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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3039 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3039 Journals sorted alphabetically
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access  
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.317, h-index: 89)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access  
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.789, h-index: 43)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 10)
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • A qualitative study of Southern U.S. consumers' top of the mind beliefs
           about the safety of local beef
    • Authors: Amy L. Telligman; Michelle R. Worosz; Christy L. Bratcher
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Amy L. Telligman, Michelle R. Worosz, Christy L. Bratcher
      Following the Reasoned Action Approach, the aim of this study was to explore consumers' top-of-mind food safety beliefs about local beef. Beef consumers recruited from farmers' markets (N = 101) and grocery stores (N = 174) across the state of Alabama participated in face-to-face intercept surveys. The survey included closed- and open-ended questions designed to elicit consumers' food safety beliefs about local beef. Results indicate that beef safety was not a top-of-mind concern for a majority of participants, however of the total number of participants familiar with the term “local beef” (n = 168, 61%), a majority (n = 105, 63%) associated local beef with improved food safety. Content analysis of verbatim text revealed that consumers believed local beef was safer because they possess greater knowledge about the product and less shipping was involved. Respondents also believe that locally processed meat is derived from small-scale operations which provided the assurance that local beef is more likely to meet U.S. regulatory standards and therefore be safer. Consumers believe they have more oversight of local beef due to both their relationships with supply chain actors and proximity which also provided food safety assurances.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T20:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.031
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Training response inhibition to reduce food consumption: Mechanisms,
           stimulus specificity and appropriate training protocols
    • Authors: Rachel C. Adams; Natalia S. Lawrence; Frederick Verbruggen; Christopher D. Chambers
      Pages: 11 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Rachel C. Adams, Natalia S. Lawrence, Frederick Verbruggen, Christopher D. Chambers
      Training individuals to inhibit their responses towards unhealthy foods has been shown to reduce food intake relative to a control group. Here we aimed to further explore these effects by investigating the role of stimulus devaluation, training protocol, and choice of control group. Restrained eaters received either inhibition or control training using a modified version of either the stop-signal or go/no-go task. Following training we measured implicit attitudes towards food (Study 1) and food consumption (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 1 we used a modified stop-signal training task with increased demands on top-down control (using a tracking procedure and feedback to maintain competition between the stop and go processes). With this task, we found no evidence for an effect of training on implicit attitudes or food consumption, with Bayesian inferential analyses revealing substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. In Study 2 we removed the feedback in the stop-signal training to increase the rate of successful inhibition and revealed a significant effect of both stop-signal and go/no-go training on food intake (compared to double-response and go training, respectively) with a greater difference in consumption in the go/no-go task, compared with the stop-signal task. However, results from an additional passive control group suggest that training effects could be partly caused by increased consumption in the go control group whereas evidence for reduced consumption in the inhibition groups was inconclusive. Our findings therefore support evidence that inhibition training tasks with higher rates of inhibition accuracy are more effective, but prompt caution for interpreting the efficacy of laboratory-based inhibition training as an intervention for behaviour change.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Binge eating behaviours and food cravings in women with Polycystic Ovary
           Syndrome
    • Authors: Y.M. Jeanes; S. Reeves; E.L. Gibson; C. Piggott; V.A. May; K.H. Hart
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Y.M. Jeanes, S. Reeves, E.L. Gibson, C. Piggott, V.A. May, K.H. Hart
      Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine condition in women, is often anecdotally associated with binge eating behaviours and food cravings; however there is a paucity of research. This study aimed to report the prevalence of binge eating and food cravings and their relation to obesity risk in women with PCOS. Participants completed an online survey including the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh, Food Cravings-Trait Questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire revised-18. The study included obese (n = 340), overweight (n = 70) and lean (n = 45) women with PCOS and lean healthy women (n = 40). Sixty percent of obese women with PCOS were categorised with binge-eating behaviour, with 39% presenting with clinically significant behaviour. Obese women with PCOS presented with high mean food cravings-trait scores (131.6 ± 28.9) that were significantly greater compared with lean (114.0 ± 34.9) and overweight women with PCOS (120.1 ± 29.5; p < 0.001). Multiple regression exploring relations between eating styles and adiposity explained 57% of the variance in binge eating symptom scores in women with PCOS (F = 130.4; p < 0.001, n = 463): significant predictors were food cravings total score (beta = 0.53; p < 0.001), emotional eating score (beta = 0.18; p < 0.001), body mass index (beta = 0.11; p < 0.001) and uncontrolled eating score (beta = 0.009; p = 0.02). Compared with lean healthy women, lean women with PCOS exhibited significantly higher binge eating symptom scores (10.9 ± 7.8 versus 7.4 ± 6.0; p < 0.05), though similar total food craving scores (114.0 ± 34.9 versus 105.6 ± 26.6: NS). This study is the largest, to date, to robustly report that a high proportion of women with PCOS exhibit binge eating behaviours. We recommend screening women with PCOS for binge eating behaviours to help inform the choice of weight management approach for this clinical population.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Racial and gender disparities in sugar consumption change efficacy among
           first-year college students
    • Authors: Marino A. Bruce; Bettina M. Beech; Roland J. Thorpe; Krista Mincey; Derek M. Griffith
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Marino A. Bruce, Bettina M. Beech, Roland J. Thorpe, Krista Mincey, Derek M. Griffith
      Reducing excess dietary sugar intake among emerging adults involves replacing sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and sugary snacks (SSN) with healthier options. Few studies have assessed the perceived degree of difficulty associated with making lifestyle modifications among a diverse group of emerging adults. The purpose of this study was to assess race and gender disparities in SSB and SSN behavioral modification efficacy among African American and White first year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen (n = 499) at a medium-sized southern university. Key outcome variables were self-efficacy in reducing consumption of SSBs and SSNs, respectively. Primary independent variables were BMI, concerns about weight, and attempts to lose weight, takeout food consumption frequency, and physical activity. Half of the sample was African American (50.1%) and a majority of participants were female (59.3%). Fewer African Americans than Whites were very sure they could substitute SSBs with water (48.8% vs 64.7%, p < 0.001) or eat fewer SSNs (39.2% vs 48.2%, p < 0.04). A smaller segment of males reported being confident in their ability replace SSBs with water (51.2% vs 60.5%, p < 0.04). African Americans (OR = 0.38, CI: 0.22–0.64) and males (OR = 0.49, CI: 0.27–0.88) had lower odds of being more confident in their ability to change their SSB intake. Race and gender differences were not present in models predicting confidence to reduce SSN consumption. These findings highlight the need to consider race and gender in interventions seeking to increase self-efficacy to make lifestyle modifications.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Understanding the attitudes and perceptions of vegetarian and plant-based
           diets to shape future health promotion programs
    • Authors: Tricia Corrin; Andrew Papadopoulos
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Tricia Corrin, Andrew Papadopoulos
