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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2970 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 2970 Journals sorted alphabetically
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.695, h-index: 63)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.476, h-index: 29)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 8.49, h-index: 101)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.44, h-index: 15)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.524, h-index: 25)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 4.97, h-index: 94)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 11.247, h-index: 87)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 26)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.731, h-index: 74)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 26)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 80)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.234, h-index: 165)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.969, h-index: 30)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.635, h-index: 73)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.347, h-index: 84)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.822, h-index: 31)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.064, h-index: 63)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.017, h-index: 73)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 19)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.438, h-index: 24)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 10.736, h-index: 165)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.97, h-index: 41)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.174, h-index: 96)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.448, h-index: 31)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.03, h-index: 58)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.034, h-index: 53)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 76)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 62)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.528, h-index: 48)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access  
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 65)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.297, h-index: 87)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.013, h-index: 77)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 13)
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 9)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.076, h-index: 28)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 41)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 7)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.603, h-index: 107)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 72)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.751, h-index: 47)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 3)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 34)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 51)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 4)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 31)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 63)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.42, h-index: 78)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.124, h-index: 113)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 62)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 52)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 9)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 16)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 7)
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.057, h-index: 62)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access  
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.894, h-index: 105)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 62)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 45)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.848, h-index: 76)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.832, h-index: 64)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.105, h-index: 5)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 10)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.471, h-index: 74)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.19, h-index: 146)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 97)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 82)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 11)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 9)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.454, h-index: 24)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 35)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.021, h-index: 70)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 7)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 28)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 55)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 15)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.463, h-index: 15)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.215, h-index: 68)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.567, h-index: 31)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 18)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 12)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.56, h-index: 3)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.13, h-index: 13)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.645, h-index: 47)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.635, h-index: 129)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 38)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 25)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.459, h-index: 59)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.211, h-index: 11)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.455, h-index: 78)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.128, h-index: 6)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.828, h-index: 66)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 3)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.34, h-index: 3)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 4)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.491, h-index: 89)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 10)
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 3)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 4.757, h-index: 38)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 20)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.945, h-index: 46)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.259, h-index: 15)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 20)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 21)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 12)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access  
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access  
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 9)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.21, h-index: 6)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 5)
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.184, h-index: 3)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Artroscopia y Cirugía Articular     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cardiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.592, h-index: 43)
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Cardiología Suplementos     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 8)
Revista Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 7)
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.215, h-index: 11)
Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC     Open Access  
Revista Española de Medicina Legal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 3)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 6)
Revista Española de Patología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.118, h-index: 3)
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Cirugía de la Mano     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Fisioterapia y Kinesiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 3)
Revista Iberoamericana de Micología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.432, h-index: 28)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicologia y Salud     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Revista Internacional de Andrología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.179, h-index: 4)
Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Derecho Social     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Médica Clínica Las Condes     Open Access  
Revista Médica de Homeopatía     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
Revista Médica del Hospital General de México     Open Access  
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Oftalmología     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Opinión Pública     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ortodoncia     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Urología     Open Access  
Revista Odontológica Mexicana     Open Access  
Revista Paulista de Pediatria (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia, Medicina Dentária e Cirugia Maxilofacial     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.26, h-index: 9)
Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.305, h-index: 28)
Revue d'oncologie hématologie pédiatrique     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 31)
Revue de Micropaleontologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.085, h-index: 18)
Revue de Pneumologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.16, h-index: 12)
Revue de Stomatologie et de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.233, h-index: 20)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires Actualités     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Revue du Rhumatisme     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.109, h-index: 29)
Revue du Rhumatisme Monographies     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 3)
Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 12)
Revue Française d'Allergologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.116, h-index: 14)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Evaluations of the health benefits of eating more fruit depend on the
           amount of fruit previously eaten, variety, and timing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Rachel J. Burns, Alexander J. Rothman
      Though research has demonstrated that people generally perceive fruits to be healthy foods, little is known about how people think about the health benefits associated with eating increasing quantities of fruit. The purpose of this paper is to examine how evaluations of healthiness change as participants consider eating increasing quantities of fruit, and to explore how additional contextual features (i.e., variety and timing) can be leveraged to improve evaluations. In two within-subjects experiments, participants rated how good or bad for one’s health it would be to eat increasing quantities of either the same fruit or a variety of fruits. In study 1, all participants were instructed to imagine eating the fruit over the course of the day. In study 2, the temporal distribution of the fruit (throughout the day, during a single meal) was manipulated. In general, both studies demonstrated that evaluations of overall healthiness for eating increasing quantities of the same fruit tended to diminish beyond two pieces of fruit, whereas the overall healthiness of eating increasing quantities of a variety of fruit remained stable. Study 2 demonstrated that evaluations of healthiness increased as additional fruit was considered when a variety of fruit was imagined to be eaten throughout the day. Thus, the health benefits that people assign to eating increasing quantities of fruit seem to increase, but only if eating a variety of fruits throughout the day is considered. This study suggests that evaluations of the healthiness of fruit are not made in isolation; evaluations of healthiness are contextualized by what has been eaten previously and when it was eaten.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T13:37:33Z
       
  • Retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and emotional eating
           in adulthood: The role of food preoccupation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Cin Cin Tan, Holly Ruhl, Chong Man Chow, Lillian Ellis
      The current study examined the role of food preoccupation as a potential mediator of the associations between parental feeding behaviors during childhood (i.e., restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and emotional eating in adulthood. Participants (N = 97, Mage = 20.3 years) recalled their parents’ feeding behaviors during early and middle childhood and reported on current experiences of food preoccupation and emotional eating. Findings revealed that recalled parental feeding behaviors (restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and food preoccupation were positively associated with later emotional eating (correlations ranged from 0.21 to 0.55). In addition, recalled restriction for weight and emotion regulation feeding were positively associated with food preoccupation, r = 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Further, food preoccupation mediated the association between emotion regulation feeding and later emotional eating (CI95% = 0.10 to 0.44). These findings indicate that parental feeding practices in childhood are related to food preoccupation, and that food preoccupation mediates the association between emotion regulation feeding in childhood and emotional eating in adulthood.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T13:37:33Z
       
  • Exploring enhanced menu labels’ influence on fast food selections
           and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Morgan S. Lee, Joel Kevin Thompson
      Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels’ potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T13:37:33Z
       
  • Mutually Responsive Orientation: A novel observational assessment of
           mother-child mealtime interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Heidi Bergmeier, Nazan Aksan, Skye McPhie, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Louise Baur, Jeannette Milgrom, Karen Campbell, Defne Demir, Helen Skouteris
      Mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years is an important but overlooked factor when evaluating the influence of parent-child relationships on child eating and weight. This paper describes the validation of the Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) coding system adapted for assessing parent-child interactions during food preparation and consumption situations. Home-based mealtimes of 94 mothers and their children (3.03 ± 0.75 years) were filmed at two time points, 12-months apart. Filmed dimensions of mutual mother-child responsiveness, shared positive affect, maternal control relating to food and child compliance were assessed. Objective BMI and maternal reports of parenting, feeding, child eating, diet and child temperament were also collected. Correlations, repeated measures ANOVAs and regressions were performed to examine the validity of MRO variables and their stability across both time points. Validation analysis showed the MRO coding system performed as expected: dyads with higher MRO scores expressed lower control/power assertion, lower child non-compliance, and greater committed compliance. The measure demonstrated sensitivity to specific contexts: maternal responsiveness, mother and child positive affect were higher during food consumption compared to food preparation. Coded dimensions were stable across time points, with the exception of decreases in maternal responsiveness in food consumption and child non-compliance in food preparation. MRO and maternal dimensions were correlated with maternally reported parenting and feeding measures. Maternal responsiveness (inversely) and child responsiveness (positively) were concurrently associated with child fussy eating, and child refusal was prospectively and inversely associated with child fussy eating. Findings suggest the adapted MRO coding system is a useful measure for examining observed parent-child mealtime interactions potentially implicated in preschoolers’ eating and weight development.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T13:37:33Z
       
