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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2585 journals)

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Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 56)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.519, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.063, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 29)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.834, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 793, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 12)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 53)

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Journal Cover Appetite     [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
   [18 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2585 journals]
  • Meals described as healthy or unhealthy match public health education in
           England
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Antonio Laguna-Camacho , David A. Booth
      Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian
           urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): G.M. Vedovato , A.C.B. Trude , A.Y. Kharmats , P.A. Martins
      Objective: This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Methods: Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. Results: The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01–2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08–2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08–2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08–5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37–0.88). Conclusion: The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional
           mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The
           Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Sanne R. Tak , Christel Hendrieckx , Giesje Nefs , Ivan Nyklíček , Jane Speight , François Pouwer
      Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (β = 0.10) and less external (β = −0.11) and emotional (β = −0.20). The mindfulness subscale ‘acting with awareness’ was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, ‘describing’ and ‘being non-judgemental’ were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • Synergistic effects of social support and self-efficacy on dietary
           motivation predicting fruit and vegetable intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Benjamín Reyes Fernández , Lisa Marie Warner , Nina Knoll , Esteban Montenegro Montenegro , Ralf Schwarzer
      Background: Self-efficacy and social support are considered relevant predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. This study examines whether the effect of self-efficacy on fruit and vegetable intake is mediated by intention and whether this motivational process is moderated by received dietary social support. Methods: A longitudinal study with two measurement points in time, four weeks apart, on fruit and vegetable intake was carried out with 473 students aged 19 years on average (52% women). In a conditional process analysis, dietary intention was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intake, whereas received dietary support was specified as a moderator of the self-efficacy–intention association, controlling for baseline fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Self-efficacy was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake four weeks later, and intention mediated this process. Moreover, an interaction between received dietary support and self-efficacy on intention emerged. Conclusions: The effect of self-efficacy on fruit and vegetable intake was fully mediated by intention. Moreover, received support exhibited a moderating role within the motivational process: high dietary support appeared to accentuate the positive relationship between self-efficacy and dietary intention.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • Health promotion messages: The role of social presence for food choices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Jenny V. Bittner , Micaela M. Kulesz
      We investigated whether social presence cues encourage consumers to self-regulate and select healthier food products. In the first experiment, workers completed food choices in an e-commerce environment. After the activation of health-related goals, they saw a social presence cue and were asked to choose between healthy and unhealthy food options. The analyses revealed main effects of social presence and health goal activation on food choices. These effects were additive, such that the combination of social presence and health goals induced significantly healthier choices compared with the control group. The second experiment further examined social presence cues that were presented on a menu. The results showed significant effects on food choices and on the perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. These findings indicate that social presence cues could be employed to increase healthful eating and, furthermore, that it may be useful to co-activate multiple cues in health promotion messages.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • Longitudinal relations between observed parenting behaviors and dietary
           quality of meals from ages 2 to 5
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Zorash Montaño , Justin D. Smith , Thomas J. Dishion , Daniel S. Shaw , Melvin N. Wilson
      Objectives: Parents influence a child's diet by modeling food choices, selecting the food they make available, and controlling the child's intake. Few studies have examined the covariation between parent's behavior management practices and their guidance and support for a young child's nutritional environment in early childhood. We hypothesized that parents' positive behavior support (PBS), characterized as skillful behavior management and proactive structuring of children's activities, would predict dietary quality over the course of early childhood (age 2 to 5 years), a critical period for the development of a dietary lifestyle. Methods: Participants included 731 culturally diverse, low-income families in a randomized, controlled trial of the Family Check-Up. Families participated in a yearly home visit videotaped assessment PBS and dietary quality of meals parents served to their children were assessed by coding videotapes of structured parent–child interactions. A cross-lagged panel model was used to evaluate the longitudinal relation between PBS and the dietary quality of meals served during a meal preparation task. Results: Analyses revealed that PBS repeatedly predicted meals' dietary quality the following year: age 2–3 (β = .30), age 3–4 (β = 0.14), age 4–5 (β = 0.37). Dietary quality significantly predicted PBS 1 year later: age 3–4 (β = 0.16), age 4–5 (β = 0.14). As expected, the relative strength of the relationship from PBS to dietary quality was significantly stronger than the reverse, from dietary quality to PBS. Conclusions: Positive behavior management and proactive parenting practices are an important foundation for establishing a healthy nutritional environment for young children. These findings suggest that family-centered prevention interventions for pediatric obesity may benefit from targeting PBS in service of promoting better dietary quality.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • Chocolate equals stop. Chocolate-specific inhibition training reduces
           chocolate intake and go associations with chocolate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Katrijn Houben , Anita Jansen
      Earlier research has demonstrated that food-specific inhibition training wherein food cues are repeatedly and consistently mapped onto stop signals decreases food intake and bodyweight. The mechanisms underlying these training effects, however, remain unclear. It has been suggested that consistently pairing stimuli with stop signals induces automatic stop associations with those stimuli, thereby facilitating automatic, bottom-up inhibition. This study examined this hypothesis with respect to food-inhibition training. Participants performed a training that consistently paired chocolate with no go cues (chocolate/no-go) or with go cues (chocolate/go). Following training, we measured automatic associations between chocolate and stop versus go, as well as food intake and desire to eat. As expected, food that was consistently mapped onto stopping was indeed more associated with stopping versus going afterwards. In replication of previous results, participants in the no-go condition also showed less desire to eat and reduced food intake relative to the go condition. Together these findings support the idea that food-specific inhibition training prompts the development of automatic inhibition associations, which subsequently facilitate inhibitory control over unwanted food-related urges.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • Stimulus control and affect in dietary behaviours. An intensive
           longitudinal study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Benjamin Schüz , Jodie Bower , Stuart G. Ferguson
      Background: Dietary behaviours are substantially influenced by environmental and internal stimuli, such as mood, social situation, and food availability. However, little is known about the role of stimulus control for eating in non-clinical populations, and no studies so far have looked at eating and drinking behaviour simultaneously. Method: 53 individuals from the general population took part in an intensive longitudinal study with repeated, real-time assessments of eating and drinking using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Eating was assessed as main meals and snacks, drinks assessments were separated along alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Situational and internal stimuli were assessed during both eating and drinking events, and during randomly selected non-eating occasions. Hierarchical multinomial logistic random effects models were used to analyse data, comparing dietary events to non-eating occasions. Results: Several situational and affective antecedents of dietary behaviours could be identified. Meals were significantly associated with having food available and observing others eat. Snacking was associated with negative affect, having food available, and observing others eat. Engaging in activities and being with others decreased the likelihood of eating behaviours. Non-alcoholic drinks were associated with observing others eat, and less activities and company. Alcoholic drinks were associated with less negative affect and arousal, and with observing others eat. Conclusions: Results support the role of stimulus control in dietary behaviours, with support for both internal and external, in particular availability and social stimuli. The findings for negative affect support the idea of comfort eating, and results point to the formation of eating habits via cue–behaviour associations.