      Vegetarian diets have become a prominent area of interest. However, little research has focused on the attitudes and perceptions on vegetarian diets. The purpose of this scoping review was to methodologically search the literature and summarize public perceptions and attitudes towards a vegetarian diet. Using the information found from this review, the Health Belief Model can be applied to shape future health promotion initiatives to move individuals towards a vegetarian or plant-based diet. The main findings indicate that vegetarian diets are generally perceived in a positive light. There are many barriers to consuming this diet such as health concerns, an unwillingness to make dietary changes, and an enjoyment of eating meat.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T21:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • The effects of partial sleep restriction and altered sleep timing on
           appetite and food reward
    • Authors: Jessica McNeil; Geneviève Forest; Luzia Jaeger Hintze; Jean-François Brunet; Graham Finlayson; John E. Blundell; Éric Doucet
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Jessica McNeil, Geneviève Forest, Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Jean-François Brunet, Graham Finlayson, John E. Blundell, Éric Doucet
      We examined the effects of partial sleep restriction (PSR) with an advanced wake-time or delayed bedtime on measures of appetite, food reward and subsequent energy intake (EI). Twelve men and 6 women (age: 23 ± 4 years, body fat: 18.8 ± 10.1%) participated in 3 randomized crossover sessions: control (habitual bed- and wake-time), 50% PSR with an advanced wake-time and 50% PSR with a delayed bedtime. Outcome variables included sleep architecture (polysomnography), ad libitum EI (validated food menu), appetite sensations (visual analogue scales), satiety quotient (SQ; mm/100 kcal) and food reward (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire and the relative-reinforcing value (RRV) of preferred food task). Increased fasting and post-standard breakfast appetite ratings were noted following PSR with an advanced wake-time compared to the control and PSR with a delayed bedtime sessions (Fasting hunger ratings: 77 ± 16 vs. 65 ± 18 and 64 ± 16; P = 0.01; Post-meal hunger AUC: 5982 ± 1781 vs. 4508 ± 2136 and 5198 ± 2201; P = 0.03). Increased explicit wanting and liking for high- relative to low-fat foods were also noted during the advanced wake-time vs. control session (Explicit wanting: −3.5 ± 12.5 vs. −9.3 ± 8.9, P = 0.01; Explicit liking: −1.6 ± 8.5 vs. −7.8 ± 9.6, P = 0.002). No differences in the RRV of preferred food, SQ and ad libitum lunch intake were noted between sessions. These findings suggest that appetite sensations and food reward are increased following PSR with an advanced wake-time, rather than delayed bedtime, vs. control. However, this did not translate into increased EI during a test meal. Given the increasing prevalence of shift workers and incidences of sleep disorders, additional studies are needed to evaluate the prolonged effects of voluntary sleep restriction with altered sleep timing on appetite and EI measurements.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • The role of food in the Polish migrant adjustment journey
    • Authors: Dr Lorraine Brown; Irena Paszkiewicz
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Dr Lorraine Brown, Irena Paszkiewicz
      In 2015, there were 916,000 Poles living in the UK, making them the largest group of non-UK nationals at 16.5 percent of the population. Though increasingly research has focused on the consequences of this migration for both migrants themselves and the receiving country, little research has looked at food habits. This paper will explore the role of food in the Polish migrant adjustment journey. A qualitative approach was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with nine Polish migrants. In this study, Polish migrants described the move to a new culture as a time of stress and loneliness. Due to a lack of money, they were forced to eat local food, which exacerbated their unease, as they found it to be tasteless and unhealthy. As soon as their financial situation improved, they reverted to a Polish diet, relying on ingredients brought from home, from London, or more recently, purchased from local Polish shops. This gave them comfort, and all participants acknowledged the vital role of food in their adjustment to life in a new culture.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Do interoceptive awareness and interoceptive responsiveness mediate the
           relationship between body appreciation and intuitive eating in young
           women?
    • Authors: Alana Oswald; Janine Chapman; Carlene Wilson
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Alana Oswald, Janine Chapman, Carlene Wilson
      The extent to which an individual appreciates their own body is recognised as a proximal predictor of intuitive eating, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clearly understood. This study tested whether two partially independent, self-reported facets of interoceptive ability: ‘interoceptive awareness’ (defined as the ability to detect internal bodily cues) and ‘interoceptive responsiveness’ (the way in which individuals value and respond to these cues) mediated the relationship between body appreciation and three subscales of intuitive eating: ‘unconditional permission to eat’; ‘reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues’, and ‘eating for physical rather than emotional reasons’. Multiple mediation analyses of data from an online survey of Australian college women (n = 200) showed that: (1) interoceptive awareness partially mediated the relationship between body appreciation and ‘reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues’, and (2) interoceptive responsiveness partially mediated the relationship between all three subscales of intuitive eating. Although preliminary, this work lends support to the theoretical framework of the acceptance model of intuitive eating and extends it by suggesting that the different facets of intuitive eating may have distinct underlying mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Signalling product healthiness through symbolic package cues: Effects of
           package shape and goal congruence on consumer behaviour
    • Authors: Iris van Ooijen; Marieke L. Fransen; Peeter W.J. Verlegh; Edith G. Smit
      Pages: 73 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Iris van Ooijen, Marieke L. Fransen, Peeter W.J. Verlegh, Edith G. Smit
      Three studies show that product packaging shape serves as a cue that communicates healthiness of food products. Inspired by embodiment accounts, we show that packaging that simulates a slim body shape acts as a symbolic cue for product healthiness (e.g., low in calories), as opposed to packaging that simulates a wide body shape. Furthermore, we show that the effect of slim package shape on consumer behaviour is goal dependent. Whereas simulation of a slim (vs. wide) body shape increases choice likelihood and product attitude when consumers have a health-relevant shopping goal, packaging shape does not affect these outcomes when consumers have a hedonic shopping goal. In Study 3, we adopt a realistic shopping paradigm using a shelf with authentic products, and find that a slim (as opposed to wide) package shape increases on-shelf product recognition and increases product attitude for healthy products. We discuss results and implications regarding product positioning and the packaging design process.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Exposure to diet priming images as cues to reduce the influence of
           unhealthy eating habits
    • Authors: Shoji Ohtomo
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Shoji Ohtomo
      A key barrier to changing unhealthy eating habits is the current food-rich environment. Today, there are many palatable food cues that trigger unhealthy eating habits, and once a habit is strongly engrained, it becomes very difficult to change. This research examined the effects of diet priming that is a type of cueing intervention that activates a dieting goal in a tempting situation and thus reduces unhealthy eating behavior in line with the dieting goal. This research was conducted both in a laboratory and in two field experiments. In the three experiments, participants were randomly assigned to conditions where they were either primed by an image of a slim model associated with dieting (priming condition) or were presented with an image of an animal unrelated to dieting (control condition). The dependent variable was the number of snacks that participants took in the laboratory in Study 1 and the number of snacks consumed within the next two weeks in a daily setting in Study 2 and 3. The three studies showed that unhealthy eating habits strongly affect general eating behavior. However, in this research, diet priming changed the influence of unhealthy eating habits and resulted in the decrease of unhealthy eating. Exposure to diet priming cues moderated the influence of unhealthy eating habits triggered by palatable food cues in today's food-rich environment. These findings suggest that diet priming can change habitual reactions to temptations associated with unhealthy eating. Implications for diet priming as an intervention for unhealthy eating habits are discussed herein.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • The persistence of and resistance to social norms regarding the
           appropriate amount to Eat: A preliminary investigation
    • Authors: Justin R. Feeney; Patricia Pliner; Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman
      Pages: 93 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Justin R. Feeney, Patricia Pliner, Janet Polivy, C. Peter Herman
