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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2817 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 2817 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 12)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access  
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 9)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.21, h-index: 6)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 5)
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.184, h-index: 3)
Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Artroscopia y Cirugía Articular     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cardiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.592, h-index: 43)
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Cardiología Suplementos     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 8)
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 7)
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.215, h-index: 11)
Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC     Open Access  
Revista Española de Medicina Legal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 3)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 6)
Revista Española de Patología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.118, h-index: 3)
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Fisioterapia y Kinesiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 3)
Revista Iberoamericana de Micología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.432, h-index: 28)
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Revista Internacional de Andrología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.179, h-index: 4)
Revista Latinoamericana de Derecho Social     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Médica Clínica Las Condes     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Médica de Homeopatía     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Opinión Pública     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Odontológica Mexicana     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.26, h-index: 9)
Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.305, h-index: 28)
Revue d'oncologie hématologie pédiatrique     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 31)
Revue de Micropaleontologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.085, h-index: 18)
Revue de Pneumologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.16, h-index: 12)
Revue de Stomatologie et de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.233, h-index: 20)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires Actualités     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Revue du Rhumatisme     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.109, h-index: 29)
Revue du Rhumatisme Monographies     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 3)
Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 12)
Revue Française d'Allergologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.116, h-index: 14)
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 6)
Revue Neurologique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.252, h-index: 31)
Rheology Series     Full-text available via subscription  
Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.038, h-index: 66)
Rice Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 8)
Robotics and Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.954, h-index: 70)
Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.272, h-index: 51)
Russian Geology and Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.845, h-index: 17)
Russian Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
Safety and Health at Work     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.89, h-index: 52)
SAS J.     Hybrid Journal  
Saudi Dental J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.138, h-index: 4)
Saudi J. of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.284, h-index: 8)
Saudi J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 4)
Saudi Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.417, h-index: 14)
Scandinavian J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.646, h-index: 28)
Scandinavian J. of Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 7)
Schizophrenia Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.163, h-index: 122)
Schizophrenia Research : Cognition     Open Access  
School Psychology Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 40)
Science & Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 24)
Science & Sports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.236, h-index: 13)
Science of Computer Programming     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.671, h-index: 44)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 133)
Scientia Horticulturae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 53)
Scripta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 2.706, h-index: 117)
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.149, h-index: 7)
Sedimentary Basins of the World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sedimentary Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.156, h-index: 67)
Seizure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.87, h-index: 58)
SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.549, h-index: 20)
Seminarios de la Fundación Española de Reumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.14, h-index: 80)
Seminars in Arthroplasty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 8)
Seminars in Cancer Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.117, h-index: 103)
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Seminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 10)
Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.865, h-index: 54)
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.751, h-index: 57)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 76)
Seminars in Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 4.207, h-index: 91)
Seminars in Nephrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.475, h-index: 63)
Seminars in Nuclear Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.294, h-index: 65)
Seminars in Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.039, h-index: 106)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 28)
Seminars in Orthodontics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 29)
Seminars in Pediatric Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.676, h-index: 39)
Seminars in Pediatric Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 40)
Seminars in Perinatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.521, h-index: 60)
Seminars in Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.212, h-index: 64)
Seminars in Roentgenology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.483, h-index: 20)
Seminars in Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 10)
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 45)
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery: Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.295, h-index: 22)
Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.6, h-index: 33)
Seminars in Vascular Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.93, h-index: 36)
Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research     Open Access  
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 100)
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.312, h-index: 116)
Separation and Purification Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.357, h-index: 89)
Sexologies     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 9)
Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 4)
Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.111, h-index: 77)
Signal Processing: Image Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.493, h-index: 51)
Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.742, h-index: 34)
Sleep Health     Full-text available via subscription  
Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.391, h-index: 70)
Sleep Medicine Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 16)
Sleep Medicine Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.467, h-index: 78)
Sleep Science     Open Access  
Small Ruminant Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.654, h-index: 50)
Social Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.324, h-index: 55)
Social Science & Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.789, h-index: 149)
Social Science J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.255, h-index: 18)
Social Science Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.393, h-index: 43)
Socio-Economic Planning Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.841, h-index: 26)
Sociologie du Travail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 16)
SoftwareX     Open Access  
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.778, h-index: 76)
Soil Biology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.275, h-index: 123)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.482, h-index: 45)
Soils and foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.669, h-index: 39)
Solar Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.291, h-index: 85)
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.331, h-index: 107)
Solid State Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.874, h-index: 93)
Solid State Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 132)
Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 43)
Solid State Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.272, h-index: 18)
Solid State Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.717, h-index: 54)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.819, h-index: 66)
South African J. of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.531, h-index: 29)
Space Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.256, h-index: 14)
Space Research Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
Spanish Review of Financial Economics, The     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.115, h-index: 1)
Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 8)
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.628, h-index: 64)
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 79)
Speech Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.701, h-index: 63)
Spine Deformity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sport Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.754, h-index: 20)
Sport-Orthopädie - Sport-Traumatologie - Sports Orthopaedics and Traumatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 5)
Statistical Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 15)
Statistics & Probability Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.771, h-index: 38)
Stem Cell Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.898, h-index: 27)
Steroids     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.98, h-index: 77)
Stochastic Processes and their Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.444, h-index: 46)
Strategies and Tactics in Organic Synthesis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 6)
Structural Change and Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 26)
Structural Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.84, h-index: 49)
Structure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 5.17, h-index: 138)
Structures     Hybrid Journal  
Studies in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Computational Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Educational Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.626, h-index: 19)
Studies in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 21)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 21)
Studies in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 10)
Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Mathematics and Its Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Multidisciplinarity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Mycology     Open Access  
Studies in Natural Products Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.221, h-index: 22)
Studies in Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.282, h-index: 41)
Studies in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Visual Information Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sugar Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Suma de Negocios     Open Access  
Superlattices and Microstructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.745, h-index: 44)
Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 29)
Surface and Coatings Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.178, h-index: 109)
Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.853, h-index: 105)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 8.627, h-index: 81)
Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.691, h-index: 118)
Surgery (Oxford)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 14)
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.918, h-index: 46)
Surgical Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.978, h-index: 68)
Surgical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.86, h-index: 41)
Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 41)
Surgical Pathology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Survey of Ophthalmology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.842, h-index: 92)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2817 journals]
  • Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Megan H. Pesch, Alison L. Miller, Danielle P. Appugliese, Katherine L. Rosenblum, Julie C. Lumeng
      Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
       
  • Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined
           neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college
           students
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Richard B. Lopez, Marina Milyavskaya, Wilhelm Hofmann, Todd F. Heatherton
      Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters' experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18–23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
       
  • Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus
           groups with Australian adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Helen Dixon, Michael Murphy, Maree Scully, Mischa Rose, Trish Cotter
      This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams – Weight, Activity, or Nutrition – where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages – (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by ‘what’ and ‘how’ ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by ‘why’ ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
       
  • Mindful decision making and inhibitory control training as complementary
           means to decrease snack consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Evan M. Forman, Jena A. Shaw, Stephanie P. Goldstein, Meghan L. Butryn, Lindsay M. Martin, Nachshon Meiran, Ross D. Crosby, Stephanie M. Manasse
      Objective Obesity is largely attributable to excess caloric intake, in particular from “junk” foods, including salty snack foods. Evidence suggests that neurobiological preferences to consume highly hedonic foods translate (via implicit processes) into poor eating choices, unless overturned by inhibitory mechanisms or interrupted by explicit processes. The primary aim of the current study was to test the independent and combinatory effects of a computerized inhibitory control training (ICT) and a mindful decision-making training (MDT) designed to facilitate de-automatization. Methods We randomized 119 habitual salty snack food eaters to one of four short, training conditions: MDT, ICT, both MDT and ICT, or neither (i.e., psychoeducation). For 7 days prior to the intervention and 7 days following the intervention, participants reported on their salty snack food consumption 2 times per day, on 3 portions of their days, using a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment system. Susceptibility to emotional eating cues was measured at baseline. Results Results indicated that the effect of MDT was consistent across levels of trait emotional eating, whereas the benefit of ICT was apparent only at lower levels of emotional eating. No synergistic effect of MDT and ICT was detected. Conclusions These results provide qualified support for the efficacy of both types of training for decreasing hedonically-motivated eating. Moderation effects suggest that those who eat snack foods for reasons unconnected to affective experiences (i.e., lower in emotional eating) may derive benefit from a combination of ICT and MDT. Future research should investigate the additive benefit of de-automization training to standard weight loss interventions.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
       
  • US consumer attitudes toward sodium in baby and toddler foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Katherine A. John, Mary E. Cogswell, Lixia Zhao, Joyce Maalouf, Janelle P. Gunn, Robert K. Merritt
      Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1–3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, “It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium.” Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%–70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%–87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%–99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%–100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
       
  • Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial
           on additional long-term weight effects of parent training
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Petra Warschburger, Katja Kroeller, Johannes Haerting, Susanne Unverzagt, Andreas van Egmond-Fröhlich
      Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances ‘obesity-specific’ parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7–13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
       
  • Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among
           school-age children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Martha J. Nepper, Weiwen Chai
      The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6–12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6–9 years vs. 10–12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.


      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
       
  • Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic
           discourse (1975–2013)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Anita Borch, Unni Kjærnes
      In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T10:56:38Z
       
  • Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal
           ideas: An association rule learning approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Allison E. Doub, Meg L. Small, Aron Levin, Kristie LeVangie, Timothy R. Brick
      Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = −3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population.


      PubDate: 2016-04-22T10:56:38Z
       
  • Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss
           intervention in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Fernanda Mata, Juan Verdejo-Roman, Carles Soriano-Mas, Murat Yücel, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
      This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12–18; BMI range: 22–36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
       
  • Consumer trust in the Australian food system – The everyday erosive
           impact of food labelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Emma Tonkin, Trevor Webb, John Coveney, Samantha B. Meyer, Annabelle M. Wilson
      Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
       
  • Consumer preferences for food labels on tomatoes in Germany –
           A comparison of a quasi-experiment and two stated preference
           approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Stephan G.H. Meyerding
      In many studies, consumer preferences are determined by using direct surveys. For this method social desirability is problematic. This leads to the effect that participants answer in a way that they perceive as desired by society. This leads to the stated importance of certain features in these studies not being reflected in real purchasing decisions. Therefore, the aim of the study is to compare consumer preferences measured by a quasi-experiment to those quantified by direct questions. Another objective is to quantify the part-worth utilities of product characteristics such as origin, price and food labels. Part-worth utilities are estimated on an interval scale with an arbitrary origin and are a measure for preferences. The real purchasing situation was simulated in a quasi-experiment using a choice-based conjoint analysis. The part-worth utilities were then compared with the results of a conventional preference assessment (Likert scale). For this purpose, 645 consumers from all over Germany were surveyed in 2014. The participants were on average 44 years old and 63% were women. The results of the conjoint analysis report the highest part-worth utility (2.853) for the lowest price (1.49€), followed by the characteristic “grown locally” (2.157). For the labels, the German organic label shows the highest part-worth utility (0.785) followed by Fairtrade/“A heart for the producer” (0.200). It is noticeable that the carbon footprint labels have negative part-worth utilities compared to tomatoes without a label (−0.130 with CO2 indication, −0.186 without CO2 indication). The price is ranked 12th in the importance of the characteristics of purchasing tomatoes in the survey with a Likert scale, whereas it is first in the evaluation of the quasi-experiment (conjoint analysis), which supports the assumption of a social desirability bias.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
       
  • Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types
           of food products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Joop de Boer, Hanna Schösler
      This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as ‘conventional’, ‘efficient’, ‘gourmet’ and ‘pure’. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
       
  • Elasticity in portion selection is predicted by severity of anorexia and
           food type in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): M. Herzog, C.R. Douglas, H.R. Kissileff, J.M. Brunstrom, K.A. Halmi
      The size of portions that people select is an indicator of underlying mechanisms controlling food intake. Fears of eating excessive portions drive down the sizes of portions patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) can tolerate eating significantly below those of healthy controls (HC) (Kissileff et al., 2016). To determine whether patients with AN will also reduce the sizes of typical or ideal portions below those of controls, ANOVA was used to compare maximum tolerable, typical, and ideal portions of four foods (potatoes, rice, pizza, and M&M's) in the same group of 24 adolescent AN patients and 10 healthy adolescent controls (HC), on which only the maximal portion data were previously reported. Typical and ideal portion sizes did not differ on any food for AN, but for HC, typical portions sizes (kcals) became larger than ideal as the energy density of the food increased, and were significant for the most energy dense food. Ideal portions of low energy dense foods were the same for AN as for in HC. There was a significant 3-way (group × food × portion type) interaction, such that HC selected larger maximum than typical portions only for pizza. We therefore proposed that individuals of certain groups, depending on the food, can be flexible in the amounts of food chosen to be eaten. We call this difference between maximum-tolerable, and typical portion sizes selected “elasticity.” Elasticity was significantly smaller for AN patients compared to HC for pizza and was significantly inversely correlated with severity of illness. This index could be useful for clinical assessment of AN patients, and those with eating problems such as in obesity and bulimia nervosa and tracking their response to treatment.


