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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2571 journals)

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Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 744, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 12)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 53)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 21)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 56)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.532, h-index: 68)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.348, h-index: 69)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access  
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 38)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 117)

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Journal Cover Appetite
   [18 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2571 journals]   [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
  • Maternal eating disorder and infant diet. A latent class analysis based on
           the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Leila Torgersen , Eivind Ystrom , Anna Maria Siega-Riz , Cecilie Knoph Berg , Stephanie C. Zerwas , Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud , Cynthia M. Bulik
      Knowledge of infant diet and feeding practices among children of mothers with eating disorders is essential to promote healthy eating in these children. This study compared the dietary patterns of 6-month-old children of mothers with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype, to the diet of children of mothers with no eating disorders (reference group). The study was based on 53,879 mothers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify discrete latent classes of infant diet based on the mothers’ responses to questions about 16 food items. LCA identified five classes, characterized by primarily homemade vegetarian food (4% of infants), homemade traditional food (8%), commercial cereals (35%), commercial jarred baby food (39%), and a mix of all food groups (11%). The association between latent dietary classes and maternal eating disorders were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Infants of mothers with bulimia nervosa had a lower probability of being in the homemade traditional food class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class, than the referent (O.R. 0.59; 95% CI 0.36–0.99). Infants of mothers with binge eating disorder had a lower probability of being in the homemade vegetarian class compared to the commercial jarred baby food class (O.R. 0.77; 95% CI 0.60–0.99), but only before adjusting for relevant confounders. Anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging subtype were not statistically significantly associated with any of the dietary classes. These results suggest that maternal eating disorders may to some extent influence the child’s diet at 6 months; however, the extent to which these differences influence child health and development remains an area for further inquiry.


      PubDate: 2014-11-19T02:42:09Z
       
  • Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations
           for fruit consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Rachel Pechey , Pablo Monsivais , Yin-Lam Ng , Theresa M. Marteau
      Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T02:37:42Z
       
  • A step-by-step introduction to vegetables at the beginning of
           complementary feeding. The effects of early and repeated exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Marion M. Hetherington , C. Schwartz , J. Madrelle , F. Croden , C. Nekitsing , C.M.J.L. Vereijken , H. Weenen
      Breastfeeding (BF) is associated with willingness to accept vegetables. This may be due to the variety of flavours delivered via breast milk. Some mothers add vegetables to milk during complementary feeding (CF) to enhance acceptance. The present study tested a step-by-step exposure to vegetables in milk then rice during CF, on intake and liking of vegetables. Just before CF, enrolled mothers were randomised to an intervention (IG, n = 18; 6 BF) or control group (CG, n = 18; 6 BF). IG infants received 12 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to milk (days 1–12), then 12 × 2 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to rice at home (days 13–24). Plain milk and rice were given to CG. Then both received 11 daily exposures to vegetable puree. Intake was weighed and liking rated on days 25–26 and 33–35 after the start of CF in the laboratory, supplemented by the same data recorded at home. Vegetables were rotated daily (carrots, green beans, spinach, broccoli). Intake, liking and pace of eating were greater for IG than CG infants. Intake and liking of carrots were greater than green beans. However, at 6m then 18m follow up, vegetable (carrot > green beans) but not group differences were observed. Mothers reported appreciation of the structure and guidance of this systematic approach. Early exposure to vegetables in a step-by-step method could be included in CF guidelines and longer term benefits assessed by extending the exposure period.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T02:37:42Z
       
  • The effects of a single bout of aerobic or resistance exercise on food
           reward
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Jessica McNeil , Sébastien Cadieux , Graham Finlayson , John E. Blundell , Éric Doucet
      It is unknown whether an acute bout of calorie-matched aerobic and resistance exercise alters food reward in a similar manner. Thus, we examined the effects of isocaloric resistance and aerobic exercise sessions on acute food reward. Sixteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and sedentary control. The target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal/kg of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 12 repetition-maximum (equivalent to 70% of 1 repetition-maximum). A validated computer task assessed the wanting and liking for visual food cues following exercise, and following an ad libitum lunch. Decreases in the relative preference for high vs. low fat foods were noted following exercise compared to the control session, and this was independent of modality (aerobic: P = 0.04; resistance: P = 0.03). Furthermore, the explicit liking for high vs. low fat foods was lower following resistance exercise compared to the control session (P = 0.04). However, these changes in food reward were not correlated with changes in energy intake (EI) between sessions. Exercise, independent of modality, led to decreases in the relative preference for high fat relative to low fat foods. Additionally, decreases in the hedonic “liking” of high fat foods following resistance, but not aerobic, exercise may imply that modality does influence acute food hedonic responses. However, these decreases in food hedonics were not related to lower EI, thus suggesting that a dissociation may exist between food hedonics and actual EI.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T02:37:42Z
       
  • The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual
           food intake among children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Frans Folkvord , Doeschka J. Anschütz , Reinout W. Wiers , Moniek Buijzen
      This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T02:37:42Z
       
  • Validation of an iPad visual analogue rating system for assessing appetite
           and satiety
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Louise Brunger , Adam Smith , Roberta Re , Martin Wickham , Andrew Philippides , Phil Watten , Martin R. Yeomans
      The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77 kcal) and high energy (HE: 274 kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T02:37:42Z
       
  • Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): R. Satherley , R. Howard , S. Higgs
      Purpose: To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Methods: Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900–2014) and MEDLINE (1950–2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967–2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Results: Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. Conclusions: The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-11-15T02:37:42Z
       