  • Taste and smell function in testicular cancer survivors treated with
           cisplatin-based chemotherapy in relation to dietary intake, food
           preference, and body composition
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Irene IJpma, Remco J. Renken, Jourik A. Gietema, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Manon G.J. Mensink, Joop D. Lefrandt, Gert J. Ter Horst, Anna K.L. Reyners
      Background Chemotherapy can affect taste and smell function. This may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome in testicular cancer survivors (TCS). Aims of the study were to evaluate taste and smell function and possible consequences for dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCS treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Methods Fifty TCS, 1–7 years post-chemotherapy, and 50 age-matched healthy men participated. Taste and smell function were measured using taste strips and ‘Sniffin’ Sticks’, respectively. Dietary intake was investigated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food preference was assessed using food pictures varying in taste (sweet/savoury) and fat or protein content. Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was performed to measure body composition. Presence of metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism were assessed. Results TCS had a lower total taste function, a higher bitter taste threshold, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), and more (abdominal) fat than controls (p < 0.05). No differences in smell function and dietary intake were found. Testosterone level was an important determinant of body composition in TCS (p = 0.016). Conclusion Although taste function was impaired in TCS, this was not related to a different dietary intake compared to controls. Lower testosterone levels were associated with a higher BMI, fat mass, and abdominal fat distribution in TCS.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T13:37:33Z
       
  • Power of Food Scale in association with weight outcomes and dieting in a
           nationally representative cohort of U.S. young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): L.M. Lipsky, T.R. Nansel, D.L. Haynie, D. Liu, M.H. Eisenberg, B. Simons-Morton
      Food reward sensitivity may influence susceptibility to overeating in a permissive food environment, contributing to unintended weight gain and intentional weight loss behavior. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity, assessed by the Power of Food Scale (PFS), with weight outcomes and dieting in a nationally representative cohort of U.S. emerging adults. Wave 5 (W5, 5th year of follow-up) respondents from the NEXT Generation Health Study were included (N = 2202, W5 age = 20.3 ± 0.02 years). Baseline and W5 BMI, W5 weight status (normal weight = 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, overweight = 25 ≤ BMI < 30, obese = BMI ≥ 30), BMI change (W5-baseline BMI) and onset of overweight or obesity (OWOB) were calculated from self-reported height and weight. PFS (aggregate and 3 domain scores: food available, present, and tasted) and dieting for weight-loss were assessed at W5. Adjusted linear regressions estimated associations of PFS with W5 BMI and BMI change. Log-binomial regressions estimated associations of high W5 BMI (≥25), OWOB onset and dieting with PFS. Post hoc analyses estimated associations of PFS with W5 perceived weight status (overweight vs. about right or underweight). W5 BMI = 25.73 ± 0.32 kg/m2, and OWOB onset occurred in 27.7% of participants. The PFS-food available score was associated with BMI change, β ± SE = 0.41 ± 0.19. Other PFS scores were not associated with weight outcomes. Dieting prevalence was higher in participants with high versus low W5 BMI (61% versus 32%), and was positively associated with all PFS scores except the PFS-food tasted score, e.g., relative risk (RR) of dieting for PFS-aggregate = 1.13, 95%CI [1.01–1.26]. Post-hoc analyses indicated perceived overweight was positively associated with PFS-food available, 1.12, [1.01–1.24], and PFS-food present, 1.13, [1.03–1.24]. PFS was positively related to dieting and perceived overweight, but not concurrent or change in weight status in a representative cohort of U.S. emerging adults.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T13:37:33Z
       
  • The infant feeding practices of Chinese immigrant mothers in Australia: A
           qualitative exploration
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Konsita Kuswara, Rachel Laws, Peter Kremer, Kylie D. Hesketh, Karen J. Campbell
      Background The Australian Infant Feeding Guidelines recommend exclusive breastfeeding until about six months of age when solid foods should be gradually introduced. Evidence indicates that Chinese immigrant mothers in Australia are more likely to use infant formula in combination with breastfeeding and to introduce solids earlier than the general Australian population. This study aimed to explore Chinese immigrant mother’s experiences of feeding their infant to gain an insight into the factors shaping their feeding decisions and perceptions of infant growth. Methods Semi structured interviews were conducted with 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with children aged 0–12 months, living in Melbourne, Australia. Interviews were conducted either in Chinese, using an interpreter, or in English. All were audio recorded. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Results Eight themes were identified. Chinese immigrant mothers were supportive of exclusive breastfeeding, however breastfeeding problems and conflicting views about infant feeding and infant growth from grandparents reduced many mothers’ confidence to breastfeed exclusively. For many new mothers, anxiety that exclusive breastfeeding provided insufficient nourishment led to the introduction of formula before six months of age. Most mothers delayed introducing solid food to five to six months to prevent development of allergic diseases and gastrointestinal problems. Chinese immigrant mothers obtained information and support related to infant feeding from a combination of health professionals, online resources, friends and grandparents. Conclusions Chinese immigrant mothers in Australia need support to breastfeed exclusively. In particular maternal confidence to breastfeed exclusively needs to be increased. To achieve this, culturally sensitive guidance is needed and the contradictions in advice given by Chinese grandparents and health professionals on infant feeding practices and healthy infant growth need to be recognised and addressed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-26T13:37:33Z
       
  • A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women
           with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Janell L. Mensinger, Rachel M. Calogero, Saverio Stranges, Tracy L. Tylka
      Weight loss is the primary recommendation for health improvement in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) despite limited evidence of long-term success. Alternatives to weight-loss approaches (such as Health At Every Size – a weight-neutral approach) have been met with their own concerns and require further empirical testing. This study compared the effectiveness of a weight-neutral versus a weight-loss program for health promotion. Eighty women, aged 30–45 years, with high body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were randomized to 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals that emphasized either a weight-loss or weight-neutral approach to health. Health measurements occurred at baseline, post-intervention, and 24-months post-randomization. Measurements included blood pressure, lipid panels, blood glucose, BMI, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, distress, self-esteem, quality of life, dietary risk, fruit and vegetable intake, intuitive eating, and physical activity. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models to examine group-by-time interaction effects and between and within-group differences. Group-by-time interactions were found for LDL cholesterol, intuitive eating, BMI, weight, and dietary risk. At post-intervention, the weight-neutral program had larger reductions in LDL cholesterol and greater improvements in intuitive eating; the weight-loss program had larger reductions in BMI, weight, and larger (albeit temporary) decreases in dietary risk. Significant positive changes were observed overall between baseline and 24-month follow-up for waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, self-esteem, and quality of life. These findings highlight that numerous health benefits, even in the absence of weight loss, are achievable and sustainable in the long term using a weight-neutral approach. The trial positions weight-neutral programs as a viable health promotion alternative to weight-loss programs for women of high weight.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T19:28:01Z
       
  • Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the
           Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Claudia Hunot, Alison Fildes, Helen Croker, Clare H. Llewellyn, Jane Wardle, Rebecca J. Beeken
      The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach’s α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach’s α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for ‘food approach’ traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for ‘food avoidance’ traits (SR, EUE and SE).