      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101




      PubDate: 2016-04-12T10:22:30Z
       
  • Eating at the table, on the couch and in bed: An exploration of different
           locus of commensality in the discourses of Brazilian working mothers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi, Patrícia da Rocha Pereira, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Priscila de Morais Sato
      Background Commensality is a remarkable human act, and tends to be more present among families. Nevertheless, it is possible that eating at the table is being taking for granted when one refers to family meals. Thus, this paper aims to analyze working mothers' discourses about family meals eaten at the table, on the couch and in the bed/bedroom. Methods The participants were thirty mothers working in public universities of the Brazilian region called Baixada Santista. A qualitative study was conducted, using semi-structured interviews. In the transcripts the words “table”, “couch”, “bed”, “bedroom” were located and the excerpts containing them were extracted and analyzed according to a classical and exploratory content analysis. Results The table is a significant component of meals that unite the family. While for some the meal at the table is an enjoyable moment, it is a stiff moment for others. Indeed, manners and the notion of hierarchy appeared only for the table. Regarding the couch, it seems that the family chose to eat there, because it is a more casual and relaxed setting. Eating in the bed was related to precarity, intimacy and casualness. In the three settings, watching television was a common practice, replacing or being added to talking. Conclusions Commensality is such an important practice that appears in different settings and even in precarity contexts. The table emerged as the maximal cornerstone of commensality. However, when it was not present, new arrangements were made. Especially the couch seems to be a new commensal space, less formal and rigid, but able to allow some collective conviviality. Eating in the bed was a less common practice. Finally, the significant role that television assumed in meals is highlighted.


      PubDate: 2016-04-12T10:22:30Z
       
  • Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in
           Wistar rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): I.C. Macedo, C. de Oliveira, R. Vercelino, A. Souza, G. Laste, L.F. Medeiros, V.L. Scarabelot, E.A. Nunes, J. Kuo, F. Fregni, W. Caumo, I.L.S. Torres
      It has been suggested that food craving—an intense desire to consume a specific food (particularly foods high in sugar and fat)—can lead to obesity. This behavior has also been associated with abuse of other substances, such as drugs. Both drugs and food cause dependence by acting on brain circuitry involved in reward, motivation, and decision-making processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be activated following evocation and is implicated in alterations in food behavior and craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulates brain activity significantly, has emerged as a promising treatment to inhibit craving. This technique is considered safe and inexpensive; however, there is scant research using animal models. Such studies could help elucidate the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of eating disorders, including food craving. The aim of our study was to evaluate palatable food consumption in rats receiving tDCS treatment (anode right/cathode left). Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomized by weight and divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control, with no stimulation; sham, receiving daily 30 s tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days; and tDCS, receiving daily 20 min tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days. All rats were evaluated for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. A palatable food consumption test was performed at baseline and on treatment completion (24 h after the last tDCS session) under fasting and feeding conditions and showed that tDCS decreased food craving, thus corroborating human studies. This result confirms the important role of the prefrontal cortex in food behavior, which can be modulated by noninvasive brain stimulation.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
       
  • Influencing factors of children's fruit, vegetable and sugar-enriched food
           intake in a Finnish preschool setting – Preschool personnel's
           perceptions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Carola Ray, Suvi Määttä, Reetta Lehto, Gun Roos, Eva Roos
      Introduction A large proportion of young children spend most of their weekdays at preschool in Western countries. In Finland, three meals are included in a full day at preschool. These meals have the potential to promote healthy eating. This study aimed to obtain the personnel's (preschool teachers, day-care nurses) views on the factors influencing children's fruit, vegetable, and sugar-enriched food intake at preschool. Study design Four focus groups, in all 14 preschool personnel. Two researchers independently analysed the data using a socio-ecological framework. Results At the child level, age, peers, and the child's personality were recognized as factors influencing the fruit and vegetable (FV) and sugar-enriched food intake. At the preschool level, both the physical and social environments were discussed thoroughly, whereas at the societal level, policies of the EU, the state, and the municipality were mentioned as factors that influence what children eat in preschool. The personnel also discussed the interactions between factors both between levels and within levels. Conclusions In Finnish preschools, children's food intake is influenced on and within several levels of the socio-ecological model. The identification of the factors influencing food intake allows different methods of intervention at multiple levels to promote healthy eating behaviours in preschools.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
       
  • Catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity mediate the relationship between
           persistent pain and emotional eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): E. Amy Janke, Elizabeth Jones, Christina M. Hopkins, Madelyn Ruggieri, Alesha Hruska
      Stress-induced or “emotional eating” contributes to increased caloric intake and weight gain, yet models examining psychosocial factors that promote and sustain this behavior are incomplete. There is a need to identify explicit, clinically-relevant mechanisms of emotional eating behavior. Pain is a common stressor associated with increased weight and, potentially, altered eating behaviors. The present study applies the Fear Avoidance Model (FAM) of pain to examine processes that may explain the relationship between pain and increased weight while also providing the opportunity to examine specific mechanisms that may encourage eating during a variety of stressors. Our aim is to better understand the impact of pain on eating behavior and the potential for the FAM to improve our understanding of the psychological mechanisms that promote eating during times of duress. A survey of 312 adults explored the link between pain experience and stress-induced eating, further examining the mediating effects of the psychological aspects of the FAM (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, and pain-related fear). 24% of respondents reported persistent pain, and had significantly higher BMIs than their pain-free peers. All three FAM components were positively correlated with measures of emotional, external, and restrained eating. Anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing significantly mediated the relationship between persistent pain and emotional eating behavior, while anxiety sensitivity alone mediated the relationship between persistent pain and external eating. Findings suggest pain may be associated with increased likelihood for emotional eating and that characteristics from FAM, in particular anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing, may mediate the relationship between the presence of persistent pain and emotional eating behavior. Evidence-based treatments targeting anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing could be useful to address emotional eating in individuals struggling with both weight and chronic pain.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
       
