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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2563 journals)

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Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 653, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 53)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 21)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 56)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.532, h-index: 68)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.348, h-index: 69)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access  
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 38)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 117)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.01, h-index: 47)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 4)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.472, h-index: 17)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.649, h-index: 64)

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Journal Cover Appetite
   [14 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
  • Genetic influences on dietary variety - Results from a twin study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Benjamin Scheibehenne , Peter M. Todd , Stéphanie M. van den Berg , Peter K. Hatemi , Lindon J. Eaves , Christian Vogler
      The heritability of variety seeking in the food domain was estimated from a large sample (N = 5,543) of middle age to elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins from the “Virginia 30,000” twin study. Different dietary variety scores were calculated based on a semi-quantitative food choice questionnaire that assessed consumption frequencies and quantities for a list of 99 common foods. Results indicate that up to 30% of the observed variance in dietary variety was explained through heritable influences. Most of the differences between twins were due to environmental influences that are not shared between twins. Additional non-genetic analyses further revealed a weak relationship between dietary variety and particular demographic variables, including socioeconomic status, age, sex, religious faith, and the number of people living in the same household.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Implicit affective associations predict snack choice for those with low,
           but not high levels of eating disorder symptomatology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Erin M. Ellis , Marc T. Kiviniemi , Catherine Cook-Cottone
      The central purpose of the current study was to examine whether eating disorder symptomatology moderates the extent to which implicitly and explicitly measured affective associations with fruits, or the feelings individuals associate with them, predict food choice. Participants (N = 107) completed both implicit and explicit measures of affective associations with fruits, a self-report of eating disorder symptomatology. In a subsequent snack selection task, they selected either a granola bar or fruit as a measure of their food choice behavior. Logistic regression analyses revealed that eating disorder symptomatology moderated the relation of implicit affective associations on behavior, OR = 0.27, p = .024, 95% CI (0.085, 0.84). A test of the simple effects indicated that implicit affective associations predicted snack choice at or below mean symptomatology levels [OR = 2.073, p = .02, 95% CI (1.12, 3.84)], but not at high levels [OR = 0.56, p = .28, 95% CI (0.18, 1.74)]. The effects of explicit measures on eating behavior were not moderated by eating disorder symptomatology (ps > .05). These findings advance our understanding of both the relation of implicit affective associations on behavior, as well as the ways in which eating disorder symptomatology may impact the decision-making process, thereby perpetuating disorder-related eating behavior. As such, they have implications for both health decision-making theory, as well as for the study and treatment of eating disorders.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Learning through school meals'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Jette Benn , Monica Carlsson
      This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at evaluating the effects of free school meal interventions on pupils’ learning, and on the learning environment in schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offering free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school individual and focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 5 to 7 and grades 8 to 9. Furthermore, students were observed during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The purpose of the article is to explore the learning potentials of school meals. The cross-case analysis focuses on the involved actors’ perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including places, times and contexts, and the pupils’ concepts and competences in relation to food, meals and health, as well as their involvement in the school meal project. The analysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils’ learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developed as an arena for learning, greater consideration must be given to the interaction between pupil, school meal and teacher than in the school meal projects presented in this study, and the potentials for learning through school meals clarified and discussed in the schools. Studying the school meal projects raises a number of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils’ and teachers’ roles and participation in school meals.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Katherine I. DiSantis , Sonya A. Grier , J. Michael Oakes , Shiriki K. Kumanyika
      Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = −0.33 to −0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Bitter taste phenotype and body weight predict children's selection of
           sweet and savory foods at a palatable test-meal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Kathleen L. Keller , Annemarie Olsen , Terri L. Cravener , Rachel Bloom , Wendy K. Chung , Liyong Deng , Patricia Lanzano , Karol Meyermann
      Previous studies show that children who are sensitive to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) report more frequent intake of sweets and less frequent intake of meats (savory fats) relative to children who are PROP insensitive. Laboratory studies are needed to confirm these findings. In this study, seventy-nine 4- to 6-year-olds from diverse ethnicities attended four laboratory sessions, the last of which included a palatable buffet consisting of savory-fats (e.g. pizza), sweet-fats (e.g. cookies, cakes), and sweets (e.g. juices, candies). PROP phenotype was classified by two methods: 1) a common screening procedure to divide children into tasters and nontasters, and 2) a three-concentration method used to approximate PROP thresholds. Height and weight were measured and saliva was collected for genotyping TAS2R38, a bitter taste receptor related to the PROP phenotype. Data were analyzed by General Linear Model ANOVA with intake from savory fats, sweet-fats, and sweets as dependent variables and PROP status as the independent variable. BMI z-score, sex, age, and ethnicity were included as covariates. Adjusted energy intake from the food group “sweets” at the test-meal was greater for tasters than for nontasters. PROP status did not influence children's adjusted intake of savory-fats, but BMI z-score did. The TAS2R38 genotype did not impact intake at the test-meal. At a palatable buffet, PROP taster children preferentially consumed more sweets than nontaster children, while heavier children consumed more savory fats. These findings may have implications for understanding differences in susceptibility to hyperphagia.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and