      We conducted a preliminary investigation on the resistance to, and persistence of, social influence regarding the appropriate amount to eat, defined in terms of eating an amount similar to that eaten by a confederate. Participants ate pizza both alone and in the presence of remote confederates presenting either a high or low eating norm. In the portion of the experiment examining resistance to social influence, participants given an initial opportunity to form a personal eating norm by eating alone for one session in the absence of social influence were no more resistant to low eating norms than were those who had no such opportunity; however, those who ate alone for two or three prior sessions did show resistance. For the high eating norm, it took three eating alone sessions to create resistance. In the portion of the experiment examining persistence of social influence, when participants ate alone following a session with norm-setting remote confederates, the effect of the social influence persisted. However, the persistence effect varied by norm and weakened over time. Participants modeled a low eating norm for only one additional session and the size of the effect was markedly weaker. By contrast, the high norm persisted for all of the remaining sessions. Thus, individuals’ social influence histories can affect their eating.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.031
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Maternal history of eating disorders: Diet quality during pregnancy and
           infant feeding
    • Authors: Anh N. Nguyen; Lisanne M. de Barse; Henning Tiemeier; Vincent W.V. Jaddoe; Oscar H. Franco; Pauline W. Jansen; Trudy Voortman
      Pages: 108 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 109
      Author(s): Anh N. Nguyen, Lisanne M. de Barse, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Oscar H. Franco, Pauline W. Jansen, Trudy Voortman
      We studied associations of maternal history of eating disorders (EDs) with diet quality of pregnant women and their infants, and breastfeeding practices. We included 6196 mother-child pairs from Generation R, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Maternal history of lifetime EDs was assessed during pregnancy with a questionnaire. Dietary intake during pregnancy and in infancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires and diet quality scores were calculated, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. Breastfeeding practices were assessed with questionnaires at 2, 6, and 12 months. We observed that, after adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, women with a history of EDs had a higher diet quality than women without a history of EDs (B = 0.24 SD, 95%CI: 0.15; 0.33). Mothers with a history of EDs were less likely to breastfeed (unadjusted OR = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.51; 0.93), although no longer statistically significant after adjustment (OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.55; 1.03). These findings suggest that mothers with a history of EDs seem slightly less likely to initiate breastfeeding, however, this warrants further investigation. At the age of 1 year, infants of mothers with a history of EDs had a higher diet quality (B = 0.15 SD, 95%CI: 0.02; 0.27). We conclude that mothers with a history of EDs and their infants have a relative good diet quality, although follow-up studies are needed to assess long-term associations with diet in later childhood and adolescence.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.030
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2016)
       
  • Efficacy of the attention control trining program on reducing attentional
           bias in obese and overweight dieters
    • Authors: Masoud Moghaddaszadeh Bazzaz; Javad Salehi Fadardi; John Parkinson
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Masoud Moghaddaszadeh Bazzaz, Javad Salehi Fadardi, John Parkinson
      Evidence indicates that attentional bias and dieter's eating styles (i.e., external, emotional, restraint) play important roles in the success or failure of dieters. First, we studied food-related attentional bias (FAB; based on interference scores on a modified Stroop test), eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and increases in body mass index (BMI) in overweight or obese dieters (n = 34) and nondieters (n = 35). Compared with nondieters, dieters showed higher FAB, which was positively associated with BMI. In addition, the majority of overweight and obese participants had higher scores on emotional and restrained eating styles. Second, we investigated the effect of a Food Attention Control Training Program (Food-ACTP) on reducing FAB and dieting success. Dieters (n = 49) were divided into three groups: intervention (training), no-intervention (control), and sham-intervention, all of whom were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow up. Only the intervention group showed reductions in their FAB, diet failure rate, and BMI at follow up. For the intervention group, there was a significant interaction between changes in FAB and eating styles in predicting decreases in BMI. Overall, this work shows that attentional bias plays an important role in eating behavior, and dieters can benefit from practicing with Food-ACTP as a complimentary intervention. The exact mechanism through which Food-ACTP improves dieting success awaits further investigation.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.114
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year
           longitudinal cohort study
    • Authors: Elizabeth H. Evans; Ashley J. Adamson; Laura Basterfield; Ann Le Couteur; Jessica K. Reilly; John J. Reilly; Kathryn N. Parkinson
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Elizabeth H. Evans, Ashley J. Adamson, Laura Basterfield, Ann Le Couteur, Jessica K. Reilly, John J. Reilly, Kathryn N. Parkinson
      Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls’ dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood
    • Authors: Brian P. Meier; Sabrina W. Noll; Oluwatobi J. Molokwu
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Brian P. Meier, Sabrina W. Noll, Oluwatobi J. Molokwu
      Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Salt appetite is not increased in summer heat
    • Authors: Micah Leshem
      Pages: 28 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Micah Leshem
      We tested the hypothesis that salt appetite increases in summer heat due to increased sodium loss due to increased drinking and perspiration. A test battery in the same sample of healthy young people tested in summer and winter revealed no seasonal differences in salt appetite (or fluid intake) despite a 10 °C rise in mean environmental temperature. Unexpectedly, sweet preference is reduced in summer.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • The development and effectiveness of an ecological momentary intervention
           to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption in low-consuming young
           adults
    • Authors: Kate L. Brookie; Louise A. Mainvil; Anitra C. Carr; Margreet C.M. Vissers; Tamlin S. Conner
      Pages: 32 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Kate L. Brookie, Louise A. Mainvil, Anitra C. Carr, Margreet C.M. Vissers, Tamlin S. Conner
      Objectives To develop and test the effectiveness of a mobile-phone based ecological momentary intervention (EMI) to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in low-consuming young adults. Methods A two-week randomised controlled trial of low-FV consuming young adults ages 18–25 years (n = 171) compared three conditions: ecological momentary intervention (EMI), fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI), and a diet-as-usual control (ANZCTRN12615000183583). Participants in the EMI condition were sent two targeted text messages a day for 13 days and were asked to increase daily FV consumption to at least five servings. These messages were designed, using the Health Action Process Approach, to address salient beliefs identified as effective in a preliminary focus group investigation. Participants in the FVI condition were provided two servings of FV a day (carrots, kiwifruit or oranges, and apples) to eat in addition to their current diet. Control participants ate their normal diet. Participants reported their daily servings of FV each evening during the study using a smartphone-delivered survey. Blood samples testing plasma vitamin C and total carotenoids were taken pre- and post-intervention as an objective biomarker of FV intake. Results Participants in the EMI and FVI conditions reported higher daily servings of FV – approximately +1 serving per day more compared to control (EMI = 3.7 servings/day; FVI = 3.7 servings/day; Control = 2.8 servings/day) and approximately +1.2 servings compared to baseline. Increases in objective biomarkers for the experimental conditions supported the validity of self-reported FV consumption. Conclusions Our results provide initial proof of concept that EMI strategies (with minor financial assistance) are as effective as giving FV in increasing FV consumption in educated, low-consuming young adults.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • The problematic messages of nutritional discourse: A case-based critical
           media analysis
    • Authors: Antonia Dodds; Kerry Chamberlain
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Antonia Dodds, Kerry Chamberlain