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T19:28:01Z
       
  • Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads
           on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first
           three years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Matthew Thullen, Wilson Majee, Alexandra N. Davis
      Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding – a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T19:28:01Z
       
  • When group members go against the grain: An ironic interactive effect of
           group identification and normative content on healthy eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Kasia Banas, Tegan Cruwys, John B.F. de Wit, Marie Johnston, S. Alexander Haslam
      Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of group identification and normative content of social identities on healthy eating intentions and behaviour. In Study 1 (N = 87) Australian participants were shown images that portrayed a norm of healthy vs. unhealthy behaviour among Australians. Participants’ choices from an online restaurant menu were used to calculate energy content as the dependent variable. In Study 2 (N = 117), female participants were assigned to a healthy or unhealthy norm condition. The dependent variable was the amount of food eaten in a taste test. Social group identification was measured in both studies. In Study 3 (N = 117), both American identification and healthiness norm were experimentally manipulated, and participants’ choices from an online restaurant menu constituted the dependent variable. In all three studies, the healthiness norm presented interacted with participants’ group identification to predict eating behaviour. Contrary to what would be predicted under the traditional normative social influence account, higher identifiers chose higher energy food from an online menu and ate more food in a taste test when presented with information about their in-group members behaving healthily. The exact psychological mechanism responsible for these results remains unclear, but the pattern of means can be interpreted as evidence of vicarious licensing, whereby participants feel less motivated to make healthy food choices after being presented with content suggesting that other in-group members are engaging in healthy behaviour. These results suggest a more complex interplay between group membership and norms than has previously been proposed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T19:28:01Z
       
  • Increased peptide YY blood concentrations, not decreased acyl-ghrelin, are
           associated with reduced hunger and food intake in healthy older women:
           Preliminary evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Mary Hickson, Charlotte Moss, Waljit S. Dhillo, Jeanne Bottin, Gary Frost
      With ageing there is frequently a loss of appetite, termed anorexia of ageing, which can result in under-nutrition. We do not know how appetite control alters with ageing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in the release of, and response to, gastrointestinal appetite hormones is altered in young compared to old healthy volunteers. We hypothesised that an increase in PYY and GLP-1 or a decrease ghrelin may result in a decreased appetite. A comparative experimental design, using a cross-sectional sample of ages from a healthy population, matched for sex and BMI was used. The study compared total ghrelin, acyl-ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1 and subjective appetite responses to ingestion of a standardised 2781kj (660 kcal) test meal. 31 female volunteers aged between 21 and 92yrs took part. Multiple linear regression showed that both age and sex had an independent effect on energy intake. Subjective appetite scores showed that hunger, pleasantness to eat, and prospective food intake were significantly lower in the older age groups. PYY incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was greater in the oldest old compared to younger ages f(3,27) = 2.9, p = 0.05. No differences in GLP-1, ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin were observed in the older compared to younger age groups. Our data suggest that there may be increases in postprandial PYY(3–36) levels in female octogenarians, potentially resulting in reduced appetite. There does not appear to be any change in ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin concentrations with ageing.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T19:28:01Z
       
  • Brazilian version of food cravings questionnaires: Psychometric properties
           and sex differences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Anna C. Queiroz de Medeiros, Lucia F. Campos Pedrosa, Claudio Simon Hutz, Maria E. Yamamoto
      The Food Cravings Questionnaires, State (FCQ-State) and Trait (FCQ-Trait), are commonly used to assess food-craving behavior. This study aimed to develop and validate the Brazilian version of these questionnaires, and to explore potential gender differences in the trait version scores. Data were collected from (n = 611) undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the questionnaires structure, and construct validity was assessed. The FCQ-State-Br and FCQ-Trait-Br presented good psychometric properties, adequate model fit, and internal consistency, in general and by gender. A conservation of original structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaires was verified in the Brazilian versions. A good performance in the evaluations concerning the discriminant and convergent validity seem to corroborate these structures. Overweight individuals showed an increase in food-craving behavior. In females, this increase occurred in the guilt dimension, whereas in males, the increase was in the lack of control dimension. In addition, female dieters presented higher scores on the guilt dimension compared with female non-dieters. FCQ-State-Br and FCQ-Trait-Br constitute valid instruments for measuring food-craving behavior in the Brazilian population. Moreover, these findings suggest that food cravings may be an important aspect to be considered in clinical management of overweight individuals, and may require a sex-specific approach.