           health'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Beate Goetzke , Sina Nitzko , Achim Spiller
      Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents’ response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small “adjustments” to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Differential influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype, neuroticism and real-life
           acute stress exposure on appetite and energy intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Aimée E.M. Capello , C. Rob Markus
      Stress or negative mood often promotes energy intake and overeating. Since the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is found to mediate stress vulnerability as well as to influence energy intake, this gene may also influence the negative effects of stress exposure on overeating. Moreover, since stress proneness also reflects cognitive stress vulnerability – as often defined by trait neuroticism – this may additionally predispose for stress-induced overeating. In the present study it was investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with neuroticism on changes in mood, appetite and energy intake following exposure to a real-life academic examination stressor. In a balanced-experimental design, homozygous S-allele and L-allele carriers (N = 94) with the lowest and highest neuroticism scores were selected from a large database of 5-HTTLPR genotyped students. Mood, appetite and energy intake were measured before and after a 2-hour academic examination and compared with a control day. Examination influenced appetite for particular sweet snacks differently depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism. S/S compared with L/L subjects reported greater examination stress, and this was accompanied by a more profound post-stress increase in appetite for sweet snacks. Data also revealed a 5-HTTLPR genotype by trait neuroticism interaction on energy intake, regardless of examination. These results consolidate previous assumptions of 5-HTTLPR involvement in stress vulnerability and suggest 5-HTTLPR and neuroticism may influence stress-induced overeating depending on the type of food available. These findings furthermore link previous findings of increased risk for weight gain in S/S-allele carriers, particularly with high scores on trait neuroticism, to increased energy intake.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation
           associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Kacy Pula , Craig D. Parks , Carolyn F. Ross
      The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Food addiction as a causal model of obesity. Effects on stigma, blame, and
           perceived psychopathology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Janet D. Latner , Rebecca M. Puhl , Jessica M. Murakami , Kerry S. O'Brien
      The present study examined the impact of the food-addiction model of obesity on weight stigma directed at obese people. Participants (n = 625) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. They were asked to read either a food-addiction explanatory model of obesity or a nonaddiction model, and subsequently read a vignette describing a target person who met the characteristics of one of these models and was either obese or of normal weight. Questionnaires assessed participants’ stigmatization and blame of targets and their attribution of psychopathology toward targets. Additional questionnaires assessed stigma and blame directed toward obese people generally, and personal fear of fat. A manipulation check revealed that the food-addiction experimental condition did significantly increase belief in the food-addiction model. Significant main effects for addiction showed that the food-addiction model produced less stigma, less blame, and lower perceived psychopathology attributed to the target described in vignettes, regardless of the target's weight. The food-addiction model also produced less blame toward obese people in general and less fear of fat. The present findings suggest that presenting obesity as an addiction does not increase weight bias and could even be helpful in reducing the widespread prejudice against obese people.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Dose–response effect of a novel functional fibre,
           PolyGlycopleX®, PGX®, on satiety
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Vicky A. Solah , Jennie C. Brand-Miller , Fiona S. Atkinson , Roland J. Gahler , Veronica Kacinik , Michael R. Lyon , Simon Wood
      The objective of this research was to determine the dose–response effects of a palatable, viscous and gel forming fibre, PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), [(α-D-glucurono-α–manno-β-D-manno-β-D-gluco), (α-Lgulurono-β-D mannurono), (β-D-gluco-β-D-mannan)] on satiety, and to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that lead to appetite inhibition. Healthy subjects (n = 10), aged between 20.3 and 29.2 years, consumed PGX®, in granular form at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g, and a 5g inulin control, with a standard breakfast. The PGX® doses of 2.5 and 7.5 g mixed with water at the start of breakfast increased satiety (iAUC of 140.0 and 157.7, P = 0.025 and 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. The most effective dose (7.5g) was palatable and corresponded to a 34% increase in fullness, measured using a visual analogue scale and incremental area under the curve, and resulted in a delayed postprandial glycaemic response when compared with the control.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Large, binge-type meals of high fat diet change feeding behaviour and
           entrain food anticipatory activity in mice☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): T. Bake , M. Murphy , D.G.A. Morgan , J.G. Mercer
      Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum on control diet but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) for 2 h a day during the mid-dark phase rapidly adapt their feeding behaviour and can consume nearly 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h-scheduled feed. We assessed food intake microstructure and meal pattern, and locomotor activity and rearing as markers of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Schedule fed mice reduced their caloric intake from control diet during the first hours of the dark phase but not during the 3-h period immediately preceding the scheduled feed. Large meal/binge-like eating behaviour during the 2-h scheduled feed was characterised by increases in both meal number and meal size. Rearing was increased during the 2-h period running up to scheduled feeding while locomotor activity started to increase 1 h before, indicating that schedule-fed mice display FAA. Meal number and physical activity changes were sustained when HFD was withheld during the anticipated scheduled feeding period, and mice immediately binged when HFD was represented after a week of this “withdrawal” period. These findings provide important context to our previous studies suggesting that energy balance systems in the hypothalamus are not responsible for driving these large, binge-type meals. Evidence of FAA in HFD dark phase schedule-fed mice implicates anticipatory processes in binge eating that do not involve immediately preceding hypophagia or regulatory homeostatic signalling.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Capsaicin increases sensation of fullness in energy balance, and decreases
           desire to eat after dinner in negative energy balance☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Pilou L.H.R. Janssens , Rick Hursel , Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga
      Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase satiety; therefore, CAPS is of interest for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the effects of CAPS on appetite profile and ad libitum energy intake in relation to energy balance. Fifteen subjects (seven women and eight men, age: 29.7 ± 10.8yrs, BMI: 23.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2) underwent four conditions in a randomized crossover design in 36 hour sessions in a respiration chamber; they received 100% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions “100%Control” and “100%CAPS”, and 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions “75%Control” and “75%CAPS”, followed by an ad libitum dinner. In the 100%CAPS and 75%CAPS conditions, CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units) with every meal. Satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P = 0.01) were measured every waking hour and before and after every meal using visual analogue scales, and were higher in the 100%CAPS versus 100%Control condition. After dinner desire to eat, satiety and fullness did not differ between 75%CAPS and 100%Control, while desire to eat was higher (P < 0.05) and satiety (P = 0.06) and fullness (P = 0.06) tended to be lower in the 75%Control versus 100%Control condition. Furthermore, ad libitum intake (P = 0.07) and overconsumption (P = 0.06) tended to decrease in 100%CAPS versus 100%Control. In energy balance, addition of capsaicin to the diet increases satiety and fullness, and tends to prevent overeating when food intake is ad libitum. After dinner, capsaicin prevents the effects of the negative energy balance on desire to eat.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • It tastes as good as it looks! The effect of food presentation on liking
           for the flavor of food☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Debra A. Zellner , Christopher R. Loss , Jonathan Zearfoss , Sergio Remolina
      Diners in a restaurant were served the same meal (composed of a sautéed chicken breast with a fines herbes sauce, brown rice pilaf, and sautéed green beans with toasted almonds served on a round white china plate). The same food was presented in two different arrangements on two different nights. Although the two presentations were judged as equally “neat”, one was judged as more attractive. Subjects reported liking the food on the plate (when all items were judged together) more when it was presented in the more attractive than the less attractive manner. When food items were judged separately, subjects reported liking the chicken and the sauce significantly more when presented in the more attractive manner. Subjects also reported more positive responses to the brown rice pilaf when presented in the more attractive plating style. How attractively food is plated can affect liking for the flavor of the food and could be used to increase acceptance of “healthy” foods.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Completed egoism and intended altruism boost healthy food choices☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Christian Weibel , Claude Messner , Adrian Brügger
      Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers’ food consumption behavior.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Factors influencing U.S. consumer support for genetic modification to
           prevent crop disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Katherine A. McComas , John C. Besley , Joseph Steinhardt
      This study examines support for the genetic modification (GM) of crops in the context of preventing “late blight,” a devastating potato and tomato disease that caused the Irish Potato Famine in the 1850s and results in substantial crop loss today. We surveyed U.S. adults who do the primary grocery shopping in their household (n = 859). Half of the respondents were randomly assigned to read a vignette describing late blight before responding to questions about GM, whereas the other half read a vignette about generic crop disease before responding to questions. We also examine how the perceived fairness of decision makers relates to GM support and the perceived legitimacy of GM decision making. We found that disease specificity mattered less to support and legitimacy than the perceived fairness of decision makers. The perceived risks of GM to human and environmental health negatively related to GM support and legitimacy, whereas the perceived benefits (e.g. reduced threats to crops and a more secure food supply) positively related to support and legitimacy. Objective knowledge about GM had a small, negative relationship with legitimacy whereas self-assessed familiarity with GM had a positive relationship. Overall, the results offer additional confirmation of past findings from more localized settings that perceived fairness of decision makers matters to support for GM and underscore the importance of considering how risk managers’ behaviors and actions are perceived alongside individuals’ perceptions about the risks and benefits.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is
           associated with children's adequate consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Michelle Draxten , Jayne A. Fulkerson , Sarah Friend , Colleen F. Flattum , Robin Schow
      Research has shown that parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors is positively correlated to children's dietary intake and fruit and vegetable (F&V) preferences. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V consumption at snacks and dinner and (2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily F&V recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N = 160) participating in the HOME Plus study completed baseline surveys on parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommendations. On average, children consumed less than three daily servings of F&V with only 23% consuming the recommended servings. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetables at snack and salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet daily F&V recommendations. Parents who reported role modeling fruit at snack were significantly more likely to have children who met daily F&V recommendations. Results indicate that children are aware of their parents' eating behaviors and on occasion report this behavior similarly to their parents. Parents should be encouraged to utilize the opportunity to role model healthful dietary intake, especially at snacks, where consumption of F&V appears low.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor
           preferences☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Davide Giacalone , Mette Duerlund , Jannie Bøegh-Petersen , Wender L.P. Bredie , Michael Bom Frøst
      The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne's collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative properties. The relationship between overall arousal potential and hedonic response takes the shape of an inverted “U”, reaching an optimum at a certain level of arousal potential. In three independent studies, using different sets of novel beers as stimuli, consumers reported their hedonic response and rated three collative properties: novelty, familiarity and complexity. Relationships between these collative properties and hedonic ratings were explored by polynomial regression. The results revealed patterns in line with Berlyne's predictions (curvilinear relationship) with regard to perceived novelty, whereas mixed results were obtained for familiarity and complexity. Additionally, in two of the studies, the moderating role of relevant consumer characteristics – product knowledge, food neophobia and variety seeking tendency – was investigated. A consumer's degree of product knowledge was found to significantly reduce perceived complexity and novelty, ostensibly reflecting the learning that occurs with previous exposures.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Comparative effects of TV watching, recreational computer use, and