  • Mealtime duration in problem and non-problem eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Michelle Adamson , Alina Morawska , Britta Wigginton
      Young children commonly encounter difficulties at mealtimes, which are important to address early to avoid the maintenance of problematic eating behaviour. Amongst these are drawn-out meals, which some research has associated with more mealtime problems. However, research on meal duration, and therefore guidelines for appropriate meal length, is lacking. This research aimed to compare the meal duration of problem-eaters and controls, and to examine changes to meal length amongst problem-eaters following a parenting intervention. The mealtimes of 96 problem-eaters and 105 controls were examined via parent-report and in-home observations; meal length was also compared amongst problem-eaters who had received intervention and a waitlist control. Meal duration was similar across groups, though problem-eaters engaged in more aversive behaviour and less eating than controls. Observed eating and mealtime behaviour altered following intervention but not duration. Parents who reported meal length as a specific concern had longer meals and reported less successful feeding than those who did not. These results suggest that what is happening during the meal may better distinguish problem-eaters than duration alone.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T02:34:03Z
       
  • What does it mean to be a ‘picky eater’? A qualitative
           study of food related identities and practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Claire Thompson , Steven Cummins , Tim Brown , Rosemary Kyle
      Picky eaters are defined as those who consume an inadequate variety of food through rejection of a substantial amount of food stuffs that are both familiar and unfamiliar. Picky eating is a relatively recent theoretical concept and while there is increasing concern within public health over the lack of diversity in some children's diets, adult picky eaters remain an under researched group. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study on the routine food choices and practices of 26 families in Sandwell, West Midlands, UK. Photo elicitation and go-along interview data collection methods were used to capture habitual food related behaviours and served to describe the practices of nine individuals who self identified or were described as picky eaters. A thematic analysis revealed that those with the food related identity of picky eater had very restricted diets and experienced strong emotional and physical reactions to certain foods. For some this could be a distressing and alienating experience that hindered their ability to engage in episodes of social eating. Further research is needed to illuminate the specific practices of adult picky eaters, how this impacts on their lives, and how possible interventions might seek to address the challenges they face.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T02:34:03Z
       
  • Consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products. Patterns
           and insights from a sample of international studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Domenico Carlucci , Giuseppe Nocella , Biagia De Devitiis , Rosaria Viscecchia , Francesco Bimbo , Gianluca Nardone
      The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies were identified for inclusion. These studies investigated consumer purchasing behaviour towards a variety of fish and seafood products, in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. In particular, the review identifies and discusses the main drivers and barriers of fish consumption as well as consumers' preferences about the most relevant attributes of fish and seafood products providing useful insights for both practitioners and policy makers. Finally, main gaps of the existing literature and possible trajectories for future research are also discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T02:34:03Z
       
  • Body weight and food intake in Parkinson's disease. A review of the
           association to non-motor symptoms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Marilena Aiello , Roberto Eleopra , Raffella I. Rumiati
      Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the metabolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cognitive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the management of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight regulation in healthy subjects.


