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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3038 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3038 Journals sorted alphabetically
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access  
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.317, h-index: 89)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access  
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.789, h-index: 43)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 10)
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Efficacy of the attention control trining program on reducing attentional
           bias in obese and overweight dieters
    • Authors: Masoud Moghaddaszadeh Bazzaz; Javad Salehi Fadardi; John Parkinson
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Masoud Moghaddaszadeh Bazzaz, Javad Salehi Fadardi, John Parkinson
      Evidence indicates that attentional bias and dieter's eating styles (i.e., external, emotional, restraint) play important roles in the success or failure of dieters. First, we studied food-related attentional bias (FAB; based on interference scores on a modified Stroop test), eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and increases in body mass index (BMI) in overweight or obese dieters (n = 34) and nondieters (n = 35). Compared with nondieters, dieters showed higher FAB, which was positively associated with BMI. In addition, the majority of overweight and obese participants had higher scores on emotional and restrained eating styles. Second, we investigated the effect of a Food Attention Control Training Program (Food-ACTP) on reducing FAB and dieting success. Dieters (n = 49) were divided into three groups: intervention (training), no-intervention (control), and sham-intervention, all of whom were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow up. Only the intervention group showed reductions in their FAB, diet failure rate, and BMI at follow up. For the intervention group, there was a significant interaction between changes in FAB and eating styles in predicting decreases in BMI. Overall, this work shows that attentional bias plays an important role in eating behavior, and dieters can benefit from practicing with Food-ACTP as a complimentary intervention. The exact mechanism through which Food-ACTP improves dieting success awaits further investigation.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.114
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year
           longitudinal cohort study
    • Authors: Elizabeth H. Evans; Ashley J. Adamson; Laura Basterfield; Ann Le Couteur; Jessica K. Reilly; John J. Reilly; Kathryn N. Parkinson
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Elizabeth H. Evans, Ashley J. Adamson, Laura Basterfield, Ann Le Couteur, Jessica K. Reilly, John J. Reilly, Kathryn N. Parkinson
      Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls’ dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood
    • Authors: Brian P. Meier; Sabrina W. Noll; Oluwatobi J. Molokwu
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Brian P. Meier, Sabrina W. Noll, Oluwatobi J. Molokwu
      Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Salt appetite is not increased in summer heat
    • Authors: Micah Leshem
      Pages: 28 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Micah Leshem
      We tested the hypothesis that salt appetite increases in summer heat due to increased sodium loss due to increased drinking and perspiration. A test battery in the same sample of healthy young people tested in summer and winter revealed no seasonal differences in salt appetite (or fluid intake) despite a 10 °C rise in mean environmental temperature. Unexpectedly, sweet preference is reduced in summer.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • The development and effectiveness of an ecological momentary intervention
           to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption in low-consuming young
    • Authors: Kate L. Brookie; Louise A. Mainvil; Anitra C. Carr; Margreet C.M. Vissers; Tamlin S. Conner
      Pages: 32 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Kate L. Brookie, Louise A. Mainvil, Anitra C. Carr, Margreet C.M. Vissers, Tamlin S. Conner
      Objectives To develop and test the effectiveness of a mobile-phone based ecological momentary intervention (EMI) to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in low-consuming young adults. Methods A two-week randomised controlled trial of low-FV consuming young adults ages 18–25 years (n = 171) compared three conditions: ecological momentary intervention (EMI), fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI), and a diet-as-usual control (ANZCTRN12615000183583). Participants in the EMI condition were sent two targeted text messages a day for 13 days and were asked to increase daily FV consumption to at least five servings. These messages were designed, using the Health Action Process Approach, to address salient beliefs identified as effective in a preliminary focus group investigation. Participants in the FVI condition were provided two servings of FV a day (carrots, kiwifruit or oranges, and apples) to eat in addition to their current diet. Control participants ate their normal diet. Participants reported their daily servings of FV each evening during the study using a smartphone-delivered survey. Blood samples testing plasma vitamin C and total carotenoids were taken pre- and post-intervention as an objective biomarker of FV intake. Results Participants in the EMI and FVI conditions reported higher daily servings of FV – approximately +1 serving per day more compared to control (EMI = 3.7 servings/day; FVI = 3.7 servings/day; Control = 2.8 servings/day) and approximately +1.2 servings compared to baseline. Increases in objective biomarkers for the experimental conditions supported the validity of self-reported FV consumption. Conclusions Our results provide initial proof of concept that EMI strategies (with minor financial assistance) are as effective as giving FV in increasing FV consumption in educated, low-consuming young adults.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • The problematic messages of nutritional discourse: A case-based critical
           media analysis
    • Authors: Antonia Dodds; Kerry Chamberlain
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Antonia Dodds, Kerry Chamberlain
      Nutritional science has assumed a fundamental importance in shaping food meanings and practices in the developed world. This study critically analysed the content of one weekly nutrition column written by a nutritional expert in a popular New Zealand magazine, from a social constructionist perspective, to investigate how nutritional advice constructs food, food practices and eaters. The analysis identified a range of ways in which the nutrition information communicated in the articles was potentially problematic for readers. The articles advocated eating for health with recommendations based on nutritional science, but depicted nutritional information as inconclusive, changeable and open to interpretation. Fear-based messages were used to motivate making 'healthy' food choices, through linking 'unhealthy' food choices with fatness and chronic ill health. Unhealthy foods were portrayed as more enjoyable than healthy foods, social occasions involving food were constructed as problematic, and exercise was defined only as a way to negate food consumption. Healthy eating was portrayed as a matter of personal choice, obscuring the situational factors that impact on food choice and health. We conclude that the nutritional advice analysed in this study constructs a way of understanding food that, if internalised by eaters, may evoke anxiety, confusion and dissatisfaction around food and eating.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of
           visual food cues in women: An ERP study
    • Authors: Daniela Schwab; Matteo Giraldo; Benjamin Spiegl; Anne Schienle
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Daniela Schwab, Matteo Giraldo, Benjamin Spiegl, Anne Schienle
      The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s. The bitter aftertaste of wormwood enhanced fronto-central early potentials (N100, N200) and reduced P300 amplitudes for all food types (meat, sweets, vegetables). Moreover, meat and sweets elicited higher fronto-central LPPs than vegetables in the water group. This differentiation was absent in the bitter group, which gave lower arousal ratings for the high-caloric food. We found that a minor intervention (‘bitter rinse’) was sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal processing of food images reflecting increased early attention (N100, N200) as well as reduced affective value (P300, LPP). Future studies should investigate whether this intervention is able to influence eating behavior.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T13:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.023
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Modification of aftertaste with a menthol mouthwash reduces food wanting,
           liking, and ad libitum intake of potato crisps
    • Authors: Scott C. Hutchings; Katy M. Horner; Victoria A. Dible; John M.V. Grigor; Dolores O'Riordan
      Pages: 57 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Scott C. Hutchings, Katy M. Horner, Victoria A. Dible, John M.V. Grigor, Dolores O'Riordan