  • Exploring divergent trajectories: Disorder-specific moderators of the
           association between negative urgency and dysregulated eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Sarah E. Racine, Shelby J. Martin
      Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a well-established risk factor for dysregulated eating (e.g., binge eating, loss of control eating, emotional eating). However, negative urgency is transdiagnostic, in that it is associated with multiple forms of psychopathology. It is currently unclear why some individuals with high negative urgency develop dysregulated eating while others experience depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Investigating disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and psychopathology may help elucidate these divergent trajectories. The current study examined interactions among negative urgency and eating disorder-specific risk factors specified in the well-established dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint). We hypothesized that these interactions would predict dysregulated eating, but not depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to test this hypothesis in a large (N = 313) sample of female college students. Negative urgency was significantly associated with dysregulated eating, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. However, interactions among negative urgency and dual-pathway model variables were specific to dysregulated eating and accounted for an additional 3–5% of the variance beyond main effects. Findings suggest that eating disorder-specific risk factors may shape negative urgency into manifesting as dysregulated eating versus another form of psychopathology. Future research should use longitudinal designs to further test the impact of interactions among disorder-specific risk factors and negative urgency on divergent psychopathology trajectories.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
       
  • The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals
           served to children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Nicole Kasper, Cami Mandell, Sarah Ball, Alison L. Miller, Julie Lumeng, Karen E. Peterson
      Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4–8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy “Adequacy foods” and the absence of “Moderation foods”, (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
       
  • Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A
           population-based study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Priscila de Morais Sato, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer Lourenço, Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Patrícia Rocha Pereira, Paula Andrea Martins, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30–39 years (β: −0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
       
  • Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the
           United Kingdom
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Lucy J. Mallinson, Jean M. Russell, Margo E. Barker
      Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18–40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: ‘epicures’ (n = 135), ‘traditional consumers’ (n = 255), ‘casual consumers’ (n = 246), ‘food detached consumers’ (n = 151) and ‘kitchen evaders’ (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by “buy a lot and waste a lot” behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives.


      PubDate: 2016-04-02T20:29:42Z
       
  • Deliberate choices or strong motives: Exploring the mechanisms underlying
           the bias of organic claims on leniency judgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Marília Prada, David Rodrigues, Margarida V. Garrido
      Organic claims can influence how a product is perceived in dimensions that are unrelated with the food production method (e.g., organic food is perceived as more healthful and less caloric than conventional food). Such claims can also bias how the consumers of organic food are perceived and how other people judge their behavior. Schuldt and Schwarz (2010) have shown that individuals evaluating a target with a weight-loss goal are more lenient in judging the target forgoing exercise when the target had an organic (vs. conventional) dessert. This impact of organic claims on leniency judgments has been interpreted either as a halo or a licensing effect. In the current research we aim to replicate and extend Schuldt and Schwarz's (2010) results by examining the mechanisms that are more likely to explain the observed leniency judgments. In Experiment 1, we observed that leniency towards a target that has consumed an organic meal is only observed when the target intentionally chooses such organic meal (vs. choice determined by the situation). These findings suggest that the impact of organic claims on leniency judgments is not merely based on a halo effect. Instead, a licensing account emerges as the most probable mechanism. In Experiment 2, we further found that stronger (vs. weaker) motives for forgoing exercise influenced leniency judgments to the same extent as having had an organic meal. Understanding the mechanisms that shape consumers' decisions may have important implications to prevent bias in their judgments about food and exercise.


      PubDate: 2016-03-29T09:06:09Z
       
  • Correlates of parental feeding practices with pre-schoolers: Parental body
           image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Stephanie R. Damiano, Laura M. Hart, Susan J. Paxton
      Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers.


      PubDate: 2016-03-29T09:06:09Z
       
  • The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group
           of young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): S. Kourouniotis, R.S.J. Keast, L.J. Riddell, K. Lacy, M.G. Thorpe, S. Cicerale
      The ‘taste of food’ plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m2, 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001–0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake.


      PubDate: 2016-03-29T09:06:09Z
       
  • Caught in the struggle with food craving: Development and validation of a
           new cognitive fusion measure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Cristiana Duarte, José Pinto-Gouveia, Cláudia Ferreira, Bárbara Silva
      Cognitive fusion has been related to the development and maintenance of a series of mental health difficulties. Specifically, growing research on eating psychopathology has been demonstrating the important role of cognitive fusion related to body image in these disorders. Nonetheless, cognitive fusion specifically focused on eating remained to be investigated. The current study aimed at developing and validating the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire–Food Craving, a measure assessing the extent to which an individual is fused with food-craving undesirable and disturbing thoughts and urges. This study was conducted with distinct samples comprising men and women from the student and general population. A principal component analysis was conducted to assess the scale's structure, which was further examined in a confirmatory factor analysis. The scale's reliability and validities were also analysed. Results indicated that the CFQ-FC presented a one-dimensional structure with 7 items, accounting for 66.14% of the variance. A CFA confirmed the plausibility of the measurement model, which was found to be invariant in both sexes. The CFQ-FC also revealed very good internal consistency, construct reliability, temporal stability, and convergent and divergent validity, being positively associated with similar constructs and with indicators of eating and general psychopathology. CFQ-FC also discriminated individuals with clinically significant symptoms of binge eating from participants with no symptoms. Finally, the CFQ-FC presents incremental validity over a global measure of cognitive fusion in predicting eating psychopathology, namely binge eating. The CFQ-FC is a psychometrically sound measure that allows for a brief and reliable assessment of eating-related cognitive fusion. This is a novel measure that may significantly contribute for the assessment of this specific dimension of cognitive fusion and for the understanding of its role in eating psychopathology.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T23:12:33Z
       
