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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2563 journals)

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Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 684, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 53)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 21)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 56)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.532, h-index: 68)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.348, h-index: 69)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access  
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 38)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 117)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.01, h-index: 47)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 4)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.472, h-index: 17)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.649, h-index: 64)

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Journal Cover Appetite
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [15 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
  • Who gains? Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of BMI gain upon
           college entry in women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Lance O. Bauer
      The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18–20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Misperception of self-reported adherence to the fruit, vegetable and fish
           guidelines in older Dutch adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): S.C. Dijkstra , J.E. Neter , I.A. Brouwer , M. Huisman , M. Visser
      In this study we investigated (the degree of) misperception of adherence to the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines in older Dutch adults and examined to what extent misperception is associated with socio-economic position (SEP) and other demographic, lifestyle and nutrition-related characteristics. The sample included 1057 community dwelling adults, aged 55–85 years, who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Respondents completed a lifestyle questionnaire which included a food frequency questionnaire to calculate fruit, vegetable and fish intake. After current dietary guidelines were explained, respondents were asked to indicate whether they believed they adhered to the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines. Characteristics potentially associated with misperception included level of income and education, lifestyle factors, nutritional knowledge, as well as attitude, social support and self-efficacy toward healthy eating. In the total sample, 69.1% of the older adults reported to adhere to the fruit guideline, 77.5% to the vegetable guideline, and 36.4% to the fish guideline. Based on the calculated intake data, 82.6% adhered to the fruit guideline, 65.5% to the vegetable guideline and 33.8% to the fish guideline. Overestimation of adherence was most common for the vegetable guideline (18.7%). Multivariate analysis, adjusted for level of income as well as for attitude and self-efficacy toward healthy eating, showed that lower educated respondents were more likely to overestimate their adherence to the vegetable guideline (relative index of inequality (RII): 2.97 (95% CI: 1.47–6.01)). Overestimation rates for fish (3.4%) and fruit (2.3%) were lower and not associated with any of the characteristics. This study showed that overestimation in older adults was common for adherence to the vegetable guideline and especially in those with a lower education level, but not for adherence to the fruit and fish guideline.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • The effect of post-exercise drink macronutrient content on appetite and
           energy intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): David J. Clayton , David J. Stensel , Phillip Watson , Lewis J. James
      Carbohydrate and protein ingestion post-exercise are known to facilitate muscle glycogen resynthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, but the effects of post-exercise nutrient intake on subsequent appetite are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether protein induced satiety that has been reported at rest was still evident when pre-loads were consumed in a post-exercise context. Using a randomised, double blind, crossover design, 12 unrestrained healthy males completed 30 min of continuous cycling exercise at ~60% VO2peak, followed by five, 3 min intervals at ~85% VO2peak. Ten min post-exercise, subjects consumed 500 ml of either a low energy placebo (15 kJ) (PLA); a 6% whey protein isolate drink (528 kJ) (PRO); or a 6% sucrose drink (528 kJ) (CHO). Sixty min after drink ingestion, a homogenous ad-libitum pasta lunch was provided and energy intake at this lunch was quantified. Subjective appetite ratings were measured at various stages of the protocol. Energy consumed at the ad-libitum lunch was lower after PRO (5831 ± 960 kJ) than PLA (6406 ± 492 kJ) (P < 0.05), but not different between CHO (6111 ± 901 kJ) and the other trials (P > 0.315). Considering the post-exercise drink, total energy intake was not different between trials (P = 0.383). There were no differences between trials for any of the subjective appetite ratings. The results demonstrate that where post-exercise liquid protein ingestion may enhance the adaptive response of skeletal muscle, this may be possible without affecting gross energy intake relative to consuming a low energy drink.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Are clusters of dietary patterns and cluster membership stable over
           time? Results of a longitudinal cluster analysis study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Michel Jean Louis Walthouwer , Anke Oenema , Katja Soetens , Lilian Lechner , Hein de Vries
      Introduction: Developing nutrition education interventions based on clusters of dietary patterns can only be done adequately when it is clear if distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived and reproduced over time, if cluster membership is stable, and if it is predictable which type of people belong to a certain cluster. Hence, this study aimed to: (1) identify clusters of dietary patterns among Dutch adults, (2) test the reproducibility of these clusters and stability of cluster membership over time, and (3) identify sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. Methods: This study had a longitudinal design with online measurements at baseline (N = 483) and 6 months follow-up (N = 379). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed, followed by a K-means cluster analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. Results: At baseline and follow-up, a comparable three-cluster solution was derived, distinguishing a healthy, moderately healthy, and unhealthy dietary pattern. Male and lower educated participants were significantly more likely to have a less healthy dietary pattern. Further, 251 (66.2%) participants remained in the same cluster, 45 (11.9%) participants changed to an unhealthier cluster, and 83 (21.9%) participants shifted to a healthier cluster. Men and people living alone were significantly more likely to shift toward a less healthy dietary pattern. Conclusions: Distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived. Yet, cluster membership is unstable and only few sociodemographic factors were associated with cluster membership and cluster transition. These findings imply that clusters based on dietary intake may not be suitable as a basis for nutrition education interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Dietary factors as the major determinants of overweight and obesity among
           Iranian adolescents. A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Monireh Hatami , Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib , Rosita Jamaluddin , Hazizi Abu Saad , Abolghasem Djazayery , Maryam Chamari , Mojgan Nazari
      This study investigated the determinants of overweight/obesity in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 1157 adolescents. Weight and height were measured. Information on socio-economic status (SES), dietary intakes, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Binary and multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to obtain the relationships and odds-ratios, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among adolescents in low- or high-income families, adolescents whose mothers worked out of home, adolescents whose parents were both overweight, adolescents who watched a lot of TV or had excessive energy intake, adolescents with lower physical activity or lower intake of dietary fibre, those who skipped breakfast ≥4 times per week, and those with low and high fat intake. However, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only energy intake was associated with increased odds and vegetables and fibre intake were associated with a reduction in the odds of being overweight (all p < 0.05). Adolescents from middle SES showed a lower risk of overweight/obesity than low and high SES due to better dietary intakes and less sedentary behaviours. Therefore, in overweight/obesity prevention programs, adolescents with determined risk factors from families with low and high SES should receive attention.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Testing the original and the extended dual-pathway model of lack of