      PubDate: 2016-06-21T19:28:01Z
       
  • Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight
           gain and increased fat pad mass in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Robert A. Boakes, Michael D. Kendig, Sarah I. Martire, Kieron B. Rooney
      The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Dietary intake variations from pre-conception to gestational period
           according to the degree of industrial processing: A Brazilian cohort
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Nadya Helena Alves-Santos, Ilana Eshriqui, Ana Beatriz Franco-Sena, Paula Guedes Cocate, Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Camila Benaim, Juliana dos Santos Vaz, Maria Beatriz Trindade Castro, Gilberto Kac
      Objective To estimate food intake changes from pre-conception to gestational period according to the degree of food processing. Methods Prospective cohort conducted in a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro with Brazilian pregnant women (n = 189). A food frequency questionnaire was applied at the first (5th–13th) and third (30th–36th) gestational trimesters. The food items were classified according to characteristics of food processing in four groups: unprocessed/minimally processed foods; sugar/fat; processed foods and ultra-processed foods. The variation of food intake according to the degree of processing between the pre-conception and gestational period was compared using paired Student’s t-test. Linear regression models were performed to estimate the association of mother’s characteristics on the variation of food group contribution to the total energy intake between periods. Results Total energy intake was 2415 (SD = 813) in the pre-conception and 2379 (750) kcal in the gestational period. We excluded women who had implausible total energy intake (<600 and >6000 kcal/day). The contribution of unprocessed/minimally processed food group to total energy intake during pregnancy when compared to the pre-conception period was higher [50.5 (14.1) vs. 48.8 (12.4), p-value = 0.048], while the caloric share of ultra-processed food group was lower [41.3 (14.6) vs. 43.1 (12.5), p-value = 0.032]. We observed a negative association of age (p-value = 0.009) and a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI (p-value = 0.060) with the variation of ultra-processed food intake. Conclusions Ultra-processed food intake decreased, while minimally/unprocessed food intake slightly increased from the pre-conception to gestational period. These results indicate potential for a larger improvement in the women’s diet quality and that nutritional counseling interventions in pregnant women are still needed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Desiring foods: Cultivating non-attachment to nourishment in Buddhist Sri
           Lanka
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Wim Van Daele
      Food and desire are intimately entangled whereby food becomes a core tool to manage desire in fashioning oneself as a morally virtuous person. This paper looks at the ways in which Buddhist texts conceptualize human interactions with food and formulate prescriptions on how to handle food as a means of developing an attitude of non-attachment that aids in achieving nirvana—the extinguishing of desire to get released from the cycle of death and rebirth. The particular texts—the Agañña Sutta, the Āhāra Patikūlasaññā, and the Vinaya Pitaka— discussed here exhibit an attitude of deep ambiguity towards food in its capacity to incite desire. On the one hand nutrition is required to maintain life, but on the other, food can potentially be the cause of a degenerate state of mankind and a source of moral degradation. Hence, the Buddhist development of a dispassionate attitude towards food seeks to enable both nourishment and the pursuit of the extinction of the flame of desire in nirvana. Even though the texts formulate practical prescriptions for monks on how to relate to food to aid them in their pursuit, they also serve as moral standards for lay Sinhalese Buddhists who seek to model their everyday behaviour accordingly.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Dietary intake of working women with children does not appear to be
           influenced by hours of employment: A secondary analysis of the Australian
           Health Survey (2011–2013)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jacqueline Miller, Lily Chan, Kaye Mehta, Rachel Roberts, Kacie M. Dickinson, Alison Yaxley, Louisa Matwiejczyk, Jolene Thomas, Amanda Wray, Kathryn Jackson, Michelle Miller
      Women with children often fulfil multiple roles of running a household, raising a family and working outside the home. Good nutrition during this time is important to optimise their performance and prevent lifestyle diseases. Women also act as nutritional gatekeepers for their family. The dual burden of paid employment and unpaid family work may be associated with time scarcity in mothers which can impact food preparation and therefore nutritional adequacy. The aim of this study was to examine the diet of women who lived with children by comparison of hours worked. Methods This was a secondary analysis of the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–12. Subjects were women aged 18–65 years who resided with ≥1 child (<18 years). Women were grouped according to hours of employment: not working; working <25 h a week; and working ≥25 hours a week. Data from two 24-h dietary recalls were used to compare differences between groups in nutrient intake and proportion of energy from discretionary foods. Covariates included were age, education, smoker status, Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), number of persons in household, week or weekend day of the survey and the sequence of recalls. Results Analyses included 1869 women. Dietary intakes varied minimally between groups with intakes of fibre, vitamin C, and calcium lowest in the group not working. Overall diet quality was poor with >30% of energy coming from discretionary foods in all groups. Conclusions Usual hours of employment per week have a minimal effect on diet quality in women with children. It is likely that different factors specific to each group contribute to the poor dietary intakes and should be further investigated.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase
           intention under the moderating role of uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Chih-Ching Teng, Chi-Heng Lu
      Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers’ consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Pernille Haugaard, Catalin M. Stancu, Per B. Brockhoff, Inga Thorsdottir, Liisa Lähteenmäki
      Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers’ satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using a longitudinal approach, we monitored a total of 71 participants compiled and experienced 519 meals from their workplace canteen buffet during a three-month period; in addition the composed lunches were photographed. Before and after the lunch choice period respondents filled in a questionnaire on several meal-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal’s energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction. Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not associated with the hunger level before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers’ satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important is the ambience in the lunch situation. Most of the ambience factors were related to available time and mental resources of the participants and the possibility to share the meal with close colleagues. These are factors that can be facilitated by the service provider, but not directly influenced.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Uyen T.X. Phan, Edgar Chambers
      Understanding “why people eat what they eat” is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, “fast” foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Food attitudes and well-being: The role of culture
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Gloriana Rodríguez-Arauz, Nairán Ramírez-Esparza, Vanessa Smith-Castro
      Previous cross-cultural studies have found differences in food attitudes. For example, Americans are more concerned about weight gain than people from France and India. This study aimed to add on the literature on cross-cultural differences in food attitudes by comparing Euro-Americans with Costa Ricans on three different food attitudes: concern about gaining weight, food negativity, and the belief in the link between diet and health. This study also analyzes the implications of food attitudes on well-being. Specifically, within and across cultures, analyses were done to test the relationship between food attitudes and both anxiety and depression. Results showed that Costa Ricans are significantly less concerned about weight and less food negative than Euro-Americans. In further analyses an interaction was revealed, in which Costa Ricans that are high on weight concern but low on food negativity show lower levels of depression, compared to Euro-Americans. Results and implications for further research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Increased textural complexity in food enhances satiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Danaé S. Larsen, Jingyuan Tang, Lynnette R. Ferguson, Bryony J. James
      For the first time this study has shown a direct effect of food textural complexity on satiation. Independent of oral processing time, increasing the textural complexity of a food significantly decreased food intake. Foods with complex textures stimulate many sensory perceptions during oral processing, with a succession of textures perceived between first bite and swallow. Previously the impact of texture on satiation (commonly tested by increasing viscosities of semi-solids) has been explained by texture’s influence on oral processing time; a long oral processing time enhances satiation. The results of the current study show that subjects in a randomised cross-over trial who consumed a “starter” (preload) model food with high textural complexity went on to eat significantly less of a two course ad libitum meal. Subjects who consumed a “starter” model food with low textural complexity, but with the same flavour, energy density and oral processing time, ate significantly more of the same ad libitum meal. The results show that increasing the number of textures perceived during chewing of a solid food triggers the satiation response earlier than when chewing a less texturally complex food. Increasing textural complexity of manufactured foods, to allow for greater sensory stimulation per bite, could potentially be used as a tool to enhance the satiation response and decrease food intake.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Does impulsivity predict outcome in treatment for binge eating
           disorder? A multimodal investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Stephanie M. Manasse, Hallie M. Espel, Leah M. Schumacher, Stephanie G. Kerrigan, Fengqing Zhang, Evan M. Forman, Adrienne S. Juarascio
