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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2563 journals)

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Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 697, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 53)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 21)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 56)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.532, h-index: 68)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.348, h-index: 69)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access  
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 38)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 117)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.01, h-index: 47)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 4)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.472, h-index: 17)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.649, h-index: 64)

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Journal Cover Appetite
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [15 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
  • Running-based pica in rats. Evidence for the gastrointestinal discomfort
           hypothesis of running-based taste aversion
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sadahiko Nakajima , Tomomi Katayama
      Voluntary running in an activity wheel establishes aversion to paired taste in rats. A proposed mechanism underlying this taste aversion learning is gastrointestinal discomfort caused by running. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) of rats, because it is known that rats engage in pica behavior after various nausea-inducing treatments including irradiation, motion sickness, and injection of emetic drugs such as lithium chloride (LiCl). Following a demonstration of the already-known phenomenon of LiCl-based pica in Experiment 1, we successfully showed running-based pica behavior in Experiment 2 where the running treatment was compared with a non-running control treatment (i.e., confinement in a locked wheel). These results suggest that not only LiCl but also running induces nausea in rats, supporting the gastrointestinal discomfort hypothesis of running-based taste aversion learning.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82




      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Katrina Heredia-Blonval , Adriana Blanco-Metzler , Marielos Montero-Campos , Elizabeth K. Dunford
      Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey–Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Molecular weight of barley β-glucan does not influence satiety or
           energy intake in healthy male subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Miriam E. Clegg , Pariyarath S. Thondre
      Previous studies have shown the ability of high molecular weight barley β-glucan with increased viscosity to attenuate glycemic response, gastric emptying and in vitro starch digestion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of molecular weight of barley β-glucan in a semisolid meal on energy intake and subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption in healthy male subjects. In a randomised, controlled, crossover trial, 23 healthy male subjects (BMI 24.2 ± 2.5 kg/m2) tested soups equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate containing high or low molecular weight barley β-glucan (~3 g) as preload after a standard breakfast. The viscosity of soup with high molecular weight β-glucan was 350 Pa·s whereas the soup with low molecular weight β-glucan had a viscosity of 100 Pa·s. Appetite ratings before and for two hours after consumption of β-glucan soups and subsequent ad libitum energy intake at lunch were recorded and compared with a control soup with no β-glucan. There was no significant difference in food intake at the ad libitum meal or for the remainder of the day following consumption of the three test foods (p > 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in hunger, fullness, desire to eat or prospective food consumption following β-glucan soups. The current study provides evidence that the molecular weight of barley β-glucan may not impact on perceived feelings of hunger or food intake at the current dose and viscosity.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • The relationship between appetite scores and subsequent energy intake: An
           analysis based on 23 randomized controlled studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Bastien C. Sadoul , Ewoud A.H. Schuring , David J. Mela , Harry P.F. Peters