           sedentary video game play on spontaneous energy intake in male children. A
           randomised crossover trial☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Samantha Marsh , Cliona Ni Mhurchu , Yannan Jiang , Ralph Maddison
      To compare the effects of three screen-based sedentary behaviours on acute energy intake (EI) in children. Normal-weight males aged 9–13 years participated in a randomised crossover trial conducted in a laboratory setting between November 2012 and February 2013 in Auckland, New Zealand. EI during an ad libitum meal was compared for three 1-hour conditions: (1) television (TV) watching, (2) sedentary video game (VG) play, and (3) recreational computer use. The primary endpoint was total EI from food and drink. Mixed regression models were used to evaluate the treatment conditions adjusting for age, BMI, and appetite at baseline. A total of 20 participants were randomised and all completed the three conditions. Total EI from food and drink in the TV, computer, and VG conditions was estimated at 820 (SE 73.15), 685 (SE 73.33), and 696 (SE 73.16) kcal, respectively, with EI being significantly greater in the TV versus computer condition (+135; P = 0.04), a trend towards greater intake in the TV versus VG condition (+124; P = 0.06), but not significantly different between the computer and VG conditions (−10; P = 0.87). TV watching was associated with greater EI compared with computer use, and a trend towards greater EI compared with VG play.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • A systematic review of the effects of experimental fasting on
           cognition☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Erik M. Benau , Natalia C. Orloff , E. Amy Janke , Lucy Serpell , C. Alix Timko
      Numerous investigations have been conducted on the impact of short-term fasting on cognition in healthy individuals. Some studies have suggested that fasting is associated with executive function deficits; however, findings have been inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding the impact of short-term fasting in healthy controls has impeded investigation of the impact of starvation or malnutrition in clinical groups, such as anorexia nervosa (AN). One method of disentangling these effects is to examine acute episodes of starvation experimentally. The present review systematically investigated the impact of short-term fasting on cognition. Studies investigating attentional bias to food-related stimuli were excluded so as to focus on general cognition. Ten articles were included in the review. The combined results are equivocal: several studies report no observable differences as a result of fasting and others show specific deficits on tasks designed to test psychomotor speed, executive function, and mental rotation. This inconsistent profile of fasting in healthy individuals demonstrates the complexity of the role of short-term fasting in cognition; the variety of tasks used, composition of the sample, and type and duration of fasting across studies may also have contributed to the inconsistent profile. Additional focused studies on neuropsychological profiles of healthy individuals are warranted in order to better develop an understanding of the role of hunger in cognition.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Maltodextrin can produce similar metabolic and cognitive effects to those
           of sucrose in the rat☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Michael D. Kendig , Candy S. Lin , Jessica E. Beilharz , Kieron B. Rooney , Robert A. Boakes
      In the context of the well-documented metabolic and behavioural effects of supplementing rats’ diets with access to a sucrose solution, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of 10% sucrose with that of an isoenergetic (10.4%) solution of hydrolysed starch, maltodextrin. This polysaccharide is metabolised at least as rapidly as sucrose and is also very palatable to rats, but does not contain fructose. Each of three experiments contained three groups: one given a sucrose solution, one given a maltodextrin solution and a control group maintained on standard chow and water alone. In Experiment 1 the sucrose and maltodextrin groups were given their supplementary drinks for 2 h each day, while in Experiments 2 and 3 these groups had 24-h access to their supplements. Ad libitum access to maltodextrin produced at least as rapid weight gain as sucrose and in Experiment 2 retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in the two carbohydrate groups than in the control group. Moreover, in Experiment 3, impaired performance on a location recognition task was also found in both carbohydrate groups after only 17 days on the diets. These results indicate that the harmful effects of excess sucrose consumption can also be produced by another rapidly absorbed carbohydrate that does not contain fructose.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77




      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Liking for high fat foods in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Simon S. Smith , Catherine Waight , Geoffrey Doyle , Kalina R. Rossa , Karen A. Sullivan
      Excess weight and obesity are factors that are strongly associated with risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Weight loss has been associated with improvements in clinical indicators of OSA severity; however, patients’ beliefs about diet change have not been investigated. This study utilized a validated behaviour change model to estimate the relationship between food liking, food intake and indices of OSA severity. Two-hundred and six OSA patients recruited from a Sleep Disorders Clinic completed standardized questionnaires of: a) fat and fibre food intake, food liking, and food knowledge and; b) attitudes and intentions towards fat reduction. OSA severity and body mass index (BMI) were objectively measured using standard clinical guidelines. The relationship between liking for high fat food and OSA severity was tested with hierarchical regression. Gender and BMI explained a significant 20% of the variance in OSA severity, Fibre Liking accounted for an additional 6% (a negative relationship), and Fat Liking accounted for a further 3.6% of variance. Although the majority of individuals (47%) were currently “active” in reducing fat intake, overall the patients’ dietary beliefs and behaviours did not correspond. The independent relationship between OSA severity and liking for high fat foods (and disliking of high fibre foods) may be consistent with a two-way interaction between sleep disruption and food choice. Whilst the majority of OSA patients were intentionally active in changing to a healthy diet, further emphasis on improving healthy eating practices and beliefs in this population is necessary.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • “Yummy” versus “Yucky”! Explicit and implicit
           approach–avoidance motivations towards appealing and disgusting
           foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Betina Piqueras-Fiszman , Alexandra A. Kraus , Charles Spence