  • Food neophobia in German adolescents: Determinants and association with
           dietary habits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Sarah Roßbach, Kristina Foterek, Inga Schmidt, Annett Hilbig, Ute Alexy
      Food neophobia (FN) is described as the rejection to eat unknown foods. Because only little is known about the role of FN in adolescence the aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of FN and associations with dietary habits of DONALD study participants. FN was measured with Pliner's and Hobden's Food Neophobia Scale (FN Score (FNS): range 10–70) in 166 10-18-year-old adolescents. Participants' age, sex, body weight status and duration of breast-feeding as well as parents' FN and educational status were considered as determinants. Energy intake, distribution of macronutrients and two variety scores were calculated from 3-day weighed dietary records. Multivariable general linear models were performed for data analyses. Boys and girls did not differ in their FNS (median (Min–Max): boys 31 (10–58), girls 32 (14–59)). Increasing age (p = 0.010) and duration of total breast-feeding (p = 0.006) were associated with decreasing FNS in girls only. FN was further positively associated with parental FN in the total sample (p = 0.004). FN was negatively associated with protein intake in the total sample (p = 0.017). The overall low level of FN in the DONALD study can be ascribed to the low level of FN in adolescence in general. Congruently with other studies, age and breast-feeding duration were identified as determinants of girls' FN and parental FN was identified as determinant of FN in the total sample. Further, our results indicate that FN leads to reduced protein intakes. Dietary variety was not strongly affected, possibly because of a broad variety of food supply in Germany.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T23:12:33Z
       
  • Does child temperament modify the overweight risk associated with parent
           feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors?: An exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Allan D. Tate, Amanda Trofholz, Kathleen Moritz Rudasill, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Jerica M. Berge
      Background Child temperament is a measure of an individual's behavioral tendencies. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether child temperament modified the overweight risk associated with parent feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors. Methods A sample of predominantly African American, Midwest families (N = 120) recruited from four metropolitan primary care clinics participated in this cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Parents reported on feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child temperament. Results Difficult temperament was not statistically related to parent feeding practices or child eating behaviors (p > 0.05). Tests of interaction indicated that the risk of child overweight differed by difficult temperament and easy temperament for two child eating behaviors (emotional eating and food fussiness, p < 0.05). For example, the effect of food fussiness decreased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but increased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Further, the effect of emotional eating increased the risk of overweight for difficult temperament children but decreased overweight risk for easy temperament children. Conclusions Tailoring parent-level interventions to child temperament or promoting environments that trigger less reactive individual responses may be effective in lowering risk of child overweight.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T23:12:33Z
       
  • Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Patrick Sweeney, Russell Levack, Jared Watters, Zhenping Xu, Yunlei Yang
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4–8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4–8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4–8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T23:12:33Z
       
  • How do people define moderation?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Michelle R. vanDellen, Jennifer C. Isherwood, Julie E. Delose
      Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T23:12:33Z
       
  • Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of
           9–10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state
           childhood obesity prevention pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Ashley Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Trina Aguirre, Michelle Krehbiel, Sarah Colby, Kendra Kattelmann, Melissa D. Olfert, Douglas Mathews, Adrienne White
      It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9–10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p < 0.05 significance level. Most had a bachelor's degree (31%) or some college (29%), about half were white, 66% were married, about 30% of households participated in assistance programs, and 82% were female. At program conclusion, participants significantly improved meal planning, prioritizing healthy meal choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T23:12:33Z
       
  • Diversity in fathers' food parenting practices: A qualitative exploration
           within a heterogeneous sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Neha Khandpur, Jo Charles, Rachel E. Blaine, Christine Blake, Kirsten Davison
      Background Food parenting practices (FPPs) are important in shaping children's dietary behaviors. However, existing FPP knowledge is largely based on research with mothers. Purpose This study (1) identified fathers' FPPs; (2) described differences in FPP use by fathers' education and residential status. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 fathers (39 ± 9.1 years; 37.5% non-residential; 40% ≥college education). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. NVivo 10 was used for theme detection, categorization and classification using inductive and deductive approaches. FPPs were identified and their relative distribution was examined across education and residential status. Results Twenty FPPs were identified - 13 responsive practices and 7 unresponsive practices. Having food rules was the most common responsive FPP (81.5%), followed by feeding on schedule (60%) and making healthy food accessible (60%). Common unresponsive FPPs were letting child dictate preferences (70%), incentivizing food consumption (60%) and pressuring the child to eat (35%). Compared to fathers with a college education, more fathers without a college education reported letting child dictate preferences (92% vs. 37%), educating their children about food (37% vs 12%), fewer reported feeding on schedule (50% vs. 75%), modeling healthy practices (29% vs. 50%), and using distraction to feed (4% vs. 37%). Compared to residential fathers, more non-residential fathers monitored (60% vs. 40%) or encouraged (60% vs. 36%) child food intake and let child dictate preferences (87% vs. 60%). Conclusions Fathers used an extensive variety of FPPs, similar to those identified in mothers. Further study on the influence of fathers' education and residential status on FPP use is warranted.


      PubDate: 2016-03-23T23:12:33Z
       
  • Factors influencing fruit and vegetable intake among urban Fijians: A
           qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): E.H. Morgan, P. Vatucawaqa, W. Snowdon, A. Worsley, A.D. Dangour, K. Lock
      Low fruit and vegetable intake is an important risk factor for micronutrient deficiencies and non-communicable diseases, but many people worldwide, including most Fijians, eat less than the World Health Organization recommended amount. The present qualitative study explores factors that influence fruit and vegetable intake among 57 urban Fijians (50 women, 7 men) of indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) and South Asian (Indian) descent. Eight focus group discussions were held in and around Suva, Fiji's capital and largest urban area, which explored motivation for eating fruit and vegetables, understandings of links to health and disease, availability and sources, determinants of product choice, and preferred ways of preparing and eating fruit and vegetables. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Regardless of ethnicity, participants indicated that they enjoyed and valued eating fruit and vegetables, were aware of the health benefits, and had confidence in their cooking skills. In both cultures, fruit and vegetables were essential components of traditional diets. However, increasing preferences for processed and imported foods, and inconsistent availability and affordability of high-quality, low-priced, fresh produce, were identified as important barriers. The findings indicate that efforts to improve fruit and vegetable intake in urban Fijians should target the stability of the domestic fruit and vegetable supply and access.