      Multiple dimensions of impulsivity (e.g., affect-driven impulsivity, impulsive inhibition – both general and food-specific, and impulsive decision-making) are associated with binge eating pathology cross-sectionally, yet the literature on whether impulsivity predicts treatment outcome is limited. The present pilot study explored impulsivity-related predictors of 20-week outcome in a small open trial (n = 17) of a novel treatment for binge eating disorder. Overall, dimensions of impulsivity related to emotions (i.e., negative urgency) and food cues emerged as predictors of treatment outcomes (i.e., binge eating frequency and global eating pathology as measured by the Eating Disorders Examination), while more general measures of impulsivity were statistically unrelated to global eating pathology or binge frequency. Specifically, those with higher levels of negative urgency at baseline experienced slower and less pronounced benefit from treatment, and those with higher food-specific impulsivity had more severe global eating pathology at baseline that was consistent at post-treatment and follow-up. These preliminary findings suggest that patients high in negative urgency and with poor response inhibition to food cues may benefit from augmentation of existing treatments to achieve optimal outcomes. Future research will benefit from replication with a larger sample, parsing out the role of different dimensions of impulsivity in treatment outcome for eating disorders, and identifying how treatment can be improved to accommodate higher levels of baseline impulsivity.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Running induces nausea in rats: Kaolin intake generated by voluntary and
           forced wheel running
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Sadahiko Nakajima
      Three experiments were conducted showing rats’ pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) due to running in activity wheels. The amount of kaolin consumed was a positive function of the available time of voluntary running (20, 40, or 60 min), although this relationship was blunted by a descending (i.e., 60 → 40 → 20 min) test series of execution (Experiment 1). Pica was also generated by forced running in a motorized wheel for 60 min as a positive function of the speed of wheel rotations at 98, 185, or 365 m/h, independent of the order of execution (Experiment 2). Voluntary running generated more pica than did forced running at 80 m/h, although the distance travelled in the former condition was 27% lesser than that in the latter condition (Experiment 3). Because kaolin intake is regarded as a reliable measure of nausea in rats, these results show that wheel running, either voluntary or forced, induces nausea in rats.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Analysis of nutrition judgments using the Nutrition Facts Panel
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Claudia González-Vallejo, Bethany D. Lavins, Kristina A. Carter
      Consumers’ judgments and choices of the nutritional value of food products (cereals and snacks) were studied as a function of using information in the Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP, National Labeling and Education Act, 1990). Brunswik’s lens model (Brunswik, 1955; Cooksey, 1996; Hammond, 1955; Stewart, 1988) served as the theoretical and analytical tool for examining the judgment process. Lens model analysis was further enriched with the criticality of predictors’ technique developed by Azen, Budescu, & Reiser (2001). Judgment accuracy was defined as correspondence between consumers’ judgments and the nutritional quality index, NuVal®, obtained from an expert system. The study also examined several individual level variables (e.g., age, gender, BMI, educational level, health status, health beliefs, etc.) as predictors of lens model indices that measure judgment consistency, judgment accuracy, and knowledge of the environment. Results showed varying levels of consistency and accuracy depending on the food product, but generally the median values of the lens model statistics were moderate. Judgment consistency was higher for more educated individuals; judgment accuracy was predicted from a combination of person level characteristics, and individuals who reported having regular meals had models that were in greater agreement with the expert’s model. Conclusions: Lens model methodology is a useful tool for understanding how individuals perceive the nutrition in foods based on the NFP label. Lens model judgment indices were generally low, highlighting that the benefits of the complex NFP label may be more modest than what has been previously assumed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Juggling the five dimensions of food access: Perceptions of rural low
           income residents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Lauri Andress, Cindy Fitch
      Using focus groups (n = 6) from six West Virginia counties we assessed how low income, rural women (n = 30) enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program perceived the food environment and the ability to access healthy food. For WIC clients who are at risk for nutrition problems and live at or below 185% of poverty, challenges with food access threaten the positive aspects and impacts of the WIC program. We undertook a qualitative analysis by coding the focus group data on rural food access, into three themes. Our analysis demonstrated how the three major themes interact with five dimensions of food access and underscores the issues with food access that decrease the effectiveness of the food packages and nutrition education that low income WIC participants receive. To increase food access we recommend creating a formal structure where vendors and low income clients may discuss concerns; encouraging greater investment in rural communities through state issued incentives to build full service grocery stores or informal transportation networks; and additional research on the status of low income clients as social change agents capable of addressing issues that act as barriers to their shopping experiences. However, even with the data and prior literature, the pathways by which these environmental factors shape nutrition remain unclear-entangled - much like the issues that low income, rural residents must juggle when they make grocery shopping and nutrition decisions.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Investigating the effects of caffeine on executive functions using
           traditional Stroop and a new ecologically-valid virtual reality task, the
           Jansari assessment of Executive Functions (JEF©)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): K. Soar, E. Chapman, N. Lavan, A.S. Jansari, J.J.D. Turner
      Objective Caffeine has been shown to have effects on certain areas of cognition, but in executive functioning the research is limited and also inconsistent. One reason could be the need for a more sensitive measure to detect the effects of caffeine on executive function. This study used a new non-immersive virtual reality assessment of executive functions known as JEF© (the Jansari Assessment of Executive Function) alongside the ‘classic’ Stroop Colour-Word task to assess the effects of a normal dose of caffeinated coffee on executive function. Method Using a double-blind, counterbalanced within participants procedure 43 participants were administered either a caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee and completed the ‘JEF©’ and Stroop tasks, as well as a subjective mood scale and blood pressure pre- and post condition on two separate occasions a week apart. JEF© yields measures for eight separate aspects of executive functions, in addition to a total average score. Results Findings indicate that performance was significantly improved on the planning, creative thinking, event-, time- and action-based prospective memory, as well as total JEF© score following caffeinated coffee relative to the decaffeinated coffee. The caffeinated beverage significantly decreased reaction times on the Stroop task, but there was no effect on Stroop interference. Conclusion The results provide further support for the effects of a caffeinated beverage on cognitive functioning. In particular, it has demonstrated the ability of JEF© to detect the effects of caffeine across a number of executive functioning constructs, which weren’t shown in the Stroop task, suggesting executive functioning improvements as a result of a ‘typical’ dose of caffeine may only be detected by the use of more real-world, ecologically valid tasks.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Dietary interventions among university students: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Tom Deliens, Rob Van Crombruggen, Sofie Verbruggen, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Benedicte Deforche, Peter Clarys
      Purpose This study aimed to provide an overview of available literature on interventions aiming to improve dietary intake among university students. Materials and methods A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Risk of bias was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Results Twenty studies were identified, consisting of 12 randomised controlled trials, 1 quasi-experiment and 7 pre-experiments. Six studies were conducted outside the US. Risk of bias assessment revealed an average quality score of 5.8/10. Of the 13 interventions which were effective in improving students’ dietary intake, 8 used an intrapersonal approach, with 6 of them using the web or some kind of media to facilitate the intervention. The 5 remaining studies used an environmental (point-of-purchase) approach. Only 1 intervention, using 10 web-based lessons, based on non-diet principles and focused on eating competence and size acceptance to promote healthy eating, was found to be effective in the long term. Conclusions Nutrition education, enhancing self-regulation components towards dietary intake (often facilitated by the worldwide web or other media devices), and point-of-purchase messaging strategies may improve university or college students’ dietary intake. Future high quality randomised controlled trials should evaluate sustainability of intervention effects, as well as further investigate the effectiveness of realistic and low-cost environmental (preferably combined with intrapersonal) interventions which can easily and instantly reach a great part of the university population.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years:
           Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Sandra Fernandes-Machado, Paul Gellert, Sonia Goncalves, Falko F. Sniehotta, Vera Araujo-Soares
      There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Associations between maternal sense of coherence and controlling feeding
           practices: The importance of resilience and support in families of
           preschoolers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Karin Eli, Kimmo Sorjonen, Lincoln Mokoena, Angelo Pietrobelli, Carl-Erik Flodmark, Myles S. Faith, Paulina Nowicka