      Background/Objectives: Several studies have assessed relationships of self-reported appetite (eating motivations, mainly by Visual Analogue Scales, VAS) with subsequent energy intake (EI), though usually in small data sets with limited power and variable designs. The objectives were therefore to better quantify the relationships of self-reports (incorporating subject characteristics) to subsequent EI, and to estimate the quantitative differences in VAS corresponding to consistent, significant differences in EI. Subjects/Methods: Data were derived from an opportunity sample of 23 randomized controlled studies involving 549 subjects, testing the effects of various food ingredients in meal replacers or 100–150 ml mini-drinks. In all studies, scores on several VAS were recorded for 30 min to 5 h post-meal, when EI was assessed by ad libitum meal consumption. The relationships between pre-meal VAS scores and EI were examined using correlation, linear models (including subject characteristics) and a cross-validation procedure. Results: VAS correlations with subsequent EI were statistically significant, but of low magnitude, up to r = 0.26. Hunger, age, gender, body weight and estimated basal metabolic rate explained 25% of the total variance in EI. Without hunger the prediction of EI was modestly but significantly lower (19%, P < 0.001). A change of ≥15–25 mm on a 100 mm VAS was the minimum effect consistently corresponding to a significant change in subsequent EI, depending on the starting VAS level. Conclusions: Eating motivations add in a small but consistently significant way to other known predictors of acute EI. Differences of about 15 mm on a 100 mm VAS appear to be the minimum effect expected to result in consistent, significant differences in subsequent EI.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from
           a student and a weight-loss seeking population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): M.M. Boggiano , E.E. Burgess , B. Turan , T. Soleymani , S. Daniel , L.D. Vinson , K.L. Lokken , B.C. Wingo , A. Morse
      The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R2 = .57) and patients (R2 = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p < 0.01), and in patients despite their truncated BMI range (p < 0.05). Among students, the motives Conformity and Reward Enhancement were also independently associated with binge-eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Healthy–unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an
           association? An analysis through a consumer survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Alessia Cavaliere , Elisa De Marchi , Alessandro Banterle
      Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides
           insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working
           mothers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Maria Guadalupe Rodriguez-Oliveros , Carole A. Bisogni , Edward A. Frongillo
      Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children < 2 y of age in 14 manufacturing businesses were studied. Using 31 key foods, we conducted free-listings, pile-sort, and food attributes exercises. Hierarchical clustering showed that mothers identified nine classes of key foods, including milk derivatives, complements, junk food, infant products, chicken parts, and other meats. From multidimensional scaling, mothers used three primary classification systems: food groups, food introduction stages, and food processing. Secondary classification systems were healthy–junk, heavy–light, hot–cold, good–bad fat, and main dish–complement. Child health and nutrition, particularly vitamin content, were salient attributes. Fruits and vegetables were preferred for initiating complementary feeding on the second month of age. Consumption of guava, mango, and legumes, however, was associated with digestive problems (empacho). Red meats were viewed as cold-type, heavy, and hard, not suitable for young children, but right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Memory processes in the development of reduced-salt foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Vanessa Herbert , Emma J. Bertenshaw , Elizabeth H. Zandstra , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Acceptance of a reduced-salt food is likely to be influenced by a mismatch between the sensory characteristics of a reformulated product and a memory for a previously-encountered formulation. In two initial pilot studies we established the reliability of a new measure of memory for saltiness, based on a method of constant stimuli. We then used this technique to explore the effects of different patterns of repeated exposure on memory for the taste of a reduced-salt soup. Participants (N = 135) were assigned to one of four exposure patterns: (1) reduced-salt, (2) no salt reduction, i.e. regular-salt, (3) reduced- and regular-salt, in an alternating pattern, and (4) gradually declining salt concentration. In the final session, all participants received an identical reduced-salt soup. Memory for the saltiness of this sample was assessed, together with its expected liking. Our results indicate that different interactions with the test soup had little effect on taste memory. Nevertheless, (1) participants remembered the final exposure soup as saltier than the reduced-salt formulation that they had received and (2) remembered salt concentrations correlated with individual ideal salt concentrations. These findings are consistent with contemporary models of reconstructive memory and they illustrate the importance of understanding ‘memory for saltiness’ in the acceptance of reduced-salt formulations.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet
           during a behavioral weight loss intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Megan A. McVay , Corrine I. Voils , Cynthia J. Coffman , Paula J. Geiselman , Ronette L. Kolotkin , Stephanie B. Mayer , Valerie A. Smith , Leslie Gaillard , Marsha J. Turner , William S. Yancy Jr.
      Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the ‘choice’ arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences. Research is needed to determine if congruency between food preferences and dietary approach is associated with weight loss.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Luca Lavagnino , Federico Amianto , Mirko Parasiliti Caprino , Mauro Maccario , Emanuela Arvat , Ezio Ghigo , Giovanni Abbate Daga , Secondo Fassino
      Background: Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Methods: Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. Results: We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Conclusions: Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Nutrient and core and non-core food intake of Australian schoolchildren
           differs on school days compared to non-school days
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Carley A. Grimes , Lynn J. Riddell , Caryl A. Nowson
      Overall the diets of Australian schoolchildren are suboptimal, but differences in nutrient and food intake on school versus non-school days have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient and core and non-core food intake on school days versus non-school days in Australian schoolchildren aged 6–16 years. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Dietary intake was assessed via one 24-h dietary recall. A school day was defined as Monday–Friday, a non-school day included Saturday, Sunday and public/school holidays. Independent t-tests and χ2 tests were used to assess differences in continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multiple linear and logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Forty-eight per cent of recalls were completed on a non-school day. On non-school days primary schoolchildren aged 6–11 years (n = 1334) and secondary schoolchildren aged 12–16 years (n = 1362) had significantly higher absolute intakes of sugars, total fat and saturated fat (all P < 0.05). In addition the energy density of foods consumed was greater (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in the energy density of fluids. The sodium density of the diet did not differ across day types. On non-school days, total core food intake was ~30% higher and children were more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and take-away pizzas and burgers (all P < 0.05). Important differences in the intake of sugar, total fat, and saturated fat and noncore foods exist on non-school days compared to school days in Australian schoolchildren. To improve the diets of schoolchildren there is scope for strategies that target non-school day eating practices.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Attitudes and beliefs of health risks associated with sodium intake in
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kristy L. Gray , Kristina S. Petersen , Peter M. Clifton , Jennifer B. Keogh
      Background:  Despite good evidence that reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure (BP), salt intake in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains high. The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of health risks associated with a high salt diet in adults with diabetes. Methods: Men and women with T1DM (n = 27; age 38 ± 16 years) or T2DM (n = 124; age 60 ± 11 years) were recruited. Results: Nine (6.0%) respondents knew the correct maximum daily recommended upper limit for salt intake. Thirty-six (23.9%) participants were not concerned with the amount of salt in their diet. Most participants knew that a diet high in salt was related to high BP (88.1%) and stroke (78.1%) and that foods such as pizza (80.8%) and bacon (84.8%) were high in salt. Fewer than 30% of people knew that foods such as white bread, cheese and breakfast cereals are high in salt (white bread 28.5%, cheese 29.1%, breakfast cereals 19.9%) and 51.0% correctly ranked three different nutrition information panels based on the sodium content. Label reading and purchase of low salt products was used by 60–80% of the group. Estimated average 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was 169 ± 32 mmol/24 h in men and 115 ± 27 mmol/24 h in women. Conclusion: Label reading and purchase of low salt products was used by the majority of the group but their salt excretion was still high. Men who used label reading had a lower salt intake. Other strategies to promote a lower sodium intake such as reducing sodium in staple foods such as bread need investigation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Appetite predicts mortality in free-living older adults in association
           with dietary diversity. A NAHSIT cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Yi-Chen Huang , Mark L. Wahlqvist , Meei-Shyuan Lee