           control over eating in adolescent girls. A two-year longitudinal study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Antonios Dakanalis , C. Alix Timko , Giuseppe Carrà , Massimo Clerici , M. Assunta Zanetti , Giuseppe Riva , Riccardo Caccialanza
      Stice's (1994, 2001) dual pathway model proposed a mediational sequence that links body dissatisfaction to lack of control over eating through dieting and negative affect. Van Strien et al. (2005) extended the negative affect pathway of the original dual pathway model by adding two additional intervening variables: interoceptive deficits and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the original and extended model using prospective data. Both types of loss of control over eating (i.e., subjective and objective binge eating) were evaluated. Data collected from 361 adolescent girls, who were interviewed and completed self-report measures annually over a 2-year period, were analysed using structural equation modeling. Although both models provided a good fit to the data, the extended model fit the adolescent girls' sample data better and accounted for a greater proportion of variance in binge eating than the original model. All proposed mediational pathways of both models were supported and all indirect effects examined through bootstrap procedure were significant. Although our results confirmed the validity of both models and extended previous findings to an early- to middle adolescent group, the bi-directional relationship between dietary restriction and negative affect suggests that the association between these key risk factors for binge eating are more complex than outlined in both the original and extended dual-pathway models.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Perseveration augments the effects of cognitive restraint on ad libitum
           food intake in adults seeking weight loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Alexis L. Graham , Marci E. Gluck , Susanne B. Votruba , Jonathan Krakoff , Marie S. Thearle
      As executive function may influence eating behaviors, our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predict ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. 78 obese, healthy individuals (40 female/38 male; age 36 ± 10 y; BMI 37.8 ± 7.2 kg/m2) completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task to measure perseveration, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN), intake correlated positively with perseveration (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with restraint (r = −0.51, p < 0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p < 0.0001), an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Increased perseveration intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and perseveration ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) %WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. The effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on restraint, and may contribute to extremes of dietary intake in some individuals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age predicts higher BMI in 48
           month old girls but not boys
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Barbara E. Wendland , Leslie Atkinson , Meir Steiner , Alison S. Fleming , Paul Pencharz , Ellen Moss , Hélène Gaudreau , Patricia P. Silveira , Tamara Arenovich , Stephen G. Matthews , Michael J. Meaney , Robert D. Levitan
      Background: Large population-based studies suggest that systematic measures of maternal sensitivity predict later risk for overweight and obesity. More work is needed to establish the developmental timing and potential moderators of this association. The current study examined the association between maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and BMI z score measures at 48 months of age, and whether sex moderated this association. Design: Longitudinal Canadian cohort of children from birth (the MAVAN project). Methods: This analysis was based on a dataset of 223 children (115 boys, 108 girls) who had structured assessments of maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and 48-month BMI data available. Mother–child interactions were videotaped and systematically scored using the Maternal Behaviour Q-Sort (MBQS)-25 items, a standardized measure of maternal sensitivity. Linear mixed-effects models and logistic regression examined whether MBQS scores at 6 months predicted BMI at 48 months, controlling for other covariates. Results: After controlling for weight-relevant covariates, there was a significant sex by MBQS interaction (P = 0.015) in predicting 48 month BMI z. Further analysis revealed a strong negative association between MBQS scores and BMI in girls (P = 0.01) but not boys (P = 0.72). Logistic regression confirmed that in girls only, low maternal sensitivity was associated with the higher BMI categories as defined by the WHO (i.e. “at risk for overweight” or above). Conclusions: A significant association between low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and high body mass indices was found in girls but not boys at 48 months of age. These data suggest for the first time that the link between low maternal sensitivity and early BMI z may differ between boys and girls.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Lower energy intake following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts
           compared with iso-energetic consumption of potato crisps
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Jayne A. Barbour , Peter R.C. Howe , Jonathan D. Buckley , Graeme C. Wright , Janet Bryan , Alison M. Coates
      Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61 ± 1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56–84 g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60–90 g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (−21%; p < .001 and −17%; p < .01) and over the 4 days (−11%; p < .001 and −9%; p < .01). Despite these reductions in energy intake, no differences in perceived satiety were observed. The findings suggest peanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Improving the nutritional quality of charitable meals for homeless and
           vulnerable adults. A case study of food provision by a food aid
           organisation in the UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Sophie E. Pelham-Burn , Catherine J. Frost , Jean M. Russell , Margo E. Barker
      The prevalence of homelessness in the UK is rising, and demand for food aid through charitable meal services has increased. Charitable services make a substantial contribution to the food and nutrient intake of vulnerable people, and thus offer a platform for dietary improvement. This study examined food provision by a large charitable organisation in a major UK city. It had several objectives: Firstly to quantify nutritional composition of breakfast and lunch meals, secondly to understand factors that influence the composition of menus and meals, and thirdly to determine whether, within the context of these influences, improvements to the menu would be possible and whether these would be acceptable to clients. Mixed methods of ethnography, semi-structured interviews, quantitative nutrient analysis, recipe adaptation and taste tests were employed. The research team worked as volunteers in the organisation for a 3-week period and interviews were held with the kitchen staff. Food choice was recorded for 189 clients at breakfast and 251 clients at lunch over a 5-day period and nutrient content of these meals was estimated. Meals were weighted towards fat and sugar energy. Energy, potassium, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc and magnesium content of meals were below Dietary Reference Value (DRV) targets for at least 20% of breakfast and lunch meals. Such inadequacies may be addressed by the addition of simple foods to the breakfast menu and adaptation of lunchtime recipes. Twelve lunchtime dishes were proposed and eight of these were seemingly acceptable to clients in taste testing. Barriers to provision of healthier meals include budget, food donations and acceptability of meals.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Food reinforcement and parental obesity predict future weight gain in
           non-obese adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Leonard H. Epstein , Sonja Yokum , Denise M. Feda , Eric Stice