      Nutritional science has assumed a fundamental importance in shaping food meanings and practices in the developed world. This study critically analysed the content of one weekly nutrition column written by a nutritional expert in a popular New Zealand magazine, from a social constructionist perspective, to investigate how nutritional advice constructs food, food practices and eaters. The analysis identified a range of ways in which the nutrition information communicated in the articles was potentially problematic for readers. The articles advocated eating for health with recommendations based on nutritional science, but depicted nutritional information as inconclusive, changeable and open to interpretation. Fear-based messages were used to motivate making 'healthy' food choices, through linking 'unhealthy' food choices with fatness and chronic ill health. Unhealthy foods were portrayed as more enjoyable than healthy foods, social occasions involving food were constructed as problematic, and exercise was defined only as a way to negate food consumption. Healthy eating was portrayed as a matter of personal choice, obscuring the situational factors that impact on food choice and health. We conclude that the nutritional advice analysed in this study constructs a way of understanding food that, if internalised by eaters, may evoke anxiety, confusion and dissatisfaction around food and eating.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of
           visual food cues in women: An ERP study
    • Authors: Daniela Schwab; Matteo Giraldo; Benjamin Spiegl; Anne Schienle
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Daniela Schwab, Matteo Giraldo, Benjamin Spiegl, Anne Schienle
      The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s. The bitter aftertaste of wormwood enhanced fronto-central early potentials (N100, N200) and reduced P300 amplitudes for all food types (meat, sweets, vegetables). Moreover, meat and sweets elicited higher fronto-central LPPs than vegetables in the water group. This differentiation was absent in the bitter group, which gave lower arousal ratings for the high-caloric food. We found that a minor intervention (‘bitter rinse’) was sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal processing of food images reflecting increased early attention (N100, N200) as well as reduced affective value (P300, LPP). Future studies should investigate whether this intervention is able to influence eating behavior.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T13:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.023
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Modification of aftertaste with a menthol mouthwash reduces food wanting,
           liking, and ad libitum intake of potato crisps
    • Authors: Scott C. Hutchings; Katy M. Horner; Victoria A. Dible; John M.V. Grigor; Dolores O'Riordan
      Pages: 57 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Scott C. Hutchings, Katy M. Horner, Victoria A. Dible, John M.V. Grigor, Dolores O'Riordan
      This research investigated the effect of modifying the aftertaste of potato crisps on (1) temporal sensory perception and (2) appetite using three mouthwash conditions (no mouthwash, a water mouthwash, and a menthol mouthwash). For the sensory study, 17 screened female subjects were trained on the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methodology. Subjects undertook TDS to monitor all sensory attributes during the mastication of a 2 g crisp until swallowing (at 20s), then conducted the mouthwash, and then continued the TDS task to monitor aftertaste until 90s. For the appetite study, 36 subjects (18 male, 18 female) completed 100 mm Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for desire, liking, hunger, and thirst, followed by an ad libitum eating task. For the VAS scales testing, subjects chewed and swallowed a 2 g crisp, and then immediately conducted the mouthwash before completing the VAS scales. For the ad libitum task, subjects were given 12 min to consume as many crisps as they desired on a plate (up to 50 g). Every three minutes they were required to conduct a mouthwash. TDS results showed that in comparison with no mouthwash, the water mouthwash significantly reduced aftertaste attributes such as savoury, salty, and fatty mouthcoating, and the menthol mouthwash significantly increased aftertaste attributes of cooling, minty, and tingly. The water mouthwash did not influence desire and liking of crisps, or hunger and thirst. The water mouthwash did not influence ad libitum intake of the crisps over a 12 min period. The menthol mouthwash significantly reduced desire and liking of the crisps, as well as hunger and thirst. Furthermore, the menthol mouthwash significantly reduced ad libitum crisp intake by 29% over the 12 min period.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T13:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Developing a valid meal assessment tool for hospital patients
    • Authors: Mary Hannan-Jones; Sandra Capra
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Mary Hannan-Jones, Sandra Capra
      Patients' perspectives of meal items are critical in supporting effective decisions about meal provision in hospitals. The objective of this research was to develop a valid meal assessment tool (MAT), to quickly and accurately assess patient's views on meal items, for ultimate use in a large multi-centre trial. Nine iterations of the meal assessment tool were tested for content and construct validity in a large acute care hospital to determine wording, number scale and physical orientation for responses. Patients were interviewed to assess content validity, ease of completion, timing and assistance requirement. Following expert feedback, the resulting tool consisted of a 7 point scale measuring three meal components (meat, starch and vegetable), with ratings for flavour and taste combined, appearance and quality. Measures of overall satisfaction, meal expectation, age and gender were included for direct comparability with the valid published Acute Care Hospital Foodservice Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (ACHFPSQ). Three hundred and four surveys were completed in the development process (77% response), 53% male, mean age 56 years. Best completion rates were by interview with completion times of 2–5 min. The tool was then made available in a large multi-centre meal assessment project (n = 14,500) and was able to detect differences between variations of the same meal and between the same ingredient prepared in alternative ways. The MAT proved successful in discriminating meal components in terms of quality, taste and appearance and is useful for those planning and assessing meals in a variety of healthcare settings.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T13:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Looking for cues – infant communication of hunger and satiation
           during milk feeding
    • Authors: N. Shloim; C.M.J.L. Vereijken; P. Blundell; M.M. Hetherington
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): N. Shloim, C.M.J.L. Vereijken, P. Blundell, M.M. Hetherington
      It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding. Infants' age ranged from 3 to 22 weeks. Feeding cues were identified using a validated list of communication cues (NCAST). The frequency of each cue during the beginning, middle, and end of the meal was recorded. There were 22 feeding cues identified during the feeds, with significantly more frequent disengagement cues expressed than engagement cues. Significantly more frequent feeding cues were observed at the beginning than at the end of the meal showing that cue frequency changes with satiation. Breastfeeding infants exhibited more engagement and disengagement cues than formula fed infants. Supporting mothers to identify engagement and disengagement cues during a milk feed may promote more responsive feeding-strategies that can be acquired by mothers using different modes of feeding.

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Traditional food uses of wild plants among the Gorani of South Kosovo
    • Authors: Andrea Pieroni; Renata Sõukand; Cassandra L. Quave; Avni Hajdari; Behxhet Mustafa
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Andrea Pieroni, Renata Sõukand, Cassandra L. Quave, Avni Hajdari, Behxhet Mustafa
      A food ethnobotanical field study was conducted among the Gorani of South Kosovo, a small ethnic minority group that speaks a South-Slavic language and lives in the south of the country. We conducted forty-one semi-structured interviews in ten villages of the Kosovar Gora mountainous area and found that seventy-nine wild botanical and mycological taxa represent the complex mosaic of the food cultural heritage in this population. A large portion of the wild food plant reports refer to fermented wild fruit-based beverages and herbal teas, while the role of wild vegetables is restricted. A comparison of these data with those previously collected among the Gorani living in nearby villages within the territory of Albania, who were separated in 1925 from their relatives living in present-day Kosovo, shows that approximately one third of the wild food plant reports are the same. This finding demonstrates the complex nature of Kosovar Gorani ethnobotany, which could indicate the permanence of possible “original” Gorani wild plant uses (mainly including wild fruits-based beverages), as well as elements of cultural adaptation to Serbian and Bosniak ethnobotanies (mainly including a few herbal teas and mushrooms).