      This research investigated the effect of modifying the aftertaste of potato crisps on (1) temporal sensory perception and (2) appetite using three mouthwash conditions (no mouthwash, a water mouthwash, and a menthol mouthwash). For the sensory study, 17 screened female subjects were trained on the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methodology. Subjects undertook TDS to monitor all sensory attributes during the mastication of a 2 g crisp until swallowing (at 20s), then conducted the mouthwash, and then continued the TDS task to monitor aftertaste until 90s. For the appetite study, 36 subjects (18 male, 18 female) completed 100 mm Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for desire, liking, hunger, and thirst, followed by an ad libitum eating task. For the VAS scales testing, subjects chewed and swallowed a 2 g crisp, and then immediately conducted the mouthwash before completing the VAS scales. For the ad libitum task, subjects were given 12 min to consume as many crisps as they desired on a plate (up to 50 g). Every three minutes they were required to conduct a mouthwash. TDS results showed that in comparison with no mouthwash, the water mouthwash significantly reduced aftertaste attributes such as savoury, salty, and fatty mouthcoating, and the menthol mouthwash significantly increased aftertaste attributes of cooling, minty, and tingly. The water mouthwash did not influence desire and liking of crisps, or hunger and thirst. The water mouthwash did not influence ad libitum intake of the crisps over a 12 min period. The menthol mouthwash significantly reduced desire and liking of the crisps, as well as hunger and thirst. Furthermore, the menthol mouthwash significantly reduced ad libitum crisp intake by 29% over the 12 min period.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T13:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Developing a valid meal assessment tool for hospital patients
    • Authors: Mary Hannan-Jones; Sandra Capra
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Mary Hannan-Jones, Sandra Capra
      Patients' perspectives of meal items are critical in supporting effective decisions about meal provision in hospitals. The objective of this research was to develop a valid meal assessment tool (MAT), to quickly and accurately assess patient's views on meal items, for ultimate use in a large multi-centre trial. Nine iterations of the meal assessment tool were tested for content and construct validity in a large acute care hospital to determine wording, number scale and physical orientation for responses. Patients were interviewed to assess content validity, ease of completion, timing and assistance requirement. Following expert feedback, the resulting tool consisted of a 7 point scale measuring three meal components (meat, starch and vegetable), with ratings for flavour and taste combined, appearance and quality. Measures of overall satisfaction, meal expectation, age and gender were included for direct comparability with the valid published Acute Care Hospital Foodservice Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (ACHFPSQ). Three hundred and four surveys were completed in the development process (77% response), 53% male, mean age 56 years. Best completion rates were by interview with completion times of 2–5 min. The tool was then made available in a large multi-centre meal assessment project (n = 14,500) and was able to detect differences between variations of the same meal and between the same ingredient prepared in alternative ways. The MAT proved successful in discriminating meal components in terms of quality, taste and appearance and is useful for those planning and assessing meals in a variety of healthcare settings.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T13:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Looking for cues – infant communication of hunger and satiation
           during milk feeding
    • Authors: N. Shloim; C.M.J.L. Vereijken; P. Blundell; M.M. Hetherington
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): N. Shloim, C.M.J.L. Vereijken, P. Blundell, M.M. Hetherington
      It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding. Infants' age ranged from 3 to 22 weeks. Feeding cues were identified using a validated list of communication cues (NCAST). The frequency of each cue during the beginning, middle, and end of the meal was recorded. There were 22 feeding cues identified during the feeds, with significantly more frequent disengagement cues expressed than engagement cues. Significantly more frequent feeding cues were observed at the beginning than at the end of the meal showing that cue frequency changes with satiation. Breastfeeding infants exhibited more engagement and disengagement cues than formula fed infants. Supporting mothers to identify engagement and disengagement cues during a milk feed may promote more responsive feeding-strategies that can be acquired by mothers using different modes of feeding.

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Traditional food uses of wild plants among the Gorani of South Kosovo
    • Authors: Andrea Pieroni; Renata Sõukand; Cassandra L. Quave; Avni Hajdari; Behxhet Mustafa
      Pages: 83 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Andrea Pieroni, Renata Sõukand, Cassandra L. Quave, Avni Hajdari, Behxhet Mustafa
      A food ethnobotanical field study was conducted among the Gorani of South Kosovo, a small ethnic minority group that speaks a South-Slavic language and lives in the south of the country. We conducted forty-one semi-structured interviews in ten villages of the Kosovar Gora mountainous area and found that seventy-nine wild botanical and mycological taxa represent the complex mosaic of the food cultural heritage in this population. A large portion of the wild food plant reports refer to fermented wild fruit-based beverages and herbal teas, while the role of wild vegetables is restricted. A comparison of these data with those previously collected among the Gorani living in nearby villages within the territory of Albania, who were separated in 1925 from their relatives living in present-day Kosovo, shows that approximately one third of the wild food plant reports are the same. This finding demonstrates the complex nature of Kosovar Gorani ethnobotany, which could indicate the permanence of possible “original” Gorani wild plant uses (mainly including wild fruits-based beverages), as well as elements of cultural adaptation to Serbian and Bosniak ethnobotanies (mainly including a few herbal teas and mushrooms).

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.024
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and daily
           milk snack consumption in healthy, adolescent males
    • Authors: Benjamin P. Green; Emma J. Stevenson; Penny L.S. Rumbold
      Pages: 93 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Benjamin P. Green, Emma J. Stevenson, Penny L.S. Rumbold
      Comprising of two experiments, this study assessed the metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and chronic milk consumption in adolescent males (15–18 y). Eleven adolescents [mean ± SD age: 16.5 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 23.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2] participated in the acute experiment and completed two laboratory visits (milk vs. fruit-juice) in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-d. Seventeen adolescents [age: 16.1 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2] completed the chronic experiment. For the chronic experiment, a parallel design with two groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated and consumed milk (n = 9) or fruit-juice (n = 8) for 28-d, completing laboratory visits on the first (baseline, day-0) and last day (follow-up, day-28) of the intervention phase. On laboratory visits (for both experiments), measures of appetite, metabolism and endocrine responses were assessed at regular intervals. In addition, eating behavior was quantified by ad libitum assessment under laboratory conditions and in the free-living environment by weighed food record. Acute milk intake stimulated glucagon (P = 0.027 [16.8 pg mL; 95% CI: 2.4, 31.3]) and reduced ad libitum energy intake relative to fruit-juice (P = 0.048 [−651.3 kJ; 95% CI: −1294.1, −8.6]), but was comparable in the free-living environment. Chronic milk intake reduced free-living energy intake at the follow-up visit compared to baseline (P = 0.013 [-1910.9 kJ; 95% CI: −554.6, −3267.2]), whereas the opposite was apparent for fruit-juice. Relative to baseline, chronic milk intake increased the insulin response to both breakfast (P = 0.031) and mid-morning milk consumption (P = 0.050) whilst attenuating blood glucose (P = 0.025). Together, these findings suggest milk consumption impacts favorably on eating behavior in adolescent males, potentially through integrated endocrine responses.

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.029
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Messages promoting genetic modification of crops in the context
           of climate change: Evidence for psychological reactance
    • Authors: Hang Lu; Katherine A. McComas; John C. Besley
      Pages: 104 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Hang Lu, Katherine A. McComas, John C. Besley
      Genetic modification (GM) of crops and climate change are arguably two of today's most challenging science communication issues. Increasingly, these two issues are connected in messages proposing GM as a viable option for ensuring global food security threatened by climate change. This study examines the effects of messages promoting the benefits of GM in the context of climate change. Further, it examines whether explicit reference to “climate change,” or “global warming” in a GM message results in different effects than each other, or an implicit climate reference. An online sample of U.S. participants (N = 1050) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: “climate change” cue, “global warming” cue, implicit cue, or control (no message). Generally speaking, framing GM crops as a way to help ensure global food security proved to be an effective messaging strategy in increasing positive attitudes toward GM. In addition, the implicit cue condition led to liberals having more positive attitudes and behavioral intentions toward GM than the “climate change” cue condition, an effect mediated by message evaluations.