      PubDate: 2015-01-28T11:12:41Z
       
  • Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): Susanne Pedersen , Alice Grønhøj , John Thøgersen
      It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent–parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): Suzanne Higgs
      Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Communicating eating-related rules. Suggestions are more effective than
           restrictions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): F. Marijn Stok , Emely de Vet , John B.F. de Wit , Britta Renner , Denise T.D. de Ridder
      Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. ‘you should not eat unhealthy food’). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the current studies, we aimed to investigate if a milder form of social influence, a suggested rule, is more successful in curbing intake of unhealthy food. We also investigated how both types of rules affected psychological reactance. Method: Students (N = 88 in Study 1, N = 51 in Study 2) completed a creativity task while a bowl of M&M's was within reach. Consumption was either explicitly forbidden (restrictive rule) or mildly discouraged (suggested rule). In the control condition, consumption was either explicitly allowed (Study 1) or M&M's were not provided (Study 2). Measures of reactance were assessed after the creativity task. Subsequently, a taste test was administered where all participants were allowed to consume M&M's. Results: Across both studies, consumption during the creativity task did not differ between the restrictive- and suggested-rule-conditions, indicating that both are equally successful in preventing initial consumption. Restrictive-rule-condition participants reported higher reactance and consumed more in the free-eating taste-test phase than suggested-rule-condition participants and control-group participants, indicating a negative after-effect of restriction. Discussion: Results show that there are more and less effective ways to communicate eating-related rules. A restrictive rule, as compared to a suggested rule, induced psychological reactance and led to greater unhealthy consumption when participants were allowed to eat freely. It is important to pay attention to the way in which eating-related rules are communicated.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Parental modelling of eating behaviours: Observational validation of the
           Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): Zoe Palfreyman , Emma Haycraft , Caroline Meyer
      Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Social modelling of food intake. The role of familiarity of the dining
           partners and food type
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): Panagiota Kaisari , Suzanne Higgs
      In a social eating context, people tend to model the food intake of their dining companions. In general, people tend to eat more when their dining companion eats more and less when their eating companion eats less. In the present paper we investigate 1) whether familiarity of dining partners affects modelling and 2) whether modelling is affected by whether familiar partners consume the same versus different foods. In both studies, female dyads completed a task together whilst having access to high energy dense snack foods. Modelling was observed regardless of the familiarity of the dining partners and food types consumed. These findings confirm that social modelling of food intake is a robust phenomenon that occurs even among familiar dining partners and when partners are consuming different types of snack food.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): Janet H.W. van den Boer , Monica Mars
      Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f = 8/22, age: 21.2 ± 1.9 years, BMI: 21.2 ± 1.6 kg/m2) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3 bites/min), medium (5 bites/min) or fast (7 bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9 ± 1.3, medium: 4.0 ± 1.1, fast: 4.0 ± 1.3 bites/min (p = 0.75), as was average bite size (11 ± 2.6 g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9 ± 3.6 min) and fast condition (14.4 ± 3.7 min) compared to the slow condition (16.8 ± 4.8 min) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.01), and intake was lower in the medium (634 ± 183 g) and fast condition (624 ± 190 g) compared to the slow condition (701 ± 220 g) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.05). This experimental study suggests that bite frequency is not affected by the confederate. However, the meal duration of the confederates showed a significant effect on the meal duration and meal size of the participants. It seems that intake was influenced as a result of copying meal termination.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86




      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Social influences on eating. An introduction to the special issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): C. Peter Herman , Suzanne Higgs