      This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of appetite for mortality among representative free-living Taiwanese older adults. A total of 1856 participants aged 65 years or over from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey during 1999–2000 completed an appetite question in a larger questionnaire. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview at baseline, together with a 24-hour dietary recall and simplified food frequency questionnaire which provided a dietary diversity score and food intake frequency. Survivorship was ascertained from the Death Registry until December 31, 2008. Participants with a poor appetite had lower dietary diversity scores (DDS) and intake frequencies of meat, fish and sea food, egg, vegetable and fruit intake, along with lower energy, protein, vitamin B-1, niacin, iron and phosphate intakes. Those who had fair and poor appetites had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to those with good appetite, with hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.28 (1.03–1.58) and 2.27 (1.71–3.02), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, the HRs (95% CI) were 1.05 (0.83–1.33) and 1.50 (1.03–2.18), respectively. With further adjustment for DDS or general health these HRs became non-significant. The joint HR (95% CI) for “DDS ≤ 4 and poor appetite” was 1.77 (1.04–3.00) compared to “DDS > 4 and good appetite” as referent. Poor appetite is associated with lower food and nutrient intakes and an independent risk for mortality in older Taiwanese. In conclusion, appetite is separate, mediated by general health and modulated by dietary quality in its predictive capacity for mortality.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and
           post-consumption satisfaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sarah E. Hill , Marjorie L. Prokosch , Amanda Morin , Christopher D. Rodeheffer
      Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that – over time – may increase calorie intake.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Food references and marketing in popular magazines for children and
           adolescents in New Zealand: A content analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Elizabeth No , Bridget Kelly , Anandita Devi , Boyd Swinburn , Stefanie Vandevijvere
      Food marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing children's food preferences and consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of unhealthy food marketing and non-branded food references in magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents 10–17 years old in New Zealand. A content analysis was conducted of all food references (branded and non-branded) found in the five magazines with the highest readership among 10–17 year olds, and the three magazines (of which two were already included among the five most popular magazines) targeted to 10–17 year olds. For each of the six magazines, one issue per month (n = 72 issues in total) over a one-year period (December 2012–January 2014) was included. All foods referenced were classified into healthy/unhealthy according to the food-based Ministry of Health classification system. Branded food references (30% of total) were more frequent for unhealthy (43%) compared to healthy (25%) foods. Magazines specifically targeted to children and adolescents contained a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy branded food references (n = 51/71, 72%) compared to the most popular magazines among children and adolescents (n = 133/317, 42%), of which most were targeted to women. ‘Snack items’ such as chocolates and ice creams were marketed most frequently (n = 104; 36%), while ‘vegetables and fruits’ were marketed the least frequently (n = 9; 3%). Direct advertisements accounted for 27% of branded food references and 25% of those featured health or nutrition claims. Both branded and non-branded food references were common within magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents, and skewed toward unhealthy foods. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of self-regulation in marketing and emphasizes that government regulations are needed in order to curb children's current potential high exposures to unhealthy food marketing. In addition, magazine editors could take socially responsible editorial positions in regard to healthy eating.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Shoppers' perceived embeddedness and its impact on purchasing behavior at
           an organic farmers' market
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Weiping Chen , Steffanie Scott
      This study explores the concept of perceived embeddedness (PE) and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market. Based on a review of the prior literature, the study refines the conceptualization and measurement of PE as a second-order factor construct reflected in its three dimensions: perceived social embeddedness, perceived spatial embeddedness, and perceived natural embeddedness. The study also suggests that organic farmers' market shoppers' PE is positively related to the two measures of purchasing behavior: expenditure per visit and repurchase intention. In a sample of 492 organic farmers' market shoppers in Beijing municipality, China, the study find support for the second-order factor structure of PE and the theorized relationship between the shoppers' PE and their purchasing behavior. The study also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Bidirectional associations between binge eating and restriction in
           anorexia nervosa. An ecological momentary assessment study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kyle P. De Young , Jason M. Lavender , Ross D. Crosby , Stephen A. Wonderlich , Scott G. Engel , James E. Mitchell , Scott J. Crow , Carol B. Peterson , Daniel Le Grange