      PubDate: 2016-10-02T19:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.026
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Shrinking the food-print: A qualitative study into consumer perceptions,
           experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly
           food behaviours
    • Authors: A.C. Hoek; D. Pearson; S.W. James; M.A. Lawrence; S. Friel
      Pages: 117 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): A.C. Hoek, D. Pearson, S.W. James, M.A. Lawrence, S. Friel
      Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the importance of multilevel policies and actions that address healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours. However it is not yet clear which actions are most suitable to support consumers to adopt both behaviours concurrently. To this end, we undertook a qualitative study to assess consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly foods and four target behaviours: reducing overconsumption of food beyond energy needs, reducing consumption of low-nutrient energy dense foods, eating less animal- and more plant-derived foods, and reducing food waste. Online in-depth interviews were held with 29 Australian food shoppers representing different levels of involvement with health and environment in daily food choices. The results indicate that compared to health, the relationship between food and the environment is rarely considered by consumers. The four target food behaviours were primarily associated and motivated by an impact on health, except for not wasting foods. Participants had the most positive attitude and highest motivation for eating less processed and packaged foods, mostly to avoid excessive packaging and ‘chemicals’ in foods. This was followed by the behaviours reducing food waste and overconsumption. Conversely, there was a predominantly negative attitude towards, and low motivation for, eating less animal-derived products and more plant based foods. Overall, consumers found a joined concept of healthy and environmentally friendly foods an acceptable idea. We recommend that health should remain the overarching principle for policies and actions concerned with shifting consumer behaviours, as this personal benefit appears to have a greater potential to support behaviour change. Future consumer focused work could pay attention to framing behavioural messages, providing intermediate behavioural goals, and a multiple target approach to change habitual behaviours.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.030
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Yogurt's flexible image during its rise in popularity in post-war Belgium
    • Authors: Jon Verriet; Frédéric Leroy
      Pages: 132 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jon Verriet, Frédéric Leroy
      The consumption of yogurt in Western countries has risen for over a century, first slowly, then more rapidly. The purpose of the present study was to investigate this prolonged phase of growth, by examining the popularity and the projected image of yogurt. A particular focus was on the way these aspects were reflected in consumption patterns and media representations. The data showed how during its period of rapid popularization, yogurt's visibility in the media greatly increased. It was concluded that the product's image was highly flexible in post-war decades, evidenced by the multi-pronged approach taken by marketers. Yogurt was not only advertised as both tasty and healthy, but also as natural and convenient, a strategy that appears to have been informed by consumers' preferences and existing cultural values. This demonstrates how a high degree of product differentiation and diversification during a product's growth stage can result in a heterogeneous image, allowing for a broad range of marketing strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.028
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with
           physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa
    • Authors: Tobias Hofmann; Ulf Elbelt; Verena Haas; Anne Ahnis; Burghard F. Klapp; Matthias Rose; Andreas Stengel
      Pages: 141 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Tobias Hofmann, Ulf Elbelt, Verena Haas, Anne Ahnis, Burghard F. Klapp, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
      While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479–26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = −0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = −0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p < 0.01). Depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress did not correlate with kisspeptin or any other of the investigated hormones (p > 0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in the regulation of physical activity in anorexia nervosa.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.032
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Do disinhibited eaters pay increased attention to food cues?
    • Authors: C.H. Seage; M. Lee
      Pages: 151 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): C.H. Seage, M. Lee
      The Three Factors Eating Questionnaire's measure of disinhibited eating is a robust predictor of long-term weight gain. This experiment explored if disinhibited eaters display attentional bias to food cues. Participants (N = 45) completed a visual dot probe task which measured responses to food (energy dense and low energy foods) and neutral cues. Picture pairs were displayed either for a 100 ms or 2000 ms duration. All participants displayed attentional bias for energy dense food items. Indices of attentional bias were largest in disinhibited eaters. Attentional bias in disinhibited eaters appeared to be underpinned by facilitated attention.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.031
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI
    • Authors: Menna Price; Suzanne Higgs; Michelle Lee
      Pages: 156 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Menna Price, Suzanne Higgs, Michelle Lee
      Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18–73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15–43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, −0.10 to −0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.034
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Effects of preparatory and action planning instructions on
           situation-specific and general fruit and snack intake
    • Authors: Gert-Jan de Bruijn; Minh Hao Nguyen; Ryan E. Rhodes; Liesbeth van Osch
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Gert-Jan de Bruijn, Minh Hao Nguyen, Ryan E. Rhodes, Liesbeth van Osch
      Evidence to date suggests heterogeneity in the effects of implementation intentions on health behaviour, including diet. Additional variables and study designs may impact on their effectiveness. Preparatory action, such as making sure fruits are available for consumption, may be an important additional variable. Likewise, most implementation intention research has focused on changes in general intake, yet implementation intention instructions typically require participants to consider behaviour in specific situations. Little is known on how implementation intentions impact situation-specific intake. The present study sought to add to the evidence base by comparing (1) the effects of action planning instructions versus preparatory planning instructions on (2) both situation-specific (as formulated in the implementation intention instruction) and general intake of fruits and in-between meal snack intake frequency. Fruit intake was assessed in average pieces per day, whereas snacking intake was assessed as average frequency in days per week. Using non-probability sampling, 243 undergraduate students who intended to have a healthy diet were randomized to either a standard information control condition, an action planning condition, or a preparatory planning condition. Planning manipulations were based on previous work. Two weeks later, general and situation-specific intake was assessed again in 181 participants. Data were analysed using 2 (time) x 3 (conditions) analyses of variance. Results showed that both planning manipulations were successful in decreasing snack intake frequency in the specified situation, with larger effect sizes for the action planning condition than for the preparatory planning condition. No effects were found on general snack intake frequency or fruit intake. Future planning interventions should more explicitly compare changes in situational and general intake, as well as simultaneously assessed decreases in unhealthy intake and increases in healthy intake.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Associations among measures of energy balance related behaviors and
           psychosocial determinants in urban upper elementary school children
    • Authors: Lorraine N. Bandelli; Heewon Lee Gray; Rachel C. Paul; Isobel R. Contento; Pamela A. Koch
      Pages: 171 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Lorraine N. Bandelli, Heewon Lee Gray, Rachel C. Paul, Isobel R. Contento, Pamela A. Koch
      Background Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. Methods Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six “do more” (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and “do less” (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories. Correlations among behaviors and hierarchical linear model analyses of the relationship between psychosocial determinants and behaviors were conducted for those with complete data (n = 952). Results The “do more” and the “do less” behaviors were significantly correlated within categories (p < 0.01). “Do more” food-related behaviors were correlated with physical activity but so were sports drinks, while the “do less” food-related behaviors tended to be correlated to sedentary behavior (p < 0.01). “Do more” behaviors were associated with self-efficacy and habit strength, and “do less” behaviors with outcome expectations, self-efficacy, habit strength, and behavioral intention. Conclusions Interventions can address the healthy and less healthy clusters of behaviors together, focusing on strategies to enhance their self-efficacy and habit strength for the “do more” behaviors and outcome expectations to motivate intention to choose fewer “do less” behaviors, along with enhancing self-efficacy and habit. Research can examine these determinants as potential mediators of change in intervention.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.027
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Food skills confidence and household gatekeepers' dietary practices
    • Authors: Melissa Burton; Mike Reid; Anthony Worsley; Felix Mavondo