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.024
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and daily
           milk snack consumption in healthy, adolescent males
    • Authors: Benjamin P. Green; Emma J. Stevenson; Penny L.S. Rumbold
      Pages: 93 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Benjamin P. Green, Emma J. Stevenson, Penny L.S. Rumbold
      Comprising of two experiments, this study assessed the metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and chronic milk consumption in adolescent males (15–18 y). Eleven adolescents [mean ± SD age: 16.5 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 23.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2] participated in the acute experiment and completed two laboratory visits (milk vs. fruit-juice) in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-d. Seventeen adolescents [age: 16.1 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2] completed the chronic experiment. For the chronic experiment, a parallel design with two groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated and consumed milk (n = 9) or fruit-juice (n = 8) for 28-d, completing laboratory visits on the first (baseline, day-0) and last day (follow-up, day-28) of the intervention phase. On laboratory visits (for both experiments), measures of appetite, metabolism and endocrine responses were assessed at regular intervals. In addition, eating behavior was quantified by ad libitum assessment under laboratory conditions and in the free-living environment by weighed food record. Acute milk intake stimulated glucagon (P = 0.027 [16.8 pg mL; 95% CI: 2.4, 31.3]) and reduced ad libitum energy intake relative to fruit-juice (P = 0.048 [−651.3 kJ; 95% CI: −1294.1, −8.6]), but was comparable in the free-living environment. Chronic milk intake reduced free-living energy intake at the follow-up visit compared to baseline (P = 0.013 [-1910.9 kJ; 95% CI: −554.6, −3267.2]), whereas the opposite was apparent for fruit-juice. Relative to baseline, chronic milk intake increased the insulin response to both breakfast (P = 0.031) and mid-morning milk consumption (P = 0.050) whilst attenuating blood glucose (P = 0.025). Together, these findings suggest milk consumption impacts favorably on eating behavior in adolescent males, potentially through integrated endocrine responses.

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.029
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Messages promoting genetic modification of crops in the context
           of climate change: Evidence for psychological reactance
    • Authors: Hang Lu; Katherine A. McComas; John C. Besley
      Pages: 104 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Hang Lu, Katherine A. McComas, John C. Besley
      Genetic modification (GM) of crops and climate change are arguably two of today's most challenging science communication issues. Increasingly, these two issues are connected in messages proposing GM as a viable option for ensuring global food security threatened by climate change. This study examines the effects of messages promoting the benefits of GM in the context of climate change. Further, it examines whether explicit reference to “climate change,” or “global warming” in a GM message results in different effects than each other, or an implicit climate reference. An online sample of U.S. participants (N = 1050) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: “climate change” cue, “global warming” cue, implicit cue, or control (no message). Generally speaking, framing GM crops as a way to help ensure global food security proved to be an effective messaging strategy in increasing positive attitudes toward GM. In addition, the implicit cue condition led to liberals having more positive attitudes and behavioral intentions toward GM than the “climate change” cue condition, an effect mediated by message evaluations.

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.026
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Shrinking the food-print: A qualitative study into consumer perceptions,
           experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly
           food behaviours
    • Authors: A.C. Hoek; D. Pearson; S.W. James; M.A. Lawrence; S. Friel
      Pages: 117 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): A.C. Hoek, D. Pearson, S.W. James, M.A. Lawrence, S. Friel
      Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the importance of multilevel policies and actions that address healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours. However it is not yet clear which actions are most suitable to support consumers to adopt both behaviours concurrently. To this end, we undertook a qualitative study to assess consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly foods and four target behaviours: reducing overconsumption of food beyond energy needs, reducing consumption of low-nutrient energy dense foods, eating less animal- and more plant-derived foods, and reducing food waste. Online in-depth interviews were held with 29 Australian food shoppers representing different levels of involvement with health and environment in daily food choices. The results indicate that compared to health, the relationship between food and the environment is rarely considered by consumers. The four target food behaviours were primarily associated and motivated by an impact on health, except for not wasting foods. Participants had the most positive attitude and highest motivation for eating less processed and packaged foods, mostly to avoid excessive packaging and ‘chemicals’ in foods. This was followed by the behaviours reducing food waste and overconsumption. Conversely, there was a predominantly negative attitude towards, and low motivation for, eating less animal-derived products and more plant based foods. Overall, consumers found a joined concept of healthy and environmentally friendly foods an acceptable idea. We recommend that health should remain the overarching principle for policies and actions concerned with shifting consumer behaviours, as this personal benefit appears to have a greater potential to support behaviour change. Future consumer focused work could pay attention to framing behavioural messages, providing intermediate behavioural goals, and a multiple target approach to change habitual behaviours.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.030
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Yogurt's flexible image during its rise in popularity in post-war Belgium
    • Authors: Jon Verriet; Frédéric Leroy
      Pages: 132 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jon Verriet, Frédéric Leroy
      The consumption of yogurt in Western countries has risen for over a century, first slowly, then more rapidly. The purpose of the present study was to investigate this prolonged phase of growth, by examining the popularity and the projected image of yogurt. A particular focus was on the way these aspects were reflected in consumption patterns and media representations. The data showed how during its period of rapid popularization, yogurt's visibility in the media greatly increased. It was concluded that the product's image was highly flexible in post-war decades, evidenced by the multi-pronged approach taken by marketers. Yogurt was not only advertised as both tasty and healthy, but also as natural and convenient, a strategy that appears to have been informed by consumers' preferences and existing cultural values. This demonstrates how a high degree of product differentiation and diversification during a product's growth stage can result in a heterogeneous image, allowing for a broad range of marketing strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.028
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with
           physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa
    • Authors: Tobias Hofmann; Ulf Elbelt; Verena Haas; Anne Ahnis; Burghard F. Klapp; Matthias Rose; Andreas Stengel
      Pages: 141 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Tobias Hofmann, Ulf Elbelt, Verena Haas, Anne Ahnis, Burghard F. Klapp, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
      While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479–26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = −0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = −0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p < 0.01). Depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress did not correlate with kisspeptin or any other of the investigated hormones (p > 0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in the regulation of physical activity in anorexia nervosa.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.032
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Do disinhibited eaters pay increased attention to food cues?