      PubDate: 2016-03-19T02:22:44Z
       
  • Factors influencing adolescent whole grain intake: A theory-based
           qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Maya Kamar, Charlotte Evans, Siobhan Hugh-Jones
      Whole grain consumption is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. One-fifth of UK adults and children do not consume any whole grains, and adolescents have low consumption rates. Factors affecting whole grain intake among adolescents are not well understood. This study examined the socio-economic, environmental, lifestyle and psychological factors likely to influence consumption and explored whether outcomes aligned with behavioural predictors proposed in the Reasoned Action Approach. Five focus groups explored young people's attitudes towards, knowledge and consumption of wholegrain foods, as well as barriers to, and facilitators of, consumption. Participants were male and female adolescents (n = 50) aged 11–16 years from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnicities, recruited through schools in the city of Leeds, UK. Focus groups were analysed using thematic analysis. Most participants had tried wholegrain food products, with cereal products being the most popular. Many recognised whole grain health benefits related to digestive health but not those related to heart disease or cancers. Several barriers to eating whole grains were identified including: difficulties in identifying wholegrain products and their health benefits; taste and visual appeal; and poor availability outside the home. Suggested facilitators of consumption were advertisements and educational campaigns, followed by improved sensory appeal, increased availability and choice, and tailoring products for young people. All constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action were identifiable in the data, suggesting that the factors influencing whole grain intake in adolescents are well captured by this model. Study outcomes may inform research and health promotion to increase whole grain intake in this age group.


      PubDate: 2016-03-19T02:22:44Z
       
  • Psychometric analysis of an eating behaviour questionnaire for an
           overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Mary Foong-Fong Chong, M. Na'im M. Ayob, Kok Joon Chong, E-Shyong Tai, Chin Meng Khoo, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Yung Seng Lee, Kwang Wei Tham, Kavita Venkataraman, Michael J. Meaney, Hwee Lin Wee, Eric Yin-Hao Khoo
      Objectives Previous studies reveal that the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which assesses eating behaviour, performs differently across population groups and cultures. We aimed to identify the factor structure that is most appropriate to capture eating behaviour in an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore. Methods TFEQ-51 was administered to 444 Chinese subjects pooled from four separate studies and scored according to various alternative versions of the TFEQ. Confirmatory factor analyses and goodness of fit indices were used to determine the most appropriate factor structure. Known-group validity analyses were conducted. Results Niemeier's Disinhibition Factors and the TFEQ-R18 factor structures were found to be the most applicable in our population based on goodness of fit indices, with a x2/df ratio of <3, RMSEA of ≤0.6 and a CFI value of >0.9 for both. Only two of three factors (Emotional Eating and Uncontrolled Eating) of the TFEQ-R18 showed good internal consistency, while none of Niemeier's Disinhibition Factors showed good internal consistency. Known-group validity showed that Emotional Eating and Internal Disinhibition were significantly associated with higher BMI. Conclusion We found that the TFEQ-R18 factor structure is the most appropriate and practical for use in measuring eating behaviour in an overweight and obese Chinese population in Singapore.