      Pages: 183 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Melissa Burton, Mike Reid, Anthony Worsley, Felix Mavondo
      Introduction Household food gatekeepers have the potential to influence the food attitudes and behaviours of family members, as they are mainly responsible for food-related tasks in the home. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gatekeepers' confidence in food-related skills and nutrition knowledge on food practices in the home. Methods An online survey was completed by 1059 Australian dietary gatekeepers selected from the Global Market Insite (GMI) research database. Participants responded to questions about food acquisition and preparation behaviours, the home eating environment, perceptions and attitudes towards food, and demographics. Two-step cluster analysis was used to identify groups based on confidence regarding food skills and nutrition knowledge. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to compare the groups on the dependent variables. Results Three groups were identified: low confidence, moderate confidence and high confidence. Gatekeepers in the highest confidence group were significantly more likely to report lower body mass index (BMI), and indicate higher importance of fresh food products, vegetable prominence in meals, product information use, meal planning, perceived behavioural control and overall diet satisfaction. Gatekeepers in the lowest confidence group were significantly more likely to indicate more perceived barriers to healthy eating, report more time constraints and more impulse purchasing practices, and higher convenience ingredient use. Other smaller associations were also found. Conclusion Household food gatekeepers with high food skills confidence were more likely to engage in several healthy food practices, while those with low food skills confidence were more likely to engage in unhealthy food practices. Food education strategies aimed at building food-skills and nutrition knowledge will enable current and future gatekeepers to make healthier food decisions for themselves and for their families.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.033
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • A concept mapping study on organic food consumers in Shanghai, China
    • Authors: Huliyeti Hasimu; Sergio Marchesini; Maurizio Canavari
      Pages: 191 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Huliyeti Hasimu, Sergio Marchesini, Maurizio Canavari
      Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the “Brand concept mapping” method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai. We then analyzed the data using network and cluster analysis to create aggregated maps for two distinct groups of consumers. Similarly to their peers in developed countries, Chinese consumers perceive organic food as healthy, safe and expensive. However, organic is not necessarily synonymous with natural produce in China, also due to a translation of the term that conveys the idea of a “technology advanced” product. Organic overlaps with the green food label in terms of image and positioning in the market, since they are easily associated and often confused. The two groups we identified show clear differences in the way the organic concept is associated to other concepts and features. The study provides useful information for practitioners: marketers of organic products in China should invest in communication to emphasize the differences with Green Food products and they should consider the possibility of segmenting organic consumers; Chinese policy makers should consider implementing information campaigns aimed at achieving a better understanding of the features of these quality labels among consumers. For researchers, the study confirms that the BCM method is effective and its integration with network and cluster analysis improves the interpretation of individual and aggregated maps.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • The effect of high-fat diet consumption on appetitive instrumental
           behavior in rats
    • Authors: Frédéric Tantot; Shauna L. Parkes; Alain R. Marchand; Chloé Boitard; Fabien Naneix; Sophie Layé; Pierre Trifilieff; Etienne Coutureau; Guillaume Ferreira
      Pages: 203 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Frédéric Tantot, Shauna L. Parkes, Alain R. Marchand, Chloé Boitard, Fabien Naneix, Sophie Layé, Pierre Trifilieff, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
      Evidence now indicates that the chronic consumption of high-calorie foods, such as a high-fat diet (HFD), is associated with impaired control over food-seeking, yet the extent of this alteration is not fully understood. Using different reinforcement schedules, we evaluated whether HFD intake from weaning to adulthood modifies instrumental responding and induces a shift from goal-directed actions to habitual responding. We first observed reduced instrumental performance and motivation for a food reward in HFD-fed rats trained under schedules of reinforcement that facilitate habitual responding [Random Interval (RI)]. However, this deficit was alleviated if rats trained under RI were subsequently trained with reinforcement schedules that promote goal-directed strategies [Random Ratio (RR)]. Using an outcome devaluation procedure, we then demonstrated that consumption of a HFD promoted habitual behavior in rats trained under RI but not RR schedules. Finally, extended HFD exposure did not interfere with the ability of RR training to overcome impaired RI instrumental performance and to favor goal-directed behavior. These results indicate that chronic consumption of a HFD changes the co-ordination of goal-directed actions and habits and that alteration of food-seeking may be reversed under particular behavioral conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Food cravings among Brazilian population
    • Authors: Anna Cecília Queiroz de Medeiros; Lucia de Fatima Campos Pedrosa; Maria Emilia Yamamoto
      Pages: 212 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Anna Cecília Queiroz de Medeiros, Lucia de Fatima Campos Pedrosa, Maria Emilia Yamamoto
      This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ2/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • The effect of parental rejection on the emotional eating behaviour of
           youngsters: A laboratory-based study
    • Authors: Julie Vandewalle; Ellen Moens; Guy Bosmans; Caroline Braet
      Pages: 219 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Julie Vandewalle, Ellen Moens, Guy Bosmans, Caroline Braet
      Results from survey studies demonstrate a relationship between parental rejection and self-reported emotional eating of youngsters. The aim of the current study was to build on this research by examining the relationship between parental rejection and actual emotional eating, using an experimental laboratory paradigm. Participants were 46 youngsters between the ages of 10 and 17 years old. Participants first completed online questionnaires at home, measuring parental rejection and emotional eating style. At the laboratory, participants were randomly assigned to a neutral condition or negative mood condition, followed by a multi-item snack buffet. The interaction effect maternal rejection × condition on energy intake from savoury food was significant. More maternal rejection predicted more energy intake from savoury food in the negative mood condition, but not in the neutral condition. The results highlight the importance of assessing, and if mandatory, improving the emotional bond between parent and child in the prevention and intervention of emotional eating.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Perspectives on learning to cook and public support for cooking education
           policies in the United States: A mixed methods study
    • Authors: Julia A. Wolfson; Shannon Frattaroli; Sara N. Bleich; Katherine Clegg Smith; Stephen P. Teret
      Pages: 226 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Julia A. Wolfson, Shannon Frattaroli, Sara N. Bleich, Katherine Clegg Smith, Stephen P. Teret
      Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating.

      PubDate: 2016-10-17T03:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2016)
  • Alterations in taste perception due to recreational drug use are due to
           smoking a substance rather than ingesting it
    • Authors: Terence M. Dovey; Emma J. Boyland; Penelope Trayner; Jo Miller; Amin Rarmoul-Bouhadjar; Jon Cole; Jason C.G. Halford
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Terence M. Dovey, Emma J. Boyland, Penelope Trayner, Jo Miller, Amin Rarmoul-Bouhadjar, Jon Cole, Jason C.G. Halford
      Two studies explored the differences in tastant (salt, sour, bitter, sweet and spicy) concentration preference between recreational drug users and abstainers. In study 1, 250 opportunistically recruited abstainers, cannabis only users and multiple-drug users completed psychometric questionnaires and a concentration preference tastant test. In study 2, 76 participants purposefully recruited abstainers, daily tobacco users, recreational cannabis users and daily cannabis users completed the same protocol as study 1. Study 1 demonstrated that both multiple drug users and cannabis users had a higher preference for salt and sour tastants than abstainers. Study 2 showed that daily cannabis and tobacco users had a higher preference for sweet and spicy tastants than recreational cannabis users and abstainers. As predicted, recreational drug users scored higher on both sensation-seeking and impulsivity compared to abstainers. Participants who habitually smoke tobacco or cannabis daily have different concentration preference for specific tastants. The aim of the current study was to provide an explanation for the inconsistency in published results on taste preferences in recreational drug users. The data offered in this paper indicate that variation in recruitment strategy, definition of ‘drug users’, and mode of drug delivery, as well as multiple drug use, may explain the preference for stronger tastants in habitual drug users. Future research exploring the psychobiological underpinnings of the impact of drug use on food preferences should carefully define recreational drug user groups.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Validation of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among
           Maltese women
    • Authors: Elaine Dutton; Terence M. Dovey
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Elaine Dutton, Terence M. Dovey
