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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3089 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3089 Journals sorted alphabetically
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 115)
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.509, h-index: 77)
Physica C: Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.472, h-index: 71)
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.049, h-index: 102)
Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 66)
Physica Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 24)
Physical Acoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 19)
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.516, h-index: 41)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Techniques in the Study of Art, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 30)
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 26)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 137)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.186, h-index: 216)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.615, h-index: 39)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.099, h-index: 15)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.14, h-index: 83)
Physics Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 23)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 8.102, h-index: 209)
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 62)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.245, h-index: 122)
Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.769, h-index: 35)
Phytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 134)
Phytochemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.484, h-index: 22)
Phytomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.013, h-index: 84)
Piel     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 6)
Placenta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.608, h-index: 98)
Planetary and Space Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91, SJR: 1.072, h-index: 69)
Plant Gene     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 84)
Plant Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.601, h-index: 107)
Plasmid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.891, h-index: 46)
PM&R (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 32)
Poetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.867, h-index: 41)
Polar Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 13)
Polish Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.928, h-index: 68)
Polski Przegląd Otorynolaryngologiczny : Polish J. of Otorhinolaryngology Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 78)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 197)
Polymer Contents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.241, h-index: 112)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.947, h-index: 69)
Porto Biomedical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 23, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Characteristics of feeding tube dependency with respect to food aversive
           behaviour and growth
    • Authors: Markus Wilken; Peter Bartmann; Terence M. Dovey; Soyhan Bagci
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Markus Wilken, Peter Bartmann, Terence M. Dovey, Soyhan Bagci
      The use of feeding tubes in pediatric medical procedures and management has dramatically increased over the last three decades. With this increase, the prevalence of Feeding Tube Dependency (FTD) – a reliance on enteral feeding following medical recovery due to lack of oral intake of nutrition, despite being able to eat– has increased too. It has been suggested, that cases with FTD show avoidant feeding behaviours such as food refusal, gagging or swallowing resistance, but evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. In a German population of 146 cases requesting feeding tube dependency treatment between 2005 and 2008 the frequency of occurrence of avoidant behaviour in FTD cases has been evaluated and was correlated to growth. The study includes children under 50 months of age being tube fed for at least three months. Parents received the Anamnestic Questionnaire for Feeding Disorder and Tube Weaning (AFT), which evaluates nutritional supply, tube feeding, feeding disorder symptoms, medical diagnosis, growth and psychosocial variables. The study group was comprised of 101 children (50 male, 51 female), with a median age of 15 months (IQR: 10–26.5) and a median tube feeding duration of 13 months (IQR: 8–27). The most prevalent medical diagnoses were congenital malformations (n = 51) and prematurity (n = 27). Parents reported daily symptoms of food aversion through all age groups, like food refusal 2 (IQR: 1–3), gagging 1 (IQR: 0–3), vomiting 1 (0.1–2) and total symptoms 6 (5–11). Vomiting was negatively correlated with weight and length percentile and head circumference. Cases with FTD show frequent and persistent food avoidant behaviors, which may be explain the need for specific psychological treatment during transitioning from tube dependency to oral eating.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.107
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Detection thresholds for four different fatty stimuli are associated with
           increased dietary intake of processed high-caloric food
    • Authors: Jaana M. Heinze; Andrew Costanzo; Inga Baselier; Andreas Fritsche; Sabine Frank-Podlech; Russell Keast
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Jaana M. Heinze, Andrew Costanzo, Inga Baselier, Andreas Fritsche, Sabine Frank-Podlech, Russell Keast
      BMI-specific differences in food choice and energy intake have been suggested to modulate taste perception. However, associations between body composition and fat taste sensitivity are controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the association between body composition, dietary intake and detection thresholds of four fatty stimuli (oleic acid, paraffin oil, canola oil, and canola oil spiked with oleic acid) that could be perceived via gustatory and/or textural cues. In 30 participants, fat detection thresholds were determined in a repeated measurements design over twelve days. Weight status was examined by measuring the participants' BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. The habitual food intake was assessed via several questionnaires and twelve, non-consecutive 24-hour food diaries. In this study, a negative correlation was found between fat detection thresholds and the intake of food rich in vitamins and fibre. Moreover, a positive correlation was identified between the intake of high-fat food and fat detection thresholds. No differences in fat detection thresholds were observed due to variations in BMI or waist-to-hip ratio. These findings indicate that a regular intake of fatty foods might decrease an individuals’ perceptual response to fats which might lead to excess fat intake on the long term.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Stress and eating behaviors in children and adolescents: Systematic review
           and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Deborah C. Hill; Rachael H. Moss; Bianca Sykes-Muskett; Mark Conner; Daryl B. O'Connor
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Deborah C. Hill, Rachael H. Moss, Bianca Sykes-Muskett, Mark Conner, Daryl B. O'Connor
      It is well established that stress is linked to changes in eating behaviors. Research using adult populations has shown that stress is associated with both increases and decreases in the amount and type of food consumed. However, due to a lack of research reviews, the relationship between stress and eating behaviors in children is unclear. This systematic research review and meta-analysis aimed to identify whether stress is associated with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors in children aged 8–18 years. Studies were included in the review if they measured stress and included a measure of food consumption. All unique studies retrieved (N = 28,070) were assessed for their eligibility at title, abstract and full text levels. A total of 13 studies were included in the final review and data were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Using random-effects modelling, overall stress was not associated with a change in overall eating behaviors. However, additional analyses indicated stress was associated with unhealthy eating behaviors in both younger (Hedge's g = 0.283, p < 0.001) and older (Hedge's g = 0.274, p = 0.001) children. In contrast, stress was not associated with healthy eating behaviors in younger children (Hedge's g = 0.093, p = 0.156), but was negatively associated with healthy eating behaviors in older children (Hedge's g = −0.384, p < 0.001). The current findings are concerning as they suggest the impact of stress on unhealthy eating may begin as early as 8 or 9 years old. Future research ought to investigate further the role of psychological, behavioral and endocrine factors in the development of stress-related eating in children.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.109
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • What motivates women to breastfeed in Lebanon: An exploratory qualitative
    • Authors: Sarah BouDiab; Carolina Werle
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Sarah BouDiab, Carolina Werle
      This exploratory qualitative study examined the influence of injunctive and descriptive norms on breastfeeding, a health-improving behaviour related to a highly committed personal decision. The research explores the different mechanisms through which social norms impact breastfeeding behaviour pre or post-adoption of breastfeeding practice. A qualitative approach was used by performing in-depth analysis of cross-sectional accounts of women in Lebanon contemplating adoption of breastfeeding practice and women who already breastfed. Interviews were also conducted with medical professionals, lactation specialists, and breastfeeding activists. On one hand, the attitude of the medical professionals and the government efforts are two mechanisms that stimulate the injunctive norms. On the other hand, the descriptive norms are defined by community attitude aggregated with societal beliefs and expectations on women's image and role in society. Both types of social norms are in constant interplay with personal norms and each type becomes more salient at different periods over time. The findings suggest that social norms are major determinants of breastfeeding behaviour. The influence of the type of social norm—descriptive or injunctive—on the decision to breastfeed varies according to the moment of life the mother is living. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Initial validation of the Nine Item Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake
           disorder screen (NIAS): A measure of three restrictive eating patterns
    • Authors: Hana F. Zickgraf; Jordan M. Ellis
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 123
      Author(s): Hana F. Zickgraf, Jordan M. Ellis
      Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors. The present study describes the development and validation of the nine-item ARFID screen (NIAS), a brief multidimensional instrument to measure ARFID-associated eating behaviors. Participants were 455 adults recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, 505 adults recruited from a nationally-representative subject pool, and 311 undergraduates participating in research for course credit. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for three factors. The NIAS subscales demonstrated high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, invariant item loadings between two samples, and convergent/discriminant validity with other measures of picky eating, appetite, fear of negative consequences, and psychopathology. The scales were also correlated with measures of ARFID-like symptoms (e.g., low BMI, low fruit/vegetable variety and intake, and eating-related psychosocial interference/distress), although the picky eating, appetite, and fear scales had distinct independent relationships with these constructs. The NIAS is a brief, reliable instrument that may be used to further investigate ARFID-related eating behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.111
      Issue No: Vol. 123 (2017)
  • Remembering food insecurity: Low-income parents’ perspectives on
           childhood experiences and implications for measurement
    • Authors: Tracey L. Rosa; Stephanie E. Ortolano; Katherine L. Dickin
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Tracey L. Rosa, Stephanie E. Ortolano, Katherine L. Dickin
      The objective of this study was to explore how low-income parents recall and describe childhood experiences with food insecurity. Little is known about how adults remember food insecurity experienced in childhood, yet there are potential implications for subsequent behavior including parents' willingness and ability to adopt recommended child feeding practices. To guide development of a measure of previous childhood food insecurity for research and screening purposes, we conducted interviews exploring parents' emic perspectives on these early life course experiences and reactions to potential survey items. A diverse group of 27 low-income mothers in New York State was interviewed in depth; data were coded and analyzed qualitatively for emergent themes. In recounting childhood memories, participants expressed strong emotions and strove to portray their parents positively, emphasizing that parents did their best to ensure that children “always had something to eat.” Rather than dwell on food insecurity, participants preferred to share memories of family strategies to mitigate food shortages (e.g., asking relatives for money, “stretching” meals). Participants' memories of these strategies to increase food access and acceptability and adequacy of meals were summarized in a framework integrating key themes. The emotional salience of childhood food insecurity memories suggests that these experiences could have significant implications for parental adoption of child feeding recommendations and should be considered when designing nutrition interventions. Measurement challenges identified included adults’ limited recall and awareness of food insecurity during childhood, stigma, and desire to portray parents positively. Qualitative analysis of rich, emic data on food insecurity experiences offered insights on the most relevant constructs to address in survey measures of this potential antecedent of current practices.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.035
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Guilty pleasures: The effect of perceived overeating on food addiction
           attributions and snack choice
    • Authors: Helen K. Ruddock; Charlotte A. Hardman
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Helen K. Ruddock, Charlotte A. Hardman
      Despite being widely debated throughout the scientific community, the concept of food addiction remains a popular explanation for overeating and obesity amongst the lay public. Overeating is often accompanied by feelings of guilt and dietary concern, and this may lead people to attribute their eating to an addiction in order to minimise personal responsibility. Research also indicates that food addiction attributions and dietary concern may lead people to limit their exposure to tempting foods. To test these ideas, we examined the effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice. Subjective ratings of guilt and dietary concern were indirectly manipulated by leading female participants (N=90) to believe they had eaten more than (overeating condition), less than (undereating condition), or roughly the same (control condition) amount of palatable foods in relation to their own estimated consumption and to previous participants. Participants then rated the relative importance of a list of explanations for their eating (including “the foods were really addictive”) and selected a snack to take home with them. Ratings of guilt and dietary concern were highest in the overeating condition, and lowest in the undereating condition, indicating that the manipulation had been successful. However, findings revealed no effect of condition on food addiction attributions. As predicted, participants in the overeating condition selected less tempting snacks than in the undereating condition. However, this effect was not mediated by guilt/dietary concern. There was also no association between food-addiction attributions and snack choice. These findings suggest that perceived overeating affects snack choice but not food addiction attributions. Future research should investigate whether food addiction attributions may be driven by feelings of guilt and dietary concern following longer-term disinhibited eating patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.032
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Mother natural: Motivations and associations for consuming natural foods
    • Authors: Emily M. Moscato; Jane E. Machin
      Pages: 18 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Emily M. Moscato, Jane E. Machin
      Natural is perceived as innately positive and is a widely sought-after attribute in food products. The natural food industry continues to grow in response to rising consumer demand. This qualitative study explored mothers' motivations for purchasing and consuming natural food products for themselves and their families. Mothers are an important population because of their disproportionate influence on household food consumption. We employed participant photography and a series of three weekly focus groups to derive a rich understanding of the activities surrounding and motivations behind seeking natural in everyday buying decisions. Five major themes were identified. First, natural nurtures well-being: physical, psychological, social, and emotional health. Second, natural behaves “supernaturally,” allowing positive attributes to be transmitted from the source to the recipient. Third, natural is associated with authenticity, providing a sense of trust, transparency, and control. Fourth, consuming natural reinforces the socially constructed idea of a good mother. Lastly, the preference for natural does not always translate into purchase; mothers face compromises because of conflicting priorities and resources. Understanding mothers’ multiple motivations provides deeper insight into the attraction for natural products. The findings have application in positioning interventions for more nutritional eating and revising regulations on the food label natural.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.031
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Prospects for pro-environmental protein consumption in Europe: Cultural,
           culinary, economic and psychological factors
    • Authors: Joop de Boer; Harry Aiking
      Pages: 29 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Joop de Boer, Harry Aiking
      The current ratio between plant and animal protein in the Western diet is causing serious threats to both public health and the environment. Healthy, pro-environmental protein consumption requires a transition to a diet with more plant protein and considerably less animal protein. The present paper focuses on the prospects of this transition by analyzing consumer responses to some key options in the context of regional differences across Europe. The aim is to assess how responses to the options might be shaped by 1) cultural, culinary and economic spatial gradients (including GDP per capita) at regional level and 2) differences in environmental friendly behavior and gender at individual level. The study, covering all EU members in 2012, compares regional level statistics (food supply data) with individual level statistics (consumer survey data) and vice-versa. The south-north latitude gradient showed a decreasing trend in vegetable and pulse protein supplies and, in parallel, a decreasing trend in positive consumer responses to the key options, probably due to differences in meal experiences. The west-east longitude gradient showed decreasing levels of animal protein supplies and GDP per capita. Individuals' willingness to do something positive for the environment and their gender played a weak but consistent role in the responses. To effectively stimulate diet changes, it is important to seek ways in which culinary and environmental aspects can complement each other and to ensure that diet changes do not depend solely on individual decisions but become an integral part of regional social processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.042
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Vegetarian or meat' Food choice modeling of main dishes occurs outside
           of awareness
    • Authors: Chelsea D. Christie; Frances S. Chen
      Pages: 50 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Chelsea D. Christie, Frances S. Chen