      PubDate: 2014-11-11T02:34:03Z
       
  • Bits and pieces. Food texture influences food acceptance in young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Jessica Werthmann , Anita Jansen , Remco Havermans , Chantal Nederkoorn , Stef Kremers , Anne Roefs
      Background: Picky or fussy eating is common in early childhood and associated with a decreased preference for a variety of foods. The aim of the current study was to test experimentally which sensory food feature influences food acceptance, which, in turn is an indication for fussy eating, in young children (32 - 48 months). Another aim was to evaluate if the behavioural measurement of food acceptance is related to parental reports of their child's fussy eating behaviour, parental feeding styles and children's BMI. Method: In a repeated-measures-design, three sensory features were manipulated separately (i.e., colour, texture and taste) while keeping the other two features constant. The baseline measurement consisted of a well-liked yoghurt, which was presented before each manipulation variant. The number of spoons that children (N = 32) consumed from each variant were registered as behavioural indication for food acceptance. Parental reports of children's eating behaviour and parental feeding styles; and children's BMI were also measured. Results: The manipulation of food texture caused a significant decrease in intake. Colour and taste manipulations of the yoghurt did not affect children's intake. Parental reports of children's fussy eating behaviour and parental feeding styles were not related to the behavioural observation of food acceptance. The behavioural measurement of food acceptance and parental accounts of fussy eating were not related to children's BMI. Conclusion: Food texture but not taste or colour alternations affected food acceptance, at least when consuming variations of a well-liked yoghurt. This knowledge is important for further research on picky-eating interventions. Parental reports of fussy eating did not concur with the behavioural observation of food acceptance. Further research is warranted to test whether these findings generalize to other food types.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores,
           vegetarians, and adherence to diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Hank Rothgerber
      As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding
           practices and children's appetite traits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Rati Jani , Kimberley M. Mallan , Lynne Daniels
      This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1–5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • Nutrition self-efficacy is unidirectionally related to outcome
           expectations in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Andrew L. Larsen , John J. McArdle , Trina Robertson , Genevieve F. Dunton
      Objective: To clarify the underlying relationship between nutrition self-efficacy and outcome expectations because the direction of the relationship (unidirectional vs bidirectional) is debated in the literature. Methods: Secondary data analysis of a 10-week, 10-lesson school-based nutrition education intervention among 3rd grade students (N  =  952). Nutrition self-efficacy (7 items) and nutrition outcome expectations (9 items) were measured through student self-report at intervention pre- (time 1) and post- (time 2) assessments. A series of two time point, multi-group cross-lagged bivariate change score models were used to determine the direction of the relationship. Results: A cross lag from nutrition self-efficacy at time 1 predicting changes in nutrition outcome expectations at time 2 significantly improved the fit of the model (Model 3), whereas a cross lag from nutrition outcome expectations at time 1 to changes in nutrition self-efficacy at time 2 only slightly improved the fit of the model (Model 2). Furthermore, adding both cross lags (Model 4) did not improve model fit compared to the model with only the self-efficacy cross lag (Model 3). Lastly, the nutrition outcome expectations cross lag did not significantly predict changes in nutrition self-efficacy in any of the models. Conclusions: Data suggest that there is a unidirectional relationship between nutrition self-efficacy and outcome expectations, in which self-efficacy predicts outcome expectations. Therefore, theory-based nutrition interventions may consider focusing more resources on changing self-efficacy because it may also lead to changes in outcome expectations as well.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • Levels of craving influence psychological challenge and physiological
           reactivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Daniel Frings , Guleser Eskisan , Marcantonio M. Spada , Ian P. Albery
      Behavioural and cognitive pathways that lead to the activation and escalation of craving have been studied extensively. Conversely, limited efforts have been directed towards understanding how craving relates to motivational systems and neuroendocrine responses. These can be understood using the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. In the current study, forty participants with varying levels of chocolate craving undertook two word searches, with the prospect of winning a piece of chocolate. Amongst those with high levels of craving, participation in this task led to motivational states of challenge relative to those with lower levels. This was reflected by changes in cardiac reactivity driven by differences in sympathetic-adrenal-medullar and hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal axis activation. This finding suggests that craving can be associated with states of motivational challenge and thus affect cardiac reactivity.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • Drivers of overweight mothers' food choice behaviors depend on child
           gender
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Sofia Bouhlal , Colleen M. McBride , Dianne S. Ward , Susan Persky
      Background: National data suggest a higher prevalence of obesity among boys. One possible cause could be the food choices made by parents on behalf of their children. Objectives: This study sought to determine whether and how mothers' food choices for their children differ by child gender and to understand the drivers of these differences. Design: Data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial conducted using a virtual reality-based buffet restaurant. Overweight mothers filled out questionnaires and received an information module. They were then immersed in a virtual buffet restaurant to select a lunch for their 4- to 5-year-old child. Results: Of the 221 overweight mothers recruited, 55% identified their daughters as the child for whom they would be choosing the food. The caloric content of boys' meals was 43 calories higher than girls' (p = .015). This difference was due to extra calories from the less healthy food category (p = .04). Multivariate analyses identified more predictors of calorie choices for daughters' than sons' meals. Predictors of calories chosen for girls included: having both biological parents overweight (β = 0.26; p = .003), mother's weight (β = 0.17; p = .05), mother's education (β = −0.28; p = .001), her restriction of her child's food intake (β = −0.20; p = .02), and her beliefs about the importance of genetics in causing obesity (β = 0.19; p = .03). Mother's weight was the sole predictor of boys' meal calories (β = 0.20; p = .04). Conclusions: Differences in dietary choices made for young girls and boys may contribute to lifelong gender differences in eating patterns. A better understanding of differences in feeding choices made for girls versus boys could improve the design of childhood obesity prevention interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • Front-of-pack symbols are not a reliable indicator of products with
           healthier nutrient profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Teri E. Emrich , Ying Qi , Joanna E. Cohen , Wendy Y. Lou , Mary L. L'Abbe
      Background: Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition rating systems and symbols are a form of nutrition marketing used on food labels worldwide. In the absence of standardized criteria for their use, it is unclear if FOP symbols are being used to promote products more nutritious than products without symbols. Objectives: To compare the amount of calories, saturated fat, sodium, and sugar in products with FOP symbols, and different FOP symbol types, to products without symbols. Methods: The median calorie, saturated fat, sodium, and sugar content per reference amount of products with FOP symbols were compared to products without FOP symbols using data from the Food Label Information Program, a database of 10,487 Canadian packaged food labels. Ten food categories and 60 subcategories were analyzed. Nutrient content differences were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test; differences greater than 25% were deemed nutritionally relevant. Results: Products with FOP symbols were not uniformly lower in calories, saturated fat, sodium, and sugar per reference amount than products without these symbols in any food category and the majority of subcategories (59/60). None of the different FOP types examined were used to market products with overall better nutritional profiles than products without this type of marketing. Conclusion: FOP symbols are being used to market foods that are no more nutritious than foods without this type of marketing. Because FOP symbols may influence consumer perceptions of products and their purchases, it may be a useful public health strategy to set minimum nutritional standards for products using FOP symbol marketing.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • A new look at the science of weight control: How acceptance and commitment
           strategies can address the challenge of self-regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Evan M. Forman , Meghan L. Butryn
      The current manuscript proposes an acceptance-based, self-regulation framework for understanding the challenge of weight maintenance and describes how this framework can be integrated into the behavioral treatment of obesity. According to this framework, intrinsic drives to consume palatable, high-calorie food interact with a modern environment in which high calorie foods are easily accessible. This combination produces a chronic desire to eat unhealthy foods that exists in opposition to individuals' weight control goals. Similarly, low energy expenditure requirements reduce physical activity. We suggest that individuals vary in their responsivity to cues that motivate overeating and sedentary behavior, and that those higher in responsivity need specialized self-regulatory skills to maintain healthy eating and exercise behaviors. These skills include an ability to tolerate uncomfortable internal reactions to triggers and a reduction of pleasure, behavioral commitment to clearly-defined values, and metacognitive awareness of decision-making processes. So-called “acceptance-based” interventions based on these skills have so far proven efficacious for weight control, especially for those who are the most susceptible to eating in response to internal and external cues (as predicted by the model). Despite the current empirical support for the postulated model, much remains to be learned including whether acceptance-based interventions will prove efficacious in the longer-term.