    • Authors: C.H. Seage; M. Lee
      Pages: 151 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): C.H. Seage, M. Lee
      The Three Factors Eating Questionnaire's measure of disinhibited eating is a robust predictor of long-term weight gain. This experiment explored if disinhibited eaters display attentional bias to food cues. Participants (N = 45) completed a visual dot probe task which measured responses to food (energy dense and low energy foods) and neutral cues. Picture pairs were displayed either for a 100 ms or 2000 ms duration. All participants displayed attentional bias for energy dense food items. Indices of attentional bias were largest in disinhibited eaters. Attentional bias in disinhibited eaters appeared to be underpinned by facilitated attention.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.031
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI
    • Authors: Menna Price; Suzanne Higgs; Michelle Lee
      Pages: 156 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Menna Price, Suzanne Higgs, Michelle Lee
      Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18–73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15–43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, −0.10 to −0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.034
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Effects of preparatory and action planning instructions on
           situation-specific and general fruit and snack intake
    • Authors: Gert-Jan de Bruijn; Minh Hao Nguyen; Ryan E. Rhodes; Liesbeth van Osch
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Gert-Jan de Bruijn, Minh Hao Nguyen, Ryan E. Rhodes, Liesbeth van Osch
      Evidence to date suggests heterogeneity in the effects of implementation intentions on health behaviour, including diet. Additional variables and study designs may impact on their effectiveness. Preparatory action, such as making sure fruits are available for consumption, may be an important additional variable. Likewise, most implementation intention research has focused on changes in general intake, yet implementation intention instructions typically require participants to consider behaviour in specific situations. Little is known on how implementation intentions impact situation-specific intake. The present study sought to add to the evidence base by comparing (1) the effects of action planning instructions versus preparatory planning instructions on (2) both situation-specific (as formulated in the implementation intention instruction) and general intake of fruits and in-between meal snack intake frequency. Fruit intake was assessed in average pieces per day, whereas snacking intake was assessed as average frequency in days per week. Using non-probability sampling, 243 undergraduate students who intended to have a healthy diet were randomized to either a standard information control condition, an action planning condition, or a preparatory planning condition. Planning manipulations were based on previous work. Two weeks later, general and situation-specific intake was assessed again in 181 participants. Data were analysed using 2 (time) x 3 (conditions) analyses of variance. Results showed that both planning manipulations were successful in decreasing snack intake frequency in the specified situation, with larger effect sizes for the action planning condition than for the preparatory planning condition. No effects were found on general snack intake frequency or fruit intake. Future planning interventions should more explicitly compare changes in situational and general intake, as well as simultaneously assessed decreases in unhealthy intake and increases in healthy intake.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Associations among measures of energy balance related behaviors and
           psychosocial determinants in urban upper elementary school children
    • Authors: Lorraine N. Bandelli; Heewon Lee Gray; Rachel C. Paul; Isobel R. Contento; Pamela A. Koch
      Pages: 171 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Lorraine N. Bandelli, Heewon Lee Gray, Rachel C. Paul, Isobel R. Contento, Pamela A. Koch
      Background Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. Methods Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six “do more” (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and “do less” (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories. Correlations among behaviors and hierarchical linear model analyses of the relationship between psychosocial determinants and behaviors were conducted for those with complete data (n = 952). Results The “do more” and the “do less” behaviors were significantly correlated within categories (p < 0.01). “Do more” food-related behaviors were correlated with physical activity but so were sports drinks, while the “do less” food-related behaviors tended to be correlated to sedentary behavior (p < 0.01). “Do more” behaviors were associated with self-efficacy and habit strength, and “do less” behaviors with outcome expectations, self-efficacy, habit strength, and behavioral intention. Conclusions Interventions can address the healthy and less healthy clusters of behaviors together, focusing on strategies to enhance their self-efficacy and habit strength for the “do more” behaviors and outcome expectations to motivate intention to choose fewer “do less” behaviors, along with enhancing self-efficacy and habit. Research can examine these determinants as potential mediators of change in intervention.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.027
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Food skills confidence and household gatekeepers' dietary practices
    • Authors: Melissa Burton; Mike Reid; Anthony Worsley; Felix Mavondo
      Pages: 183 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Melissa Burton, Mike Reid, Anthony Worsley, Felix Mavondo
      Introduction Household food gatekeepers have the potential to influence the food attitudes and behaviours of family members, as they are mainly responsible for food-related tasks in the home. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gatekeepers' confidence in food-related skills and nutrition knowledge on food practices in the home. Methods An online survey was completed by 1059 Australian dietary gatekeepers selected from the Global Market Insite (GMI) research database. Participants responded to questions about food acquisition and preparation behaviours, the home eating environment, perceptions and attitudes towards food, and demographics. Two-step cluster analysis was used to identify groups based on confidence regarding food skills and nutrition knowledge. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to compare the groups on the dependent variables. Results Three groups were identified: low confidence, moderate confidence and high confidence. Gatekeepers in the highest confidence group were significantly more likely to report lower body mass index (BMI), and indicate higher importance of fresh food products, vegetable prominence in meals, product information use, meal planning, perceived behavioural control and overall diet satisfaction. Gatekeepers in the lowest confidence group were significantly more likely to indicate more perceived barriers to healthy eating, report more time constraints and more impulse purchasing practices, and higher convenience ingredient use. Other smaller associations were also found. Conclusion Household food gatekeepers with high food skills confidence were more likely to engage in several healthy food practices, while those with low food skills confidence were more likely to engage in unhealthy food practices. Food education strategies aimed at building food-skills and nutrition knowledge will enable current and future gatekeepers to make healthier food decisions for themselves and for their families.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.033
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • A concept mapping study on organic food consumers in Shanghai, China
    • Authors: Huliyeti Hasimu; Sergio Marchesini; Maurizio Canavari
      Pages: 191 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Huliyeti Hasimu, Sergio Marchesini, Maurizio Canavari
      Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the “Brand concept mapping” method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai. We then analyzed the data using network and cluster analysis to create aggregated maps for two distinct groups of consumers. Similarly to their peers in developed countries, Chinese consumers perceive organic food as healthy, safe and expensive. However, organic is not necessarily synonymous with natural produce in China, also due to a translation of the term that conveys the idea of a “technology advanced” product. Organic overlaps with the green food label in terms of image and positioning in the market, since they are easily associated and often confused. The two groups we identified show clear differences in the way the organic concept is associated to other concepts and features. The study provides useful information for practitioners: marketers of organic products in China should invest in communication to emphasize the differences with Green Food products and they should consider the possibility of segmenting organic consumers; Chinese policy makers should consider implementing information campaigns aimed at achieving a better understanding of the features of these quality labels among consumers. For researchers, the study confirms that the BCM method is effective and its integration with network and cluster analysis improves the interpretation of individual and aggregated maps.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • The effect of high-fat diet consumption on appetitive instrumental
           behavior in rats
    • Authors: Frédéric Tantot; Shauna L. Parkes; Alain R. Marchand; Chloé Boitard; Fabien Naneix; Sophie Layé; Pierre Trifilieff; Etienne Coutureau; Guillaume Ferreira
      Pages: 203 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Frédéric Tantot, Shauna L. Parkes, Alain R. Marchand, Chloé Boitard, Fabien Naneix, Sophie Layé, Pierre Trifilieff, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