      PubDate: 2016-03-19T02:22:44Z
       
  • Does an early socialization into a food culture condition lifelong food
           preferences? Evidence from a retrospective study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Mircea-Lucian Scrob
      The influence of early formed dietary practices on food choices and preferences during adulthood has often been assumed but rarely adequately demonstrated given the difficulty of studying the subject matter with conventional laboratory or observational research designs. This article examines this assumption by analyzing the information from 31 structured interviews on the respondents' current preferences for combinations of six side dishes with bread or mămăligă (boiled cornmeal mush, similar to polenta). All the respondents had consumed mămăligă in their childhood but in their adulthood had switched to bread following the social and economic upheavals from 1960s Romania. The results show that a) for specific combinations, physiological factors and/or cultural norms that defined bread as a ‘prestigious’ food have been capable of overriding the effects of early socialization with mămăligă as the accompanying food and b) that consumers continue to prefer certain side dishes with mămăligă even after decades of predominant consumption of bread although confounding factors might account for such preferences. These findings qualify the expectation that an early familiarization with healthy eating habits will promote this desired lifestyle during adulthood by showing that physiological and socio-cultural factors are capable of overriding its effects on hedonic preferences.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • Eat, play, view, sleep: Exploring Mexican American mothers' perceptions of
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Rachel E. Davis, Suzanne M. Cole, Christine E. Blake, Shannon J. McKenney-Shubert, Karen E. Peterson
      Objective This mixed methods study sought to understand who makes decisions about whether preschool-aged Mexican American children engage in eating, outdoor play, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Methods Forty Mexican American mothers of children ages 3–4 participated in two interviews, during which both closed- and open-ended questions elicited perceptions of who made decisions for the four behaviors, as well as who was present, mealtime rules, and food choice values. Interviews were transcribed, coded for emergent themes, and compared across participants. Results Participants generally perceived themselves to be primary decision makers for all four behaviors; however, food decisions often seemed to be made collaboratively with the child. Fathers were most likely to participate in evening television decisions. Other family members were rarely mentioned. Selecting foods that children liked was a strong food choice value, while cost was rarely mentioned. Participants appeared to have low perceived control over their child's behaviors relative to their perceived roles in decision making. Conclusions Mothers may be the primary audience for obesity prevention messages for preschool-aged, Mexican American children; however, health promotion programs may need to increase mothers' awareness of their control over children's behaviors. Understanding how children's behaviors are regulated is an important aspect of obesity prevention for low-income, Mexican American children.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in
           young women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Roselinde L. van Nee, Junilla K. Larsen, Jennifer O. Fisher
      Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • Prevalence of Orthorexia nervosa among college students based on Bratman's
           test and associated tendencies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Joanna Bundros, Dawn Clifford, Kathryn Silliman, Michelle Neyman Morris
      Disordered eating is prevalent among college student populations, and Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is being explored as a new type of eating disorder. There is currently no standardized ON diagnostic tool, and the majority of ON research has been conducted among European populations. The present study explored the Bratman Orthorexia Test (BOT) for ON diagnosis, and its relationship to validated tools for assessing disordered eating, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies among college students attending a western university. A convenience sample of 448 college students with a mean age of 22 years was recruited to complete an online survey that included the BOT, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), Obsessive Compulsive Inventory, Revised (OCI-R) and demographics. Spearman correlation, Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis, chi-square, and multiple linear regressions were used for analyses. The average BOT score was 4.71, near the “health fanatic” range, with Hispanic/Latino subjects and overweight/obese students having significantly higher median BOT scores. Gender, age, and college major were not significantly associated with BOT score. Significant positive correlations were observed between total BOT and EAT-26 scores (r = .47, p < 0.01), BOT and BDDQ scores (r = .25, p < 0.01), and BOT and OCI-R scores (r = .19, p < 0.01). ON tendencies may exist among college students and Hispanic/Latino and overweight/obese students may be at increased risk. Further research is needed to determine ON risk factors among diverse student populations in order to inform prevention and treatment approaches on college campuses.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • Coeliac disease in adolescence: Coping strategies and personality factors
           affecting compliance with gluten-free diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Gudrun Wagner, Michael Zeiler, Vasileia Grylli, Gabriele Berger, Wolf-Dietrich Huber, Christian Woeber, Charlotte Rhind, Andreas Karwautz
      Objectives Patients suffering from a chronic condition such as coeliac disease (CD) need to develop coping strategies in order to preserve emotional balance and psychosocial functioning while adhering to their obligatory life-long gluten free diet (GFD). However, this can be particularly challenging for adolescents and may lead to dietary transgressions. Little is currently known about the influence of coping strategies and personality factors on dietary compliance. This study aims to explore these factors for the first time in adolescents with biopsy-proven CD. Study design We included 281 adolescents with CD and 95 healthy controls. We classified patients according to their GFD adherence status (adherent vs. non-adherent) and assessed coping strategies using the KIDCOPE and personality traits using the Junior-Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI). Results Adolescents with CD adherent to GFD used less emotional regulation and distraction as coping strategies than non-adherent patients. In terms of personality traits, adherent patients differed from non-adherent patients with respect to temperament, but not with respect to character, showing lower scores in novelty seeking, impulsivity and rule transgressions and higher scores in eagerness with work and perfectionism compared to non-adherent patients. No differences were found between healthy controls and adherent CD patients across these personality traits. Conclusions Coping strategies and personality traits differ in adolescent patients with CD adherent to GFD from those not adherent, and may therefore relate to risk or protective factors in adherence. Targeting coping and temperament using psychological interventions may therefore be beneficial to support adolescents with CD and optimise their adherence to GFD.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • Consumer consciousness on meat and the environment — Exploring
           differences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Pasi Pohjolainen, Petri Tapio, Markus Vinnari, Pekka Jokinen, Pekka Räsänen
      Global environmental challenges require changes in both the production and the consumption of goods. In this paper we analyse how consumers perceive the high environmental burden of meat. We analysed consumer environmental consciousness, including problem awareness and a support to action dimensions, latter including perceived self-efficacy as well as solutions to problems. The solutions were positioned on a continuum from increasing the efficiency of production to discussing sufficiency levels in consumption practices (techno-optimism, local meat, organic meat and meat reduction, respectively). We used a statistically representative survey sample (n = 1890) from the population of Finland and cluster analysis to explore differences among consumers. The analysis revealed that most Finns seem to be rather unsure of the study topic. At the same time they tend to have a comparably high level of self-efficacy (55 per cent of respondents) and endorsement of particularly local meat solution type (55%), followed by organic meat (35%), meat reduction (25%) and techno-optimism (15%), though the neutral stand was the most common one across the data. We also identified six consumer groups that reveal not only a high number of Highly unsure consumers (40%), but also some Rather conscious (20%) and a relatively small number of Highly conscious (8%). In addition, there were also easily observable groups of Careless conscious (14%), Rather unsure (9%) and Resistant (8%). The results highlight the need for a multitude of political actions to guide meat consumption, as there are groups that may benefit from practical tools for making dietary changes as well as groups in need for more comprehensive selection of measures, including environmental information.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • Understanding fruit and vegetable intake of Native American children: A
           mixed methods study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Rachel C. Sinley, Julie A. Albrecht
      Native American children experience greater rates of obesity and risk for chronic diseases in comparison to their counterparts in other ethnic groups. Contributing to this risk may be inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate the fruit and vegetable consumption of Native American children between the ages of 2 and 5 by using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. This study first collected qualitative data from caregivers of Native American children (n = 45) and stakeholders in Native American communities (n = 10) to gain perspectives of fruit and vegetable consumption. Data was then utilized to develop a fruit and vegetable survey which was administered with a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire. These quantitative assessments were administered to caregivers of Native American children (n = 92) to gain an understanding of predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among this population. This study was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior. Findings from the mixed methods analysis demonstrate that, while the IMB model may be a useful tool to utilize in explaining the complex relationship between factors that impact fruit and vegetable consumption among Native American children, a revised model may be appropriate to use in future intervention development.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • The effects of increased serving sizes on consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Chris Hydock, Anne Wilson, Karthik Easwar
      The US Food and Drug Administration recently revealed that it is considering modifying the Nutrition Facts Panels required on packaged foods. One proposed change is increasing serving sizes included on labels, which has two potential implications. Larger serving sizes could increase consumption if consumers use the serving sizes displayed as a reference point for their own consumption (McFerran et al., 2010). Alternatively, larger serving sizes that depict increased values of negative nutrients (e.g. calories) could lead consumers to perceive foods as less healthy, thereby reducing consumption (Russo et al., 1986). In study 1 (Online sample, N = 208, Mage = 32, SDage = 12), participants saw pictures of packaged food items and nutrition labels. The labels, depicted either the existing or larger serving size. Across all foods, larger serving sizes led to lower health perceptions. Labels with larger serving sizes were rated as more representative of typical consumption. Study 2 (Online sample, N = 347, Mage = 31, SDage = 10) used the same design as study 1, but required participants to virtually portion foods. While serving sizes did not impact the amount of food consumers portioned, those who saw labels with larger serving sizes estimated that they portioned out more calories. In study 3 (Student sample, N = 198, Mage = 20, SDage = 1), participants were given M&Ms to eat, paired with a nutritional label depicting either the current or a larger serving size, while participating in unrelated surveys. Participants presented with the larger serving size label consumed less than those presented with the current serving size label. Together, the results suggest that the proposed increase in serving sizes on Nutrition Facts Panels could lower consumption of high-calorie foods.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Anja Munkholm, Else Marie Olsen, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask, Lars Clemmensen, Martin K. Rimvall, Pia Jeppesen, Nadia Micali, Anne Mette Skovgaard
      Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11–12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent psychiatrists. Height and weight were measured at a face-to-face assessment. The results showed that restrained eating was significantly associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and emotional disorders in both genders. Emotional eating showed similar associations with overweight and body dissatisfaction in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can be identified in preadolescence, and co-exist with weight problems and mental disorders. Thus restrained, emotional and external eating was, in different ways, associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and mental disorders. Our findings point to significant eating behaviours in preadolescence, which could constitute potential predictors of later eating disorder risk.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T13:30:17Z
       