      PubDate: 2014-11-07T02:31:02Z
       
  • Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and
           indirect effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Carmen Keller , Michael Siegrist
      In a random sample (N = 951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight.


      PubDate: 2014-11-02T02:27:30Z
       
  • Improving meal context in nursing homes. Impact of four strategies on food
           intake and meal pleasure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Camille Divert , Rachid Laghmaoui , Célia Crema , Sylvie Issanchou , Virginie Van Wymelbeke , Claire Sulmont-Rossé
      In France, in most nursing homes, the composition of menus, the time and the place at which meals are served, the choice of one's place at the table are imposed on residents. Yet, the act of eating cannot be restricted to nutritional and sensory aspects alone. It also includes a psycho-affective dimension, which relates to the context in which the meal is served. We tested the impact of four contextual factors, considered individually, on food intake and meal pleasure in elderly people living in nursing homes: the way the main course was named on the menu, the size and the variety of portions of vegetables served to residents, the presence or not of condiments in the middle of the table and the presence or not of elements to modify the surroundings such as a decorative object on the table or background music. Twelve experimental meals were served to 42 nursing home residents. For each factor, we compared a control condition with two experimental conditions. Our study showed that changing a single contextual element of the meal in nursing homes could be sufficient to improve residents' satisfaction with their meals and increase the quantities of meat or vegetables consumed, as long as this factor had a direct impact on what was going to be consumed (increased variety on the plate, condiments on the table). Factors affecting the context of the meal (names of dishes, decor) proved to be ineffective. Given the budgetary constraints faced by nursing homes, this study proposes interesting and inexpensive ideas to increase satisfaction with meals and food intake in elderly people who are dependent on others for their meals.


      PubDate: 2014-11-02T02:27:30Z
       
  • Predictors of caregiver feeding practices differentiating persistently
           obese from persistently non-overweight adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Elizabeth K. Towner , Jennifer Reiter-Purtill , Richard E. Boles , Meg H. Zeller
      Understanding the contribution of caregiver feeding practices to adolescent diet and weight is important to refining caregiver roles within the context of adolescent obesity prevention and treatment. This secondary data analysis examined whether feeding practices of female caregivers differentiated persistently non-overweight (n = 29) from persistently obese (n = 47) adolescents. Families who previously participated in a cross-sectional study on correlates of obesity were recruited for this follow-up study. At the time of the follow-up study, anthropometric measures were taken for all female caregivers and adolescents, and caregivers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire-Adolescent version. Socioeconomic, demographic, female caregiver anthropometric, and psychological (caregiver perceived self-weight and concern for adolescent overweight) variables were examined as predictors of feeding practices found to differentiate the two groups. Female caregivers of persistently obese adolescents reported significantly greater use of restriction and monitoring compared to female caregivers of persistently non-overweight adolescents. Restriction was predicted by female caregiver age and concern for adolescent overweight whereas monitoring was predicted by concern for adolescent overweight only. Caregiver feeding strategies may be an important target for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention efforts particularly among those with heightened concern about their teen's weight status.