      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Social modeling of eating: A review of when and why social influence
           affects food intake and choice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 86
      Author(s): Tegan Cruwys , Kirsten E. Bevelander , Roel C.J. Hermans
      A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Underlying differences between conscientious omnivores and vegetarians in
           the evaluation of meat and animals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Hank Rothgerber
      As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important options for those reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism/veganism (i.e., veg*nism), the avoidance of animal flesh/all animal products; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has recently received much attention in the social science literature, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as COs have been virtually nonexistent. The present research sought to investigate possible underlying attitudinal differences between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to veg*ns, COs evaluated animals less favorably, meat more favorably, and were lower in idealism, misanthropy, and ingroup identification. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences between COs and veg*ns in the perceived acceptability of killing animals for food were mediated by beliefs about animals and meat. The discussion largely speculates on the causal direction of these effects.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Increase in cognitive eating restraint predicts weight loss and change in
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): J. Kalina Urbanek , Catherine J. Metzgar , Pao Ying Hsiao , Kathryn E. Piehowski , Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson
      In modern societies characterized by food abundance, dietary restraint may serve as a factor in the successful control of weight or facilitation of weight loss. This secondary analysis of data examined whether changes in cognitive eating restraint (CER) and disinhibition predicted weight loss in a sample of 60 overweight/obese premenopausal women [mean ± SD, age = 35.9 ± 5.8 y; weight = 84.4 ± 13.1 kg; body mass index (BMI) = 31.0 ± 4.3 kg/m2]. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage (BF%) were examined in relation to changes in CER, disinhibition and hunger as measured by the Eating Inventory questionnaire at baseline and week 18 of an 18-week dietary intervention. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of weight loss and changes in other anthropometric variables from baseline to study completion. Increase in CER was found to be the most robust predictor of reduction in weight (P < 0.0001), BMI (P < 0.0001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), hip circumference (P < 0.0001) and BF% (P < 0.0001). Effect of increase in CER on change in BMI, hip circumference and BF% was moderated by increase in disinhibition (all P < 0.05). Results suggest that strategies that target CER and disinhibition should be emphasized in programs proposed to treat and prevent obesity.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Impact of readiness to change behavior on the effects of a
           multidisciplinary intervention in obese Brazilian children and adolescents
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Danilo Fernandes da Silva , Josiane Aparecida Alves Bianchini , Carlos Andres Lopera , Daniele Aparecida Capelato , Luzia Jaeger Hintze , Cláudia Christina Sanchez Nardo , Zachary M. Ferraro , Nelson Nardo Junior
      The obesity epidemic is a global challenge that requires evidence-based intervention to slow the emergence of weight-related illness in children and adolescents. Thus, effective treatments are urgently needed. This study aimed to analyze whether there is relationship between the initial stage of readiness for behavior change (SRBC) and the results obtained through participation in a multidisciplinary program of obesity treatment (MPOT). The study included 113 overweight or obese children and adolescents who participated in an intervention for 16 weeks, in which the categorical variable was the SRBC. The dependent variables included: anthropometric measures of body composition, hemodynamic parameters (e.g., blood pressure values), and health-related physical fitness. Although stages 1 and 2 had greater improvements in flexibility than those in stage 5, and stage 1 had greater percentage changes in abdominal strength than those in stage 5, children and adolescents in the highest stage had greater percentage changes for anthropometric, hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory fitness, suggesting an impact of the stage of change on the effects of a MPOT. This study suggests that SRBC plays a role in obesity treatment in Brazilian children and adolescents and warrants consideration when enrolling patients to intervention.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • High satiety expectations of a first course promote selection of less
           energy in a main course picture task
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): P.J. Bulsing , S. Gutjar , N. Zijlstra , E.H. Zandstra
      One of the factors determining meal size is the expectation one has about satiating properties of foods. Foods eliciting low satiety expectations are often chosen in larger portions. We investigated whether satiety expectations of one food lead to a different portion size selection of other foods, using an online picture task. One hundred and twenty-six subjects (64 unrestrained, 62 restrained) participated in three conditions (within-subject). In two conditions subjects were asked to imagine they consumed soup as a first course. They were shown pictures of soups differing in terms of visual attributes, e.g. colour intensity, ingredients variety, etc. that conveyed a high or low expected satiety. In the control condition, no picture was shown. After viewing either a soup picture or no picture, subjects chose an ideal menu and portion size out of several other foods (meat, side dishes and vegetables) via an online choice task, specifically developed for this experiment. The energy (kcal) and weight (grams) selected for the main course was measured. More energy was chosen in the low satiety compared with the high satiety soup picture condition, but this effect was only significant for restrained eaters. This study shows that satiety expectations of a first course ‘carry over’ to the rest of the menu in people who carefully watch their diet, i.e. restrained eaters make satiety estimations for an entire menu. Our online choice task was able to capture these estimations in an implicit manner.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • The Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-income persons is a valid
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Barbara Lohse
      Eating competence is an important behavioral construct, shown to be associated with healthful lifestyle practices, including dietary quality, weight management, physical activity, and sleep duration. A 16-item instrument to measure eating competence, the Satter Eating Competence Inventory was previously validated in a general sample and subsequently, a 16-item instrument was developed to address specific concerns of low-income persons; 12 items were common to both instruments. The purpose of this study was to determine if the low-income version could be applied to a general audience, simplifying intervention evaluation and facilitating cross-study comparison. Both surveys were fully completed by 127 parents (89% white; 35.8 ± 5.3 y; 86% college graduates; 51% eating competent) of preschool-age children; 96 of whom were not considered low-income. Cognitive interviews with 14 parents of varying eating competence levels clarified and confirmed findings. Scores were highly correlated (r = .98) and only 2 of the 96 were not congruently classified for eating competence. Mean difference between the two versions was .24 ± 1.55. The general audience version explained 95% of the variance in the low-income version score. Findings support the low-income version of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for general audience use as the Satter Eating Competence Inventory 2.0.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • ‘Why don’t you try it again?’ A comparison of parent
           led, home based interventions aimed at increasing children's consumption
           of a disliked vegetable
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Clare E. Holley , Emma Haycraft , Claire Farrow