      Sense of Coherence (SOC) measures an individual’s positive, or salutogenic, orientation toward her/his capacities, environment, future, and life. SOC comprises three factors: comprehensibility (the sense of one’s own life as ordered and understandable); manageability (the perception of available resources and skills to manage stressors); and meaningfulness (the overall sense that life is filled with meaning and purpose). In numerous studies, SOC has been associated with resilience to stress. However, associations between parental SOC and controlling feeding practices have yet to be studied. This study examines the validity of the SOC 13-item, 3-factor questionnaire, associations between SOC and maternal and child characteristics, and associations between SOC and use of pressuring or restrictive feeding, among mothers of 4-year-olds. 565 mothers (23.5% of foreign origin, 30.3% with overweight/obesity) recruited via the Swedish population registry (response rate: 65%), completed the SOC–13, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), and a background questionnaire. The validity of SOC-13 was examined using confirmatory factor analysis; associations with background characteristics and feeding practices were tested with structural equation modeling. SOC-13 validity testing showed acceptable fit (TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.04) after allowing one pair of error terms to correlate. The Cronbach’s alpha for meaningfulness was 0.73, comprehensibility 0.76, and manageability 0.75. SOC increased with mothers’ Swedish background and education, and decreased with higher BMI. Child gender, age, and BMI, were not associated with SOC. Lower SOC was associated with controlling practices and with concern about child weight and eating. The associations between SOC and feeding suggest that SOC-related parameters could inform childhood obesity research, and that prevention should address the socioeconomic barriers that parents face in building resilience to stress.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Reproducibility of an in-laboratory test meal to assess ad libitum energy
           intake in adolescents with obesity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): David Thivel, Pauline Manon Genin, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Bruno Pereira, Lore Metz
      Aim The aim of the present work was to test the reproducibility of a personalized in-laboratory ad libitum buffet meal in assessing energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents. Methods Twelve 13.5 ± 1.5 years old obese adolescent girls were asked to complete three identical experimental sessions during which an ad libitum buffet meal was presented at lunch time. The buffet was personalized based on food preference questionnaires, presented usually consumed food items and excluded preferred foods. Total energy intake and the energy ingested derived from each macronutrient were assessed by investigators using the Bilnuts nutritional software. Results Mean body mass was 87.0 ± 13.7 kg and mean BMI was 32.2 ± 4.9 kg/m2. Mean FM percentage was 39.1 ± 4.4% and FFM was 50.6 ± 7.7 kg. There was no significant difference between total energy intake, the percentage of intake related to fat, protein or Carbohydrates (CHO) between the three sessions. The Intraclass Correlations (ICC) observed for total energy intake was 0.99. ICC for Protein, Fat and CHO were 0.38; 0.96 and 0.81 respectively. The Bland & Altman visual analysis revealed an important agreement between meals. Conclusion The proposed personalized in-laboratory ad libitum test meal produces is a reproducible methods to assess energy and macronutrients intake in obese adolescent girls.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Can evaluative conditioning decrease soft drink consumption?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jena A. Shaw, Evan M. Forman, Hallie M. Espel, Meghan L. Butryn, James D. Herbert, Michael R. Lowe, Chantal Nederkoorn
      The present study examined the effect of a picture-picture evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure on soft drink (soda) outcomes, including negative implicit attitudes, consumption during a taste test, and real-world consumption reported during the week after the intervention. In the EC condition (n = 43), soda images were paired with disgust images and water images were paired with pleasant images, whereas in the control condition (n = 41), the same images were viewed without pairing. The EC condition showed a larger reduction in real-world soda consumption across the week following the intervention. However, individuals in the EC condition did not consume less soda during a taste test immediately following the intervention. EC only significantly increased negative implicit attitudes towards soda among individuals who already had relatively higher baseline negative attitudes. These findings generally favored the potential for EC to impact soda drinking habits, but suggest that a brief EC intervention may not be strong enough to change attitudes towards a well-known brand unless negative attitudes are already present.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Make up your mind about food: A healthy mindset attenuates attention for
           high-calorie food in restrained eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jessica Werthmann, Anita Jansen, Anne Roefs
      Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus palatability mindsets influenced attention bias for food, and whether restrained eating moderated this relation. After manipulating mindset (health vs. palatability) experimentally, food-related attention bias was measured by eye-movements (EM) and response latencies (RL) during a visual probe task depicting high-calorie food and non-food. Restrained eating was assessed afterwards. A significant interaction of mindset and restrained eating on RL bias emerged, β = 0.36, t(58) = 2.05, p = 0.045: A health mindset – as compared to a palatability mindset – attenuated attention bias for high-caloric food only in participants with higher eating restraint. No effects were observed on EM biases. The current results demonstrate that state differences in health versus palatability mindsets can cause attenuated attention bias for high-calorie food cues in participants with higher eating restraint. Our findings add to emerging evidence that state differences in mindsets can bias attention for food, above the influence of trait differences.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality
           in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Tamara Tabbakh, Jean H. Freeland-Graves
      The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11–14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p < 0.01), as well as lower scores on empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3–1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Validation of a French-Canadian adaptation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2
           for the adult population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Elise Carbonneau, Noémie Carbonneau, Benoît Lamarche, Véronique Provencher, Catherine Bégin, Maude Bradette-Laplante, Catherine Laramée, Simone Lemieux
      Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating style based on the reliance on physiological cues to determine when, what, and how much to eat. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) is a validated four-subscale tool measuring the degree of adherence to intuitive eating principles. The present series of studies aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of a French-Canadian adaptation of the IES-2 for the adult population. The factor structure, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), the construct validity, and the discriminant validity were evaluated in 334 women and 75 men from the Province of Québec, Canada, across two studies. A confirmatory factor analysis upheld that the four-factor structure of the original IES-2 was adequate for the present sample of French-Canadians. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity evidence was obtained with the significant associations between intuitive eating and psychological and eating-related variables. Intuitive eating was negatively associated with eating disorder symptomatology and with food- and weight-preoccupation, and positively associated with body-esteem and well-being. The French-Canadian IES-2 was also able to discriminate between genders and body mass index categories. The properties of this new version of the IES-2 are demonstrative of a reliable and valid tool to assess intuitive eating in the French-Canadian adult population of the Province of Québec.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Satiety effects of psyllium in healthy volunteers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jose M. Brum, Roger D. Gibb, John C. Peters, Richard D. Mattes
      Controlling hunger between meals is a challenge for many individuals. This manuscript comprises 2 sequential clinical trials investigating the effects of psyllium (Metamucil) on satiety, both using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. The first study determined the effects of 3.4 g, 6.8 g, and 10.2 g of psyllium taken before breakfast and lunch for 3 days. The second study determined the effects of 6.8 g (taken before breakfast and lunch on Days 1 and 2 and before breakfast on Day 3) on the satiety of participants receiving an energy restricted meal in the morning (breakfast) for 3 days. Efficacy endpoints were mean inter-meal hunger, desire to eat, and Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude Visual Analog Scale scores. In Study 1, all 3 psyllium doses resulted in directional or statistically significant mean reductions in hunger and desire to eat, and increased fullness between meals compared to placebo, with both higher doses better than placebo or 3.4 g. The 6.8 g dose provided more consistent (p ≤ 0.013) satiety benefits versus placebo. In Study 2, satiety was assessed similarly to Study 1. A significant (p ≤ 0.004) decrease in the 3-day mean hunger and desire to eat, as well as an increase in fullness for psyllium relative to placebo was observed. Most adverse events were mild gastrointestinal symptoms and were similar for psyllium compared to placebo. These results indicate that psyllium supplementation contributes to greater fullness and less hunger between meals.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Systemic injection of the DAD1 antagonist SCH 23390 reduces saccharin
           seeking in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Kenjiro Aoyama, Jesse Barnes, Jon Koerber, Edwin Glueck, Kylan Dorsey, Laura Eaton, Jeffrey W. Grimm
      Conditioned cues can elicit drug- and sucrose-seeking behaviors that have been shown to depend on dopamine (DA) D1 receptors. If DAD1 receptors are also involved in seeking behavior in general, blocking these receptors should reduce seeking behavior for a non-caloric, non-drug of abuse reinforcer such as saccharin. Forty-six male Long-Evans rats lever pressed for 0.3% saccharin solution 1 h/day for 10 days. A lever response also activated a tone plus a white stimulus light. This compound stimulus lasted for 5 s. After 1 day of forced abstinence, rats received systemic (0, 1, or 10 μg/kg IP; n = 15–16 per group) injections of SCH 23390 15 min prior to extinction testing. Systemic SCH 23390 reduced saccharin seeking evidenced by a significant reduction in active lever responding and a significant reduction in the number of active lever-contingent deliveries of the tone + light cue following pretreatment with 10 μg/kg SCH 23390. The slope of responding across the Test session in this group was also significantly steeper, indicating that SCH 23390 may have reduced the persistence of saccharin seeking. The results indicate that DAD1 receptors are involved in saccharin seeking and generalize the previously demonstrated anti-seeking effects of DAD1 antagonism to a non-caloric, non-drug of abuse reinforcer.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and
           perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Kimberley M. Mallan, Serena E. Sullivan, Susan J. de Jersey, Lynne A. Daniels
      Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • A moveable feast: Contemporary relational food cultures emerging from
           local food networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Gabrielle O’Kane
      Although the globalised food system delivers unparalleled food variety and quantity to most in the developed world it also disconnects consumers from where, how and by whom food is grown. This change in the food system has resulted in an acceptance of an anonymous and homogeneous food supply, which has contributed to over-consumption and the rise in diet-related diseases. ‘Nutritionism’ responds to this issue by maintaining that a ‘healthy diet’ can be achieved by consuming the correct balance of energy and nutrients, but with limited success. Yet, some food cultures can moderate the effects of the environmental drivers of increasing global obesity rates. This paper draws on this premise and presents an alternative eco-dietetic response, exploring people’s meaning-making of food and food culture through local food networks. This research used narrative inquiry methodology and purposive sampling to gather stories through focus group conversations. Twenty people attended focus groups comprised of food procurers from one of three local food networks in the Canberra region: community gardens, a modified Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and farmers’ markets. The findings showed that those using local food networks enjoyed a ‘contemporary relational food culture’ that highlighted the importance of people, place and time, in their visceral experiences of food. The community gardeners made meaning of food through their connections to the earth and to others. The farmers’ market and CSA food procurers valued the seasonal, local and ethical food produced by their beloved farmer(s). This paper provides qualitative evidence that local food networks enable people to enjoy multi-dimensional relationships to food. Further research is required to examine whether experiencing a contemporary relational food culture can lead to improved health outcomes for people and the planet.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • The effect of low parental warmth and low monitoring on disordered eating
           in mid-adolescence: Findings from the Australian Temperament Project
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Isabel Krug, Ross M. King, George J. Youssef, Anisha Sorabji, Eleanor H. Wertheim, Daniel Le Grange, Elizabeth K. Hughes, Primrose Letcher, Craig A. Olsson
      Objective To investigate the interactions between low parental warmth and monitoring at age 13–14 years and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours at age 15–16 years. Method Data on 1300 (667 females) adolescents and their parents were drawn from The Australian Temperament Project (ATP), a 30 year (15 wave) population based longitudinal study of social-emotional development. Parent participants completed surveys on parenting practices in late childhood, and adolescent participants reported disordered eating using the drive for thinness and bulimia subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and an additional body dissatisfaction scale. Interaction was examined on the additive scale by estimating super-additive risk; i.e., risk in excess of the sum of individual risks. Results For boys, neither parental warmth or monitoring, nor their interaction, was related to disordered eating. For girls, low parental warmth (alone) was associated with bulimic behaviours. In contrast, exposure to both low monitoring and warmth was associated with ∼3½-fold, ∼4-fold and ∼5-fold increases in the odds of reporting body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimia, respectively. For body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, risk associated with joint exposure exceeded the sum of individual risks, suggesting an additive interaction between parenting styles. Conclusion Further investment in family-level interventions that focus on promoting parental monitoring behaviour and a warm parent-child relationship remain important strategies for preventing a range of disordered eating behaviours in adolescents.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety
           in vital community-dwelling older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Canan Ziylan, Stefanie Kremer, Jessie Eerens, Annemien Haveman-Nies, Lisette C.P.G.M. de Groot
      Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Consumer segmentation as a means to investigate emotional associations to
           meals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Betina Piqueras-Fiszman, Sara R. Jaeger
      Consumers naturally associate emotions to meal occasions and understanding these can advance knowledge of food-related behaviours and attitudes. The present study used an online survey to investigate the emotional associations that people have with recalled meals: ‘memorable’ (MM) and ‘routine’ evening (RM). Heterogeneity in the studied consumer population (UK adults, n = 576 and 571, respectively) was accounted for using a data-driven approach to establish emotion-based segments. Two groups of people were identified with very different emotional response patterns to recalled meals. For ‘memorable’ and ‘routine’ meals the majority of people (Cluster 1) held strong positive and weak negative emotional associations. In Cluster 2, positive emotions remained more strongly associated than negative emotions, but much less so. In accordance with findings based on other response variables (e.g., preference, attitudes), psychographic variables accounted better for the heterogeneity found in the emotion associations than socio-demographic variables. Participants’ level of meal engagement and difficulty in describing feelings (DDF scale) were the two most important predictors of cluster membership.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Food cravings in pregnancy: Preliminary evidence for a role in excess
           gestational weight gain
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Natalia C. Orloff, Amy Flammer, Josette Hartnett, Sarah Liquorman, Renee Samelson, Julia M. Hormes
      Currently, more than 50% of American women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy as per guidelines established by the Institute of Medicine and American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology. This excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with health complications in both mothers and children. This study sought to examine the hypothesized causal role of cravings in excess GWG. Pregnant women were recruited from a local hospital (n = 40) and via posts on pregnancy-related websites (n = 43). Weight (current and pregravid) and height data were collected to calculate body mass index (BMI) and recommended versus excess GWG. Participants completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which quantifies “frequency” of cravings for specific foods and the likelihood of “giving in” to these cravings. Overweight/obesity prior to pregnancy was reported by 40.5%–57.9% of participants. At the time of survey completion, 19.5% of online and 31.6% of hospital respondents had gained more than the recommended amount of weight for their stage of gestation. All women had experienced and given in to at least one craving, with cravings for “sweets” and “fast foods” being most common. Craving “frequency” accounted for a substantial portion of variance in excess GWG (25.0% in the online sample and 32.0% in respondents recruited at the hospital). Frequency of “giving in” to cravings accounted for 35.0% of the variance in excess GWG in the online sample only. Findings suggest that both craving frequency and consumption of craved foods may increase risk of excess GWG, providing support for the development of interventions targeting cravings in pregnancy as potentially modifiable determinants of energy intake.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Childhood risk factors for lifetime bulimic or compulsive eating by age
           30 years in a British national birth cohort
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): D. Nicholls, R. Statham, S. Costa, N. Micali, R.M. Viner
      Objective To examine whether previously identified childhood risk factors for bulimia or compulsive eating (BCE) predict self-reported lifetime BCE by age 30 years in a prospective birth cohort. Method Using data from the 1970 British Cohort Study at birth, 5, and 10 years, associations between 22 putative childhood risk factors and self-reported lifetime BCE at 30 years were examined, adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status. Results Only female sex (odds ratio (OR): 9.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9–43.7; p = 0.005), low self-esteem (OR:2.9; 95%CI: 1.1–7.5; p = 0.03) and high maternal education (OR:5.4; 95%CI: 2.0–14.8; p = 0.001) were significantly associated with higher risk of BCE, whereas high SES at 10 years was significantly protective (OR:0.2; 95%CI: 0.1–0.8; p = 0.022) of BCE in fully adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis. Discussion Our findings do not support a strong role for childhood weight status and eating behaviours in the development of bulimia and compulsive eating pathology, rather suggesting a focus on self esteem may have greater relative importance. Findings in relation to maternal education and SES need further exploration.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Newspaper debates on milk fats and vegetable oils in Finland,
           1978–2013: An analysis of conflicts over risks, expertise, evidence
           and pleasure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Piia Jallinoja, Mikko Jauho, Johanna Mäkelä
      The study analysed public debates on the association of milk fats, vegetable oils and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) between 1978 and 2013 in Finland, a country with a decades-long history of public health initiatives targeting fat consumption. The main agendas, conflicts and participants were analysed. The data were collected from the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat and consisted of 52 threads and 250 texts. We identified four themes around which there were repeated, often overlapping conflicts: the health risks of saturated fats, expertise of the risks of fat consumption, the adequate evidence of the risks of fat consumption, and framing the fat question. During the research period, the main arguments of the effects of consumption of fats have remained the same. References to epidemiological and intervention studies and framing of the fat question as a public health issue, have been ongoing, as has the definition of what constitutes genuine expertise. Yet, we also found discontinuities. In the early 2000s new emphases began to emerge: personal experiences were increasingly presented as evidence of the effects of dietary choices on human health, and the question of fat consumption was framed either as one of enjoyment or of a consumers’ right to choose rather than only being a public health question. Moreover, new professional groups such as chefs and creative professionals now joined the discussion.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • The Parent Mealtime Action Scale revised (PMAS-R): Psychometric