      The main aim of this study was to assess the dimensional structure of the Maltese version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and evaluate the instrument's validity and reliability among Maltese women (N = 586). Exploratory factor analysis reflected the theoretical structure of three factors; emotional, restrained and external eating which was supported by a Confirmatory Factor analysis. Minor issues with specific items in the Emotional and External eating scale were identified and discussed. Criterion-related validity was ascertained through correlations with the EAT-26. The study also assessed the DEBQ's predictive value in differentiating between BMI groups and between dieters and weight maintainers. The results suggest that the Maltese DEBQ is a psychometrically valid and reliable instrument for assessing eating behaviours with women in the Maltese community. The study also highlights the critical role of Emotional and Restrained eating in dieting and overweight Maltese women.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and body mass
           in children and adolescents: A moderated mediation model
    • Authors: Adrian Meule; Johannes Hofmann; Daniel Weghuber; Jens Blechert
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Adrian Meule, Johannes Hofmann, Daniel Weghuber, Jens Blechert
      Impulsivity has been suggested to contribute to overeating and obesity. However, findings are inconsistent and it appears that only specific facets of impulsivity are related to eating-related variables and to body mass. In the current study, relationships between self-reported impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and objectively measured body mass were examined in N = 122 children and adolescents. Scores on attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, but not body mass: Higher attentional impulsivity was associated with lower perceived self-regulatory success at high levels of motor impulsivity, but not at low levels of motor impulsivity. A moderated mediation model revealed an indirect effect of attentional and motor impulsivity on body mass, which was mediated by perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. Thus, results show that only specific facets of impulsivity are relevant in eating- and weight-regulation and interact with each other in the prediction of these variables. These facets of impulsivity, however, are not directly related to higher body mass, but indirectly via lower success in eating-related self-regulation in children and adolescents.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Influence of maternal feeding goals and practices on children's eating
    • Authors: Debra A. Hoffmann; Jenna M. Marx; Allison Kiefner-Burmeister; Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Debra A. Hoffmann, Jenna M. Marx, Allison Kiefner-Burmeister, Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      Parents are highly influential in shaping their children's dietary habits. This study examined whether negative feeding practices mediated the relationship between feeding goals (health and convenience) and children's eating behaviors. One hundred ninety-two mothers (mean age = 34.2; mean BMI = 27.0) of 7–11 year old children participated via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results showed that negative feeding practices fully mediated the relationship between convenience feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.08/.09, n.s.; goals to feeding practices: β = 0.27, p < 0.01; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.57/.48, p < 0.05). On the other hand, negative feeding practices did not fully mediate the relationship between health feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = 0.66/-0.29, p < 0.01; goals to feeding practices: β = −0.28, p < 0.001; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.26/.44, p < 0.05). In other words, children whose mothers emphasized health goals consumed more healthy food and less unhealthy food, above and beyond the use of negative feeding practices. Because parents are on the front lines of shaping children's eating habits, understanding the best point of intervention for parents (e.g., shaping parents' goals, changing parents' feeding practices) might be especially fruitful, considering that childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis and energy intake is one of the key factors contributing to this problem.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Effects of prolonged hypoxia and bed rest on appetite and appetite-related
    • Authors: Tadej Debevec; Elizabeth J. Simpson; Igor B. Mekjavic; Ola Eiken; Ian A. Macdonald
      Pages: 28 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tadej Debevec, Elizabeth J. Simpson, Igor B. Mekjavic, Ola Eiken, Ian A. Macdonald
      Environmental hypoxia and inactivity have both been shown to modulate appetite. To elucidate the independent and combined effects of hypoxia and bed rest-induced inactivity on appetite-related hormones and subjective appetite, eleven healthy, non-obese males underwent three experimental interventions in a cross-over and randomized fashion: 1) Hypoxic confinement combined with daily moderate-intensity exercise (HAMB, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg) 2) Bed rest in normoxia (NBR, FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg) and 3) Bed rest in hypoxia (HBR, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). A mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), followed by an ad libitum meal were performed before (Pre) and after 16-days (Post) of each intervention. Composite satiety scores (CSS) during the MTT were calculated from visual analogue scores, while fasting and postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and leptin were quantified from arterialized-venous samples. Postprandial CSS were significantly lower at Post compared to Pre in NBR only (P < 0.05) with no differences observed in ad libitum meal intakes. Postprandial concentrations and incremental area under the curve (AUC) for total ghrelin and PYY were unchanged following all interventions. Postprandial GLP-1 concentrations were only reduced at Post following HBR (P < 0.05) with resulting AUC changes being significantly lower compared to HAMB (P < 0.01). Fasting leptin was reduced following HAMB (P < 0.05) with no changes observed following NBR and HBR. These findings suggest that independently, 16-day of simulated altitude exposure (∼4000 m) and bed rest-induced inactivity do not significantly alter subjective appetite or ad libitum intakes. The measured appetite-related hormones following both HAMB and HBR point to a situation of hypoxia-induced appetite stimulation, although this did not reflect in higher ad libitum intakes. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02293772.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Clarifying the prospective relationships between social anxiety and eating
           disorder symptoms and underlying vulnerabilities
    • Authors: Cheri A. Levinson; Thomas L. Rodebaugh
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Cheri A. Levinson, Thomas L. Rodebaugh
      Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Several explanations for these high levels of comorbidity have been theorized. First, social anxiety might be a vulnerability factor for eating disorders. Second, eating disorders might be a vulnerability factor for social anxiety. Third, the two kinds of disorders may have common, shared psychological vulnerabilities. The current study (N = 300 undergraduate women) investigates a model of social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms that examines each of these possibilities across two time points (Time 1 and six months later). We do not find support for either social anxiety or eating disorder symptoms per se predicting each other across time. Instead, we find that some underlying vulnerabilities prospectively predict symptoms of both disorders, whereas other vulnerabilities are specific to symptoms of one disorder. Specifically we find that maladaptive perfectionism is a shared prospective vulnerability for social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Alternatively, we find that social appearance anxiety is specific for eating disorder symptoms, whereas high standards is specific for social anxiety symptoms. These data help clarify our understanding of how and why social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms frequently co-occur.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.024
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Consumer acceptance of insect-based foods in the Netherlands: Academic and
           commercial implications
    • Authors: Jonas House
      Pages: 47 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Jonas House
      Despite growing interest in the use of insects as food, uptake of insect-based foods in Europe is low. Existing research into Western consumer acceptance of insects as food tends to emphasise the role of individual cognition in food choice at the expense of social or contextual factors, and typically frames consumer acceptance as a general issue, rather than relevant only for relatively few early adopters. This paper outlines empirical work, theoretically and methodologically informed by a critical appraisal of previous research, with consumers of insect-based convenience foods in the Netherlands. Reported initial motivations for trying insect foods are shown to be substantially different from factors – such as price, taste, availability, and ‘fit’ with established eating practices – which affect repeat consumption. Such factors are congruent with those affecting routine consumption of more conventional foods, indicating that insect foods should be analysed according to similar criteria and should be designed with more practical considerations in mind. Further, a reorientation of consumer acceptance research is proposed. Research should shift from attempts to forecast acceptance and engage with ‘actual’ examples of insect consumption; social, practical and contextual factors affecting food consumption should be emphasised; and – following work on the establishment of other novel foods – early adopters, rather than general populations, should receive greater analytic attention.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Effects of development on indigenous dietary pattern: A Nigerian case
    • Authors: Bookie Ezeomah; Karim Farag
      Pages: 59 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Bookie Ezeomah, Karim Farag