      Previous research suggests that the use of modelling and non-food rewards may be effective at increasing tasting, and consequential liking and acceptance, of a previously disliked food. Although successful school-based interventions have been developed, there is a lack of research into home-based interventions using these methods. This study aimed to develop and investigate the efficacy of a parent led home-based intervention for increasing children's acceptance of a disliked vegetable. A total of 115 children aged 2–4 years were allocated to one of four intervention groups or to a no-treatment control. The four intervention conditions were: repeated exposure; modelling and repeated exposure; rewards and repeated exposure; or modelling, rewards and repeated exposure. Children in all of the intervention conditions were exposed by a parent to daily offerings of a disliked vegetable for 14 days. Liking and consumption of the vegetable were measured pre and post-intervention. Significant increases in post-intervention consumption were seen in the modelling, rewards and repeated exposure condition and the rewards and repeated exposure condition, compared to the control group. Significant post-intervention differences in liking were also found between the experimental groups. Liking was highest (>60%) in the modelling, rewards and repeated exposure group and the rewards and repeated exposure group, intermediate (>26%) in the modelling and repeated exposure and repeated exposure groups, and lowest in the control group (10%). Parent led interventions based around modelling and offering incentives may present cost efficient ways to increase children's vegetable consumption.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Associations between eating occasions and places of consumption among
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Jodi L. Liu , Bing Han , Deborah A. Cohen
      The objective of this study was to determine whether places of consumption are associated with types of eating occasions. Data on dietary behaviors of 226 adults in five U.S. cities were collected in food diaries for one week. Types of eating occasions and places of consumption were recorded. Eating occasions were defined as occurrences of meal, snack, beverage, and non-fruit dessert consumption. Nearly one-third of eating occasions occurred at non-designated eating places. Repeated measure generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between types of eating occasions and places where food was consumed. Snacking on low-nutrient foods were more likely to occur in non-designated eating places. Snacking was more likely at work than at home, and sugar sweetened beverage consumption was more likely at food service outlets than at home. The finding that places of consumption were associated with different types of eating occasions suggests that contextual characteristics of a place are important in individual eating behaviors. Policies and programs aiming to promote healthy eating should leverage contextual characteristics of eating environments.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Analysis of personal and cultural values as key determinants of novel food
           acceptance. Application to an ethnic product
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Ramo Barrena , Teresa García , Mercedes Sánchez
      This paper sets out to analyse whether the complexity and the type of benefits and values pursued in the consumer choice process for a novel food product (couscous) varies with the consumer's ethnic origin (Spanish and Arab). A qualitative study was used to explore these issues in an application of the “means–end chain” theory. The hierarchical value maps obtained point to the presence of an important emotional dimension in the consumption of the selected product, particularly Arab consumers, suggesting that greater familiarity with the product results in a more complex choice process. Some cross-cultural variation can also be observed. Arab consumers attach more importance to issues such as the geographic origin of the product, cultural identification, and fulfilment of family duty. Spanish couscous consumers, meanwhile, claim that it is a way to follow the latest trends, and be more cosmopolitan and more successful within their environment.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating
           disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal
           presentation during a test-meal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Valentina Cardi , Mirko Esposito , Ariana Clarke , Sylvia Schifano , Janet Treasure
      Objective: The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Method: Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure (“positive mood vodcast”) with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. Results: The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. Discussion: The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Slave to habit? Obesity is associated with decreased behavioural
           sensitivity to reward devaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Annette Horstmann , Anja Dietrich , David Mathar , Maria Pössel , Arno Villringer , Jane Neumann
      The motivational value of food is lower during satiety compared to fasting. Dynamic changes in motivational value promote food seeking or meal cessation. In obesity this mechanism might be compromised since obese subjects ingest energy beyond homeostatic needs. Thus, lower adaptation of eating behaviour with respect to changes in motivational value might cause food overconsumption in obesity. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a selective satiation procedure to investigate the relationship between obesity and the size of the behavioural devaluation effect in humans. Lean to obese men (mean age 25.9, range 19–30 years; mean BMI 29.1, range 19.2–45.1 kg/m2) were trained on a free operant paradigm and learned to associate cues with the possibility to win different food rewards by pressing a button. After the initial training phase, one of the rewards was devalued by consumption. Response rates for and wanting of the different rewards were measured pre and post devaluation. Behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation, measured as the magnitude of difference between pre and post responses, was regressed against BMI. Results indicate that (1) higher BMI compared to lower BMI in men led to an attenuated behavioural adjustment to reward devaluation, and (2) the decrease in motivational value was associated with the decrease in response rate between pre and post. Change in explicitly reported motivational value, however, was not affected by BMI. Thus, we conclude that high BMI in men is associated with lower behavioural adaptation with respect to changes in motivational value of food, possibly resulting in automatic overeating patterns that are hard to control in daily life.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and
           adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and
           interparental congruence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Dorus W.M. Gevers , Patricia van Assema , Ester F.C. Sleddens , Nanne K. de Vries , Stef P.J. Kremers
      Introduction: Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Methods: Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Results: Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Discussion: Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure
           to aspartame
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): E. von Poser Toigo , A.P. Huffell , C.S. Mota , D. Bertolini , L.F. Pettenuzzo , C. Dalmaz
      The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices.
           A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Nan Zhou , Charissa S.L. Cheah , Jennifer Van Hook , Darcy A. Thompson , Shelby S. Jones
      Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent–child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent–child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler
           obesity? A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Pree M. Benton , Helen Skouteris , Melissa Hayden
      The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Eating in moderation and the essential role of awareness. A Dutch
           longitudinal study identifying psychosocial predictors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Michel Jean Louis Walthouwer , Anke Oenema , Math Candel , Lilian Lechner , Hein de Vries
      Background: Eating in moderation, i.e. the attempt to monitor and limit the intake of energy-dense foods, is a promising strategy in the prevention of weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine which psychosocial factors derived from the I-Change Model (ICM) were associated with eating in moderation, and whether these factors differed between adults with a correct (aware) or incorrect (unaware) perception of their dietary behaviour. Methods: This study used a longitudinal design with measurements at baseline (N = 483) and six-month follow-up (N = 379). Eating in moderation was defined as the average daily energy intake from energy-dense food products and was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the associations between the ICM factors and eating in moderation. The moderating role of awareness was examined by including interactions between awareness and the ICM factors in the regression analyses using the pick-a-point approach to further examine the associations for aware and unaware participants. Results: Participants who were aware of their dietary behaviour had a significantly lower average daily energy intake compared to those who were unaware. Eating in moderation was predicted by awareness, risk perception, social influence and intention. Among the aware participants, eating in moderation was predicted by risk perception, attitude, social influence and intention. Among the unaware participants, only risk perception and self-efficacy were significantly associated with eating in moderation. Conclusions: Our findings show that psychosocial factors may only predict eating in moderation when people are aware of their risk behaviour. Therefore, interventions aimed at promoting complex behaviours, such as eating in moderation, should first focus on improving individuals' awareness of their risk behaviour before targeting motivational factors.