      PubDate: 2014-11-02T02:27:30Z
       
  • Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting
           meat-reduced diet in Australians
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Alexa Hayley , Lucy Zinkiewicz , Kate Hardiman
      Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on ‘meat’ generally addressed ‘white meat’ and ‘fish/seafood’ as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value–attitude–behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • Gender relations and couple negotiations of British men's food practice
           changes after prostate cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Lawrence W. Mróz , Steven Robertson
      Nutrition plays an important role in the health of men diagnosed with prostate cancer and dietary interventions can therefore be a significant part of prostate cancer survivorship supportive care. Family food provision, however, involves complex social interactions, which shape how men engage with their diets and dietary interventions. The role that gender plays in shaping prostate cancer couples' food practices and men's diets after a prostate cancer diagnosis is thought to be important but is little understood. This study explored couples' accounts of nutrition information seeking and diet change to gain a better understanding of how gender relations shaped men's food practices after prostate cancer diagnosis. Qualitative health interviews with men and their partners were conducted and analysed using interpretive descriptive methods. Findings demonstrated how couples navigated food change journeys that involved seeking information, deciding what changes were warranted and implementing and regulating diet changes. Two overarching themes that illustrated couples' food negotiations were called ‘Seeking information and deciding on food changes’ and ‘Monitoring food changes’. Additional sub-themes described who led food changes, women's filtering of information, and moderation or ‘treats’. Throughout these food change journeys, interactions between men and women were at play, demonstrating how gender relations and dynamics acted to shape couples' food negotiations and men's food practices. Findings reveal that attention to gender relations and the men's family food dynamics should inform diet interventions for men with prostate cancer in order to improve uptake.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • Feeling happy and thinking about food. Counteractive effects of mood and
           memory on food consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Rebecca Collins , Lorenzo D. Stafford
      Separate lines of research have demonstrated the role of mood and memory in the amount of food we consume. However, no work has examined these factors in a single study and given their combined effects beyond food research, this would seem important. In this study, the interactive effect of these factors was investigated. Unrestrained female participants (n = 64) were randomly assigned to either a positive or neutral mood induction, and were subject to a lunch cue (recalling their previously eaten meal) or no lunch cue, followed by a snack taste/intake test. We found that in line with prediction that food intake was lower in the lunch cue versus no cue condition and in contrast, food intake was higher in the positive versus neutral mood condition. We also found that more food was consumed in the lunch cue/positive mood compared to lunch cue/neutral mood condition. This suggests that positive mood places additional demands on attentional resources and thereby reduces the inhibitory effect of memory on food consumption. These findings confirm that memory cue and positive mood exert opposing effects on food consumption and highlight the importance of both factors in weight control interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • Pre-ordering lunch at work. Results of the what to eat for lunch study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Shana D. Stites , S. Brook Singletary , Adeena Menasha , Clarissa Cooblall , Donald Hantula , Saul Axelrod , Vincent M. Figueredo , Etienne J. Phipps
      The objective of this study was to evaluate an intervention that combined mindful eating and online pre-ordering to promote healthier lunch purchases at work. The study took place at an urban hospital with 26 employees who were overweight or obese. The design included a contemporaneous comparison with delayed-treatment control and a three-phase prospective study. A minimum 4-week baseline period preceded a 4-week full-intervention, in which participants received mindful eating training, pre-ordered their lunches, and received price discounts toward lunch purchases. In a 4-week reduced intervention phase, participants pre-ordered lunches without price discounts. Participant lunch purchases were tracked electronically at the point of purchase. The primary outcome measures were the amounts of kilocalories and fat grams in purchased lunches. In contemporaneous comparisons, the treatment group purchased lunches with an average of 144.6 fewer kilocalories (p = 0.01) and 8.9 fewer grams of fat (p = 0.005) compared to controls. In multivariable longitudinal analyses, participants decreased the average number of calories in their meals by 114.6 kcal per lunch and the average grams of fat by 5.4 per lunch during the partial-intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.001). At the end of the study, a moderate increase was observed in participants' overall mindful eating behaviors as compared to the beginning of the study (p < 0.001). The majority of participants (92%) said they would use the pre-ordering system if offered in the future. Combined mindful eating training and online pre-ordering appears a feasible and useful worksite intervention to improve food choices by employees.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • How food cues can enhance and inhibit motivation to obtain and consume
           food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Ben Colagiuri , Peter F. Lovibond
      Learning may play an important role in over-eating. One example is Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), whereby reward cues facilitate responding to obtain that reward. Whilst there is increasing research indicating PIT for food in humans, these studies have exclusively tested PIT under instrumental extinction (i.e. when the food is no longer available), which may reduce their ecological validity. To address this, we conducted two experiments exploring PIT for food in humans when tested under instrumental reinforcement. Participants first underwent Pavlovian discrimination training with an auditory cue paired with a chocolate reward (CS+) and another auditory cue unpaired (CS−). In instrumental training participants learnt to press a button to receive the chocolate reward on a VR10 schedule. In the test phase, each CS was presented whilst participants maintained the opportunity to press the button to receive chocolate. In Experiment 1, the PIT test was implemented after up to 20 min of instrumental training (satiation) whereas in Experiment 2 it was implemented after only 4 min of instrumental training. In both experiments there was evidence for differential PIT, but the pattern differed according to the rate of responding at the time of the PIT test. In low baseline responders the CS+ facilitated both button press responding and consumption, whereas in high baseline responders the CS− suppressed responding. These findings suggest that both excitatory and inhibitory associations may be learnt during PIT training and that the expression of these associations depends on motivation levels at the time the cues are encountered. Particularly concerning is that a food-paired cue can elicit increased motivation to obtain and consume food even when the participant is highly satiated and no longer actively seeking food, as this may be one mechanism by which over-consumption is maintained.


      PubDate: 2014-10-24T02:21:35Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83