      Wanting and rejecting food are natural reactions that we humans all experience, often unconsciously, on a daily basis. However, in the food domain, the focus to date has primarily been on the approach tendency, and researchers have tended not to study the two opposing tendencies in a balanced manner. Here, we develop a methodology with which to understand people's implicit and explicit reactions to both positive (appealing) and negative (disgusting) foods. It consists of a combination of direct and indirect computer-based tasks, as well as a validated food image stimulus set, specifically designed to investigate motivational approach and avoidance responses towards foods. Fifty non-dieting participants varying in terms of their hunger state (hungry vs. not hungry) reported their explicit evaluations of pleasantness, wanting, and disgust towards the idea of tasting each of the food images that were shown. Their motivational tendencies towards those food items were assessed indirectly using a joystick-based approach-avoidance procedure. For each of the food images that were presented, the participants had to move the joystick either towards or away from themselves (approach and avoidance movements, respectively) according to some unrelated instructions, while their reaction times were recorded. Our findings demonstrated the hypothesised approach–avoidance compatibility effect: a significant interaction of food valence and direction of movement. Furthermore, differences between the experimental groups were observed. The participants in the no-hunger group performed avoidance (vs. approach) movements significantly faster; and their approach movements towards positive (vs. negative) foods were significantly faster. As expected, the self-report measures revealed a strong effect of the food category on the three dependent variables and a strong main effect of the hunger state on wanting and to a lesser extent on pleasantness.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Effect of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on measures of satiety in
           normal-weight adult women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Sylvia M.S. Chungchunlam , Sharon J. Henare , Siva Ganesh , Paul J. Moughan
      Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and dairy whey protein is thought to be more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be attributable to the presence of glycomacropeptide (GMP). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GMP in the satiating effect of whey protein. Isoenergetic (~1600 kJ) preload drinks contained GMP isolate (86% GMP, “GMP”), whey protein isolate (WPI) with 21% naturally occurring GMP, WPI with 2% naturally present GMP, or maltodextrin carbohydrate (“carbohydrate”). Satiety was assessed in 22 normal-weight adult women by determining the consumption of a test meal provided ad libitum 120 min following ingestion of a preload drink, and also by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for rating feelings of hunger, desire to eat, prospective consumption and fullness (appetite). The ad libitum test meal intake was significantly different between the preload drinks (p = 0.0003), with food intake following ingestion of both WPI preload drinks (regardless of the amount of GMP) being ~18% lower compared with the beverages enriched with carbohydrate or GMP alone. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the VAS-rated feelings of appetite among the four preload drinks. GMP alone did not reduce subsequent food intake compared with a drink enriched with carbohydrate, but whey protein had a greater satiating effect than carbohydrate. The presence of GMP in whey does not appear to be the cause of the observed effect of whey protein on satiety.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Perceptions and choices of Brazilian children as consumers of food
           products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): A.C. Mazzonetto , G.M.R. Fiates
      In order to identify children's perceptions about food choices and their behavior as consumers and influencers of food purchases, 16 focus groups were conducted with 71 students aged 8–10 years. Transcriptions were submitted to lexical analysis using the Alceste software. The initial contextual unit broke down into 1469 elementary contextual units, 84% of which were retained in the descending hierarchical classification. Results from the larger and more specific classes are reported here. Children were students from public schools where energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption was severely restricted, but these foods were still bought by the children themselves or requested from their parents. Television shows and advertisements motivated food consumption in general, and consumption of EDNP foods was associated with social events and eating outside the home. Situations that emphasize the pleasure and satisfaction of not eating according to food guidelines are being addressed by traditional educational strategies directed at the individual. Appealing to the senses and employing visual stimuli to get to the affective component of children's attitudes seems to be an alternative tool for promoting healthy eating, instead of the traditional approach based on recommendations and restrictions.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among
           socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Lena D. Stephens , Sarah A. McNaughton , David Crawford , Kylie Ball
      Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ≤Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12–15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (≥2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (≥1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Fathers’ child feeding practices: A review of the evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Neha Khandpur , Rachel E. Blaine , Jennifer Orlet Fisher , Kirsten K. Davison
      Despite their expanding role in child rearing, fathers are underrepresented in child feeding research. To address this knowledge gap and encourage father-focused research, this review compiles child feeding research that has included fathers and (i) documents characteristics of studies assessing fathers’ feeding practices including study design, setting, recruitment strategies, participant characteristics, theoretical models utilized and measures of child feeding, (ii) outlines general patterns in fathers’ feeding practices along with similarities and differences in mothers’ and fathers’ feeding practices, (iii) summarizes evidence on child and parent correlates of fathers’ feeding practices and (iv) generates future research recommendations. A literature review of relevant articles published up to February 2014 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: (i) included fathers, or primary male caregivers, of children 2–18 years of age, (ii) measured fathers’ child feeding practices or perceived role in child feeding through objective (e.g., meal observations) or subjective (i.e., fathers’ self-report) methods, (iii) analyzed and presented data on fathers separately from mothers and (iv) were published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language. Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies included an operational definition of “father”. Samples were generally small and focused on white, well-educated fathers, cohabiting with the child's mother. Most studies utilized self-report measures of child feeding practices that have not been validated specifically for use with fathers. Pressuring children to eat was a common feeding strategy adopted by fathers. Some differences were noted in mothers’ and fathers’ feeding practices; fathers were generally less likely to monitor children's food intake and to limit access to food compared with mothers. Child adiposity and a range of child and parent characteristics were associated with fathers’ feeding practices. The literature on fathers’ child feeding practices is scant. This review consolidates what is known to date and highlights focal areas for future research including the need to recruit diverse samples of fathers and utilize measures validated for use with fathers.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an
           application to snacking behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): D.W.M. Gevers , S.P.J. Kremers , N.K. de Vries , P. van Assema
      Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): María José García-Meseguer , Faustino Cervera Burriel , Cruz Vico García , Ramón Serrano-Urrea
      The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012–2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low–intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored “poor” or “needs improvement” about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Association between intake of nutrients and food groups and liking for fat
           (The Nutrinet-Santé Study)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Caroline Méjean , Amélie Deglaire , Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot , Serge Hercberg , Pascal Schlich , Katia Castetbon
      Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24 h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: −6.2%;M: −6.0%), fiber (W: −16.4%; M: −18.9%), fruits (W: −28.8%; M: −29.5%), vegetables (W: −16.4%; M: −19.7%) and yogurt (W: −12.1%; M: −14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Surgency and negative affectivity, but not effortful control, are uniquely
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Christy Y.Y. Leung , Julie C. Lumeng , Niko A. Kaciroti , Yu Pu Chen , Katherine Rosenblum , Alison L. Miller
      Despite increased attention to the role of temperament in children's obesogenic eating behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining whether different dimensions of temperament may be differentially associated with specific eating behaviors among preschool-age children. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether three temperament dimensions (surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control) were uniquely associated with six obesogenic eating behaviors (caregiver-reported food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, satiety responsiveness, and tantrums over food; and observed eating in the absence of hunger) among low-income preschool-age children, covarying home environment quality. Results showed that temperament dimensions were differentially associated with different eating behaviors. Specifically, preschoolers with higher surgency were more likely to overeat in response to external cues, have frequent desire to eat, derive pleasure from food, and eat in the absence of hunger. In contrast, preschoolers with higher negative affectivity were more likely to have tantrums over being denied food and less likely to eat in the absence of hunger. Effortful control was not uniquely associated with obesogenic eating behavior. Findings remained significant even when home chaos was accounted for, suggesting that child surgency and negative affectivity are important to consider, independent of home environment. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied prevention implications.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations
           and the moderating role of general parenting
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): Ester F.C. Sleddens , Stef P.J. Kremers , Annette Stafleu , Pieter C. Dagnelie , Nanne K. De Vries , Carel Thijs
      Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • “A little information excites us.” Consumer sensory experience
           of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Jacob Lahne , Amy B. Trubek
      This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic – supposedly nonsensory – food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Opportunities for healthier child feeding. Does ethnic position
           matter' – Self-reported evaluation of family diet and
           impediments to change among parents with majority and minority status in
           Denmark
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Annemette Nielsen , Allan Krasnik , Ditte Vassard , Lotte Holm
      Health inequality between ethnic groups is expressed in differences in the prevalence of diet related diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare barriers toward eating healthier among ethnic majority and minority parents in Denmark. A postal survey was carried out among 2511 parents with either Danish or non-western ethnic minority descendant background, investigating barriers on cultural, structural, social, individual, and practical levels. The results showed that compared with parents of Danish origin, ethnic minority parents were more likely to evaluate their own diets negatively (OR 3.0, CI 1.7–5.3), and to evaluate their children's diets negatively (OR 4.6, CI 2.5–8.4). In addition, ethnic minority parents to a higher degree experienced barriers to eating healthier than Danish parents did. Most salient was ethnic minority parents’ expression of a lack of control over their own food intake and the food given to their children in everyday life. Such a lack of control was identified on practical, social, structural and individual levels. Young age of the parents was found to explain some of the differences between ethnic groups. It is concluded that dietary interventions directed at parents of small children should address not only cultural background but also barriers operating on practical, social, structural, and individual levels, as some of these influence ethnic minorities and the majority population differently. Further exploration of the importance of young age and the interplay between structural and cultural factors in the lives of ethnic minority families is needed.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Hamburger hazards and emotions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Nina Veflen Olsen , Elin Røssvoll , Solveig Langsrud , Joachim Scholderer
      Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers’ willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects
           on body weight
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Harm Veling , Guido M van Koningsbruggen , Henk Aarts , Wolfgang Stroebe
      Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants’ weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants’ dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Efforts to overcome vegetarian-induced dissonance among meat eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): Hank Rothgerber
      Meat eaters face dissonance whether it results from inconsistency (“I eat meat; I don’t like to hurt animals”), aversive consequences (“I eat meat; eating meat harms animals”), or threats to self image (“I eat meat; compassionate people don’t hurt animals”). The present work proposes that there are a number of strategies that omnivores adopt to reduce this dissonance including avoidance, dissociation, perceived behavioral change, denial of animal pain, denial of animal mind, pro-meat justifications, reducing perceived choice, and actual behavioral change. The presence of vegetarians was speculated to cause meat eating to be a scrutinized behavior, remind meat eaters of their discomfort, and undermine the effectiveness of these strategies. It was therefore hypothesized that exposure to a description of a vegetarian would lead omnivores to embrace dissonance-reducing strategies. Supporting this hypothesis, participants who read a vignette about a vegetarian denied animal mind more than participants who read about a gluten-free individual. It was also hypothesized that omnivores would be sensitive to individual differences between vegetarians and would demonstrate using dissonance-reducing strategies more when the situation failed to provide cognitions consonant with eating meat or to reduce dissonant cognitions. Four experiments supported this prediction and found that authentic vegetarians, vegetarians freely making the decision to abandon meat, consistent vegetarians, and anticipating moral reproach from vegetarians produced greater endorsement of dissonance-reducing strategies than their counterpart conditions.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Exposure to vegetable variety in infants weaned at different ages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Helen Coulthard , Gillian Harris , Anna Fogel