      PubDate: 2015-01-24T02:14:59Z
       
  • Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in
           mainland China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Ou Wang , Hans De Steur , Xavier Gellynck , Wim Verbeke
      The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T08:18:29Z
       
  • Stuck in a vicious circle of stress. Parental concerns and barriers to
           changing children's dietary and physical activity habits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Åsa Norman , Anita Berlin , Elinor Sundblom , Liselotte Schäfer Elinder , Gisela Nyberg
      Introduction: Dietary habits and physical activity are often the focus of obesity prevention programmes and involving parents in such programmes has proven to be effective. The aims of this study were to describe parents' concerns about their children's diet and physical activity habits and to describe barriers to change. Results: The study used archival data gathered unobtrusively in the form of memos taken after sessions of Motivational Interviewing as part of the parental support programme, A Healthy School Start. The 74 MI-sessions were conducted from October 2010 to April 2011 with either a mother or father or both, all with children in pre-school class. Thematic analysis was applied. Three themes were identified regarding children's dietary habits: amount of food consumed influenced by behaviour in the family, eating situations influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay, and food choices influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. One theme appeared regarding physical activity: physical activity influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. Conclusion: Family interplay appears to be an important link between the work–life stress perceived by parents and less healthy food and physical activity habits in the home. Both lack of parental cooperation and negative parent–child interactions may act as barriers to healthy eating and physical activity and should be addressed in future intervention studies on health-related behaviours of children.