      Background: Food reinforcement, the extent to which people are willing to work to earn a preferred snack food, and parental obesity are risk factors for weight gain, but there is no research comparing the predictive effects of these factors for adolescent weight gain. Methods: 130 non-obese adolescents (M age = 15.2 ± 1.0; M BMI = 20.7 ± 2.0; M zBMI = 0.16 ± 0.64) at differential risk for weight gain based on parental obesity completed baseline food and money reinforcement tasks, and provided zBMI data over a 2-year follow-up. Results: The number of obese (BMI ≥ 30) parents (p = 0.007) and high food reinforcement (p = 0.046) were both significant independent predictors of greater zBMI increases, controlling for age, sex, parent education and minority status. Having no obese parents or being low or average in food reinforcement was associated with reductions in zBMI, but those high in food reinforcement showed larger zBMI increases (0.102) than having one obese parent (0.025) but less than having two obese parents (0.177). Discussion: Food reinforcement and parental obesity independently predict future weight gain among adolescents. It might be fruitful for obesity prevention programs to target both high risk groups.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Destructuration or continuity? The daily rhythm of eating in Denmark,
           Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Thomas Bøker Lund , Jukka Gronow
      There is a widely shared belief that contemporary eating culture is undergoing a process of ‘destructuration’ in which collective norms guiding temporal, social, and spatial aspects of eating as well as cuisine will decline or disappear. From another theoretical perspective one could argue that shared and regular patterns are quite resistant to change because they are functionally necessary for the organization and maintenance of social actions in everyday life. Using questionnaire data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from the years 1997 and 2012 we investigate whether culturally shared timing of eating rhythms has disappeared or declined. At the population-wide level, we find clear national peaks (occurring around breakfast, lunch, and to a lesser extent dinner) during which a great number, or even the majority, of people eat. These basic rhythms of eating are nationally specific and clearly identifiable in 1997 and 2012, and only small changes were found to have occurred over the period studied. Subsequent examination of within-country differences in daily eating rhythms identified a specific sub-population with very similar features in all countries. The sub-population deviates temporally from the collective peaks of eating, and in it conventional meal types such as breakfast and lunch are skipped to a higher extent, giving what we call an ‘unsynchronized’ eating pattern. Interestingly, the pattern has become more common in all countries. While the growth of this sub-population may be a sign of a coming destructuration of meal culture, further analysis suggests this is not the case. Thus, we find clear socio-structural explanations for unsynchronized eating. It is related to the social coordination of work, and unsynchronized eating tends to be abandoned over the life course: with the establishment of a family, and old age, people tend to synchronize their eating habits with collective activities in society. Coupling this with the relatively modest growth of the unsynchronized pattern, and bearing in mind that it is a minority phenomenon, encompassing approximately one quarter of the population in 2012, we argue that an all-encompassing temporal destructuration will not develop. Additional analysis shows that the idea of a simultaneous rupture of eating culture on several dimensions (temporal, social, spatial, manners, cuisine) is doubtful. Thus, although, to a higher extent, individuals with an unsynchronized eating rhythm lack “manners” and eat more unhealthily, they do not display a higher degree of destructuration in the social and spatial dimensions of eating. Indeed, unsynchronized eating leads to fewer daily eating events, which contradicts the ‘grazing’ theory altogether.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81




      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 suppresses energy
           intake acutely
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Anne Toksvig Bjerg , Mette Kristensen , Christian Ritz , Jens Juul Holst , Charlotte Rasmussen , Thomas Dyrmann Leser , Anja Wellejus , Arne Astrup
      Background: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have various effects on the microbiota; this may also affect appetite and may help promote weight loss and maintenance. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 (L. casei W8) on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in an isolated pig intestine, in piglets and postprandially in humans. Additionally, the effect on subjective appetite, ad libitum energy intake, and glucose and insulin responses in humans was investigated. Design: Piglets were fed with probiotics for 2 weeks and the effect on glucagon encoding gene (GCG) was investigated. An isolated pig intestine was perfused with L. casei W8 and the GLP-1 response was measured. Twenty-one subjects completed a randomized, controlled, crossover study with three arms. Each participant completed 3 test days testing the effect of low dose (LD) (109 CFU), high dose (HD) (1010 CFU) L. casei W8 or placebo capsule. Subjective appetite was assessed before an ad libitum lunch was served. GLP-1, insulin and glucose concentrations were analyzed. Results: Two weeks of treatment of piglets with L. casei W8 resulted in an increase in GCG expression compared to control animals (P < 0.05). L. casei W8 increased the GLP-1 response in the isolated pig intestine. In humans, L. casei W8 had an overall effect on energy intake (P = 0.03), but no effects on subjective appetite sensation, overall glucose and insulin response and on GLP-1 release were observed (P > 0.1). Conclusion: The probiotic bacteria L. casei W8 appears to lower food intake acutely, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • The influence of plate size on meal composition. Literature review and
           experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): E. Libotte , M. Siegrist , T. Bucher
      Environmental factors, such as the size of containers, can influence our energy intake. Even though different sized food containers are often recommended to control portion sizes, the evidence to support this is contradictory. In the present study, we conducted a literature review and a controlled laboratory experiment to investigate whether plate size influences the composition of a meal and the total meal energy. The results of the review suggest that distraction factors, the type of container, the food-serving mode (self-service or being served) and the type of food offered all influenced the results observed in the various published studies. For the experiment in this study, eighty-three participants were individually invited to serve themselves a lunch from a buffet containing 55 replica food items. Either a standard size plate (27 cm) or a large plate (32 cm) was provided to the participants. The results of the experiment suggest that the plate size had no significant effect on the total energy of the meal (F(1,81)  = 0.782, P > .05). However, participants using a large plate served themselves significantly more vegetables (F(1,81)  = 4.786, P < .05), particularly vegetables generally eaten as side dishes (F(1,81)  = 6.804, P < .05). Therefore, reducing the plate size does not seem to be an appropriate intervention to reduce the total energy intake in order to promote weight loss. Rather, using a large plate might be a simple and inexpensive strategy to increase vegetable consumption.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Initial evidence that GLP-1 receptor blockade fails to suppress
           postprandial satiety or promote food intake in humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Susan J. Melhorn , Vidhi Tyagi , Anne Smeraglio , Christian L. Roth , Ellen A. Schur
      Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has incretin effects that are well-documented, but the independent role of GLP-1 action in human satiety perception is debated. We hypothesized that blockade of GLP-1 receptors would suppress postprandial satiety and increase voluntary food intake. After an overnight fast, eight normal weight participants (seven men, BMI 19–24.7 kg/m2, age 19–29 year) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin-[9-39] (Ex-9) to determine if the satiating effects of a meal are dependent on GLP-1 signaling in humans. Following a fasting blood draw, iv infusion of Ex-9 (600–750 pmol/kg/min) or saline began. Thirty minutes later, subjects consumed a standardized breakfast followed 90 min later (at the predicted time of maximal endogenous circulating GLP-1) by an ad libitum buffet meal to objectively measure satiety. Infusions ended once the buffet meal was complete. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and fullness and serial assessments of plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 concentrations were done throughout the experiment. Contrary to the hypothesis, during Ex-9 infusion subjects reported a greater decrease in hunger due to consumption of the breakfast (Ex-9 −62 ± 5; placebo −41 ± 9; P = 0.01) than during placebo. There were no differences in ad libitum caloric intake between Ex-9 and placebo. Ex-9 increased glucose, insulin, and endogenous GLP-1, which may have counteracted any effects of Ex-9 infusion to block satiety signaling. Blockade of GLP-1 receptors failed to suppress subjective satiety following a standardized meal or increase voluntary food intake in healthy, normal-weight subjects.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • The associations of meals and snacks on family meals among a sample of
           grade 7 students from Southwestern Ontario
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Sarah J. Woodruff , Katherine Campbell , Ty Campbell , Mary Cole
      Background: Research has shown the positive associations of family meals and diet quality. However, little is known about how other meals/snacks may be associated with family meals. Objective: The purpose was to determine the associations among the frequency and calorie consumption of meals/snacks and family dinners. Design: Cross-sectional. Data were collected using Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q), including a 24-h diet recall for breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Measured height and weight were used to determine body weight status (BMI). Participants/setting: Participants included 1068 grade 7 students (52% males) from 26 schools in Windsor Essex County, Ontario, Canada. Main outcome measures: Meal, snack, and total daily caloric intake; meal and snack frequency; with whom dinner was consumed, and weekly family dinner frequency. Statistical analyses performed: Exploratory one-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests; nominal and ordinal logistic regression. Results: Ninety-three percent of participants consumed dinner with family members on the night prior to the survey and 77% reported usually consuming dinner/supper with at least one parent on six to seven nights/week. Those who had dinner with family members consumed 4.88 (SD 1.1) meals/snacks per day compared with 4.40 (SD 1.3) and 4.40 (SD 1.3) times/day for consuming dinner alone or with friends, respectively (p = 0.006). On the day prior to the survey, participants were less likely to consume a family meal if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), p < 0.001). Similarly, participants were less likely to consume regular family meals if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.96), p = 0.009). Conclusions: While specific meals and snacks were not associated with family dinner, overall eating frequency was positively associated with family meals.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Interpretive front-of-pack nutrition labels. Comparing competing
           recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Ninya Maubach , Janet Hoek , Damien Mather
      Many stakeholders support introducing an interpretive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label, but disagree over the form it should take. In late 2012, an expert working group established by the New Zealand government recommended the adoption of an untested summary rating system: a Star label. This study used a best–worst scaling choice experiment to estimate how labels featuring the new Star rating, the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL), Daily Intake Guide (DIG), and a no-FOP control affected consumers' choice behaviours and product perceptions. Nutrient-content and health claims were included in the design. We also assessed whether respondents who used more or less information during the choice tasks differed in their selection patterns. Overall, while respondents made broadly similar choices with respect to the MTL and Star labels, the MTL format had a significantly greater impact on depressing preference as a food's nutritional profile became less healthy. Health claims increased rankings of less nutritious options, though this effect was less pronounced when the products featured an MTL. Further, respondents were best able to differentiate products' healthiness with MTL labels. The proposed summary Stars system had less effect on choice patterns than an MTL label and our findings highlight the need for policy makers to ensure that decisions to introduce FOP labels are underpinned by robust research evidence. These results suggest that the proposed summary Stars system will have less effect on shifting food choice patterns than interpretive FOP nutrition label featuring traffic light ratings.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Eating like you are overweight: the effect of overweight models on food
           intake in a remote confederate study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Eric Robinson , Maxine Sharps , Nicola Price , Rebecca Dallas
      There is consistent evidence that people model the eating behaviour of others. The extent to which people model the amount of food consumed by other people of different weight statuses has received less attention. Here we tested the effect on food consumption of exposing female participants to information about the food consumption of either normal/healthy weight or overweight individuals. Eighty female participants took part in a between-subjects experiment, in which we used a remote-confederate design and manipulated whether participants saw intake information about normal/healthy weight or overweight previous participants (remote confederates). Regardless of the weight-status of the remote confederates, participants ate more food when they believed that previous participants had eaten a large amount of food, in comparison with when they believed previous participants had eaten a smaller amount of food. These findings indicate that women may model the food intake of other women, even when they believe they are of a different weight status to themselves.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • A brief intervention increases fruit and vegetable intake. A comparison of
           two intervention sequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Pempa Lhakhang , Cristina Godinho , Nina Knoll , Ralf Schwarzer
      Background and Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of two subsequent intervention components (motivational and self-regulatory components), placed in different order, to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Methods: After baseline assessment, university students (N = 205, aged 18–26 years) were allocated to two groups. One group received a motivational intervention (outcome expectancies, risk perception, and task self-efficacy) followed by a self-regulatory intervention (planning and dietary self-efficacy) after 17 days. The second group received the same intervention conditions in the opposite order. Follow-up assessments were done after another 17 days. Results: Both intervention sequences yielded gains in terms of FV intake and self-efficacy. However, this gain was only due to the self-regulatory component whereas the motivational component did not contribute to the changes. Moreover, changes in intention and self-efficacy mediated between intervention sequence and follow-up behavior, suggesting that improving these proximal predictors of FV intake was responsible for the behavioral gains. Conclusions: Findings highlight the superiority of a self-regulatory intervention over a motivational intervention when it comes to dietary changes in this sample of young adults. Moreover, changes in dietary self-efficacy may drive nutritional changes.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic
           synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Eva Neely , Mat Walton , Christine Stephens
      Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-29T19:36:50Z
       
  • Elevated objectively measured but not self-reported energy intake predicts
           future weight gain in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Eric Stice , Shelley Durant