      The traditional foods of indigenous people in Nigeria are known for their cultural symbolism and agricultural biodiversity which contributes to their daily healthy and rich diet. In the early 90s, rapid development of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) was noted and the resettlement of indigenes to other parts of the region was reported. These changes have facilitated the modification of indigenous diets, as indigenous groups rapidly embraced modern foods and also adopted the food culture of migrant ethnic groups. This has led to a gradual erosion of indigenous diets and traditional food systems in the FCT. This study explored the impact of development on traditional food systems and determined indigenes perception of the modification to their food culture as a result of the development of their land within the FCT. Field survey was carried out in four indigenous communities in the FCT (30 indigenes from each of the four areas) using structured questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews. Person Chi Square analysis of indigenes socio-economic characteristics revealed significant relationships between gender of indigenes and farm size, Age and farm size, Educational level and farm/herd size. Qualitative analysis of FGDs revealed indigenes opinion on the socio-cultural changes in behaviour and food systems as a result of development. The study also identified indigenous youths as being most influenced by development especially through education, white collar jobs and social interactions with migrant ethnic groups in the FCT. The study recommended that indigenes should be provided with more secure land tenure and “back-to-farm” initiatives should be put in place by the Nigerian government to encourage indigenous youth to engaged more in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • The impact of caffeine use across the lifespan on cognitive performance in
           elderly women
    • Authors: Clinton S. Perry; Ayanna K. Thomas; Holly A. Taylor; Paul F. Jacques; Robin B. Kanarek
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Clinton S. Perry, Ayanna K. Thomas, Holly A. Taylor, Paul F. Jacques, Robin B. Kanarek
      Habitual caffeine consumption has often been associated with decreasing age-related cognitive decline. However, whether habitual caffeine use preferentially spares different cognitive processes is unclear. Furthermore, whether basing habitual caffeine consumption patterns on current consumption or on a lifetime measure better represents an individual's use remains unclear. In the present study, we collected information from women, aged 56–83, about their current caffeine consumption patterns and history of use, including age they began consuming caffeine. Regression models assessed the relationship between caffeine consumption and performance on batteries designed to probe speed of processing, inhibition, memory, and executive function. While we found no direct associations between caffeine exposure and cognitive performance, we found that caffeine consumption and participant BMI interacted for inhibitory function and speed of processing performance. We discuss possible protective effects of long term caffeine use as well as the possibility of dose dependent effects.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.028
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Short-term cross-sensitizion of need-free sugar intake by combining sodium
           depletion and hypertonic NaCl intake
    • Authors: Bruna M. Santos; Carina A.F. de Andrade; José V. Menani; Laurival A. De Luca
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Bruna M. Santos, Carina A.F. de Andrade, José V. Menani, Laurival A. De Luca
      History of sodium depletion cross-sensitizes the effects of drugs of abuse. The objective of the present study was to find out if history of sodium depletion also cross-sensitizes a natural reward such as sugar intake in the rat. Sodium depletion was induced by furosemide combined with removal of ambient sodium for 24 h; it was repeated seven days later. The depletion was immediately followed by 0.3 M NaCl intake in a sodium appetite test (active sodium repletion). Seven days after the last depletion, hydrated and fed (need-free) sucrose-naïve animals were offered 10% sucrose in a first 2-h sucrose test. The sucrose test was repeated once a day in a series of five consecutive days. History of sodium depletion enhanced sucrose intake in the first and second tests; it had no effect from the third to fifth sucrose test. The effect on the initial sucrose intake tests disappeared if the rats did not ingest 0.3 M NaCl in the sodium appetite test. Prior experience with sucrose intake in need-free conditions had no effect on sodium appetite. History of intracellular dehydration transiently influenced sucrose intake in the first sucrose test. We found no evidence for thirst sensitization. We conclude that history of dehydration, particularly that resulting from sodium depletion, combined to active sodium repletion, produced short-term cross-sensitization of sucrose intake in sucrose-naïve rats. The results suggest that the cross-sensitization of sucrose intake related with acquisition of sugar as a novel nutrient rather than production of lasting effects on sugar rewarding properties.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • “Happy goat says”: The effect of a food selection inhibitory control
           training game of children's response inhibition on eating behavior
    • Authors: Qianxia Jiang; Dexian He; Wanyi Guan; Xianyou He
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Qianxia Jiang, Dexian He, Wanyi Guan, Xianyou He
      Recent studies suggest that when inhibitory control is lacking, people are more inclined to indulge in high-calorie food, but inhibitory control can be trained. In this study, a daily-life training game was used to train children and investigate whether strengthening or weakening inhibitory control influences food intake in opposite directions. The baseline of response inhibition was measured by the go/no-go task, and the baseline of food intake was measured by a bogus food taste task. Then, participants performed a food selection training game named “Happy goat says” with three within-subject conditions: the first type of instruction was always paired without a go signal (inhibition manipulation); the second type of instruction was always presented with a go signal (impulsivity manipulation); and the third type of instruction was presented either with a go or no-go signal, both in 50% of the time (control manipulation). Following these manipulations, they went through the go/no-go task and bogus food taste task. In the pre-training food taste task, commission errors were positively correlated with body mass index. Relative to a control group playing Lego blocks (n = 20), the trained group showed a performance improvement on the go/no-go task. The intake of food in the inhibition manipulation was significantly less in the post-training food taste task. These findings demonstrate that children can gain control over the consumption of high-calorie food after a daily-life response inhibition training game.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.030
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Reported appetite, taste and smell changes following Roux-en-Y gastric
           bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: Effect of gender, type 2 diabetes and
           relationship to post-operative weight loss
    • Authors: Janine M. Makaronidis; Sabrina Neilson; Wui-Hang Cheung; Urszula Tymoszuk; Andrea Pucci; Nicholas Finer; Jacqueline Doyle; Majid Hashemi; Mohamed Elkalaawy; Marco Adamo; Andrew Jenkinson; Rachel L. Batterham
      Pages: 93 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Janine M. Makaronidis, Sabrina Neilson, Wui-Hang Cheung, Urszula Tymoszuk, Andrea Pucci, Nicholas Finer, Jacqueline Doyle, Majid Hashemi, Mohamed Elkalaawy, Marco Adamo, Andrew Jenkinson, Rachel L. Batterham
      Reduced energy intake drives weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) procedures. Post-operative changes in subjective appetite, taste, and smell and food preferences are reported and suggested to contribute to reduced energy intake. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these changes following RYGB and SG and to evaluate their relationship with weight loss. 98 patients post-RYGB and 155 post-SG from a single bariatric centre were recruited to a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a questionnaire, previously utilised in post-operative bariatric patients, to assess the prevalence of post-operative food aversions and subjective changes in appetite, taste and smell. Anthropometric data were collected and percentage weight loss (%WL) was calculated. The relationship between food aversions, changes in appetite, taste and smell and %WL was assessed. The influence of time post-surgery, gender and type 2 diabetes (T2D) were evaluated. Following RYGB and SG the majority of patients reported food aversions (RYGB = 62%, SG = 59%), appetite changes (RYGB = 91%, SG = 91%) and taste changes (RYGB = 64%, SG = 59%). Smell changes were more common post-RYGB than post-SG (RYGB = 41%, SG = 28%, p = 0.039). No temporal effect was observed post-RYGB. In contrast, the prevalence of appetite changes decreased significantly with time following SG. Post-operative appetite changes associated with and predicted higher %WL post-SG but not post-RYGB. Taste changes associated with and predicted higher %WL following RYGB but not post-SG. There was no gender effect post-RYGB. Post-SG taste changes were less common in males (female = 65%, males = 40%, p = 0.008). T2D status in females did not influence post-operative subjective changes. However, in males with T2D, taste changes were less common post-SG than post-RYGB together with lower %WL (RYGB = 27.5 ± 2.7, SG = 14.6 ± 2.1, p = 0.003). Further research is warranted to define the biology underlying these differences and to individualise treatments.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.029
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Changes in PYY and gastric emptying across the phases of the menstrual
           cycle and the influence of the ovarian hormones
    • Authors: Marta Campolier; Sangeetha Pariyarath Thondre; Miriam Clegg; Amir Shafat; Ali Mcintosh; Helen Lightowler
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Marta Campolier, Sangeetha Pariyarath Thondre, Miriam Clegg, Amir Shafat, Ali Mcintosh, Helen Lightowler