      PubDate: 2014-10-24T02:21:35Z
       
  • Variation in saltiness perception of soup with respect to soup serving
           temperature and consumer dietary habits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Jeong-Weon Kim , Shilpa S. Samant , Yoojin Seo , Han-Seok Seo
      Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly less salty when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • “Snacks are not food”. Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions
           of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): J.O. Fisher , G. Wright , A.N. Herman , K. Malhotra , E.L. Serrano , G.D. Foster , R.C. Whitaker
      Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being “real food” (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Matthew P. Pase , Natalie Grima , Robyn Cockerell , Andrew Pipingas
      Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p < 0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p < 0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p < 0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p < 0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p < 0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3–4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • Effects of inter-food interval on the variety effect in an instrumental
           food-seeking task. Clarifying the role of habituation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Eric A. Thrailkill , Leonard H. Epstein , Mark E. Bouton
      Food variety increases consumption and the rate of instrumental behavior that is reinforced by food in humans and animals. The present experiment investigated the relationship between the variety effect and habituation to food by testing the role of the interval between successive food presentations on responding in an operant food-seeking task. Habituation to food was expected at short, but not long, interfood intervals. The effects of variety on food's long-term reinforcing value were also tested. Four groups of rats were trained to lever-press on different random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement to earn 45-mg food pellets. Half the rats in each group received an unpredictable mix of grain and sucrose pellets, while the other half consistently received sucrose pellets. Response rate began at a high rate and then decreased within each 30-min session for groups that received short inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-3 s and RI-6 s reinforcement schedules) but not in groups that received longer inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-12 s and RI-24 s). A variety effect in the form of higher responding in the mix group than the sucrose-only group was also only evident at the shorter intervals. Habituation and variety effects were also most evident with the short intervals when we controlled for the number of reinforcers earned, suggesting that they were not merely due to rapid satiation. The variety effect also appeared quickly when groups trained with longer inter-pellet intervals (RI-12 s and RI-24 s) were transitioned to shorter intervals (RI-3 s and RI-6 s). There was no effect of variety on resistance to extinction or on resistance to the response-suppressing effects of pre-session feeding. The results more clearly link this version of the variety effect to the short-term effect of variety on food habituation.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • “Our” food versus “my” food. Investigating the
           relation between childhood shared food practices and adult prosocial
           behavior in Belgium
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Charlotte J.S. De Backer , Maryanne L. Fisher , Karolien Poels , Koen Ponnet
      This study focuses on the connection between prosocial behavior, defined as acting in ways that benefit others, and shared meals, defined as meals that consist of food(s) shared with others. In contrast to individual meals, where consumers eat their own food and perhaps take a sample of someone else's dish as a taste, shared meals are essentially about sharing all the food with all individuals. Consequently, these meals create situations where consumers are confronted with issues of fairness and respect. One should not be greedy and consume most of a dish; instead, rules of polite food sharing need to be obeyed. It is therefore proposed that those who have often engaged in shared meals during childhood will have a more prosocial personality, as compared to those who less often took part in shared meals during childhood. To test this hypothesis, data about frequency of shared meals during childhood and altruistic personality in early adulthood were collected using a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 487). Results confirm that higher levels of shared meal consumption correspond to higher scores on the self-report altruism scale among students.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition
           students with other courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Rui Poínhos , Diogo Alves , Elisée Vieira , Sílvia Pinhão , Bruno M.P.M. Oliveira , Flora Correia
      Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T02:05:49Z
       
  • Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric
           evaluation in a sample of the general French population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Géraldine M. Camilleri , Caroline Méjean , France Bellisle , Valentina A. Andreeva , Valérie Sautron , Serge Hercberg , Sandrine Péneau
      Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between “a priori” relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r = −0.31, P < 0.0001), emotional eating (r = −0.58, P < 0.0001), uncontrolled eating (r = −0.40, P < 0.0001), and depressive symptoms (r = −0.20, P < 0.0001). IES-2 subscales showed similar correlations. Women had lower scores than did men for the IES-2 total scale (3.3 in women vs. 3.5 in men, P < 0.0001), Eating for Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P < 0.01). Finally, results showed satisfactory reliability for the IES-2 total scores (internal consistency = 0.85 and test–retest reliability = 0.79 over a mean 8-week period) and for its subscales. Thus, the French IES-2 can be considered a useful instrument for assessing adult intuitive eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the general population.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T02:05:49Z
       