      It is well established that the amount eaten by other people affects how much we eat, but unanswered questions exist regarding how much the food choices of other people affect the types of food that we choose. Past research on food choice modeling has primarily been conducted in controlled laboratory situations and has focused on snack foods. The current research examines the extent to which food choice modeling of a main dish occurs in a real-life context and whether people are aware of being influenced by others. The lunch orders of café patrons were surreptitiously tracked and participants were recruited after they paid for their lunch. Participants were asked what they ordered, whether they were influenced by the prior order, and what their relationship was to the person ahead of them in line. We analyzed the data of participants who were not acquainted with the person ahead of them (N = 174). As hypothesized, participants’ main-dish lunch orders matched the choice of the person ordering ahead of them in line at rates significantly higher than chance. A significant modeling effect was observed even among participants who reported that their order was not influenced by the prior order. This research provided evidence of main-dish choice modeling occurring in real-life eating situations and outside of conscious awareness - demonstrating a powerful social influence on eating behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.036
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Does front-of-pack nutrition information improve consumer ability to make
           healthful choices' Performance of warnings and the traffic light
           system in a simulated shopping experiment
    • Authors: Leandro Machín; Jessica Aschemann-Witzel; María Rosa Curutchet; Ana Giménez; Gastón Ares
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Leandro Machín, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, María Rosa Curutchet, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
      The inclusion of more attention-grabbing and easily interpretable front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition information is one of the public policies that can be implemented to empower consumers to identify unhealthful food products and to make more informed food choices. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two FOP nutrition labelling schemes – the traffic light labelling and the warning scheme – on consumer food purchases when facing a health goal. The study was conducted with 1182 people from Montevideo (Uruguay), recruited using a Facebook advertisement. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three between-subjects experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no FOP nutrition information, (ii) FOP nutrition information using a modified version of the traffic light system including information about calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content per portion, and (iii) FOP nutrition information using the Chilean warning system including separate signs for high calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content. Respondents were asked to imagine that they had to purchase food in order to prepare a healthy dinner for themselves and their family, using the website of an online grocery store. Results showed that FOP nutrition information effectively improved the average healthfulness of participants’ choices compared to the control condition, both in terms of the average nutritional composition of the purchased products and expenditure in specific product categories. No relevant differences between the effect of the traffic light and the warning system were found.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:22:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.037
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification
           of vegetables
    • Authors: V.L. van Stokkom; A.E. Blok; O. van Kooten; C. de Graaf; M. Stieger
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): V.L. van Stokkom, A.E. Blok, O. van Kooten, C. de Graaf, M. Stieger
      It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato). Subjects (n = 194) were randomly assigned to one of four test conditions which differed in the sensory cues available for vegetable identification: taste, smell (orthonasal), flavour (taste and smell) and flavour-texture (taste, smell and texture). Blindfolded subjects were asked to identify the vegetable from a list of 24 vegetables. Identification was the highest in the flavour-texture condition (87.5%). Identification was significantly lower in the flavour condition (62.8%). Identification was the lowest when only taste cues (38.3%) or only smell cues (39.4%) were provided. For four raw vegetables (carrot, cucumber, onion and tomato) providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues did not significantly change identification suggesting that flavour cues were sufficient to identify these vegetables. Identification frequency increased for all vegetables when perceived intensity of the smell, taste or flavour cue increased. We conclude that providing flavour cues (taste and smell) increases identification compared to only taste or only smell cues, combined flavour and texture cues are needed for the identification of many vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:36:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.039
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Negative eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescents: The role of
           parental control and perceived peer support
    • Authors: Ugo Pace; Giulio D'Urso; Carla Zappulla
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Ugo Pace, Giulio D'Urso, Carla Zappulla
      In the present study, we examined from a longitudinal perspective the relationship between parental (both maternal and paternal) psychological control, perceived peer support, and negative eating attitudes and behaviors, focusing on the moderating role that perceived peer support may play in the relationship between parental psychological control in early adolescence and negative eating attitudes and behaviors in late adolescence. In Wave 1, participants were 507 adolescents (249 boys and 258 girls) aged from 14 to 15 years (M = 14.76; SD = 0.63). Three years later (Wave 2), the same adolescents participated again in the study (M = 17.88 years; SD = 0.57). Regression analyses displayed that paternal, but not maternal, achievement-oriented psychological control during early adolescence positively predicted negative eating attitudes and behaviors in late adolescence, whereas perceived peer support negatively predicted negative eating attitudes and behaviors. Results also showed a moderator effect of perceived peer support in the relationship between father's psychological control and negative eating attitudes and behaviors, such that at higher levels of paternal achievement-oriented psychological control, negative eating attitudes and behaviors tended to be higher when perceived peer support was low and to be lower when perceived peer support was high.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:36:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Resource forecasting: Differential effects of glucose taste and ingestion
           on delay discounting and self-control
    • Authors: X.T. Wang; Ryan N. Reed; Lee A. Baugh; Kelene A. Fercho
      Pages: 101 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): X.T. Wang, Ryan N. Reed, Lee A. Baugh, Kelene A. Fercho
      We tested a novel hypothesis that glucose taste acts as a signal for resource acquisition, motivating preference for immediate rewards while actual glucose ingestion prompts resource conservation, promoting future-orientated self-regulation. In Study 1, participants were engaged in a delay-discounting task and a grip-control task before and after a beverage intervention (glucose drink, water drink, or glucose mouth-rinse). Glucose ingestion decreased delay discounting, making larger-and-later rewards more attractive. In contrast, glucose rinse increased delay discounting. Water ingestion had none of the effects. In the grip-control task, only glucose ingestion improved the performance. Study 2 using fMRI revealed that glucose rinse and glucose ingestion resulted in distinct brain activational patterns. Compared to glucose rinse, glucose ingestion deactivated a few brain regions (e.g., the anterior cingulate gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus) that are previously shown to be more active when making more difficult intertemporal choices, suggesting that glucose ingestion eases the process of making intertemporal choice. In sum, our behavioral and neuroimaging findings together suggest a dual signaling role of glucose sensation and ingestion in regulating delay discounting and self-control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:36:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.083
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Is it better at home with my family' The effects of people and place
           on children's eating behavior
    • Authors: L. Suzanne Suggs; Sara Della Bella; Natalie Rangelov; Pedro Marques-Vidal
      Pages: 111 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): L. Suzanne Suggs, Sara Della Bella, Natalie Rangelov, Pedro Marques-Vidal
      The people and places children eat with can influence food consumption. This study investigates the people and places Swiss school-aged children ate with over a 7-day period and analyses the effects of eating at home with family on food consumption. Children completed a 7-day food diary documenting the foods they consumed, the people with whom they ate, and the place where they ate. Analyses were conducted for all meals and included 9911 meal occasions. Most meals (80.5%) were consumed at home with family. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the effects of the home-family dyad on the child's chance of consuming a certain food while controlling for age, gender and BMI of the child, education, nationality and BMI of the parent. Compared to eating in other dyads (e.g. school-peers or restaurant-family), eating in the home-family dyad was associated with higher consumption of vegetables (+66% and +142% at weekday lunch and dinner and +180% and +67% at weekend lunch and dinner), lower consumption of sweets (−45% and −49% at weekday lunch and dinner; −43% and −49% at weekend lunch and dinner), and fewer soft drinks (−37% and −61% at weekday lunch and dinner; −66% and −78% at weekend lunch and dinner). This study shows the positive influence of eating at home with the family on food consumption in a sample of Swiss children. Interventions and policies that encourage children and parents to eat together at home could serve as effective prevention against a poor diet.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:36:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste
           sensitivity and personality
    • Authors: Daniel Harmon; Mary Gauvain; Z Reisz; Isaac Arthur; S. Drew Story
      Pages: 119 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Daniel Harmon, Mary Gauvain, Z Reisz, Isaac Arthur, S. Drew Story
      This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO3 −. PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.040
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • The impact of price and nutrition labelling on sugary drink purchases:
           Results from an experimental marketplace study
    • Authors: Rachel B. Acton; David Hammond
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Rachel B. Acton, David Hammond
      Objective To examine the effect of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labelling and sugary drink taxation on consumer beverage purchases. Methods A total of 675 respondents aged 16 years and older participated in an experimental marketplace study using a 4 × 5 within-between group design. Participants were randomised to one of four labelling conditions (no label; star rating; high sugar symbol; health warning) and completed five within-subject purchase tasks. Beverage prices in each task corresponded to ‘tax’ conditions: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and a variable tax proportional to free sugar level. In each task, participants selected from 20 commercially available beverages; upon conclusion, one of five selections was randomly chosen for purchase. Results As price increased, participants were significantly less likely to select a sugary drink, and selected drinks with fewer calories and less free sugar (p < 0.001 for all). The overall effect of labelling was not statistically significant, although there was a trend for the ‘high sugar’ label to reduce the likelihood of selecting a sugary drink (p = 0.11) and encouraging participants to select drinks with less free sugar (p = 0.11). Conclusions Increasing price was associated with reduced sugary drink purchases. Enhanced FOP labelling results highlight the need for further research to investigate their potential impact. The study adds empirical support for taxation to reduce sugary drink consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.089
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms,
           affect and image on consumer choice
    • Authors: Anita Etale; Marilou Jobin; Michael Siegrist
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Anita Etale, Marilou Jobin, Michael Siegrist
      What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts' This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption. Results suggest that these psychological factors play a role in water consumption choice. Convenience was the only contextual predictor - the inconvenience of transporting bottled water has a negative effect on its consumption, and a positive effect on tap water consumption. Although concern about the effect of bottled water on the environment was not a significant predictor of tap water consumption, we found that for some people, a link exists between environmental concern and consumption choice. Ways through which consumers may be more effectively influenced towards environmentally-friendly consumption are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.090
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Independent and interactive associations of negative affect, restraint,
           and impulsivity in relation to binge eating among women
    • Authors: Tyler B. Mason; Kathryn E. Smith; Jason M. Lavender; Robin J. Lewis
      Pages: 147 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Tyler B. Mason, Kathryn E. Smith, Jason M. Lavender, Robin J. Lewis
      There is growing recognition that impulsivity may serve as an underlying risk factor for binge eating. In addition, the association of impulsivity with binge eating may be moderated by other affective and cognitive risk factors. This study examined independent and interactive associations of negative affect, dietary restraint, and facets of impulsivity with binge eating. A diverse sample of 566 undergraduate women completed online questionnaires of study variables. Results revealed a three-way interaction of negative affect, dietary restraint, and attentional impulsivity in relation to binge eating. Women who were high on each of these three variables reported the greatest levels of binge eating. In addition, a two-way interaction was found for negative affect and nonplanning impulsivity in relation to binge eating, such that nonplanning impulsivity strengthened the association between negative affect and binge eating. Attentional and nonplanning facets of impulsivity may function as an underlying trait-level risk factor interacts with affective and/or cognitive risk (e.g., negative affect, dietary restraint) factors to predict elevated binge eating.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.099
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Double up! Examining the effects of adding inhibition training to food cue
           exposure in chocolate-loving female students
    • Authors: Peggy Bongers; Katrijn Houben; Anita Jansen
      Pages: 154 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Peggy Bongers, Katrijn Houben, Anita Jansen
      In the present we study investigated whether addition of a Go/No Go training enhanced the effects of food cue exposure. We assessed desire to eat, salivation, CS-US expectancies, and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) during and after cue exposure. Participants (N = 71) were chocolate-loving female students who tried to eat less chocolate in daily life. They received two sessions of either cue exposure with Go/No Go training (EXP + GNG), cue exposure with a sham training (EXP + shamGNG), or a control procedure with sham training (CON + shamGNG). Results showed that the exposure groups had higher desire to eat and higher levels of salivation during exposure compared to the control group during the control intervention, and that within session and between session habituation occurred in all conditions. In contrast to our hypotheses, lower levels of desire and salivation in the EXP + GNG compared to the EXP + shamGNG group at the end of exposure were not found. In addition, there was an overall decrease in CS-US expectancies with no group differences, and these beliefs were unrelated to EAH. Furthermore, groups did not differ on intake of either the exposed chocolate, non-exposed chocolate or other snack food items. It is concluded that a short Go/No Go training does not have an effect on two sessions of cue exposure treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.096
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Family meals then and now: A qualitative investigation of
           intergenerational transmission of family meal practices in a
           racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population
    • Authors: Amanda C. Trofholz; Mai See Thao; Mia Donley; Mireya Smith; Hassan Isaac; Jerica M. Berge
      Pages: 163 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Amanda C. Trofholz, Mai See Thao, Mia Donley, Mireya Smith, Hassan Isaac, Jerica M. Berge
      Having frequent family meals has consistently been associated with better health outcomes in children/adolescents. It is important to identify how intergenerational transmission of family meal practices occurs to help families benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Limited studies exist that explore the intergenerational transmission of family meal practices, particularly among racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant populations. This study explores how parents describe differences and similarities between meals “then” and “now”, lessons they learned as children about family meals, lessons they passed onto their children, the challenges of carrying out family meals, and how families handle the barriers/challenges to intergenerational transmission of family meal practices. The study was conducted with a sample of African American, Native American, Latino, Hmong, Somali, and White families (25/category). Qualitative themes were explored with the overall sample, by race/ethnicity, immigrant status, and by time in the United States (US) as an immigrant. Parents overwhelmingly reported learning as children that family meals were important and conveying this message to their own children. Differences existed among racial/ethnic groups and time in the US as an immigrant. For example, Somali parents frequently endorsed having no challenges with intergenerational transmission of family meal practices. Immigrant parents in the US for a longer period of time were more likely to endorse learning/teaching about family meal importance, that the food eaten now is different than growing up, that a chaotic environment is a challenge to having family meals, and that they accommodate family member's schedules when planning family meals. Results demonstrate that exploring a parent's early family meal experiences may be important when intervening with parents from diverse racial/ethnic and immigrant populations when trying to improve or increase family meal practices.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.084
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Factors influencing food choice of athletes at international competition
    • Authors: Fiona E. Pelly; Sarah J. Burkhart; Peter Dunn
      Pages: 173 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Fiona E. Pelly, Sarah J. Burkhart, Peter Dunn
      Although the nutrient requirements and dietary intake of athletes have been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the influences on their food choice, particularly prior to and during competition. This study sought to investigate factors that influence food selection of athletes at two similar international competition events: the Melbourne 2006 and Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. A secondary aim was to explore differences in these factors between at each event given the culturally diverse locations. A survey developed for this study was distributed to athletes in the village dining hall at both events. Athletes scored a selection of factors influencing food choice on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A total of 769 individuals completed the questionnaire in total, with 351 (46%) from Delhi and 418 (54%) from Melbourne. Overall, athletes rated nutrient composition (M = 4.22), stage of competition (M = 4.09), time of day (M = 4.02) and familiarity of the food (M = 4.07) higher than sensory properties (smell M = 3.88; visual appearance M = 3.22) when making a food selection. Visual appearance (p = 0.01), stage of competition (p < 0.001) and time of day (p = 0.01) had greater influence in Delhi than Melbourne. Overall, a significantly higher proportion of female athletes rated smell (p < 0.001) and familiar food (p < 0.001) as important compared to males. The stage of competition and nutrition composition was rated as very important by the greatest proportion of athletes from weight category sports (61.9%) and endurance sports (57.9%) respectively. The influence of the coach and team mates was less of an influence than other factors, but more so for athletes from Non-Western regions. Further investigation of the various determinants and motives for food section of athletes from a range of sports and cultures is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.086