      Background: Although obesity putatively occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed for metabolic needs, numerous risk factor studies have not observed significant positive relations between reported caloric intake and future weight gain, potentially because reported caloric intake is inaccurate. Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that objectively measured habitual energy intake, estimated with doubly labeled water, would show a stronger positive relation to future weight gain than self-reported caloric intake based on a widely used food frequency measure. Design: Two hundred and fifty-three adolescents completed a doubly labeled water (DLW) assessment of energy intake (EI), a food frequency measure, and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment at baseline, and had their body mass index (BMI) measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Results: Controlling for baseline RMR, elevated objectively measured EI, but not self-reported habitual caloric intake, predicted increases in BMI over a 2-year follow-up. On average, participants under-reported caloric intake by 35%. Conclusions: Results provide support for the thesis that self-reported caloric intake has not predicted future weight gain because it is less accurate than objectively measured habitual caloric intake, suggesting that food frequency measures can lead to misleading findings. However, even objectively measured caloric intake showed only a moderate relation to future weight gain, implying that habitual caloric intake fluctuates over time and that it may be necessary to conduct serial assessments of habitual intake to better reflect the time-varying effects of caloric intake on weight gain.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Salt taste sensitivity thresholds in adolescents: are there any
           relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Vanessa Ramos Kirsten , Mário Bernardes Wagner
      The aim of this study was to identify the salt taste sensitivity thresholds and relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels in a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Blood pressure and body composition were measured with a digital device and by anthropometry, respectively. The salt taste sensitivity threshold was measured with 9 solutions with different sodium chloride concentrations to assess the sensitivity to saltiness. The solutions (4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 250, 500 and 1000 mmol/L sodium chloride) were served in increasing concentrations until the taste was correctly identified. The taste sensitivity threshold was then classified as normal or high. In total, 421 adolescents (55.6% female), with an average age of 15.8 ± 0.91 years, were evaluated. The median threshold was 30 mmol/L, and 36.1% had a high threshold. The high blood pressure prevalence was 12.6%, and 25.5% of the subjects were overweight. When the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were compared between the normal and increased threshold groups after adjusting for gender, age, sedentary lifestyle and body mass index, only diastolic blood pressure showed a statistically significant effect (P < 0.0001) between the groups. The effect of a high threshold on body composition after adjusting for gender, age and physical inactivity was not significant (P = 0.177). There was no relationship between a high threshold and systolic pressure or body composition in the evaluated adolescents; therefore, only diastolic blood pressure was affected.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Effects of children's self-regulation of eating on parental feeding
           practices and child weight
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Matthew B. Cross , Allen M. Hallett , Tracey A. Ledoux , Daniel P. O'Connor , Sheryl O. Hughes
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-regulation of eating in minority preschool-aged children mediates the relationship between parent feeding practices and child weight. Participants were 299 low-income African American and Hispanic parents and their preschool-aged children who participated in Head Start. Parents completed questionnaires about controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction) and children's appetitive characteristics (enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness). Path analyses were used to determine whether children's self-regulation of eating mediated the relationship between feeding practices and child weight. Greater satiety responsiveness in African American preschool-age children partially mediated the inverse association between pressure to eat and children's weight, B (SE) = −0.073 (0.036), P < .05. Enjoyment of food and food responsiveness did not mediate the relationship between pressure to eat and weight in the African American sample, ps > .05, nor did appetitive characteristics mediate the relationship between restriction and child weight, ps > .05. Appetitive characteristics did not mediate the relationship between controlling feeding practices and child weight in the Hispanic sample, ps > .05. Implications include the need for culturally sensitive self-report measures and for researchers to account for the possible effects of racial/ethnic differences when designing interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Studying the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Malagasy school
           children parents. A contribution to the understanding of malnutrition in
           Madagascar
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Vonimihaingo Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana , Gaëlle Arvisenet , Dominique Valentin
      Madagascar is severely affected by the problem of children malnutrition. The present study aimed at exploring school children Malagasy parents’ food practices and beliefs structures about the nutritional value of foods, to better understand the causes of this malnutrition. A combination of Focus Groups (72 participants), and questionnaires (1000 interviewees) was used to evaluate the food beliefs and the nutritional habits of low income parents of school age children in urban and rural areas of Antananarivo and Antsiranana. The respondents’ beliefs were shown to focus not only on the nutrient and energetic composition of food, but also to involve more general relations between food and health and particularly the sanitary properties of food. Compared with such sanitary properties, nutrient content was not considered to be the priority in food choice and food preparation. The food category considered to be the most nutritive was cereals, ahead of protein foods, or vegetables and fruit. Nutritional beliefs were not the same in the Antananarivo and Antsiranana areas, nor between urban and rural areas of Antsiranana. Different socio-economic contexts, food availability and information may explain these differences. This study could guide actors involved in nutrition promotion to adapt to specific areas their nutrition programmes in the fight against malnutrition.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Liking the odour, liking the food. Toddlers’ liking of strongly
           flavoured foods correlates with liking of their odour
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): S. Wagner , S. Issanchou , C. Chabanet , C. Lange , B. Schaal , S. Monnery-Patris
      Olfaction plays a significant role in the sensing of foods. However, little information is available at any age on the relationship between the hedonic responses to given food odours and the effective liking and disliking of foods bearing these same odours. The present study aimed to assess the relationships between food odour liking and liking of the corresponding foods. This study relied on a longitudinal design involving 235 toddlers who were assessed for both their observed liking of a set of food odours and their parent-reported liking of foods at 12 and 22 months. To assess odour liking, eight odorants representing pleasant and unpleasant foods were presented in bottles along with neutral stimuli. The participants’ behaviour towards the odorized and control bottles was measured in terms of mouthing, a behaviour considered to reflect attraction. For each odorant, odour-liking scores were calculated relative to the control. The participants’ food liking was rated by the parents at the periods 12–15 and 21–24 months. Positive correlations were found between the odour-liking scores for some of the odours and the liking of the associated foods. These correlations concerned foods with strong, unpleasant flavours at 12 months only, suggesting that the olfactory system acts as an ‘alarm’ system during this period of food transition. At 22 months, no significant correlations were found, except a marginal one for green vegetables. Whatever the age, no significant correlations were found for pleasant odours. Thus, some correlations were found between the observed odour liking for food-related odours and the liking for the corresponding foods. However, these relationships are subject to developmental fluctuations depending on the hedonic nature of the odorants and the age when infants are tested.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Appetite and gut peptide responses to exercise and calorie restriction.