  • The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on
           food intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Lenny R. Vartanian, William H. Chen, Natalie M. Reily, Alan D. Castel
      This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T00:09:14Z
       
  • Structural equation modeling of the associations between the home
           environment and obesity-related cardiovascular fitness and insulin
           resistance among Hispanic children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Margarita Santiago-Torres, Yuchen Cui, Alexandra K. Adams, David B. Allen, Aaron L. Carrel, Jessica Y. Guo, Tara L. LaRowe, Dale A. Schoeller
      Hispanic children are disproportionally affected by obesity-related risk of metabolic disease. We used the structural equation modeling to examine the associations between specific diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors at home and Hispanic children's metabolic health. A total of 187 Hispanic children and their parents from an urban community in Wisconsin participated in the study. Exposure variables included, children's daily intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and PA; home availability of SSB and PA areas/equipment; and parents' intake of SSB and PA, assessed through self-administered questionnaires. Outcome variables for children's metabolic health included, measured anthropometrics; cardiovascular fitness assessed using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER); and insulin resistance determined with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR). We found that children's daily intake of SSB was positively associated with BMI z-score, which in turn, was positively associated with HOMAIR (P < 0.05). Specific diet behaviors at home associated with children's intake of SSB, included home availability of SSB, which mediated the association between parents' and children's intake of SSB (P < 0.05). Children's PA was positively associated with PACER z-score, which in turn, was inversely associated with HOMAIR (P < 0.05). Specific PA behaviors at home associated with children's PA, included home availability of PA areas/equipment, which mediated the association between parents' and children's PA (P < 0.05). The structural equation model indices suggested a satisfactory model fit (Chi-square, X 2  = 53.1, comparative fix index = 0.92, root-mean-squared error associated = 0.04). The findings confirm the need for interventions at the family level that promotes healthier home environments by targeting poor diet and low levels of PA in all family members.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T00:09:14Z
       
  • Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of
           weight loss in men and women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Rebecca L. Williams, Lisa G. Wood, Clare E. Collins, Philip J. Morgan, Robin Callister
      Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2) adults aged 18–60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T00:09:14Z
       
  • Maternal encouragement and discouragement: Differences by food type and
           child weight status
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Megan H. Pesch, Danielle P. Appugliese, Niko Kaciroti, Katherine L. Rosenblum, Alison L. Miller, Julie C. Lumeng
      Childhood obesity prevention practice guidelines recommend that parents encourage the intake of certain types of foods and discourage the intake of others. It is unknown if parents of children of different weight statuses encourage or discourage their child's intake differently based on food type. The objective of this study was to determine the association of child weight status with maternal encouragement and discouragement of for four different types of food. A total of 222 mother-child dyads were video-taped during the standardized, sequential presentation of four foods to both participants: cupcakes (familiar dessert), green beans (familiar vegetable), halva (unfamiliar dessert) and artichoke (unfamiliar vegetable). Mother's encouragements and discouragements of child intake were reliably coded for each food type. Poisson regression models were used to test the independent association of child weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) with encouragement and discouragement for each food type. Mothers of an obese, vs. normal or overweight child, had lower rates of encouragement for a familiar dessert (p = 0.02), and a higher rates of discouragements for a familiar dessert (p = 0.001), a familiar vegetable (p = 0.01), and an unfamiliar vegetable (p = 0.001). There were no differences in encouragements or discouragements between mothers of an overweight, vs. obese child, for any of the 4 food types. Mothers of obese children may alter their feeding behavior differentially based on food type. Future work should examine how interventions promoting maternal encouragement or discouragement of different food types impact child weight status.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T00:09:14Z
       
  • Overeating at dinner time among Japanese workers: Is overeating related to
           stress response and late dinner times?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 101
      Author(s): Akiko Suzuki, Hirofumi Sakurazawa, Takanori Fujita, Rie Akamatsu
      There are several known risk factors for overeating, including negative feelings and hunger. It was hypothesized that overtime work is associated with stress responses and later dinner times, leading to longer periods of time without eating, and that this, in turn, leads to a strong experience of hunger and consequent overeating at dinner. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among overeating at dinner, stress responses (e.g., fatigue, anxiety, and depression), and dinner times in Japanese male workers. In December 2012, 255 Japanese male workers at a leasing company completed a self-report questionnaire about overeating at dinner, psychological stress responses, physical stress responses, and dinner times. Each worker was sent an email with a link to the questionnaire website, where his answers were collected. Relationships between overeating at dinner and lifestyle issues were investigated using multiple linear regression analysis treating overeating as a dependent variable. Factors related to overeating at dinner included psychological stress response (β = 0.251 p < 0.001) and dinner time (β = 0.220, p = 0.004). These cross-sectional data suggest that overeating at dinner is related to dinner time in men and to stress responses.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T00:09:14Z
       
 
 
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