      This study examined the association between restrictive eating behaviors and binge eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) using data collected in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with DSM-IV full or subthreshold AN reported eating disorder behaviors, including binge eating episodes, going ≥ 8 waking hours without eating, and skipping meals, during 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Time-lagged generalized estimating equations tested the following hypotheses: 1) dietary restriction would predict binge eating while controlling for binge eating the previous day; 2) binge eating would predict restriction the subsequent day while controlling for restriction the previous day. After controlling for relevant covariates, the hypotheses were not supported; however, there appeared to be a cumulative effect of repeatedly going 8 consecutive hours without eating (i.e. fasting) on the risk of binge eating among individuals who recently engaged in binge eating. In addition, skipping meals was associated with a lower risk of same day binge eating. The relationship between binge eating and dietary restriction appears to be complex and may vary by type of restrictive eating behavior. Future research should aim to further clarify the nature of the interaction of binge eating and restrictive eating among individuals with AN in order to effectively eliminate these behaviors in treatment.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in
           Spanish adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kristin Keller , Santiago Rodríguez López , M. Margarita Carmenate Moreno , Paula Acevedo Cantero
      The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event ‘Semanas del Corazon 2008’ in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among
           staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): K.T. Ofei , M. Holst , H.H. Rasmussen , B.E. Mikkelsen
      This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates ERP-indexed inhibitory
           control and reduces food consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Olivia Morgan Lapenta , Karina Di Sierve , Elizeu Coutinho de Macedo , Felipe Fregni , Paulo Sérgio Boggio
      Food craving can be defined as the “urge to eat a specific food”. Previous findings suggest impairment of inhibitory control, specifically a regulatory deficit in the lateral prefrontal circuitry that is associated with a compulsion for food. As demonstrated by three previous studies, bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (anode right/cathode left) reduces food craving and caloric intake. We designed the present study to evaluate the neural mechanisms that underlie these effects. We replicated the design of one of these previous studies but included electroencephalographic assessments to register evoked potentials in a Go/No-go task that contained pictures of food and furniture (a control visual stimulus). We collected data from nine women (mean age = 23.4 ± 2 years) in a crossover experiment. We observed that active DLPFC tDCS (anode right/cathode left), compared with sham stimulation, reduced the frontal N2 component and enhanced the P3a component of responses to No-go stimuli, regardless of the stimulus condition (food or furniture). Active tDCS was also associated with a reduction in caloric intake. We discuss our findings in the context of cortico-subcortical processing of craving and tDCS effects on inhibitory control neural circuitry.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Compliance to step count and vegetable serve recommendations mediates
           weight gain prevention in mid-age, premenopausal women. Findings of the
           40-Something RCT
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Jenna L. Hollis , Lauren T. Williams , Myles D. Young , Katherine T. Pollard , Clare E. Collins , Philip J. Morgan
      The 40-Something RCT aimed to determine if a 12-month health professional-led intervention could modify diet and physical activity behaviour for obesity prevention, in 44–50 year old, non-obese (BMI = 18.5–29.9 kg/m2) premenopausal women. Women were monitored for an additional 12 months to determine if effects could be maintained. This paper aimed to explore dietary and physical activity behavioural mediators hypothesised to be causally associated with weight change. Fifty-four women were randomised to a Motivational Interviewing Intervention (MI) (n = 28; five health professional consultations) or a Self-Directed Intervention (n = 26; written advice). Compliance to 10 study recommendations was measured at three months by a four-day weighed food and physical activity record including pedometer-measured step counts, self-reported exercise minutes and sitting time. The 10 compliance scores were independently assessed in mediation models for 12- and 24-month weight change. The MI effect on step count was an increase of 0.99 points on the 10-point compliance scale (p ≤ 0.01). This MI effect on step count significantly mediated the 12 and 24 month effect on weight (12 months AB = −0.74, 95%CI = −1.95, −0.14; 24 months AB = −1.06, 95% CI = −2.56, −0.36), accounting for 37.23% and 53.79% of the effect, respectively. The MI effect on vegetable serves was an increase of 1.50 points on the compliance scale (p = 0.02). The MI effect on vegetable compliance significantly mediated the effect on weight at 24 months (AB = −0.54, 95% CI = −1.50, −0.04), accounting for 24.92% of the effect. The remaining eight dietary and physical activity compliance scores did not significantly mediate weight loss. Encouraging women to take 10,000 steps and eat five vegetable serves per day may be a promising strategy to achieve long-term weight control at mid-life.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Method of assessing parent–child grocery store purchasing
           interactions using a micro-camcorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Eric E. Calloway , Cindy Roberts-Gray , Nalini Ranjit , Sara J. Sweitzer , Katie A. McInnis , Maria J. Romo-Palafox , Margaret E. Briley