           The effect of modest energy deficits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Kevin Deighton , Rachel L. Batterham , David J. Stensel
      Weight loss is the result of a sustained negative energy balance, which is typically achieved by decreasing food intake and/or increasing physical activity. Current evidence suggests that acute energy deficits of ~4820 kJ elicit contrasting homeostatic responses when induced by exercise and food restriction but the response to government-recommended energy deficits is unknown. Twelve healthy men (mean(SD): age 24(5) years, body mass index 23.8(2.7) kg⋅m−2, maximum oxygen uptake 55.4(9.1) mL⋅kg−1⋅min−1) completed three 8 h trials (control (Con), exercise-induced energy deficit (Ex-Def) and food restriction (Food-Def)) separated by 1 week. Thirty minutes of cycling at 64.5(3.2)% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed in Ex-Def from 0 to 0.5 h, which induced an energy deficit of 1469(256) kJ. An equivalent energy deficit was induced in Food-Def (1478(275) kJ) by reducing the energy content of standardised test meals at 1 h and 4 h. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin and peptide YY3–36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. An ad libitum meal was provided at 7 h. Appetite was higher in Food-Def than Ex-Def from 4 to 8 h (P = 0.033) and tended to be higher across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.059). However, energy intake at the ad libitum meal did not differ between trials (P = 0.634; Con 4376 (1634); Food-Def 4481 (1846); Ex-Def 4217 (1850) kJ). Acylated ghrelin was not related to changes in appetite but plasma PYY3–36 concentrations were higher in Ex-Def than Food-Def (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with changes in appetite across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.037). An energy deficit of ~1475 kJ stimulated compensatory increases in appetite when induced via calorie restriction but not when achieved by an acute bout of exercise. Appetite responses were associated with changes in plasma PYY3–36 but not acylated ghrelin concentrations and did not influence subsequent energy intake.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants.
           Results from the SAIDI study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Gloria A. Koh , Jane A. Scott , Richard J. Woodman , Susan W. Kim , Lynne A. Daniels , Anthea M. Magarey
      Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1–3) for fruit and 3 (2–5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p < 0.05). This highlights the need for addressing antecedents of maternal feeding self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Is eating science or common sense' Knowledge about “natural
           foods” among self-identified “natural food” consumers,
           vendors and producers in rural and urban Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Anneke Kooijmans , Fátima Flores-Palacios
      Objective: To explore the common sense knowledge that consumers, vendors and producers hold of “natural foods”. The focus was on common knowledge because this is infrequently explored in social psychology where most studies focus on the implementation of scientific knowledge. The focus was on natural foods because the naturalness of foods seems to be one of the particular concerns that current consumers have about today's food market and because a specific natural food preference was observed in the contexts of study. Method: Fifty-seven informants in a rural context and 58 informants in an urban context participated in either a free association study or an interview study. Data content were analyzed. Results: In the urban context natural foods obtain their significance in the relationship between food and the self-concept; eating natural (or good) food is a task that requires effort and attitude, and foods obtain a moral value. In the rural context natural foods obtain their significance as an expression of a social and cultural system of interdependence that establishes practices and customs that have a long history in the community. Conclusions: It is suggested that these common knowledge systems are related to practical challenges that are particular to the informants’ context and that the structure of their common sense knowledge systems depend on the mediation of the flow of scientific knowledge and technological knowledge in each context.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Who reports noticing and using calorie information posted on fast food
           restaurant menus'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Andrew Breck , Jonathan Cantor , Olivia Martinez , Brian Elbel
      Objective: Identify consumer characteristics that predict seeing and using calorie information on fast food menu boards. Methods: Two separate data collection methods were used in Philadelphia during June 2010, several weeks after calorie labeling legislation went into effect: (1) point-of-purchase survey and receipt collection conducted outside fast food restaurants (N = 669) and (2) a random digit dial telephone survey (N = 702). Logistic regressions were used to predict the odds of reporting seeing, and of reporting seeing and being influenced by posted calorie information. Results: Approximately 35.1% of point-of-purchase and 65.7% of telephone survey respondents reported seeing posted calorie information, 11.8% and 41.7%, respectively, reported that the labels influenced their purchasing decisions, and 8.4% and 17% reported they were influenced in a healthful direction. BMI, education, income, gender, consumer preferences, restaurant chain, and frequency of visiting fast food restaurants were associated with heterogeneity in the likelihood of reporting seeing and reporting seeing and using calorie labels. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics and consumer preferences are important determinants in the use of posted calorie information. Future work should consider the types of consumers this information is intended for, and how to effectively reach them.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Corrina A. Tucker
      Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these ‘meat’ alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Do we know how much we put on the plate' Assessment of the accuracy of
           self-estimated versus weighed vegetables and whole grain portions using an
           Intelligent Buffet at the FoodScape Lab
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): T.R. Nørnberg , L. Houlby , L.N. Jørgensen , C. He , F.J.A. Pérez-Cueto
      The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of self-estimated vegetable and whole grain serving sizes in a self-served buffet meal. The study took place in a laboratory setting where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each food type that was self-served by each participant. The initial sample consisted of 58 participants recruited from Aalborg University in Copenhagen, of which 52 participants (59% male) provided complete estimates on the weight of whole grains and 49 participants (63% male) provided complete estimates on the weight of vegetable servings in their meal. The majority of the participants were students aged 20–29 years (85% for whole grain responses and 82% for vegetable responses). Significant differences between self-estimated and actual portion size estimates were observed for both vegetables and whole grains (P < 0.001). The mean self-estimated weight of a vegetable serving was 218(±134) g compared to the mean actual weight of 74(±44) g. The mean self-estimated and mean actual weights of a whole grain serving were 36(±34) g and 10(±9) g, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-estimated and actual weights for each food group (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the participants’ ability to accurately assess the serving size of vegetables and whole grains in a self-served meal did not correspond with the actual amount served. This may have implications for consumer interpretation of dietary recommendations used in nutrition interventions in Denmark.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Balancing safety and enjoyment. Current practice when recommending tastes
           for people with intellectual disabilities who are non-orally fed
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Darren David Chadwick