      Evidence now indicates that the chronic consumption of high-calorie foods, such as a high-fat diet (HFD), is associated with impaired control over food-seeking, yet the extent of this alteration is not fully understood. Using different reinforcement schedules, we evaluated whether HFD intake from weaning to adulthood modifies instrumental responding and induces a shift from goal-directed actions to habitual responding. We first observed reduced instrumental performance and motivation for a food reward in HFD-fed rats trained under schedules of reinforcement that facilitate habitual responding [Random Interval (RI)]. However, this deficit was alleviated if rats trained under RI were subsequently trained with reinforcement schedules that promote goal-directed strategies [Random Ratio (RR)]. Using an outcome devaluation procedure, we then demonstrated that consumption of a HFD promoted habitual behavior in rats trained under RI but not RR schedules. Finally, extended HFD exposure did not interfere with the ability of RR training to overcome impaired RI instrumental performance and to favor goal-directed behavior. These results indicate that chronic consumption of a HFD changes the co-ordination of goal-directed actions and habits and that alteration of food-seeking may be reversed under particular behavioral conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Food cravings among Brazilian population
    • Authors: Anna Cecília Queiroz de Medeiros; Lucia de Fatima Campos Pedrosa; Maria Emilia Yamamoto
      Pages: 212 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Anna Cecília Queiroz de Medeiros, Lucia de Fatima Campos Pedrosa, Maria Emilia Yamamoto
      This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ2/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • The effect of parental rejection on the emotional eating behaviour of
           youngsters: A laboratory-based study
    • Authors: Julie Vandewalle; Ellen Moens; Guy Bosmans; Caroline Braet
      Pages: 219 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Julie Vandewalle, Ellen Moens, Guy Bosmans, Caroline Braet
      Results from survey studies demonstrate a relationship between parental rejection and self-reported emotional eating of youngsters. The aim of the current study was to build on this research by examining the relationship between parental rejection and actual emotional eating, using an experimental laboratory paradigm. Participants were 46 youngsters between the ages of 10 and 17 years old. Participants first completed online questionnaires at home, measuring parental rejection and emotional eating style. At the laboratory, participants were randomly assigned to a neutral condition or negative mood condition, followed by a multi-item snack buffet. The interaction effect maternal rejection × condition on energy intake from savoury food was significant. More maternal rejection predicted more energy intake from savoury food in the negative mood condition, but not in the neutral condition. The results highlight the importance of assessing, and if mandatory, improving the emotional bond between parent and child in the prevention and intervention of emotional eating.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Perspectives on learning to cook and public support for cooking education
           policies in the United States: A mixed methods study
    • Authors: Julia A. Wolfson; Shannon Frattaroli; Sara N. Bleich; Katherine Clegg Smith; Stephen P. Teret
      Pages: 226 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Julia A. Wolfson, Shannon Frattaroli, Sara N. Bleich, Katherine Clegg Smith, Stephen P. Teret
      Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Total PYY and GLP-1 responses to submaximal continuous and supramaximal
           sprint interval cycling in men
    • Authors: Tom J. Hazell; Hashim Islam; Jillian R. Hallworth; Jennifer L. Copeland
      Pages: 238 - 244
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Tom J. Hazell, Hashim Islam, Jillian R. Hallworth, Jennifer L. Copeland
      Exercise-induced changes in appetite-regulating hormones may be intensity-dependent, however a clear dose-response relationship has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in anorexigenic markers (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to rest or exercise at submaximal and supramaximal intensities. Ten active males completed four experimental sessions in randomized order: 1) Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min cycling at 65% VO2max); 2) High intensity continuous training (HICT; 30 min cycling at 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 s “all-out” cycling bouts with 4 min recovery periods); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise). Blood samples were obtained immediately pre- and post-exercise, as well as 90-min post-exercise for the measurement of total PYY and GLP-1. Subjective hunger was assessed using a visual analog scale pre-breakfast and at the three blood sampling time-points. Total PYY concentrations increased immediately post-exercise following both HICT (P = 0.006) and SIT (P < 0.001) versus CTRL, while SIT was also greater (P = 0.005) compared to MICT. Total GLP-1 concentrations changed similarly across time-points (P < 0.001), with no differences between sessions (P = 0.280). Perceptions of hunger also changed similarly across time-points (P < 0.001) with no differences between trials (P = 0.085). These findings suggest that total PYY increases only after high-intensity exercise and exhibits a greater responsiveness to SIT compared to moderate-intensity exercise. Compensatory increases in hunger do not seem to occur at any exercise intensity. These findings support a dose-response relationship between exercise intensity and total PYY, though the effects on total GLP-1 and hunger perceptions seem unclear.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The
           case of cultured meat
    • Authors: Gerben A. Bekker; Arnout R.H. Fischer; Hilde Tobi; Hans C.M. van Trijp
      Pages: 245 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Gerben A. Bekker, Arnout R.H. Fischer, Hilde Tobi, Hans C.M. van Trijp
      Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • The association between anxiety, hunger, the enjoyment of eating foods and
           the satiety after food intake in individuals working a night shift
           compared with after taking a nocturnal sleep: A prospective and
           observational study
    • Authors: Ane Andrade Santa Cecília Silva; Tássia do Vale Cardoso Lopes; Kely Raspante Teixeira; Jordane Amaral Mendes; Matheus Eduardo de Souza Borba; Maria Carliana Mota; Jim Waterhouse; Cibele Aparecida Crispim
      Pages: 255 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Ane Andrade Santa Cecília Silva, Tássia do Vale Cardoso Lopes, Kely Raspante Teixeira, Jordane Amaral Mendes, Matheus Eduardo de Souza Borba, Maria Carliana Mota, Jim Waterhouse, Cibele Aparecida Crispim
      Subjective responses to meals are altered by shortened sleep time and anxiety state, but this effect has been poorly studied in shift workers – who act as a typical model concerning sleep restriction and present high levels of anxiety. The objective of this study was to compare subjective perceptions of meals and the levels of anxiety in the same subjects after working night shifts and after taking a nocturnal sleep, and to investigate associations between the responses to meals and the levels of anxiety under these two conditions. The study evaluated 34 male permanent night-shift workers who worked a 12-h shift followed by a 36-h rest period. Evaluations included: sleep pattern (on three days after working night shifts and after sleeping at night); hunger, enjoyment of eating foods and satiety after a meal (evaluated by visual analogue scales on three non-consecutive days after working night shifts and after nocturnal sleeps); and state of anxiety (on a day after working a night shift and a day after a nocturnal sleep). In the days following a night shift, workers had higher mean hunger scores before lunch and higher anxiety scores than when they had slept at night (p = 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). Linear regression indicated that, after a night shift, anxiety scores were negatively associated with hunger before breakfast (p = 0.04) and lunch (p = 0.03), the enjoyment of eating foods (p = 0.03) and the number of meals eaten during the course of the 24 h (p = 0.03). It is concluded that night shifts increase mean hunger and anxiety scores. Anxiety levels seem to interfere with the responses associated with food consumption.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the
           Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975–2010): Prospective observations
           
    • Authors: Georgina E. Crichton; Merrill F. Elias; Peter Dearborn; Michael Robbins
      Pages: 263 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Georgina E. Crichton, Merrill F. Elias, Peter Dearborn, Michael Robbins
      Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Self-reported food skills of university students
    • Authors: Courtney K. Wilson; June I. Matthews; Jamie A. Seabrook; Paula D.N. Dworatzek
      Pages: 270 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Courtney K. Wilson, June I. Matthews, Jamie A. Seabrook, Paula D.N. Dworatzek
      University students experience a life transition that often results in poor dietary behaviors and weight gain. Adequate food skills may improve diet quality and prevent chronic disease. Research is limited, however, on students' food skills and food-related behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether self-perceived food skills and related behaviors of students at a large, Canadian university differed based on sex, having taken a Food and Nutrition (FN) course, and living conditions, using a cross-sectional online survey. The response rate was 21.9% (n = 6638). Students (age, M ± SD 19.9 ± 2.1 years) self-reported their abilities for seven distinct food skills. Students rated (out of 100) their ability for some skills significantly higher than others (79.7 ± 20.9 for peeling, chopping, and slicing vs. 56.1 ± 29.1 for weekly meal planning; p < 0.001). Females reported higher total food skill scores than males (487.0 ± 141.1 out of a possible 700 vs. 441.9 ± 151.8, respectively; p < 0.001). Respondents who had taken a FN course reported higher total food skill scores than those who had not (494.9 ± 137.0 vs. 461.9 ± 149.2; p < 0.001). Students who resided away from their parental home for longer than one year reported significantly higher total food skill scores than those living away for one year or less (488.9 ± 134.6 vs. 443.3 ± 153.0, respectively; p < 0.001). Results indicate that students' self-perceived food skills vary by sex, FN education, and living condition. Higher abilities were reported for mechanical food skills; conceptual skills were significantly lower. These results may assist in effectively targeting this population with nutrition education interventions.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Factors influencing mothers' decisions on whether to provide seafood