  • A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric
           institutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Virginie Pouyet , Gérard Cuvelier , Linda Benattar , Agnès Giboreau
      From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same assessor. The results also revealed that the accuracy of this method was not dependent on the type of food studied, thus, the photographic method was not specific to a particular food type. Finally, the photographic method was able to provide more detailed data because it allowed differentiation between food item intakes. These findings clearly suggest that the photographic method is a valid and useful method to measure food intake in geriatric institutions.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • It's my party and I eat if I want to. Reasons for unhealthy snacking
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Aukje A.C. Verhoeven , Marieke A. Adriaanse , Emely de Vet , Bob M. Fennis , Denise T.D. de Ridder
      Investigating the reasons that people give for unhealthy snacking behavior is important for developing effective health interventions. Little research, however, has identified reasons that apply to a large audience and most studies do not integrate multiple factors, precluding any conclusions regarding their relative importance. The present study explored reasons for unhealthy snacking among a representative community sample. Participants (N = 1544) filled out the newly developed Reasons to Snack inventory assessing an elaborate range of motives at baseline and 1-month follow-up. Exploratory and replication factor analyses identified six categories: opportunity induced eating, coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion, rewarding oneself, social pressure, and gaining energy. The highest mean scores were obtained for enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating. Regression analyses with participant characteristics as independent variables and each category of reasons as dependent variables showed differences for age. For all reasons except to enjoy a special occasion, younger people reported a higher score. Women indicated a higher score than men on coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion and gaining energy. People who diet to a stronger extent reported a higher score for snacking because of social pressure, to reward oneself and to cope with negative emotions, with the latter also being related to a higher BMI. Finally, a higher education was associated with enjoying a special occasion. Future health interventions could allocate more attention to diminishing unhealthy snacking with regard to the six identified categories, specifically focusing on enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • Exposure to foods' non-taste sensory properties. A nursery intervention to
           increase children's willingness to try fruit and vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Paul Dazeley , Carmel Houston-Price
      Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • Feel your food. The influence of tactile sensitivity on picky eating in
           children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Chantal Nederkoorn , Anita Jansen , Remco C. Havermans
      Children who are very picky in eating frequently refuse the intake of foods. This rejection is not only based on the evaluation of taste, but also on tactile qualities of foods. It matters whether food is crispy or slimy, consistent, or with bits and pips. It is hypothesised that children who are more sensitive to touch and dislike the feel of various tactile stimuli in general, are also more dismissive of tactile stimulation in their mouth and therefore more selective in their eating. In the present study, 44 children between the ages of 4 and 10 were asked to feel different tactile stimuli with their hands and to taste different foods. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the evaluations of the two modalities, especially for the younger subjects. This suggests that tactile sensitivity might play a role in the acceptance of food. Future research could explore if training children to tolerate more tactile stimuli would also increase their appreciation of a wider variety of foods.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • Food references and marketing in popular magazines for children and
           adolescents in New Zealand: A content analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Elizabeth No , Bridget Kelly , Anandita Devi , Boyd Swinburn , Stefanie Vandevijvere
      Food marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing children's food preferences and consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of unhealthy food marketing and non-branded food references in magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents 10–17 years old in New Zealand. A content analysis was conducted of all food references (branded and non-branded) found in the five magazines with the highest readership among 10–17 year olds, and the three magazines (of which two were already included among the five most popular magazines) targeted to 10–17 year olds. For each of the six magazines, one issue per month (n = 72 issues in total) over a one-year period (December 2012–January 2014) was included. All foods referenced were classified into healthy/unhealthy according to the food-based Ministry of Health classification system. Branded food references (30% of total) were more frequent for unhealthy (43%) compared to healthy (25%) foods. Magazines specifically targeted to children and adolescents contained a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy branded food references (n = 51/71, 72%) compared to the most popular magazines among children and adolescents (n = 133/317, 42%), of which most were targeted to women. ‘Snack items’ such as chocolates and ice creams were marketed most frequently (n = 104; 36%), while ‘vegetables and fruits’ were marketed the least frequently (n = 9; 3%). Direct advertisements accounted for 27% of branded food references and 25% of those featured health or nutrition claims. Both branded and non-branded food references were common within magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents, and skewed toward unhealthy foods. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of self-regulation in marketing and emphasizes that government regulations are needed in order to curb children's current potential high exposures to unhealthy food marketing. In addition, magazine editors could take socially responsible editorial positions in regard to healthy eating.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Shoppers' perceived embeddedness and its impact on purchasing behavior at
           an organic farmers' market
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Weiping Chen , Steffanie Scott
      This study explores the concept of perceived embeddedness (PE) and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market. Based on a review of the prior literature, the study refines the conceptualization and measurement of PE as a second-order factor construct reflected in its three dimensions: perceived social embeddedness, perceived spatial embeddedness, and perceived natural embeddedness. The study also suggests that organic farmers' market shoppers' PE is positively related to the two measures of purchasing behavior: expenditure per visit and repurchase intention. In a sample of 492 organic farmers' market shoppers in Beijing municipality, China, the study find support for the second-order factor structure of PE and the theorized relationship between the shoppers' PE and their purchasing behavior. The study also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Bidirectional associations between binge eating and restriction in
           anorexia nervosa. An ecological momentary assessment study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kyle P. De Young , Jason M. Lavender , Ross D. Crosby , Stephen A. Wonderlich , Scott G. Engel , James E. Mitchell , Scott J. Crow , Carol B. Peterson , Daniel Le Grange
      This study examined the association between restrictive eating behaviors and binge eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) using data collected in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with DSM-IV full or subthreshold AN reported eating disorder behaviors, including binge eating episodes, going ≥ 8 waking hours without eating, and skipping meals, during 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Time-lagged generalized estimating equations tested the following hypotheses: 1) dietary restriction would predict binge eating while controlling for binge eating the previous day; 2) binge eating would predict restriction the subsequent day while controlling for restriction the previous day. After controlling for relevant covariates, the hypotheses were not supported; however, there appeared to be a cumulative effect of repeatedly going 8 consecutive hours without eating (i.e. fasting) on the risk of binge eating among individuals who recently engaged in binge eating. In addition, skipping meals was associated with a lower risk of same day binge eating. The relationship between binge eating and dietary restriction appears to be complex and may vary by type of restrictive eating behavior. Future research should aim to further clarify the nature of the interaction of binge eating and restrictive eating among individuals with AN in order to effectively eliminate these behaviors in treatment.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in