      Eating and drinking problems are common among people with intellectual disabilities. Having a compromised swallow or being at risk of inadequate nutrition are two reasons for introducing non-oral feeding. Such procedures involve the creation of an external opening for food and drink to be delivered directly into the stomach through a tube. In recent years maintenance of the swallow and quality of life issues have led to introduction of small amounts of food and drink (oral tastes) for people who are non-orally fed. Little evidence exists about the reasoning used to inform this decision or the types of oral tastes offered. This study aims to address these omissions. An exploratory survey, distributed via email, was used to gather information from speech and language therapists and dietitians about their current practice and their decision-making processes when offering oral tastes to people who are non-orally fed. Data presented here reflect the responses from respondents working primarily with people with intellectual disabilities (55 out of 158 respondents). Oral tastes were being offered and clinical decision-making around this centred on balancing the wellbeing and wishes of the person with intellectual disabilities and their carers with the risks to wellbeing inherent in implementing and supporting an oral taste programme.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Gastric bypass patients’ goal-strategy-monitoring networks for
           long-term dietary management
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Amanda Lynch , Carole A. Bisogni
      Following gastric bypass surgery, patients must make dramatic dietary changes, but little is known about patients’ perspectives on long-term dietary management after this surgery. This grounded theory, qualitative study sought to advance conceptual understanding of food choice by examining how gastric bypass patients constructed personal food systems to guide food and eating behaviors 12 months post-surgery. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each of 16 adults, purposively sampled from bariatric support groups. Using constant comparative analysis of verbatim interview transcripts, researchers identified participants’ goal-strategy-monitoring networks representing how participants used specific food and eating behaviors towards their main goals of: Weight Management, Overall Health, Avoiding Negative Reactions to Eating, and Integrating Dietary Changes with Daily Life. Linked to each main goal was a hierarchy of intermediary goals, strategies, and tactics. Participants used monitoring behaviors to assess strategy effectiveness towards goal achievement. Individuals’ Weight Management networks were compared to uncover similarities and differences among strategy use and monitoring methods among those who maintained weight loss and those who regained weight. The complex, multilevel goal-strategy-monitoring networks identified illustrate the “work” involved in constructing new personal food systems after surgery, as well as advance understanding of strategies as a component of people's personal food systems. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with insight into the long-term dietary issues that gastric bypass patients face and a potential method for representing how people relate deliberate dietary behaviors to their goals.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Comparison of text messaging and paper-and-pencil for ecological momentary
           assessment of food craving and intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Elliot T. Berkman , Nicole R. Giuliani , Alicia K. Pruitt
      Electronic devices such as mobile phones are quickly becoming a popular way to gather participant reports of everyday thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, including food cravings and intake. Electronic devices offer a number of advantages over alternative methods such as paper-and-pencil (PNP) assessment including automated prompts, on-the-fly data transmission, and participant familiarity with and ownership of the devices. However, only a handful of studies have systematically compared compliance between electronic and PNP methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and none have examined eating specifically. Existing comparisons generally find greater compliance for electronic devices than PNP, but there is variability in the results across studies that may be accounted for by differences across research domains. Here, we compared the two EMA methods in an unexamined domain – eating – in terms of response rate and response latency, and their sensitivity to individual difference variables such as body mass index (BMI). Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to report on their food craving, food intake, and hunger four times each day for 2 weeks using either a PNP diary (N = 19) or text messaging (TXT; N = 25). Response rates were higher for TXT than PNP (96% vs. 70%) and latencies were faster (29 min vs. 79 min), and response rate and latency were less influenced by BMI in the TXT condition than in the PNP condition. These results support the feasibility of using text messaging for EMA in the eating domain, and more broadly highlight the ways that research domain-specific considerations (e.g., the importance of response latency in measuring short-lived food craving) interact with assessment modality during EMA.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Disinhibited eating and weight-related insulin mismanagement among
           individuals with type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Rhonda M. Merwin , Ashley A. Moskovich , Natalia O. Dmitrieva , Carl F. Pieper , Lisa K. Honeycutt , Nancy L. Zucker , Richard S. Surwit , Lori Buhi
      Objective: Withholding insulin for weight control is a dangerous practice among individuals with type 1 diabetes; yet little is known about the factors associated with this behavior. Studies of nondiabetic individuals with weight concerns suggest that eating in a disinhibited manner (e.g., binge eating) predicts the use of maladaptive compensatory strategies (e.g., self-induced vomiting). The purpose of this study was to test whether individuals with type 1 diabetes are less restrained in their eating when they think their blood glucose (BG) is low and whether this contributes to insulin omission for weight control purposes and subsequently higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods: Two-hundred and seventy-six individuals with type 1 diabetes completed an online survey of eating behaviors, insulin dosing and most recent HbA1c. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that disinhibited eating when blood sugar is thought to be low predicts weight-related insulin mismanagement, and this, in turn, predicts higher HbA1c. Results: The majority of participants endorsed some degree of disinhibition when they think their blood glucose is low (e.g., eating foods they do not typically allow) and corresponding negative affect (e.g., guilt/shame). The frequency of disinhibited eating was positively associated with weight-related insulin mismanagement. Controlling for age, sex, education, and insulin pump use, the model explained 31.3% of the variance in weight-related insulin mismanagement and 16.8% of the variance in HbA1c. Conclusion: Addressing antecedents to disinhibited eating that are unique to type 1 diabetes (e.g., perceived BG level) and associated guilt or shame may reduce weight-related insulin omission.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment
           process'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): David Marchiori , Esther K. Papies , Olivier Klein
      People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal
           energy intake in overweight and obese males
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Katy M Horner , Nuala M Byrne , Neil A King
      Background: To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Methods: Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m2, aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Results: Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P < 0.01). Using a paired design and a power of 0.8, a minimum of 12 participants would be needed to detect a 10 mm change in 5 h postprandial mean ratings and 17 to detect a 500 kJ difference in ad libitum EI. Conclusion: Intra-individual variability of appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Scents boost preference for novel fruits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yuki Yamada , Kyoshiro Sasaki , Satomi Kunieda , Yuji Wada