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread
    • Authors: Ellen van Kleef; Karen Seijdell; Monique H. Vingerhoeds; René A. de Wijk; Hans C.M. van Trijp
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Ellen van Kleef, Karen Seijdell, Monique H. Vingerhoeds, René A. de Wijk, Hans C.M. van Trijp
      Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as brown or white bread. A pilot survey (N = 291) examined the strength of combinations of toppings and bread type as carrier to select stimuli for the main study. In the main experimental study consisting of a two (bread type) by two (topping type) between-subjects design, participants (N = 226) were given a free sandwich at a university stand with either a relatively unhealthy deep-fried snack (croquette) or a healthy topping. About half of the participants were offered a whole wheat bun unless they asked for white bun, and the other half were offered a white bun unless they asked for a whole wheat bun. Regardless of the topping, the results show that when the whole wheat bun was the default option, 108 out of 115 participants (94%) decided to stick with this default option. When the default of bread offered was white, 89 out of 111 participants (80%) similarly chose to stick with this default. Across conditions, participants felt equally free to make a choice. The attractiveness of and willingness to pay for the sandwich were not affected by default type of bread. This study demonstrated a strong default effect of bread type. This clearly shows the benefit of steering consumers towards a healthier bread choice, by offering healthier default bread at various locations such as restaurants, schools and work place canteens.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.091
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Food and beverage consumption and food addiction among women in the
           Nurses' Health Studies
    • Authors: Adina R. Lemeshow; Eric B. Rimm; Deborah S. Hasin; Ashley N. Gearhardt; Alan J. Flint; Alison E. Field; Jeanine M. Genkinger
      Pages: 186 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Adina R. Lemeshow, Eric B. Rimm, Deborah S. Hasin, Ashley N. Gearhardt, Alan J. Flint, Alison E. Field, Jeanine M. Genkinger
      Background and aims Previous studies have not addressed a fundamental component of a food addiction disorder: the compulsive relationship between eating and potentially positively reinforcing foods. We aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption and food addiction. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses merging data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 58,625) and Nurses' Health Study II (n = 65,063), two prospective cohort studies of female nurses in the United States. Diet was assessed in 2006–2007 using a food frequency questionnaire, and food addiction was assessed in 2008–2009 using the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale. Results The prevalence of food addiction was 5.4%. The odds of food addiction were strongest among nurses consuming 5+ servings/week (compared with <1 serving/month) of hamburgers (multivariable odds ratio (MVOR) 4.08; 95% CI, 2.66–6.25), French fries (MVOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.59–3.51) and pizza (MVOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.67–3.69). Consumption of red/processed meat, low/no fat snacks/desserts, and low calorie beverages was positively associated with food addiction, while consumption of refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages and fruits, vegetables, and legumes was inversely associated with food addiction. Conclusions This epidemiologic study was the largest to examine food consumption and food addiction. Food addiction was positively associated with consumption of many hypothesized positively reinforcing foods that include a combination of carbohydrates and fats such as snacks, “fast foods,” and candy bars. However, it was inversely or not associated with certain sweet foods, refined grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which is consistent with literature suggesting that carbohydrates (without other ingredients) are less associated with food addiction. Longitudinal analyses will help untangle the temporal order between food consumption and food addiction, as some relationships in our analyses were difficult to interpret due to the cross-sectional design.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.038
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Food consumption when travelling abroad: Young Chinese sojourners' food
           consumption in the UK
    • Authors: Dorothy Ai-wan Yen; Benedetta Cappellini; Cheng Lu Wang; Bang Nguyen
      Pages: 198 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Dorothy Ai-wan Yen, Benedetta Cappellini, Cheng Lu Wang, Bang Nguyen
      This qualitative study investigates the everyday food choices of 21 Chinese sojourners living in two different localities in the UK. Findings from a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews reveal how participants adopt a food consumption pattern, negotiating between ordinary and extraordinary food choices, including home-made Chinese food, Chinese restaurant food, global brands, British food, to “foods of the world”. Their zooming in and out of different food consumption choices reflects the transformative identity of the sojourners, between their student role during the week and becoming tourists at the weekends, meshing work and tourism during their sojourning in the UK. Theoretically this paper extends the limited understanding of sojourners, showing how their complex food choices reflect their swift transformative identity. Findings also illustrate how consumption patterns adopted by sojourners living in rural areas differ from the ones living in an urban setting.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.097
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role
           of food preparation planning in reducing waste
    • Authors: Simona Romani; Silvia Grappi; Richard P. Bagozzi; Ada Maria Barone
      Pages: 215 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Simona Romani, Silvia Grappi, Richard P. Bagozzi, Ada Maria Barone
      Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.093
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Navigating motherhood and maternal transitional infant feeding: Learnings
           for health professionals
    • Authors: Michelle Harrison; Julie Hepworth; Wendy Brodribb
      Pages: 228 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Michelle Harrison, Julie Hepworth, Wendy Brodribb
      Given the lifelong associations between infant diet and weight, understanding maternal transitional infant feeding decisions can assist efforts to establish healthy eating habits early in life. Feeding experiences were explored using semi-structured interviews with 15 first-time mothers who were selected based on their concerns about their infants' weight in an infant feeding survey. Thematic synthesis of the interview transcripts identified three main themes: (1) Expectations of a “responsible mother”, (2) Trusting oneself and trust in others, and (3) From stress to successful feeding. Dominant social ideals of motherhood and infant behaviour influenced feeding practices, some of which are associated with obesity. Judgments of mothers' infant feeding practices and infant size alongside feeding and weight gain ‘checklists’ undermines maternal transitional feeding knowledge. Family-centred, non-judgmental guidance from peers, family members and health professionals would better support mothers to navigate the day-to-day reality of feeding and caring for an infant throughout the first year of life that is based on achievable personal goals rather than societal ideals.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.095
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Food bundling as a health nudge: Investigating consumer fruit and
           vegetable selection using behavioral economics
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Carroll; Anya Samek; Lydia Zepeda
      Pages: 237 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Kathryn A. Carroll, Anya Samek, Lydia Zepeda
      Displaying bundles of healthy foods at the grocery store is a health nudge that simplifies shopping and may have the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchasing. To evaluate the impact of food bundling, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with community participants in a laboratory set up as a grocery store. Dual-self theory suggests that food choices may differ depending on whether shoppers are under cognitive load – in our experiment, we exogenously vary whether bundles are displayed (with and without a price discount) and whether shoppers are under cognitive load. Our findings align with prior studies that suggest unhealthy options are more likely to be selected when cognitive resources are constrained. When bundles are displayed, we observe increased F&V purchasing. We also observe a significant interaction between cognitive load and price discounting. We find discounted bundles are more effective in the absence of cognitive load, but non-discounted bundles are more effective when shoppers are under cognitive load. Although more research is warranted, our findings suggest that when shopping under cognitive load, it is possible that discounts impose additional cognitive strain on the shopping experience. For retailers and policymakers, our results point to the potential power of bundling as a strategy for increasing healthy food purchasing.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.082
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Parent packs, child eats: Surprising results of Lunch is in the
           Bag‘s efficacy trial
