show that product packaging shape serves as a cue that communicates healthiness of food products. Inspired by embodiment accounts, we show that packaging that simulates a slim body shape acts as a symbolic cue for product healthiness (e.g., low in calories), as opposed to packaging that simulates a wide body shape. Furthermore, we show that the effect of slim package shape on consumer behaviour is goal dependent. Whereas simulation of a slim (vs. wide) body shape increases choice likelihood and product attitude when consumers have a health-relevant shopping goal, packaging shape does not affect these outcomes when consumers have a hedonic shopping goal. In Study 3, we adopt a realistic shopping paradigm using a shelf with authentic products, and find that a slim (as opposed to wide) package shape increases on-shelf product recognition and increases product attitude for healthy products. We discuss results and implications regarding product positioning and the packaging design process.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Exposure to diet priming images as cues to reduce the influence of
           unhealthy eating habits
    • Authors: Shoji Ohtomo
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Shoji Ohtomo
      A key barrier to changing unhealthy eating habits is the current food-rich environment. Today, there are many palatable food cues that trigger unhealthy eating habits, and once a habit is strongly engrained, it becomes very difficult to change. This research examined the effects of diet priming that is a type of cueing intervention that activates a dieting goal in a tempting situation and thus reduces unhealthy eating behavior in line with the dieting goal. This research was conducted both in a laboratory and in two field experiments. In the three experiments, participants were randomly assigned to conditions where they were either primed by an image of a slim model associated with dieting (priming condition) or were presented with an image of an animal unrelated to dieting (control condition). The dependent variable was the number of snacks that participants took in the laboratory in Study 1 and the number of snacks consumed within the next two weeks in a daily setting in Study 2 and 3. The three studies showed that unhealthy eating habits strongly affect general eating behavior. However, in this research, diet priming changed the influence of unhealthy eating habits and resulted in the decrease of unhealthy eating. Exposure to diet priming cues moderated the influence of unhealthy eating habits triggered by palatable food cues in today's food-rich environment. These findings suggest that diet priming can change habitual reactions to temptations associated with unhealthy eating. Implications for diet priming as an intervention for unhealthy eating habits are discussed herein.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • The persistence of and resistance to social norms regarding the
           appropriate amount to Eat: A preliminary investigation
    • Authors: Justin R. Feeney; Patricia Pliner; Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman
      Pages: 93 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Justin R. Feeney, Patricia Pliner, Janet Polivy, C. Peter Herman
      We conducted a preliminary investigation on the resistance to, and persistence of, social influence regarding the appropriate amount to eat, defined in terms of eating an amount similar to that eaten by a confederate. Participants ate pizza both alone and in the presence of remote confederates presenting either a high or low eating norm. In the portion of the experiment examining resistance to social influence, participants given an initial opportunity to form a personal eating norm by eating alone for one session in the absence of social influence were no more resistant to low eating norms than were those who had no such opportunity; however, those who ate alone for two or three prior sessions did show resistance. For the high eating norm, it took three eating alone sessions to create resistance. In the portion of the experiment examining persistence of social influence, when participants ate alone following a session with norm-setting remote confederates, the effect of the social influence persisted. However, the persistence effect varied by norm and weakened over time. Participants modeled a low eating norm for only one additional session and the size of the effect was markedly weaker. By contrast, the high norm persisted for all of the remaining sessions. Thus, individuals’ social influence histories can affect their eating.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.031
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Eating behaviour of university students in Germany: Dietary intake,
           barriers to healthy eating and changes in eating behaviour since the time
           of matriculation
    • Authors: Jennifer Hilger; Adrian Loerbroks; Katharina Diehl
      Pages: 100 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Jennifer Hilger, Adrian Loerbroks, Katharina Diehl
      A healthy diet plays a key role in preventing obesity and non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes. This is true for all age groups, including young adults. While unhealthy eating habits among young adults, in particular university students, have been identified in former studies, this group has been neglected in existing health promotion strategies. Our aim was to explore baseline dietary intake, common barriers to healthy eating, and changes in eating behaviour among university students since the time of matriculation. We used data from the quantitative part of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Study (NuPhA), a cross-sectional online survey (data collection: 2014/10/31–2015/01/15). Students were recruited from all over Germany. Overall, 689 university students (30.5% male; mean age: 22.69) from more than 40 universities across Germany participated. We found that there is room for improvement with regard to the consumption of specific food groups, for example, fruits and vegetables. The main barriers to healthy eating were lack of time due to studies, lack of healthy meals at the university canteen, and high prices of healthy foods. Cluster analysis revealed that barriers to healthy eating might affect only specific subgroups, for instance freshmen. Changes in eating behaviour since matriculation were found in the consumption of meat, fish, and regular meals. Future qualitative studies may help to explore why university students change their eating behaviour since the time of matriculation. Such knowledge is necessary to inform health promotion strategies in the university setting.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T12:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Maternal history of eating disorders: Diet quality during pregnancy and
           infant feeding
    • Authors: Anh N. Nguyen; Lisanne M. de Barse; Henning Tiemeier; Vincent W.V. Jaddoe; Oscar H. Franco; Pauline W. Jansen; Trudy Voortman
      Pages: 108 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Anh N. Nguyen, Lisanne M. de Barse, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Oscar H. Franco, Pauline W. Jansen, Trudy Voortman
      We studied associations of maternal history of eating disorders (EDs) with diet quality of pregnant women and their infants, and breastfeeding practices. We included 6196 mother-child pairs from Generation R, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Maternal history of lifetime EDs was assessed during pregnancy with a questionnaire. Dietary intake during pregnancy and in infancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires and diet quality scores were calculated, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. Breastfeeding practices were assessed with questionnaires at 2, 6, and 12 months. We observed that, after adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, women with a history of EDs had a higher diet quality than women without a history of EDs (B = 0.24 SD, 95%CI: 0.15; 0.33). Mothers with a history of EDs were less likely to breastfeed (unadjusted OR = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.51; 0.93), although no longer statistically significant after adjustment (OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.55; 1.03). These findings suggest that mothers with a history of EDs seem slightly less likely to initiate breastfeeding, however, this warrants further investigation. At the age of 1 year, infants of mothers with a history of EDs had a higher diet quality (B = 0.15 SD, 95%CI: 0.02; 0.27). We conclude that mothers with a history of EDs and their infants have a relative good diet quality, although follow-up studies are needed to assess long-term associations with diet in later childhood and adolescence.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.030
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T04:48:51Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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