           characteristics and associations with variables of clinical interest
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Helen Hendy, Whitney Harclerode, Keith E. Williams
      The purpose of the present study was to provide a revised and more psychometrically-examined version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS-R), then to examine how well the PMAS-R subscales explained variance for four variables relevant in clinical settings. Study participants included 238 parents of children referred to a hospital-based feeding program (72.3% male children; mean age = 72.2 months; 80 with autism spectrum disorder, 77 with other special needs, 81 with no special needs). Parents completed questionnaires to report child demographics and diet habits. Parents also used a five-point rating instead of the original three-point rating to report their usage of the 31 PMAS feeding practices. Using five-point ratings, the nine subscales of the PMAS-R demonstrated improved internal reliability and test-retest reliability compared to those published for the original PMAS. ANCOVA indicated that special needs status was the child demographic variable most associated with PMAS-R feeding practices. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that after controlling for child demographics, the nine PMAS-R subscales explained 26–49% of the variance for four variables of clinical interest (fruit and vegetable consumption, snack consumption, total food variety, and weight status). These variables of clinical interest were most often associated with “permissive” feeding practices including low Daily Fruit and Vegetable (FV) Availability, rarely using Insistence on Eating during meals, often using Many Food Choices, and often using Child-Selected Meals. The present study provides a more psychometrically-sound measure of child feeding practices, documents the association between “permissive feeding” and variables of clinical interest, and identifies specific parent practices included in “permissive feeding”.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Investigating the role of parent and child characteristics in healthy
           eating intervention outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Clare E. Holley, Claire Farrow, Emma Haycraft
      While numerous studies have investigated the efficacy of interventions at increasing children’s vegetable consumption, little research has examined the effect of individual characteristics on intervention outcomes. In previous research, interventions consisting of modelling and rewards have been shown to increase children’s vegetable intake, but differences were identified in terms of how much children respond to such interventions. With this in mind, the current study investigated the role of parental feeding practices, child temperament, and child eating behaviours as predictors of intervention success. Parents (N = 90) of children aged 2–4 years were recruited from toddler groups across Leicestershire, UK. Parents completed measures of feeding practices, child eating behaviours and child temperament, before participating in one of four conditions of a home-based, parent led 14 day intervention aimed at increasing their child’s consumption of a disliked vegetable. Correlations and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of these factors in predicting intervention success. Parental feeding practices were not significantly associated with intervention success. However, child sociability and food fussiness significantly predicted intervention success, producing a regression model which could predict intervention success in 61% of cases. These findings suggest that future interventions could benefit from being tailored according to child temperament. Furthermore, interventions for children high in food fussiness may be better targeted at reducing fussiness in addition to increasing vegetable consumption.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Impact of short-term refeeding on appetite and meal experiences in new
           onset adolescent eating disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Claire M. Peterson, Abbigail M. Tissot, Abigail Matthews, Jennifer B. Hillman, James L. Peugh, Emily Rawers, Jenny Tong, Laurie Mitan
      Restrictive eating disorders (ED) are increasing and represent a serious risk to the health of adolescent females. Restrictive ED in youth are often treated through aggressive short-term refeeding. Although evidence supports that this intervention is the “gold standard” for improving ED outcomes in youth, little research has specifically probed appetite and meal-related responses to this type of intensive, short-term refeeding in newly diagnosed individuals. Information about appetite and meal-related dysfunction could provide valuable insights regarding treatment-interfering features of ED in both acute inpatient and longer-term outpatient treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hunger, fullness, olfactory, and gustatory responses of adolescents with newly-diagnosed restrictive ED and to probe how and when these responses are altered by refeeding. Using a quasi-experimental ecologically valid methodology, this study described and compared profiles of hunger, fullness, olfactory, and gustatory responses in adolescent females (n = 15) with newly diagnosed restrictive ED at hospital admission (i.e., severe malnutrition) and after medical refeeding, in comparison to healthy controls (n = 15). Results showed that newly diagnosed (i.e., malnourished) adolescents with ED showed significantly different meal-related experiences than controls. Refeeding improved some of these differences, but not all. Following refeeding, females with ED continued to show lower hunger, greater fullness, and lower pleasantness of smell ratings compared to controls. Unpleasantness of taste ratings maladaptively increased, such that females who were re-fed reported more aversive scents than pre-treatment. Profiles of meal-related responses were also identified and compared between groups. The applicability of these findings are discussed within the context of critical periods of change during refeeding treatment and potentially promising intervention targets that might enhance treatment outcomes for adolescents with newly onset, restrictive ED.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Mid-childhood fruit and vegetable consumption: The roles of early liking,
           early consumption, and maternal consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Kai Ling Kong, Matthew W. Gillman, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Xiaozhong Wen
      Previous studies have shown that early liking, early consumption, and maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) each predict children’s F&V consumption, but no one has examined the independent contributions of these three correlated factors. We aim to examine the extent to which each of these 3 factors is associated with F&V consumption in mid-childhood after accounting for the other 2 in the analysis. We analyzed data from 901 mother-child dyads from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. Mothers reported their child’s early liking and consumption of F&V at age 2 years and later consumption at mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). They also reported their own consumption of F&V at 6 months postpartum. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the independent associations of these 3 factors with mid-childhood consumption, adjusting for socio-demographic, pregnancy, and child confounders. At 2 years, 53% of the mothers strongly agreed that their child liked fruit and 25% strongly agreed that their child liked vegetables. F&V consumption was 2.5 (1.3) and 1.8 (1.1) times/d at age 2 y and 1.5 (1.1) and 1.3 (0.8) times/d in mid-childhood. Maternal F&V consumption was 1.4 (1.1) and 1.5 (1.0) times/d, respectively. Children’s early consumption played the most predominant role. For every 1 time/d increment in children’s early consumption of F&V, mid-childhood consumption was higher by 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19, 0.30) times/d for fruits and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) times/d for vegetables, adjusted for confounders plus the other 2 exposures. In conclusion, children’s early F&V consumption has the most significant influence on children’s later consumption.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
  • Predictors of binge eating in male and female youths in the United Arab
           Emirates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Sabrina J. Schulte
      Objective Binge eating is a health-risk behavior associated with obesity, eating disorders and many other diseases. However, binge eating research remains narrow especially in Arab countries where obesity is a primary health concern but studies on psychological factors of compulsive overeating are rare. The present study addressed this gap by examining prevalence rates and key predictors of binge eating among youths in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Method Binge eating was assessed together with stress levels, emotional eating, body-related shame and guilt, obsessive-compulsiveness and depression in 254 youths using standardized self-report measures. The study comprised three online-based assessments over a 3-month period. Results Moderate to severe binge eating was reported by one-third of participants. Emotional eating and body-related guilt were the most consistent and powerful positive binge eating predictors. While stress levels and body-related shame were statistically significant predictors at follow up, neither obsessive-compulsiveness nor depressive symptomatology predicted binge eating in this study. Discussion Findings highlight binge eating as a common concern among youths in the UAE with prevalence rates similar to Western samples. Furthermore, the data suggest that binge eating may operate as a maladaptive coping strategy by alleviating negative emotions including boredom and loneliness. The finding that body-related guilt predicted binge eating is important as until now inconsistencies persist as to the relationship between body-related guilt and eating pathology. The study points towards multifactorial risk and maintenance factors of binge eating and extends our understanding within a population where until now research is poor.


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
       
 
 
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