    • Authors: Cindy Roberts-Gray; Nalini Ranjit; Sara J. Sweitzer; Courtney E. Byrd-Williams; Maria Jose Romo-Palafox; Margaret E. Briley; Deanna M. Hoelscher
      Pages: 249 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Cindy Roberts-Gray, Nalini Ranjit, Sara J. Sweitzer, Courtney E. Byrd-Williams, Maria Jose Romo-Palafox, Margaret E. Briley, Deanna M. Hoelscher
      Early care and education (ECE) centers that require lunch brought from home provide an uncluttered view of parent-child dietary interactions in early childhood. Children's eating from parent-provided bag lunches was observed at 30 ECE centers in Texas, with 15 randomly assigned to the Lunch is in the Bag intervention to improve the lunch meal and 15 to a wait-list control condition. Study participants were parent and child aged 3–5 years (N = 633 dyads). Data were collected at baseline (pre-intervention) and follow-ups at weeks 6 (post-intervention), 22 (pre-booster), and 28 (post-booster). Changes effected in the children's lunch eating—e.g., increase of 14 percent in prevalence of children eating vegetables (SE = 5, P = 0.0063)—reciprocated changes in parent lunch-packing. Irrespective of intervention, however, the children consumed one-half to two-thirds of the amounts of whatever foods the parents packed, and the eat-to-pack ratio did not change across time. Thus, children's lunch eating at the ECE centers appeared to be regulated by perceptual cues of food availability rather than food preferences or internal cues of hunger and satiety.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.033
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Healthier vending machines in a university setting: Effective and
           financially sustainable
    • Authors: Joseph Viana; Stephanie A. Leonard; Bob Kitay; Daryl Ansel; Peter Angelis; Wendelin Slusser
      Pages: 263 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Joseph Viana, Stephanie A. Leonard, Bob Kitay, Daryl Ansel, Peter Angelis, Wendelin Slusser

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.094
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Personal relative deprivation increases self-selected portion sizes and
           food intake
    • Authors: A.Y. Sim; E.X. Lim; C.G. Forde; B.K. Cheon
      Pages: 268 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): A.Y. Sim, E.X. Lim, C.G. Forde, B.K. Cheon
      Cues and experiences of the deprivation of financial/material resources have been associated with increased caloric intake and risk for overweight/obesity. Given that social comparisons may serve as a powerful reference for the adequacy of one's standing and resources, the present research tested whether subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation (PRD) or “losing out” to others stimulates calorie selection and intake. Study 1 demonstrated that self-reported chronic experiences of PRD positively predicted calories selected for a portion and consumed during an ad-libitum meal. Study 2 revealed that experimentally-induced PRD resulted in an increase in the amount of calories selected on a portion selection task and a stronger desire to consume the foods. Consequently, these findings demonstrate that chronic and acute subjective deprivation of non-food resources may contribute to socioeconomic gradients in obesity, and that perceived social inequality may have inherently obesogenic properties that promote excess calorie intake.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.100
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Dietary patterns in Mexican children and adolescents: Characterization and
           relation with socioeconomic and home environment factors
    • Authors: Marcia Galvan-Portillo; Emanny Sánchez; Luz Mery Cárdenas-Cárdenas; Roberto Karam; Luz Claudio; Miguel Cruz; Ana I. Burguete-García
      Pages: 275 - 284
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Marcia Galvan-Portillo, Emanny Sánchez, Luz Mery Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Roberto Karam, Luz Claudio, Miguel Cruz, Ana I. Burguete-García
      Background Eating habits in children and adolescents are influenced by multiple determinants, which include socioeconomic and home environmental factors. Objective To characterize the dietary patterns in Mexican children and adolescents and to assess its association with socioeconomic and home environmental factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 878 children and adolescents aged 5–15 years, unrelated, selected randomly from Morelos Sports Unit at north of Mexico City. Dietary, anthropometric, family, and socioeconomic information was obtained from each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through cluster analysis. The association between dietary patterns with socioeconomic and home environmental factors was assessed by a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified: diverse dietary pattern (D), high fat dietary pattern (HF), and high sugar dietary pattern (HS). 87% of the participants followed the HF or HS dietary patterns (36% & 51%, respectively). Mother's occupation and the child's screen time was associated with a significant likelihood of following a HF and HS dietary patterns. Conclusion A high percentage of children and adolescents reported following a HS or HF dietary pattern, which in turn were associated with socioeconomic and home environmental factors. These results suggests priority groups for prevention and control actions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.088
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Consumers’ health-related perceptions of bread – Implications for
           labeling and health communication
    • Authors: Pernilla Sandvik; Margaretha Nydahl; Iwona Kihlberg; Ingela Marklinder
      Pages: 285 - 293
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Pernilla Sandvik, Margaretha Nydahl, Iwona Kihlberg, Ingela Marklinder
      There is a wide variety of commercial bread types and the present study identifies potential pitfalls in consumer evaluations of bread from a health perspective. The aim is to describe consumers’ health-related perceptions of bread by exploring which health-related quality attributes consumers associate with bread and whether there are differences with regard to age, gender and education level. A postal and web-based sequential mixed-mode survey (n = 1134, 62% responded online and 38% by paper) with open-ended questions and an elicitation task with pictures of commercial breads were used. Responses were content analyzed and inductively categorized. Three fourths (n = 844) knew of breads they considered healthy; these were most commonly described using terms such as “coarse,” “whole grain,” “fiber rich,” “sourdough,” “crisp,” “less sugar,” “dark,” “rye,” “seeds,” “a commercial brand,” “homemade” and “kernels.” The breads were perceived as healthy mainly because they “contain fiber,” are “good for the stomach,” have good “satiation” and beneficial “glycemic properties.” The frequency of several elicited attributes and health effects differed as a function of age group (18–44 vs. 45–80 years), gender and education level group (up to secondary education vs. university). Difficulties identifying healthy bread were perceived as a barrier for consumption especially among consumers with a lower education level. Several of the health effects important to consumers cannot be communicated on food packages and consumers must therefore use their own cues to identify these properties. This may lead to consumers being misled especially if a bread is labeled e.g., as a sourdough bread or a rye bread, despite a low content.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.092
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Personality and attitudinal correlates of meat consumption: Results of two
           representative German samples
    • Authors: Tamara M. Pfeiler; Boris Egloff
      Pages: 294 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Tamara M. Pfeiler, Boris Egloff
      The vast amount of meat consumed in the Western world is critically discussed with regard to negative health consequences, environmental impact, and ethical concerns for animals, emphasizing the need to extend knowledge regarding the correlates of meat consumption in the general population. In the present article, we conducted two studies examining the associations between meat consumption and personality traits, political attitudes, and environmental attitudes in two large German representative samples (N total  = 8,879, aged 18–96 years). Cross-sectional data on frequency of meat consumption, socio-demographics, personality traits, and political and environmental attitudes were collected via self-reports. In both studies, male sex, younger age, and lower educational attainment were significantly positively related to meat consumption. In Study 1, results of the partial correlations and the hierarchical regression analysis controlling for socio-demographics showed that the personality traits of openness and agreeableness, as well as conservative political and social views, explained unique variance in meat consumption. In Study 2, partial correlations and hierarchical regression analyses showed that openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were all uniquely negatively related to meat consumption. Moreover, these analyses documented that people scoring high in right-wing attitudes and low in pro-environmental attitudes reported more overall meat consumption. Taken together, these two studies provided evidence that socio-demographics, personality traits, and attitudes are indeed related to how much meat is consumed. Implications and future prospects for the study of individual differences in meat consumption are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.098
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Emotional ratings of high- and low-calorie food are differentially
           associated with cognitive restraint and dietary restriction
    • Authors: Sarah E. Racine
      Pages: 302 - 308
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Sarah E. Racine