           during early years’ feeding: A qualitative study
    • Authors: Sharon A. Carstairs; Leone C.A. Craig; Debbi Marais; Kirsty Kiezebrink
      Pages: 277 - 287
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Sharon A. Carstairs, Leone C.A. Craig, Debbi Marais, Kirsty Kiezebrink
      The first year of a child's life is a key period of transition from an exclusive milk diet to solid foods to meet growing nutritional demands. An increased requirement for nutrients includes the introduction of protein-rich solid foods, such as seafood, which additionally provides valuable omega-3 fatty acids. However, consumption of seafood is low in the British child population. The aim of this study was to identify maternal perceptions of the factors that can influence the decision on whether to provide seafood during early years' feeding using a multi-method qualitative study design. A total of 26 discussions posted by mothers on parenting websites; Mumknowsbest, Mumsnet and Netmums, accessed July 2013, together with discussions from six focus groups (February–July 2014) in the North East of Scotland were included for thematic qualitative analysis. Discussions on the inclusion of seafood during the early years were centred across four interrelating themes; - food-related attributes, mother-centred aspects, family-centred aspects, and external information sources. Concerns regarding safety and mothers' limited knowledge and skills on seafood were apparent from discussions; however, the practicalities of providing a cost effective family meal were also issues raised by mothers. An understanding of the numerous and sometimes contradictory influences on mothers' decisions to include seafood during early years' period could be used to develop strategies to help increase regular seafood consumption. In particular, ensuring formal information and guidance clearly addresses the safety concerns of mothers and the development of practical education schemes to encourage and teach cooking skills should be considered.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • The effect of new purchase criteria on food procurement for the Brazilian
           school feeding program
    • Authors: Panmela Soares; M. Carmen Davó-Blanes; Suellen Secchi Martinelli; Leonardo Melgarejo; Suzi Barletto Cavalli
      Pages: 288 - 294
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Panmela Soares, M. Carmen Davó-Blanes, Suellen Secchi Martinelli, Leonardo Melgarejo, Suzi Barletto Cavalli
      Objective To explore the effect of the school feeding program purchase criteria on the quantity, variety and origin of food products acquired for school meals in a municipality in Brazil. Method Analysis of purchase lists for two years prior and two years after implementation of the purchase criteria (2010). The origin (family farms (FF)/other providers (OP)) and nutritional characteristics (recommended/controlled) of food products were studied, registering annual varieties (n) and daily quantities (kg/day); contrast of proportions was applied. Results The acquisition of recommended products increased, and the quantity of controlled products decreased (p = 0.005). Purchase of legumes and vegetables (p < 0.05) increased and high sugar foods decreased (p = 0.02). The majority of food products in 2010 and 2011 were acquired from OP (64% and 61%), although FF provided the greatest proportion of legumes and vegetables. Ten new varieties of recommended products were incorporated, 9 of which were acquired from FF. Conclusion The criteria of direct purchase from family farms resulted in an increase in the variety and quantity of healthy foods in the schools in the municipality.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar
           breakfast cereals
    • Authors: Meghan R. Longacre; Keith M. Drake; Linda J. Titus; Jennifer Harris; Lauren P. Cleveland; Gail Langeloh; Kristy Hendricks; Madeline A. Dalton
      Pages: 295 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Meghan R. Longacre, Keith M. Drake, Linda J. Titus, Jennifer Harris, Lauren P. Cleveland, Gail Langeloh, Kristy Hendricks, Madeline A. Dalton
      Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and
           personality
    • Authors: Crystal D. Oberle; Razieh O. Samaghabadi; Elizabeth M. Hughes
      Pages: 303 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Crystal D. Oberle, Razieh O. Samaghabadi, Elizabeth M. Hughes
      This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology.

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T18:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Is portion size selection associated with expected satiation, perceived
           healthfulness or expected tastiness? A case study on pizza using a
           photograph-based computer task
    • Authors: D. Labbe; A. Rytz; N. Godinot; A. Ferrage; N. Martin
      Pages: 311 - 316
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): D. Labbe, A. Rytz, N. Godinot, A. Ferrage, N. Martin
      Increasing portion sizes over the last 30 years are considered to be one of the factors underlying overconsumption. Past research on the drivers of portion selection for foods showed that larger portions are selected for foods delivering low expected satiation. However, the respective contribution of expected satiation vs. two other potential drivers of portion size selection, i.e. perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness, has never been explored. In this study, we conjointly explored the role of expected satiation, perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness when selecting portions within a range of six commercial pizzas varying in their toppings and brands. For each product, 63 pizza consumers selected a portion size that would satisfy them for lunch and scored their expected satiation, perceived healthfulness and expected tastiness. As six participants selected an entire pizza as ideal portion independently of topping or brand, their data sets were not considered in the data analyses completed on responses from 57 participants. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that portion size variance was predicted by perceived healthiness and expected tastiness variables. Two sub-groups of participants with different portion size patterns across pizzas were identified through post-hoc exploratory analysis. The explanatory power of the regression model was significantly improved by adding interaction terms between sub-group and expected satiation variables and between sub-group and perceived healthfulness variables to the model. Analysis at a sub-group level showed either positive or negative association between portion size and expected satiation depending on sub-groups. For one group, portion size selection was more health-driven and for the other, more hedonic-driven. These results showed that even when considering a well-liked product category, perceived healthfulness can be an important factor influencing portion size decision.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:28:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Fat and lean tissue accretion in relation to reward motivation in children
    • Authors: Annelies De Decker; Bart De Clercq; Sandra Verbeken; Jonathan C.K. Wells; Caroline Braet; Nathalie Michels; Stefaan De Henauw; Isabelle Sioen
      Pages: 317 - 325
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Annelies De Decker, Bart De Clercq, Sandra Verbeken, Jonathan C.K. Wells, Caroline Braet, Nathalie Michels, Stefaan De Henauw, Isabelle Sioen
      ‘Reward sensitivity’ explains inter-individual differences in the motivation to obtain rewards when reward cues are perceived. This psychobiological trait has been linked to higher consumption of palatable food when exposed to palatable food cues. The current study aims to examine if reward sensitivity explains differences in patterns of fat and lean tissue accretion over time in children. A longitudinal observational study with measurement waves in 2011 (baseline), 2012, 2013, and 2015 was conducted. The sample was a population-based Flemish cohort of children (n = 446, 50% boys and 5.5–12 years at baseline; 38.8% of the baseline sample also participated in 2015). Baseline reward sensitivity of the children was assessed by parent ratings on the Drive subscale of the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System scales. Age- and sex-independent Fat and Lean Mass Index z-scores (zFMI and zLMI respectively) were computed for each study wave based on air-displacement plethysmography. In girls, but not boys, reward sensitivity was positively associated with the baseline zFMI and zLMI (95% confidence intervals of unstandardized estimates: 0.01 to 0.11 and 0.01 to 0.10 respectively, P values 0.01 and 0.02 respectively). Further, reward sensitivity explained 14.8% and 11.6% of the change in girls' zFMI and zLMI respectively over four years: the zFMI and zLMI increased and decreased respectively in high reward sensitive girls (95% confidence intervals of unstandardized estimates: 0.01 to 0.11 and −0.12 to −0.01 respectively, P values 0.01 and 0.02 respectively). Hence, girls high in reward sensitivity had significantly higher adiposity gain over four years parallel with lower increase in lean mass than was expected on the basis of their age and height. These results may help to identify appropriate targets for interventions for obesity prevention.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:28:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108


      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:48:29Z
       
 
 
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