      PubDate: 2015-01-20T08:18:29Z
       
  • The influence of hot and cool executive function on the development of
           eating styles related to overweight in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Karoline Groppe , Birgit Elsner
      Studies linking executive function (EF) and overweight suggest that a broad range of executive functions might influence weight via obesity-related behaviors, such as particular eating styles. Currently, however, longitudinal studies investigating this assumption in children are rare. We hypothesized that lower hot and cool EF predicts a stronger increase in eating styles related to greater weight gain (food approach) and a weaker increase in eating styles related to less weight gain (food avoidance) over a 1-year period. Hot (delay of gratification, affective decision-making) and cool (attention shifting, inhibition, working memory updating) EF was assessed experimentally in a sample of 1657 elementary-school children (German school classes 1–3) at two time points, approximately one year apart. The children's food-approach and food-avoidance behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires at both time points. As expected, lower levels of hot and cool EF predicted a stronger increase in several food-approach eating styles across a 1-year period, mainly in girls. Unexpectedly, poorer performance on the affective decision-making task also predicted an increase in certain food-avoidance styles, namely, slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness, in girls. Results implicate that lower EF is not only seen in eating-disordered or obese individuals but also acts as a risk factor for an increase in particular eating styles that play a role in the development of weight problems in children.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Preventing the pack size effect: Exploring the effectiveness of pictorial
           and non-pictorial serving size recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Iris Versluis , Esther K. Papies , David Marchiori
      People eat more from large than from small packs, which is known as the pack size effect. We hypothesized that providing a serving size recommendation would reduce the influence of the pack size on consumption and would thus diminish the pack size effect. Moreover, we hypothesized that a pictorial serving size recommendation, displaying food amounts visually, would be more effective than a non-pictorial recommendation that communicates the recommended amount in grams only. We tested these hypotheses in two online experiments (N = 317 and N = 324) and in one lab experiment (N = 89). In the online experiments, participants were shown a small or a large pack of unhealthy snacks, with or without a serving size recommendation. The main outcome measure was expected consumption. Replicating the pack size effect in an online setting, we found that participants expected to consume more food from large than from small packs. Furthermore, the pack size effect was considerably stronger for men than for women. Importantly, when including portion size preferences as a covariate, the pictorial serving size recommendation significantly reduced expected consumption, especially when placed on a large pack, as hypothesized. The non-pictorial serving size recommendation had no effect. In the lab experiment, students received a large bag of M&M's which did or did not contain the pictorial serving size recommendation. We again included general portion size preferences as a covariate. The serving size recommendation significantly lowered the amount of M&M's that participants served themselves, but only when participants reported to have noticed the serving size recommendation. We conclude that providing a pictorial serving size recommendation can be an effective intervention strategy to reduce the pack size effect, if it attracts sufficient attention.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Well, that's what came with it. A qualitative study of U.S. mothers'
           perceptions of healthier default options for children's meals at fast-food
           restaurants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Holly K.M. Henry , Dina L.G. Borzekowski
      Introduction: Using a qualitative design, this study investigated mothers' perceptions of food choices and default options, for children, at fast-food restaurants. Study Design: Mothers of 3- to 8-year-old children (n = 40) participated in phone interviews. Results: Mothers praised fast-food restaurants for offering healthier choices, but voiced concerns about quality of the food. Half worried about meat products and several were distressed by the processing involved with food and beverages. Many said that their children wanted to visit fast-food restaurants because of advertised toys and not food offerings. Half liked bundled meals, as long as they could choose the specific items that were included. Having healthier defaults might eliminate battles, reduce forgetfulness and facilitate ordering. Most mothers favored healthier defaults because it would help “other parents.” Conclusion: This small study provides strong support for offering healthier options at fast-food restaurants. Restaurants, schools and other food venues should design children's meals that make the healthy choice the easy choice.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Astrid Frankort , Anne Roefs , Nicolette Siep , Alard Roebroeck , Remco Havermans , Anita Jansen
      Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including
           sustainable concerns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Valérie Sautron , Sandrine Péneau , Géraldine M. Camilleri , Laurent Muller , Bernard Ruffieux , Serge Hercberg , Caroline Méjean
      Since the 1990s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties. The questionnaire included 104 items divided into four predefined dimensions (environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous). It was administered to 1000 randomly selected subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Among 637 responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test–retest repeatability. After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. The model demonstrated excellent internal validity (adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residuals = 0.07) and satisfactory reliability (internal consistency = 0.96, test–retest repeatability coefficient ranged between 0.31 and 0.68 over a mean 4-week period). This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • The development of the predisposition to dehydration questionnaire
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): David Benton , Hayley Young , Kimberley Jenkins
      The role played by hydration in general health and well-being is an emerging public health issue, yet there are few tools available to monitor its status in large populations. The aim was therefore to develop a questionnaire that assesses individual differences in the tendency to lose body fluid in a warm environment and hence become dehydrated. Fifty-three subjects sat in a room at 30 °C for four hours and changes in mood and measures of hydration were monitored. There were marked individual differences in the loss of body mass that differed from 0.24% to 2.39%. Females who reported habitually drinking a lot had more water in their diet and at baseline the osmolality of urine was lower. After being subject to heat, those who reported habitually drinking more produced more urine, had a lower urine osmolality at the end of the study, and overall more body mass was lost. Females who reported that they responded badly to heat were more confused, unsure and depressed after four hours at 30 °C. In males those reporting that they habitually drank to a greater extent had more water in the diet, and also those who dealt badly with heat habitually drank more. It was concluded that particularly in females, questionnaire measures were able to predict changes in hydration that result from a warm environment.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Identifying specific cues and contexts related to bingeing behavior for
           the development of effective virtual environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Joana Pla-Sanjuanelo , Marta Ferrer-García , José Gutiérrez-Maldonado , Giuseppe Riva , Alexis Andreu-Gracia , Antonios Dakanalis , Fernando Fernandez-Aranda , Laura Forcano , Joan Ribas-Sabaté , Nadine Riesco , Mar Rus-Calafell , Isabel Sánchez , Luís Sanchez-Planell
      Background: Binge eating behavior constitutes a central feature of both bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Cue exposure therapy (CET) has been proposed as an effective intervention. Objective: To determine which situations and specific cues trigger higher levels of binge craving and to use the results in the development of virtual reality scenarios in which CET could be applied with BN and BED patients. Method: Participants were 101 outpatients, 50 with BED and 51 with BN, according to DSM-5 criteria, and 63 healthy undergraduate students who completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess binge craving. Results: The likelihood of binge craving in the clinical group was greater when alone at home, during the afternoon/early evening and in the late evening/at night, at weekends, and at dinner time or between meals. Higher levels of craving were produced in the kitchen, bedroom, dining room, and bakery situations. With regard to the specific cues reported, the presence of and access to high calorie food and snacks was the most commonly reported cue. Although some gender differences regarding triggering factors were obtained, no statistical differences were observed between ED subtypes. BN and BED patients showed significantly higher levels of binge craving than controls in all the contexts except when feeling positive affect; in this situation, levels of craving were low in both groups. Conclusions: This information regarding trigger contexts and specific cues can be used to create valid and reliable virtual environments for CET. Indeed, the data from this study may serve to develop a wide range of situations with different levels of binge craving, in which the therapeutic aim is to extinguish conditioned responses and facilitate the generalization of craving extinction.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Lisa M. Shank , Marian Tanofsky-Kraff , Eric E. Nelson , Lauren B. Shomaker , Lisa M. Ranzenhofer , Louise M. Hannallah , Sara E. Field , Anna Vannucci , Diana M. Bongiorno , Sheila M. Brady , Tania Condarco , Andrew Demidowich , Nichole R. Kelly , Omni Cassidy , W. Kyle Simmons , Scott G. Engel , Daniel S. Pine , Jack A. Yanovski
      Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5 ± 2.3 years; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7 ± .73) with (n = 47) and without (n = 29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Mindfulness and eating behaviour styles in morbidly obese males and
           females
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): M.A. Ouwens , A.A. Schiffer , L.I. Visser , N.J.C. Raeijmaekers , I. Nyklíček
      Background Morbid obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with a high risk of various diseases and high health care costs. Understanding determinants of eating behaviours that are characteristic of many morbidly obese persons is important for the development of new interventions aimed at changing eating behaviour after bariatric surgery. Dispositional mindfulness seems promising as one such potential determinant. Therefore, the association between mindfulness and eating behaviour was examined in females and males with morbid obesity. Methods Outpatients with morbid obesity who were candidates for bariatric surgery (N = 335; 78.8% female) completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in addition to the collection of relevant demographic and medical data. Results Three separate multiple regression analyses with three eating behaviour styles (restrained, emotional, external) as dependent variables showed that mindfulness was positively associated with restrained eating behaviour (Beta = .28, p ≤ .001), and negatively associated with emotional (Beta = −.22, p ≤ .001) and external (Beta = −.32, p ≤ .001) eating behaviours, independent of sex, age, educational level, Body Mass Index and affective symptoms. Conclusion Dispositional mindfulness was associated with more restrained, and less emotional and external eating behaviour in morbidly obese outpatients, above and beyond affective symptoms. Future studies, establishing the causal direction of the associations, are needed.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers'
           perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Meghan Lynch
      This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either “overt”: (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or “covert” (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Pavlovian conditioning to hedonic food cues in overweight and lean
           individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Monica D. Meyer , Victoria B. Risbrough , June Liang , Kerri N. Boutelle
      Obese individuals develop heightened reactivity to environmental cues associated with hedonic foods through Pavlovian conditioning. This study examined differences between overweight (n = 16) and lean (n = 17) 18–26 year-olds in their acquisition of a swallowing response to visual cues paired with chocolate milk, tasteless water and no taste stimulus. We hypothesized that, compared to lean participants, overweight participants would demonstrate a heightened conditioned swallowing response to the visual cue paired with chocolate milk as well as a resistance to extinction of this response. Results showed that overweight participants swallowed more in response to the visual cue previously paired with chocolate than the cue previously paired with tasteless water (t(15) = −3.057, p = .008) while lean participants showed no cue discrimination (t(16) = −1.027, p = .320). The results evaluating the extinction hypothesis could not be evaluated, as the lean participants did not acquire a conditioned response. In evaluating the conditioned swallow response of overweight participants only, results indicated that there was not a significant decrease in swallowing to cues paired with chocolate milk or water, but overall, overweight participants swallowed more to cues paired with chocolate than cues paired with water. These are the first results to show differential acquisition of Pavlovian conditioned responding in overweight individuals compared to lean individuals, as well as differential conditioning to cues paired with hedonic food stimuli compared to cues paired with neutral stimuli.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Relation of the multilocus genetic composite reflecting high dopamine
           signaling capacity to future increases in BMI
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Sonja Yokum , C. Nathan Marti , Andrew Smolen , Eric Stice
      Because food intake exerts its rewarding effect by increasing dopamine (DA) signaling in reward circuitry, it theoretically follows that individuals with a greater number of genotypes putatively associated with high DA signaling capacity are at increased risk for overeating and subsequent weight gain. We tested the association between the multilocus genetic composite risk score, defined by the total number of genotypes putatively associated with greater DA signaling capacity (i.e. TaqIA A2 allele, DRD2-141C Ins/Del and Del/Del genotypes, DRD4-S allele, DAT1-S allele, and COMT Val/Val genotype), and future increases in Body Mass Index (BMI) in three prospective studies. Participants in Study 1 (N = 30; M age = 15.2; M baseline BMI = 26.9), Study 2 (N = 34; M age = 20.9; M baseline BMI = 28.2), and Study 3 (N = 162; M age = 15.3, M baseline BMI = 20.8) provided saliva samples from which epithelial cells were collected, permitting DNA extraction. The multilocus genetic composite risk score was associated with future increases in BMI in all three studies (Study 1, r = 0.37; Study 2, r = 0.22; Study 3, r = 0.14) and the overall sample (r = 0.19). DRD4-S was associated with increases in BMI in Study 1 (r = 0.42), Study 2 (r = 0.27), and in the overall sample (r = 0.17). DAT1-S was associated with increases in BMI in Study 3 (r = 0.17) and in the overall sample (r = 0.12). There were no associations between the other genotypes (TaqIA, COMT, and DRD2-141C) and change in BMI over 2-year follow-up. Data suggest that individuals with a genetic propensity for greater DA signaling capacity are at risk for future weight gain and that combining alleles that theoretically have a similar function may provide a more reliable method of modeling genetic risk associated with future weight gain than individual genotypes.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Ignorance is bliss. How parents of preschool children make sense of
           front-of-package visuals and claims on food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Katie M. Abrams , Caitlin Evans , Brittany R.L. Duff
      With growing scrutiny over how the food industry advertises products aimed toward children and fewer consumers using nutrition facts panels and ingredient lists, the fronts of food packages have become an increasingly important marketing tool to understand. Front-of-package (FOP) visual and verbal claims play a critical role in capturing consumers' attention and helping them choose foods that fit their goals. Due to only possessing emergent literacy skills, preschool children are attuned to FOP visuals while parents are able to use the visuals in combination with verbal claims to make food choices for their children. The purpose of this focus group study was to explore how parents of preschool children make sense of FOP visual and verbal claims on packaged food products that are intended for their children. Thematic analysis revealed that parents associated aspects that most appeal to their preschool children – the characters and other playful visuals – with higher sugar content and artificial ingredients. However, parents were also easily led to believe the product was healthier based on visuals of fruit, more realistic pictures, health claims, cross-branding with healthier foods, and visuals suggesting the product is more natural. While parents recognized that the health claims and some visuals may not truly mean the food is healthier, they agreed that they rarely think beyond their initial impression. The food industry needs better regulatory guidance on how to communicate flavors and ingredients on package fronts in a way that helps consumers – particularly parents wanting to encourage healthy eating habits for their young children – better match their nutrition goals.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related
           behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the
           American Time Use Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Sarah A. Sliwa , Aviva Must , Flavia Peréa , Christina D. Economos
      Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18–65) with at least one child <13 years old participating in the 2003–2011 American Time Use Survey (n = 3622) to estimate the relationship between employment, acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (−38.0 ± SE 4.8, p < 001). Although being US-born was associated with spending fewer minutes in food preparation, this relationship varied by origin group. Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (−9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Rural Latino caregivers' beliefs and behaviors around their children's
           salt consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Kristin S. Hoeft , Claudia Guerra , M. Judy Gonzalez-Vargas , Judith C. Barker
      Background Prevalence of high blood pressure has been increasing in U.S. children, with implications for long term health consequences. Sodium consumption, a modifiable risk factor for high blood pressure, is above recommended limits and increasing. Very little is known about Latino caregiver beliefs and behaviors around their children's salt consumption. Methods In California's Central Valley, qualitative interviews in Spanish investigated low-income caregivers' views and understandings of their children's dietary salt consumption. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups were conducted (N=61). Interview transcripts were translated and transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed. Results Seven primary topic areas around children's salt intake and its impact on health were identified: children's favorite foods, children's dietary salt sources, superiority of home-cooked foods, salty and sweet foods, managing salt for health, developing children's tastes, and adding salt added at the table. Parents recognize common sources of sodium such as “junk food” and processed food and made efforts to limit their children's consumption of these foods, but may overlook other significant sodium sources, particularly bread, cheese, prepared soups and sports drinks. Caregivers recognize excess salt as unhealthy for children, but don't believe health problems (like high blood pressure) can occur in young children. Nevertheless, they made efforts to limit how much salt their children consumed through a variety of strategies; school meals were a source of high sodium that they felt were outside of their control. Conclusion Latino caregivers are concerned about their children's salt intake and attempt to limit consumption, but some common sources of sodium are under-recognized.