      Dietary restraint is a robust risk factor for binge eating and eating disorders, which may partially result from increased reward reactivity to food in individuals who attempt to diet. However, research examining the association between dietary restraint and reactivity to food cues is mixed. Mixed findings may reflect distinct relations between food cue reactivity and different dimensions of dietary behavior; attempts to diet (cognitive restraint) may be associated with increased positive evaluations of food, whereas actual reduction in food intake (dietary restriction) may be achieved through decreased reactivity to food cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether cognitive restraint and dietary restriction, as assessed via subscales on a recently developed multidimensional measure of eating pathology (i.e., Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory [EPSI]), are differentially associated with emotional evaluations of high- and low-calorie food. Female participants (N = 203) viewed 12 high-calorie (i.e., sweet, savory) and 12 low-calorie (i.e., fruits, vegetables) food images, as well as 36 standard emotional images. Images were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, and craving using the Self-Assessment Manikin. Cognitive restraint was correlated with greater pleasure and craving ratings of low-calorie, but not high-calorie, foods. In contrast, dietary restriction was related to reduced pleasure and craving ratings for both high- and low-calorie foods. Findings suggest that cognitive restraint may be associated with a preference for low-calorie foods; whereas dietary restriction may relate to reduced sensitivity to the hedonic and motivational value of food, regardless of caloric content. Results also provide support for the distinction between cognitive restraint and dietary restriction, as assessed via the EPSI.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.104
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Assessing the potential impact of a front-of-pack nutritional rating
           system on food availability in school canteens: A randomised controlled
    • Authors: Kathryn Reilly; Nicole Nathan; Jason H.Y. Wu; Tessa Delaney; Rebecca Wyse; Megan Cobcroft; John Wiggers; Rachel Sutherland; Kym Buffett; Sze Lin Yoong; Luke Wolfenden
      Pages: 309 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Kathryn Reilly, Nicole Nathan, Jason H.Y. Wu, Tessa Delaney, Rebecca Wyse, Megan Cobcroft, John Wiggers, Rachel Sutherland, Kym Buffett, Sze Lin Yoong, Luke Wolfenden
      Background Front-of-pack graphical nutritional rating of products is becoming an important strategy in many countries to improve healthy food purchases by consumers. Evidence of the effectiveness of such on facilitating healthy food choices by school food service providers has not been reported. The primary aim of the study was to assess the impact of providing front-of-pack nutritional rating information on school canteen managers’ likely food selections. Secondary outcomes were canteen manager awareness, attitudes and reported barriers to using the front-of-pack information. Methods A randomised controlled trial involving primary school canteen managers was conducted in a single region in New South Wales, Australia. Eligible participants were randomised to an intervention or control group and asked in a telephone interview which of 12 common food products sold in school canteens they would sell. Both groups received product name and brand information. The intervention group also received information regarding the nutritional rating of products. Results Canteen managers in the intervention group were significantly more likely than those in the control group to indicate they would sell three of the six ‘healthier’ products (p = 0.036, 0.005, 0.009). There was no difference between groups in the likelihood of making available for sale any of the six ‘less healthy’ products. The majority of canteen managers who had heard of a product nutritional rating system agreed that it was helpful in identifying ‘healthier’ foods (88%, n = 31). Conclusions The inclusion of product nutritional rating information has the potential to improve the availability of some ‘healthier’ items on canteen menus and contribute to improving child dietary intake. Further research is required to determine whether the use of product nutritional rating information actually makes a difference to canteen manager choices.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.103
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable
           intake' Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using
           various vegetable preparations
    • Authors: Gertrude G. Zeinstra; Milou Vrijhof; Stefanie Kremer
      Pages: 316 - 325
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Gertrude G. Zeinstra, Milou Vrijhof, Stefanie Kremer
      Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. Two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. The intervention group (N = 125) participated in a 5-month exposure period, where they were exposed repeatedly (∼12x) to the vegetables: pumpkin blanched and as a cracker spread; courgette blanched and as soup; white radish raw and as a cracker spread. The control group (N = 125) maintained their normal routine. Mixed model analyses were used to analyse intake data and Chi-square analyses for willingness to taste. At pre-test, children ate about 20 g of pumpkin and courgette, whereas white radish intake was approximately 10 g. There was a significant positive effect of the intervention for pumpkin (+15 g; p < 0.001) and white radish (+16 g; p = 0.01). Results for willingness to taste were in the same direction. There was no repeated exposure effect for courgette (p = 0.54); this may have been due to its less distinct taste profile or familiarity with boiled courgette. From our findings, we conclude that repeated exposure to multiple unfamiliar vegetable tastes within the daily routine of a childcare setting is effective in improving children's willingness to taste and intake of some of these vegetables. However, repeated exposure may not be sufficient for more familiar or blander tasting vegetables. This implies that one size does not fit all and that additional strategies are needed to increase children's intake of these vegetables.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.087
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Predicting fruit and vegetable consumption in long-haul heavy goods
           vehicle drivers: Application of a multi-theory, dual-phase model and the
           contribution of past behaviour
    • Authors: D.J. Brown; M.S. Hagger; S. Morrissey; K. Hamilton
      Pages: 326 - 336
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): D.J. Brown, M.S. Hagger, S. Morrissey, K. Hamilton
      Fruit and vegetable intake is insufficient in industrialized nations and long-haul heavy goods vehicle (HGV) drivers are considered a particularly at-risk group. The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a multi-theory, dual-phase model to predict fruit and vegetable consumption in Australian long-haul HGV drivers. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of past fruit and vegetable consumption on model paths. A prospective design with two waves of data collection spaced one week apart was adopted. Long-haul HGV drivers (N = 212) completed an initial survey containing theory-based measures of motivation (autonomous motivation, intention), social cognition (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control), and volition (action planning, coping planning) for fruit and vegetable consumption. One week later, participants (n = 84) completed a self-report measure of fruit and vegetable intake over the previous week. A structural equation model revealed that autonomous motivation predicted intentions, mediated through attitudes and perceived behavioural control. It further revealed that perceived behavioural control, action planning, and intentions predicted fruit and vegetable intake, whereby the intention-behaviour relationship was moderated by coping planning. Inclusion of past behaviour attenuated the effects of these variables. The model identified the relative contribution of motivation, social cognition, and volitional components in predicting fruit and vegetable intake of HGV drivers. Consistent with previous research, inclusion of past fruit and vegetable consumption led to an attenuation of model effects, particularly the intention-behaviour relationship. Further investigation is needed to determine which elements of past behaviour exert most influence on future action.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.106
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Effect of snack-food proximity on intake in general population samples
           with higher and lower cognitive resource
    • Authors: Jennifer A. Hunter; Gareth J. Hollands; Dominique-Laurent Couturier; Theresa M. Marteau
      Pages: 337 - 347
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Jennifer A. Hunter, Gareth J. Hollands, Dominique-Laurent Couturier, Theresa M. Marteau
      Objective Placing snack-food further away from people consistently decreases its consumption (“proximity effect”). However, given diet-related health inequalities, it is important to know whether interventions that alter food proximity have potential to change behaviour regardless of cognitive resource (capacity for self-control). This is often lower in those in lower socio-economic positions, who also tend to have less healthy diet-related behaviours. Study 1 aims to replicate the proximity effect in a general population sample and estimate whether trait-level cognitive resource moderates the effect. In a stronger test, Study 2 investigates whether the effect is similar regardless of manipulated state-level cognitive resource. Method Participants were recruited into two laboratory studies (Study 1: n = 159; Study 2: n = 246). A bowl of an unhealthy snack was positioned near (20 cm) or far (70 cm) from the participant, as randomised. In Study 2, participants were further randomised to a cognitive load intervention. The pre-specified primary outcome was the proportion of participants taking any of the snack. Results Significantly fewer participants took the snack when far compared with near in Study 2 (57.7% vs 70.7%, β = −1.63, p = 0.020), but not in Study 1 (53.8% vs 63.3%, X2 = 1.12, p = 0.289). Removing participants who moved the bowl (i.e. who did not adhere to protocol), increased the effect-sizes: Study 1: 39.3% vs 63.9%, X2 = 6.43, p = 0.011; Study 2: 56.0% vs 73.9%, β = -2.46, p = 0.003. Effects were not moderated by cognitive resource. Conclusions These studies provide the most robust evidence to date that placing food further away reduces likelihood of consumption in general population samples, an effect unlikely to be moderated by cognitive resource. This indicates potential for interventions altering food proximity to contribute to addressing health inequalities, but requires testing in real-world settings. Trial registration Both studies were registered with ISRCTN (Study 1 reference no.: ISRCTN46995850, Study 2 reference no.: ISRCTN14239872).