           Spanish adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kristin Keller , Santiago Rodríguez López , M. Margarita Carmenate Moreno , Paula Acevedo Cantero
      The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event ‘Semanas del Corazon 2008’ in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among
           staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): K.T. Ofei , M. Holst , H.H. Rasmussen , B.E. Mikkelsen
      This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates ERP-indexed inhibitory
           control and reduces food consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Olivia Morgan Lapenta , Karina Di Sierve , Elizeu Coutinho de Macedo , Felipe Fregni , Paulo Sérgio Boggio
      Food craving can be defined as the “urge to eat a specific food”. Previous findings suggest impairment of inhibitory control, specifically a regulatory deficit in the lateral prefrontal circuitry that is associated with a compulsion for food. As demonstrated by three previous studies, bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (anode right/cathode left) reduces food craving and caloric intake. We designed the present study to evaluate the neural mechanisms that underlie these effects. We replicated the design of one of these previous studies but included electroencephalographic assessments to register evoked potentials in a Go/No-go task that contained pictures of food and furniture (a control visual stimulus). We collected data from nine women (mean age = 23.4 ± 2 years) in a crossover experiment. We observed that active DLPFC tDCS (anode right/cathode left), compared with sham stimulation, reduced the frontal N2 component and enhanced the P3a component of responses to No-go stimuli, regardless of the stimulus condition (food or furniture). Active tDCS was also associated with a reduction in caloric intake. We discuss our findings in the context of cortico-subcortical processing of craving and tDCS effects on inhibitory control neural circuitry.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Compliance to step count and vegetable serve recommendations mediates
           weight gain prevention in mid-age, premenopausal women. Findings of the
           40-Something RCT
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Jenna L. Hollis , Lauren T. Williams , Myles D. Young , Katherine T. Pollard , Clare E. Collins , Philip J. Morgan
      The 40-Something RCT aimed to determine if a 12-month health professional-led intervention could modify diet and physical activity behaviour for obesity prevention, in 44–50 year old, non-obese (BMI = 18.5–29.9 kg/m2) premenopausal women. Women were monitored for an additional 12 months to determine if effects could be maintained. This paper aimed to explore dietary and physical activity behavioural mediators hypothesised to be causally associated with weight change. Fifty-four women were randomised to a Motivational Interviewing Intervention (MI) (n = 28; five health professional consultations) or a Self-Directed Intervention (n = 26; written advice). Compliance to 10 study recommendations was measured at three months by a four-day weighed food and physical activity record including pedometer-measured step counts, self-reported exercise minutes and sitting time. The 10 compliance scores were independently assessed in mediation models for 12- and 24-month weight change. The MI effect on step count was an increase of 0.99 points on the 10-point compliance scale (p ≤ 0.01). This MI effect on step count significantly mediated the 12 and 24 month effect on weight (12 months AB = −0.74, 95%CI = −1.95, −0.14; 24 months AB = −1.06, 95% CI = −2.56, −0.36), accounting for 37.23% and 53.79% of the effect, respectively. The MI effect on vegetable serves was an increase of 1.50 points on the compliance scale (p = 0.02). The MI effect on vegetable compliance significantly mediated the effect on weight at 24 months (AB = −0.54, 95% CI = −1.50, −0.04), accounting for 24.92% of the effect. The remaining eight dietary and physical activity compliance scores did not significantly mediate weight loss. Encouraging women to take 10,000 steps and eat five vegetable serves per day may be a promising strategy to achieve long-term weight control at mid-life.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Method of assessing parent–child grocery store purchasing
           interactions using a micro-camcorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Eric E. Calloway , Cindy Roberts-Gray , Nalini Ranjit , Sara J. Sweitzer , Katie A. McInnis , Maria J. Romo-Palafox , Margaret E. Briley
      The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using participant worn micro-camcorders (PWMC) to collect data on parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store. Parent–child dyads (n = 32) were met at their usual grocery store and shopping time. Parents were mostly Caucasian (n = 27, 84.4%), mothers (n = 30, 93.8%). Children were 2–6 years old with 15 girls and 17 boys. A micro-camcorder was affixed to a baseball style hat worn by the child. The dyad proceeded to shop while being shadowed by an in-person observer. Video/audio data were coded for behavioral and environmental variables. The PWMC method was compared to in-person observation to assess sensitivity and relative validity for measuring parent–child interactions, and compared to receipt data to assess criterion validity for evaluating purchasing decisions. Inter-rater reliability for coding video/audio data collected using the PWMC method was also assessed. The PWMC method proved to be more sensitive than in-person observation revealing on average 1.4 (p < 0.01) more parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions per shopping trip. Inter-rater reliability for coding PWMC data showed moderate to almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa = 0.461–0.937). The PWMC method was significantly correlated with in-person observation for measuring occurrences of parent–child food purchasing interactions (rho = 0.911, p < 0.01) and characteristics of those interactions (rho = 0.345–0.850, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was substantial agreement between the PWMC method and receipt data for measuring purchasing decisions (Cohen's kappa = 0.787). The PWMC method proved to be well suited to assess parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • School-based intervention with children. Peer-modeling, reward and
           repeated exposure reduce food neophobia and increase liking of fruits and
           vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Monica Laureati , Valentina Bergamaschi , Ella Pagliarini
      This study investigated the effectiveness of the ‘Food Dudes’ school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • I'm watching you. Awareness that food consumption is being monitored is a
           demand characteristic in eating-behaviour experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Eric Robinson , Inge Kersbergen , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom , Matt Field
      Eating behaviour is often studied in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Yet people care about the impressions others form about them so may behave differently if they feel that their eating behaviour is being monitored. Here we examined whether participants are likely to change their eating behaviour if they feel that food intake is being monitored during a laboratory study. In Study 1 participants were provided with vignettes of typical eating behaviour experiments and were asked if, and how, they would behave differently if they felt their eating behaviour was being monitored during that experiment. Study 2 tested the effect of experimentally manipulating participants' beliefs about their eating behaviour being monitored on their food consumption in the lab. In Study 1, participants thought they would change their behaviour if they believed their eating was being monitored and, if monitored, that they would reduce their food consumption. In Study 2 participants ate significantly less food after being led to believe that their food consumption was being recorded. Together, these studies demonstrate that if participants believe that the amount of food they eat during a study is being monitored then they are likely to suppress their food intake. This may impact the conclusions that are drawn from food intake studies.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces
           attraction to and selection of these beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): John Milton Adams , William Hart , Lauren Gilmer , Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson , K. Alex Burton
      In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming “70g” of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
 
 
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