      When faced with a novel food, multisensory information that includes appearance and smell is a very important cue for preference, categorization, and the decision of whether or not to eat it. We elucidated whether olfactory information leads to biased visual categorization of and preference for fruits, even when odors are presented subliminally. We employed morphed images of strawberries and tomatoes combined with their corresponding odorants as stimuli. Participants were asked to categorize the images into either of two categories, to evaluate their preference for each visual image, and to judge the presence/absence of the odor. Results demonstrated that visual categorization was not affected by the odor manipulation; however, preference for uncategorizable images increased when odors were presented regardless of the participant's awareness of the odor. Our findings suggest that visual preference for novel fruits is based on both conscious and unconscious olfactory processing regarding edibility.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Trajectories of dietary change and the social context of migration: a
           qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Ietza Bojorquez , Daniela Rentería , Claudia Unikel
      The aim of this article was to explore the influence of migration on changes in dietary practices, relating these changes to the social contexts in which they occur. Numerous studies have described how migration from poor countries and regions to more developed ones leads migrants to adopt a modern diet associated to the risk of acquiring chronic diseases. However, different contexts might influence dietary change in migrants in diverse ways. For this purpose, 28 semi-structured interviews were conducted with adult, female internal migrants to a border city in Mexico. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results showed trajectories of dietary change to be associated to social position before and after migration. For the participants from rural areas, migration was accompanied by an increase in the consumption of processed foods, and also changes in food insecurity. Migrants who came from urban areas reported a decrease in the perceived quality of food available to them, but their eating pattern was modified only slightly. For some interviewees, migration resulted in the possibility to choose what to eat in a more autonomous way. We discuss how the effect of migration on dietary changes can be manifold, and the necessity to delve into how social context influences these changes.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure
           by herb and spice seasonings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Sameer Khalil Ghawi , Ian Rowland , Lisa Methven
      There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy
           intake. An experimental field study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Rachel A. Crockett , Susan A. Jebb , Matthew Hankins , Theresa M. Marteau
      There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. “low-fat”) compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = −2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = −2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Sweetened blood sweetens behavior. Ego depletion, glucose, guilt, and
           prosocial behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Hanyi Xu , Laurent Bègue , Laure Sauve , Brad J. Bushman
      Although guilt feels bad to the individual, it is good for society because guilty feelings can prompt people to perform good deeds. Previous research shows that fatigue decreases guilty feelings and helpful behavior. This present research tests whether glucose restores guilty feelings and increases helpful behavior. Depleted participants watched a movie about butchering animals for their meat or skin and were told to express no emotions, whereas non-depleted participants watched the same movie, but could express their emotions. Afterwards they drank a glucose or placebo beverage. Having participants play a game in which another person was punished for their errors induced guilt. Finally, participants played a dictator game in which they could leave lottery tickets for the next participant. Depleted participants felt less guilty and helped less than non-depleted participants, and those who consumed a placebo beverage felt less guilt and helped less than those who consumed a glucose beverage.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in
           self-imposed exercisers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Navina Fenzl , Katja Bartsch , Joerg Koenigstorfer
      The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout ‘fat-burning’ (vs. labeling an exercise bout ‘endurance’ exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55–65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Confirmatory factor analysis of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
           and associations with infant weight, gender and feeding mode in an
           Australian sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kimberley M. Mallan , Lynne A. Daniels , Susan J. de Jersey
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) in an Australian community sample of mother–infant dyads. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between the BEBQ subscales and infant gender, weight and current feeding mode. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilising structural equation modelling examined the hypothesised four-factor model of the BEBQ. Only mothers (N = 467) who completed all items on the BEBQ (infant age: M = 17 weeks, SD = 3 weeks) were included in the analysis. The original four-factor model did not provide an acceptable fit to the data due to poor performance of the Satiety responsiveness factor. Removal of this factor (three items) resulted in a well-fitting three-factor model. Cronbach's α was acceptable for the Enjoyment of food (α = 0.73), Food responsiveness (α = 0.78) and Slowness in eating (α = 0.68) subscales but low for the Satiety responsiveness (α = 0.56) subscale. Enjoyment of food was associated with higher infant weight whereas Slowness in eating and Satiety responsiveness were both associated with lower infant weight. Differences on all four subscales as a function of feeding mode were observed. This study is the first to use CFA to evaluate the hypothesised factor structure of the BEBQ. Findings support further development work on the Satiety responsiveness subscale in particular, but confirm the utility of the Enjoyment of food, Food responsiveness and Slowness in eating subscales.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the
           expression of food neophobia in toddlers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Erin L. Cassells , Anthea M. Magarey , Lynne A. Daniels , Kimberley M. Mallan
      Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M = 30.4, SD = 5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother–child feeding relationship is still required.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of
           healthy eating. An exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Nicklas Neuman , Christine Persson Osowski , Ylva Mattsson Sydner , Christina Fjellström
      This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an “inauthenticity discourse” where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based
           survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Priscila de Morais Sato , Patrícia da Rocha Pereira , Isis de Carvalho Stelmo , Ramiro Fernandez Unsain , Mariana Dimitrov Ulian , Fernanda Sabatini , Paula Andrea Martins , Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered ‘nutritionally proper’ to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food
           consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kevin V. Cavanagh , Blina Kruja , Catherine A. Forestell
      The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n = 84) and unrestrained eaters (n = 104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi®) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco®). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic
           Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): A. Janet Tomiyama
      Weight stigma is highly pervasive, but its consequences are understudied. This review draws from theory in social psychology, health psychology, and neuroendocrinology to construct an original, generative model called the cyclic obesity/weight-based stigma (COBWEBS) model. This model characterizes weight stigma as a “vicious cycle” – a positive feedback loop wherein weight stigma begets weight gain. This happens through increased eating behavior and increased cortisol secretion governed by behavioral, emotional, and physiological mechanisms, which are theorized to ultimately result in weight gain and difficulty of weight loss. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the existing literature for evidence supporting such a model, propose ways in which individuals enter, fight against, and exit the cycle, and conclude by outlining fruitful future directions in this nascent yet important area of research.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
 
 
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