      Nutrition-related studies avoid the participation of pre-menopausal women due to the potential effect of the menstrual cycle (MC) on their appetite regulation. It is generally accepted that women increase their energy intake during the luteal phase (LPh) compared to the follicular (FPh), however what happens in the menstrual phase (MPh) and how this might be regulated remains uncertain. Although some research indicates changes in the gastric emptying (GE) velocity, whether PYY is affected by the MC phase, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether eating the same breakfast in each of the three MC phases would change the GE time, the PYY response and post-prandial satiety such that they might affect subsequent food intake. Furthermore, the aim was to associate any potential differences to the fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) within a MC. Nine naturally cycling women attended to the laboratory to consume a standardised breakfast on three occasions, each of them representing one of the MC phases. Breath samples to measure GE time, plasma samples to quantify PYY levels and hunger scores were collected for a total of 4 h after which food intake was assessed by an ad-libitum buffet lunch. GE and PYY levels changed significantly across the phases of the MC (p < 0.05). GE was correlated to P4 and E2-P4 ratio (r = −0.5 and 0.4, respectively). To conclude, the appetite regulators PYY and GE time change depending upon the MC phases with GE time associated with the ovarian hormone levels which suggests the necessity of controlling the MC phase in studies looking at the appetite response.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.027
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to
           polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice
    • Authors: Valerie B. Duffy; Shristi Rawal; Jeeha Park; Mark H. Brand; Mastaneh Sharafi; Bradley W. Bolling
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Valerie B. Duffy, Shristi Rawal, Jeeha Park, Mark H. Brand, Mastaneh Sharafi, Bradley W. Bolling
      Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from ‘Viking’ aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.026
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Association of TAS2R38 variants with sweet food intake in children aged
           1–6 years
    • Authors: Ingrid Pawellek; Veit Grote; Peter Rzehak; Annick Xhonneux; Elvira Verduci; Anna Stolarczyk; Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo; Eva Reischl; Berthold Koletzko
      Pages: 126 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ingrid Pawellek, Veit Grote, Peter Rzehak, Annick Xhonneux, Elvira Verduci, Anna Stolarczyk, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Eva Reischl, Berthold Koletzko
      We aimed at studying whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 gene are associated with energy intake from sweet tasting foods, total energy and macronutrient intake and body weight in children. Children (n = 691) from five European countries were genotyped for the first variant site rs713598 of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor gene. Three-day dietary records were obtained yearly from one to six years of age. Foods were categorized in sweet and non-sweet-tasting. Mixed models were used to describe group differences in food and nutrient intake and BMI z-score over time. TAS2R38 genotype was related to energy intake from sweet tasting foods: Children with PP and PA genotype consumed an average 83 kJ/d (95% CI 21 to 146; p = 0.009) more sweet tasting foods than children with AA genotype and a mean 56 kJ/d (95% CI 15 to 98; p = 0.007) more energy from energy dense sweet products. Intake of sweet tasting foods was lower in girls than boys and differed between countries. TAS2R38 genotype was not associated with the intake of energy, macronutrients, sugar, single food groups and BMI z-score. Despite many other factors influencing food preference and intake in children, actual intake of sweet food items is associated with TAS2R38 genotype. Children with PP or PA genotype consume more (energy dense) sweet tasting foods.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.034
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • “I feel good and I am not overweight” – A qualitative study of
           considerations underlying lay people's self-assessments of unhealthy diets
    • Authors: Mette Rosenlund Sørensen; Lotte Holm
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Mette Rosenlund Sørensen, Lotte Holm
      It has been suggested that optimistic self-assessments of unhealthy diets constitute a barrier to the promotion of healthier eating practices. In order to discuss possible reasons for such optimistic assessments, knowledge about the considerations underlying self-assessments of unhealthy diets is needed. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore this issue by comparing considerations underlying the assessments of people who overestimate the healthiness of their unhealthy diets with those of people who express more realistic assessments. Interviewees were recruited among those respondents to the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011–2013, who had been accorded a low diet index score. A thematic analysis of qualitative interviews is undertaken (N = 16). When interviewees are asked to assess the healthiness of their diets, they draw upon their nutritional knowledge and their perceptions of healthy eating practices. However, these considerations tend to be overruled by more decisive criteria. Thus, diets are assessed as being not exactly healthy, but nevertheless healthy enough – so long as interviewees feel good. Moreover, a personal history of weight status and weight concerns emerge as decisive criteria in self-assessments. Those who experience problems in these areas tend to be realistic about the unhealthy character of their diets, while optimistic assessments appear to be linked to tendencies to perceive oneself as not being overweight, not having experienced weight gain or loss, or not being concerned about weight. This study concludes that decisive criteria in lay people's self-assessments of unhealthy diets – with regard to feeling and looking good – differ markedly from the criteria employed in food-based dietary guidelines. These broader criteria of assessment should be recognized by professionals engaged in planning health promotion strategies with reference to dietary health.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.032
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or
           habits explained by time perspective
    • Authors: M.C. Onwezen; J. Van 't Riet; H. Dagevos; S.J. Sijtsema; H.M. Snoek
      Pages: 144 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): M.C. Onwezen, J. Van 't Riet, H. Dagevos, S.J. Sijtsema, H.M. Snoek
      Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why some individuals are more prone to rely on habits and others on intentions. Study 1 (N = 1503) provides a first exploration of the role of time perspective by exploring individual differences in perception of long-term and short-term consequences. In accordance with our hypotheses, Study 1 shows that habits are associated with short-term consequences and intentions with long-term consequences. Study 2 (N = 1497) shows that the effects of habits on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a present time perspective, whereas the effects of intentions on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a future time perspective. These findings imply that there is a fundamental difference in the guiding function of intentions and habits which might explain individual differences in following intentions versus habits. Individuals with a long-term perspective are more inclined to follow intentions and individuals with a short-term perspective are more inclined to follow habits.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.031
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Effects on satiation, satiety and food intake of wholegrain and refined
           grain pasta
    • Authors: Iolanda Cioffi; Sabine Ibrugger; Jessica Bache; Mette Torp Thomassen; Franco Contaldo; Fabrizio Pasanisi; Mette Kristensen
      Pages: 152 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Iolanda Cioffi, Sabine Ibrugger, Jessica Bache, Mette Torp Thomassen, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi, Mette Kristensen
      Wholegrains have received much attention in recent years due to their role in prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. Many studies about energy regulation are focused on the effect between meals (satiety), but the effect within meal (satiation) for wholegrain foods has not been extensively studied. The objective was to investigate the effect of WG pasta (WGP) compared to refined grain pasta (RGP), on ad libitum energy intake (EI) within and at the subsequent meal as well as appetite. Two different ad libitum lunch meals (study A) and two different iso-caloric lunch meals (study B) were administered in sixteen overweight/obese subjects in a crossover design. The test meals consisted of RGP and WGP served with tomato sauce. Study A: the ad libitum lunch meal was consumed then EI registered. Study B: the iso-caloric lunch meal was served, then subjective appetite sensation and breath hydrogen excretion were assessed for 240 min followed by an ad libitum meal where EI was calculated. Overall, WGP did not significantly differ in the effect on ad libitum EI within meal (p = 0.23) in study A. In study B, WGP resulted in an increased sensation of satiety (p < 0.001) and lower ratings of hunger (p < 0.001) without increased in breath hydrogen excretion (p = 0.11). Again, no overall effect on EI at the subsequent meal was seen (p = 0.12). In conclusion, WGP increased satiety, diminished hunger without modifying energy intake at the subsequent meals.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Alterations in taste perception as a result of hyperbaric oxygen therapy
    • Authors: Magdalena Hartman-Petrycka; Grzegorz Knefel; Agata Lebiedowska; Joanna Kosmala; Ewa Klimacka-Nawrot; Marek Kawecki; Mariusz Nowak; Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska
      Pages: 159 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Magdalena Hartman-Petrycka, Grzegorz Knefel, Agata Lebiedowska, Joanna Kosmala, Ewa Klimacka-Nawrot, Marek Kawecki, Mariusz Nowak, Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska
      The present study evaluates the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on taste sensitivity, hedonic perception of taste, and food preferences. The studied groups included 197 people in total (79 in the study group; 118 in the control group). All patients from the study group were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy due to chronic non-healing wounds. The control group consisted of healthy people, who did not receive hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The taste intensity, recognition thresholds, and hedonic perception were examined using gustatory tests. The aqueous solutions of sucrose for sweet, sodium chloride for salty, citric acid for sour, quinine hydrochloride for bitter, and monosodium glutamate for umami taste were used. The participants fulfilled the questionnaire to examine pleasure derived from eating certain types of dishes. Gustatory tests and analyses of the pleasure derived from eating in the study group were carried out before the first exposure to hyperbaric oxygen and then at the end of therapy, after at least 25 sessions of treatment. In the control group, examination of perception of taste sensations was conducted only once. The results of comparing patients with non-healing wounds with healthy people are characterized by reduced taste sensitivity. After participation in hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the improvement in perception of taste sensations and changes in hedonic evaluation have occurred among patients with non-healing wounds. In terms of food preference, a decreased desire for eating sweet desserts, chocolate, and crisps was observed in those patients who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Regulation of plasma agouti-related protein and its relationship with
           hunger in lean and obese men
    • Authors: Tom J. Hazell; Laura Sawula; Brittany A. Edgett; Jeremy J. Walsh; Brendon J. Gurd
      Pages: 166 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tom J. Hazell, Laura Sawula, Brittany A. Edgett, Jeremy J. Walsh, Brendon J. Gurd
      Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic (appetite stimulating) neuropeptide suggested to exert tonic control over long-term energy balance. While some have speculated AgRP is not involved in the episodic (i.e. meal to meal energy intake) control, acute decreases in plasma agouti-related protein (AgRP) following a meal have been observed in humans in a role consistent with episodic control for AgRP. Whether changes in plasma AgRP are associated with episodic, and/or tonic changes in appetite has yet to be directly examined. The present study examined the relationship between agouti-related protein (AgRP), leptin and the regulation of appetite following a 48-h fast and an acute meal challenge. Blood samples were obtained from young lean and obese men before and after a 48 h fast (lean n = 10; obese n = 7). Fasting resulted in an increase in AgRP and a decrease in leptin with these changes being greater in lean than obese. In addition, blood samples were obtained from lean men before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after a meal (n = 8). Following a meal, AgRP was reduced from 2 to 4 h, a change that was dissociated from both leptin and subjective measures of hunger and satiety. These results demonstrate that AgRP is not associated with changes in hunger or satiety, and can change without corresponding changes in leptin. This suggests that AgRP may not be involved in the episodic control of appetite and the release of AgRP may involve signals other than leptin.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.037
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Testing the role of glucose in self-control: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Junhua Dang
      Pages: 222 - 230
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Junhua Dang
      The glucose view of self-control posited glucose as the physiological substrate of self-control “resource”, which results in three direct corollaries: 1) engaging in a specific self-control activity would result in reduced glucose level; 2) the remaining glucose level after initial exertion of self-control would be positively correlated with following self-control performance; 3) restoring glucose by ingestion would help to improve the impaired self-control performance. The current research conducted a meta-analysis to test how well each of the three corollaries of the glucose view would be empirically supported. We also tested the restoring effect of glucose rinsing on subsequent self-control performance after initial exertion. The results provided clear and consistent evidence against the glucose view of self-control such that none of the three corollaries was supported. In contrast, the effect of glucose rinsing turned out to be significant, but with alarming signs of publication bias. The implications and future directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Brain regions involved in ingestive behavior and related psychological
           constructs in people undergoing calorie restriction
    • Authors: Chanaka N. Kahathuduwa; Lori A. Boyd; Tyler Davis; Michael O'Boyle; Martin Binks
      Pages: 348 - 361
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Chanaka N. Kahathuduwa, Lori A. Boyd, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Martin Binks
      Human food intake is regulated by physiological energy homeostatic mechanisms and hedonic mechanisms. These are affected by both very short-term and longer-term calorie restriction (CR). To date, there are parallel discussions in the literature that fail to integrate across these disciplines and topics. First, much of the available neuroimaging research focusses on specific functional paradigms (e.g. reward, energy homeostasis). These paradigms often fail to consider more complex and inclusive models that examine how potential brain regions of interest interact to influence ingestion. Second, the paradigms used focus primarily on short-term CR (fasting) which has limited generalizability to clinical application. Finally, the behavioral literature, while frequently examining longer-term CR and related psychological constructs in the context of weight management (e.g. hedonic restraint, ‘liking’, ‘wanting’ and food craving), fails to adequately tie these phenomena to underlying neural mechanisms. The result is a less than complete picture of the brain's role in the complexity of the human experience of ingestion. This disconnect highlights a major limitation in the CR literature, where attempts are persistently made to exert behavioral control over ingestion, without fully understanding the complex bio behavioral systems involved. In this review we attempt to summarize all potential brain regions important for human ingestion, present a broad conceptual overview of the brain's multifaceted role in ingestive behavior, the human (psychological) experiences related to ingestion and to examine how these factors differ according to three forms of CR. These include short-term fasting, extended CR, and restrained eating. We aim to bring together the neuroimaging literature with the behavioral literature within a conceptual framework that may inform future translational research.

      PubDate: 2016-09-02T09:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.112
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • The link between hypothalamic epigenetic modifications and long-term
           feeding control
    • Authors: Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro; David Alan Putt; Marlos Cruzeiro Soares-Filho; Júlia Matzenbacher Santos
      Pages: 445 - 453
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro, David Alan Putt, Marlos Cruzeiro Soares-Filho, Júlia Matzenbacher Santos
      The incidence of obesity, one of the main risks for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has been rising, and changes in eating behavior are associated with this increasing rate. Body weight is maintained via a complex integration of endocrine and neuronal inputs that regulate the control of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Overfeeding may disrupt the mechanisms of feeding control, increasing orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), and/or decreasing the anorexigenic peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) leading to a change in energy balance and body-weight index. Despite of the great interest in this field, the mechanism by which expression of POMC and NPY is modified is not entirely clear. Over the past decades, studies have demonstrated that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification and changes in miRNA dynamics, could be modulated by external stimuli and these could affect protein expression in different cells. Therefore, this review discusses the recent reports that link epigenetic modifications in the hypothalamus to changes on long-term feeding control and its role in the onset of obesity.

      PubDate: 2016-09-08T10:05:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.111
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
  • Children's knowledge of eating: An integrative review of the literature
    • Authors: Celeste M. Schultz; Cynthia M. Danford
      Pages: 534 - 548
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Celeste M. Schultz, Cynthia M. Danford
      Behaviors associated with eating are often cited as one of many factors contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Behavior is thought to be guided, in part, by personal beliefs and tacit knowledge, which arise from the interpretation of sensory-motor experiences. Tacit knowledge, however, differs from declarative knowledge or the acquisition of factual information attained during formal education. Yet, there are no known publications that review children's and adolescent's tacit and declarative knowledge of eating. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine the evidence regarding children's and adolescents' knowledge of eating. Literature searches were conducted in CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Selected publications included in the integrative review were empirical studies written in English that described children's and adolescent's knowledge of eating. A total of 548 publications resulted from the searches. Thirty met the inclusion criteria. Preschool-age children understood concepts related to edibleness, nutrition, and digestion as a result of their experiences with food and eating. School-age children and adolescents correctly identified not only facts about food, nutrition, and health, but also factors that influenced their decisions about eating. School-age children and adolescents also expressed concern about their diet, barriers to being healthy, and their appearance. Evidence presented in this integrative review revealed that children, including those of preschool-age, know a great deal about eating. Moreover, the evidence suggests that beliefs and tacit knowledge are more influential in directing eating behaviors than declarative knowledge or knowing facts about food, nutrition, the body, or health. Understanding what children believe and tacitly know about eating will be useful in tailoring interventions to prevent the development of childhood obesity.

      PubDate: 2016-09-13T12:06:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.120
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2016)
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