      PubDate: 2015-01-13T14:58:00Z
       
  • Effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake. A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Alvin Ibarra , Nerys M. Astbury , Kaisa Olli , Esa Alhoniemi , Kirsti Tiihonen
      Introduction: Dietary fibers help to control energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. Recent studies show that the consumption of polydextrose, a dietary fiber, reduces energy intake at a subsequent meal. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we examine the subsequent effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake (EI). Method: The review followed the PRISMA methodology. A search for previous studies that investigated the effects of the consumption of polydextrose on different levels of EI at a subsequent meal was conducted. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). A linear regression approach was used to model the relationship between the polydextrose dose and the different levels of EI expressed as a relative change (%). Results: All the studies included in this review administered polydextrose as part of a mid-morning snack. Six studies were included in the analysis of EI at an ad libitum lunch; and three were included in the analysis of EI during the rest of the day, as well as total daily EI. The meta-analysis showed that the consumption of polydextrose is associated with a reduction in EI at lunch time (SMD = 0.35; P < 0.01; I2 = 0). The dose of polydextrose consumed correlated significantly with this reduction in EI, EILunch (%) = −0.67 Polydextrose (g/day) (R2 = 0.80; P < 0.01). The meta-analysis of EI during the rest of the day and daily EI did not show any difference. Nevertheless, the regression equation indicates that there is a dose-dependent effect on the reduction of daily EI, EIDaily (%) = −0.35 × Polydextrose (g/day) (R2 = 0.68; P < 0.05). Sex-specific results are consistent with results for the whole group. Conclusion: The studies included in this meta-analysis support the notion that the consumption of polydextrose reduces voluntary energy intake at a subsequent meal. Furthermore, this reduction in energy intake occurs in a dose-dependent manner.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T09:58:09Z
       
 
 
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