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.101
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Sweet taste of prosocial status signaling: When eating organic foods makes
           you happy and hopeful
    • Authors: Petteri Puska; Sami Kurki; Merja Lähdesmäki; Marjo Siltaoja; Harri Luomala
      Pages: 348 - 359
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Petteri Puska, Sami Kurki, Merja Lähdesmäki, Marjo Siltaoja, Harri Luomala
      As the current research suggests that there are links between prosocial acts and status signaling (including sustainable consumer choices), we empirically study (with three experiments) whether food consumers go green to be seen. First, we examine how activating a motive for status influences prosocial organic food preferences. Then, we examine how the social visibility of the choice (private vs. public) affects these preferences. We found that when consumers' desire for status was elicited, they preferred organic food products significantly over their nonorganic counterparts; making the choice situation visible created the same effect. Finally, we go beyond consumers' evaluative and behavioral domains that have typically been addressed to investigate whether this (nonconscious) “going green to be seen” effect is also evident at the level of more physiologically-driven food responses. Indeed, status motives and reputational concerns created an improved senso-emotional experience of organic food. Specifically, when consumers were led to believe that they have to share their organic food taste experiences with others, an elevation could be detected not only in the pleasantness ratings but also in how joyful and hopeful they felt after eating a food sample. We claim that the reason for this is that a tendency to favor organic foods can be viewed as a costly signaling trait, leading to flaunting about one's prosocial tendencies. According to these findings, highlighting socially disapproved consumption motives, such as reputation management, may be an effective way to increase the relatively low sales of organic foods and thereby promote sustainable consumer behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.102
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices' Analysis of
           label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling
           intervention trial
    • Authors: Cliona Ni Mhurchu; Helen Eyles; Yannan Jiang; Tony Blakely
      Pages: 360 - 365
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Helen Eyles, Yannan Jiang, Tony Blakely
      Background There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. Design The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Results Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score −0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to −0.26). Conclusions In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.105
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in
    • Authors: Lucile Marty; Stéphanie Chambaron; Sophie Nicklaus; Sandrine Monnery-Patris
      Pages: 265 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Lucile Marty, Stéphanie Chambaron, Sophie Nicklaus, Sandrine Monnery-Patris
      Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are “good” or “bad” for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • The relationship between gluten free diet adherence and depressive
           symptoms in adults with coeliac disease: A systematic review with
    • Authors: Kirby Sainsbury; Marta M. Marques
      Pages: 578 - 588
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Kirby Sainsbury, Marta M. Marques
      Purpose Depressive symptoms are common in patients with coeliac disease (CD) and may represent a barrier to gluten free diet (GFD) adherence. The aims of this meta-analysis were: (1) to synthesise the evidence on the relationship between depression or depressive symptoms and degree of adherence to a GFD in patients with CD who are already attempting a GFD (i.e., post-diagnosis and onset of GFD), and (2) to summarise the direction of causation of any observed relationship. Methods A random effects meta-analysis of 8 cross-sectional studies (N = 1644) was conducted. Included studies measured self-reported depressive symptoms and GFD adherence using either a dietitian interview or validated self-report questionnaire that considered unintentional gluten consumption. Results There was a moderate association between poorer GFD adherence and greater depressive symptoms (r = 0.398, 95% CI = 0.321–0.469), with marked heterogeneity in the effects (I 2  = 66.8%). A sensitivity analysis excluding studies with a moderate/high (k = 1) or unclear risk of bias (k = 1) did not change the results. Conclusion The low number of studies meeting inclusion criteria limits the strength of the conclusions. Available evidence suggests there is an association between poorer GFD adherence and self-reported depressive symptoms; however, studies using longitudinal and prospective designs, and reliable measures, particularly for adherence, are needed to confirm this association. The direction of causation between depression and adherence remains unclear.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T13:54:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • The effect of mindful eating on subsequent intake of a high calorie snack
    • Authors: Lana Seguias; Katy Tapper
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 121
      Author(s): Lana Seguias, Katy Tapper
      This study examined the effects of applying a mindful eating strategy during lunch on subsequent intake of a palatable snack. It also looked at whether this effect occurred due to improved memory for lunch and whether effects varied with participant gender, level of interoceptive awareness or sensitivity to reward. Participants (n = 51) completed a heartbeat perception task to assess interoceptive awareness. They were then provided with a lunch of 825 calories. Participants in the experimental group ate lunch while listening to an audio clip encouraging them to focus on the sensory properties of the food (e.g. its smell, look, texture). Those in the control group ate lunch in silence. Two hours later participants were offered a snack. They then completed a questionnaire assessing sensitivity to reward as well as other measures assessing various aspects of their memory for lunch. The results showed no significant difference in lunch intake between the two groups but participants in the experimental group consumed significantly less snack than those in the control group; mean = 112.30 calories (SD = 70.24) versus mean = 203.20 calories (SD = 88.05) respectively, Cohen's d = 1.14. This effect occurred regardless of participant gender or level of interoceptive awareness. There was also no significant moderation by sensitivity to reward although one aspect, reward interest, showed a trend towards significance. There was no evidence to indicate that the mindful eating strategy enhanced participants' memory for their lunch. Further research is needed to assess the long-term effects of this strategy, as well as establish the underlying mechanisms. Future work on the relationship between sensitivity to reward and the effects of mindful eating may also benefit from larger sample sizes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:36:29Z
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:22:23Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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