      The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of different vegetable exposure methods (variety versus single taste) over a 9 day period in two groups of infants; those introduced to solids prior to the age of 5.5 months, and those introduced after 5.5 months. Sixty parent–infant dyads were recruited in South Birmingham, UK. Infants’ acceptance of a novel vegetable (pea puree) was measured after a 9 day exposure period in the infants a week after they were first introduced to solid foods. During the exposure period half of each age group was given carrot every day, and the other half was given a variety pack of courgette, parsnip and sweet potato. A baseline measurement of the infants’ acceptance of a vegetable (carrot) was taken prior to the exposure period. There was no difference between the groups in consumption of the baseline vegetable (carrot). There were no main effects of exposure group or age group on consumption of pea after the exposure period. There was, however, an interaction between the age of introduction and exposure group on consumption of the new vegetable (pea). In particular, infants weaned at 6 months in the single taste group ate significantly less pea puree than those in the variety group. These findings suggest that infants, who are weaned at 6 months or later, may benefit from being weaned onto a variety of tastes rapidly to ensure adequate exposure to taste. This study constitutes some of the first evidence to suggest that there may be a sensitive period for the acceptance of tastes between the ages of 4 and 6 months.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Family dinner frequency, settings and sources, and body weight in US
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Jeffery Sobal , Karla Hanson
      Contemporary families and food systems are both becoming more dynamic and complex, and current associations between adult family meals and body mass index (BMI) are not well understood. This investigation took a new approach by examining diverse settings and sources of food for family dinners in relationship to BMI in a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of 360 US adults age 18–85 living with family members. In this sample, 89% of adults ate family dinners at least 5 days per week and almost all ate family dinners cooked and eaten at home. About half of these adults also ate family dinners at restaurants, fast food places, or ate takeout food at home, and less common were family dinners at homes of relatives or friends. Family dinners eaten at fast food places, but not other settings or sources, were significantly associated with higher BMI. Overall, adult family dinners were commonplace, usually involved home cooking, and when at fast food places may be related with higher adult body weights.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Food consumption and weight gain after cessation of chronic amphetamine
           administration
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Caitlin A. Orsini , Guy Ginton , Kristy G. Shimp , Nicole M. Avena , Mark S. Gold , Barry Setlow
      Cessation of drug use often coincides with increased food consumption and weight gain in recovering addicts. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon (particularly the weight gain) is uniquely human, or whether it represents a consequence of drug cessation common across species. To address this issue, rats (n = 10/group) were given systemic injections of D-amphetamine (3 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Beginning 2 days after the final injection, rats were given free access to a highly palatable food mixture (consisting of sugar and butter) along with their standard chow diet, and food consumption and body weight were measured every 48 h for 30 days. Consistent with clinical observations, amphetamine-treated rats showed a greater increase in body weight over the course of the 30 days relative to vehicle-treated rats. Surprisingly, there was no difference in highly palatable food consumption between amphetamine- and vehicle-treated groups, but the amphetamine-treated group consumed significantly more standard chow than the control group. The finding that a history of chronic amphetamine exposure increases food consumption is consistent with previous work in humans showing that withdrawal from drugs of abuse is associated with overeating and weight gain. The current findings may reflect amphetamine-induced sensitization of mechanisms involved in reward motivation, suggesting that weight gain following drug cessation in humans could be due to similar mechanisms.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): Anna Claret , Luis Guerrero , Rafael Ginés , Amàlia Grau , M. Dolores Hernández , Enaitz Aguirre , José Benito Peleteiro , Carlos Fernández-Pato , Carmen Rodríguez-Rodríguez
      Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers’ objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: “Traditional/Conservative”, “Connoisseur”, “Open to aquaculture”. The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Robust relation between temporal discounting rates and body mass
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): David P. Jarmolowicz , J.Bradley C. Cherry , Derek D. Reed , Jared M. Bruce , John M. Crespi , Jayson L. Lusk , Amanda S. Bruce
      When given the choice between $100 today and $110 in 1 week, certain people are more likely to choose the immediate, yet smaller reward. The present study examined the relations between temporal discounting rate and body mass while accounting for important demographic variables, depressive symptoms, and behavioral inhibition and approach. After having their heights and weights measured, 100 healthy adults completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Approach Scale. Overweight and obese participants exhibited higher temporal discounting rates than underweight and healthy weight participants. Temporal discounting rates decreased as the magnitude of the delayed reward increased, even when other variables known to impact temporal discounting rate (i.e., age, education level, and annual household income) were used as covariates. A higher body mass was strongly related to choosing a more immediate monetary reward. Additional research is needed to determine whether consideration-of-future-consequences interventions, or perhaps cognitive control interventions, could be effective in obesity intervention or prevention programs.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • A randomised controlled trial of a theory of planned behaviour to increase
           fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Emily J. Kothe , Barbara A. Mullan
      Young adults are less likely than other adults to consume fruit and vegetables. Fresh Facts is a theory of planned behaviour based intervention designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study sought to evaluate Fresh Facts using a randomised controlled trial. Australian young adults (n = 162) were allocated to the Fresh Facts intervention or to the control group in 2011. Intervention participants received automated email messages promoting fruit and vegetable consumption every 3 days over the course of the 1 month intervention. Messages targeted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Theory of planned behaviour variables and fruit and vegetable intake were measured at baseline and post-intervention (Day 30). Significant increases in attitude and subjective norm relative to control were found among Fresh Facts participants. However, intention, perceived behavioural control and fruit and vegetable consumption did not change as a result of the intervention. Changes in intention reported by each participant between baseline and follow-up were not correlated with corresponding changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. Fresh Facts was not successful in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Current evidence does not support the use of the theory of planned behaviour in the design of interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake in this population.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • The effects of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation
           (tDCS) on food craving and temporal discounting in women with frequent
           food cravings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Maria Kekic , Jessica McClelland , Iain Campbell , Steffen Nestler , Katya Rubia , Anthony S. David , Ulrike Schmidt
      Bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and some forms of obesity are characterised by compulsive overeating that is often precipitated by food craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to suppress food cravings, but there is insufficient evidence to support its application in clinical practice. Furthermore, the potential moderating role of impulsivity has not been considered. This study used a randomised within-subjects crossover design to examine whether a 20-minute session of sham-controlled bilateral tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anode right/cathode left) would transiently modify food cravings and temporal discounting (TD; a measure of choice impulsivity) in 17 healthy women with frequent food cravings. Whether the effects of tDCS on food craving were moderated by individual differences in TD behaviour was also explored. Participants were exposed to food and a film of people eating, and food cravings and TD were assessed before and after active and sham stimulation. Craving for sweet but not savoury foods was reduced following real tDCS. Participants that exhibited more reflective choice behaviour were more susceptible to the anti-craving effects of tDCS than those that displayed more impulsive choice behaviour. No differences were seen in TD or food consumption after real versus sham tDCS. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS in temporarily lowering food cravings and identify the moderating role of TD behaviour.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • The psychometric properties of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in
           Turkey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Nurdan Camcı , Murat Bas , Aylin Hasbay Buyukkaragoz
      The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) among Turkish parents. The questionnaire was administered to 490 participants. Construct validity was assessed by principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation and reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. For testing criterion-related validity, EAT-40 with DEBQ was also administered to 490 participants. Results showed the presence of seven major factors (perceived responsibility, perceived parent weight, perceived child weight, concern about child weight, pressure to eat, monitoring and restriction) with loadings similar to those of the original questionnaire. Seven subscales of the CFQ had higher internal consistency and test–retest reliability. This study clearly demonstrates the factorial validity and the reliability of a Turkish version of the CFQ.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a
           new picture rating scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Carmel Bennett , Jackie Blissett
      Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages.
           Results from a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 78
      Author(s): Wilma Elzeline Waterlander , Cliona Ni Mhurchu , Ingrid H.M. Steenhuis
      Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = −.90; 95% CI = −1.70 to −.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Beverage and culture. “Zhourat”, a multivariate analysis of
           the globalization of a herbal tea from the Middle East
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): Concepción Obón , Diego Rivera , Francisco Alcaraz , Latiffa Attieh
      The “Zhourat” herbal tea consists of a blend of wild flowers, herbs, leaves and fruits and is a typical beverage of Lebanon and Syria. We aim to evaluate cultural significance of “Zhourat”, to determine cultural standards for its formulation including key ingredients and to determine acceptable variability levels in terms of number of ingredients and their relative proportions, in summary what is “Zhourat” and what is not “Zhourat” from an ethnobotanical perspective. For this purpose we develop a novel methodology to describe and analyse patterns of variation of traditional multi-ingredient herbal formulations, beverages and teas and to identify key ingredients, which are characteristics of a particular culture and region and to interpret health claims for the mixture. Factor analysis and hierarchical clustering techniques were used to display similarities between samples whereas salience index was used to determine the main ingredients which could help to distinguish a standard traditional blend from a global market-addressed formulation. The study revealed 77 main ingredients belonging to 71 different species of vascular plants. In spite of the “Zhourat's” highly variable content, the salience analysis resulted in a determined set of key botanical components including Rosa x damascena Herrm., Althaea damascena Mouterde, Matricaria chamomilla L., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Zea mays L. and Elaeagnus angustifolia L. The major health claims for “Zhourat” as digestive, sedative and for respiratory problems are culturally coherent with the analysis of the traditional medicinal properties uses of its ingredients.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): Klazine van der Horst , Aurore Ferrage , Andreas Rytz
      The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the “child cooks” and “parent cooks” conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6  kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
  • Childhood pet ownership, attachment to pets, and subsequent meat
           avoidance. The mediating role of empathy toward animals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): Hank Rothgerber , Frances Mican
      Researchers studying childhood pet ownership outcomes do not typically focus on measures of adult diet, and those studying the psychology of meat consumption do not normally consider early experiences with companion animals. The present research sought to integrate these two areas by examining relationships between childhood pet ownership, pet attachment, empathy toward animals, belief in human–animal similarity, meat avoidance, and justifications for eating meat. Results from 273 individuals responding to a survey on an internet platform revealed that participants with greater childhood attachment to a pet reported greater meat avoidance as adults, an effect that disappeared when controlling for animal empathy. Greater childhood pet attachment was also related to the use of indirect, apologetic justifications for meat consumption, and this effect too, was mediated by empathy toward animals. Child pet ownership itself predicted views toward animals but not dietary behavior or meat-eating justifications. The authors propose a sequence of events by which greater childhood pet attachment leads to increased meat avoidance, focusing on the central role played by empathy toward animals.


      PubDate: 2014-04-28T10:48:24Z
       
 
 
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