      The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using participant worn micro-camcorders (PWMC) to collect data on parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store. Parent–child dyads (n = 32) were met at their usual grocery store and shopping time. Parents were mostly Caucasian (n = 27, 84.4%), mothers (n = 30, 93.8%). Children were 2–6 years old with 15 girls and 17 boys. A micro-camcorder was affixed to a baseball style hat worn by the child. The dyad proceeded to shop while being shadowed by an in-person observer. Video/audio data were coded for behavioral and environmental variables. The PWMC method was compared to in-person observation to assess sensitivity and relative validity for measuring parent–child interactions, and compared to receipt data to assess criterion validity for evaluating purchasing decisions. Inter-rater reliability for coding video/audio data collected using the PWMC method was also assessed. The PWMC method proved to be more sensitive than in-person observation revealing on average 1.4 (p < 0.01) more parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions per shopping trip. Inter-rater reliability for coding PWMC data showed moderate to almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa = 0.461–0.937). The PWMC method was significantly correlated with in-person observation for measuring occurrences of parent–child food purchasing interactions (rho = 0.911, p < 0.01) and characteristics of those interactions (rho = 0.345–0.850, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was substantial agreement between the PWMC method and receipt data for measuring purchasing decisions (Cohen's kappa = 0.787). The PWMC method proved to be well suited to assess parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • School-based intervention with children. Peer-modeling, reward and
           repeated exposure reduce food neophobia and increase liking of fruits and
           vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Monica Laureati , Valentina Bergamaschi , Ella Pagliarini
      This study investigated the effectiveness of the ‘Food Dudes’ school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • I'm watching you. Awareness that food consumption is being monitored is a
           demand characteristic in eating-behaviour experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Eric Robinson , Inge Kersbergen , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom , Matt Field
      Eating behaviour is often studied in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Yet people care about the impressions others form about them so may behave differently if they feel that their eating behaviour is being monitored. Here we examined whether participants are likely to change their eating behaviour if they feel that food intake is being monitored during a laboratory study. In Study 1 participants were provided with vignettes of typical eating behaviour experiments and were asked if, and how, they would behave differently if they felt their eating behaviour was being monitored during that experiment. Study 2 tested the effect of experimentally manipulating participants' beliefs about their eating behaviour being monitored on their food consumption in the lab. In Study 1, participants thought they would change their behaviour if they believed their eating was being monitored and, if monitored, that they would reduce their food consumption. In Study 2 participants ate significantly less food after being led to believe that their food consumption was being recorded. Together, these studies demonstrate that if participants believe that the amount of food they eat during a study is being monitored then they are likely to suppress their food intake. This may impact the conclusions that are drawn from food intake studies.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces
           attraction to and selection of these beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): John Milton Adams , William Hart , Lauren Gilmer , Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson , K. Alex Burton
      In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming “70g” of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Who gains? Genetic and neurophysiological correlates of BMI gain upon
           college entry in women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Lance O. Bauer
      The present investigation examined P3 event-related electroencephalographic potentials and a short and selected list of addiction-related candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 84 female students, aged 18–20 yrs. The students were assigned to groups defined by the presence versus absence of a positive body mass index (BMI) change from the pre-college physical exam to the current day. Analyses revealed significantly greater P3 latencies and reduced P3 amplitudes during a response inhibition task among students who exhibited a BMI gain. BMI gain was also significantly associated with a ANKK1 SNP previously implicated in substance dependence risk. In logistic regression analyses, P3 latencies at the frontal electrode and this ANKK1 genotype correctly classified 71.1% of the students into the BMI groups. The present findings suggest that heritable indicators of impaired response inhibition can differentiate students who may be on a path toward an overweight or obese body mass.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Misperception of self-reported adherence to the fruit, vegetable and fish
           guidelines in older Dutch adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): S.C. Dijkstra , J.E. Neter , I.A. Brouwer , M. Huisman , M. Visser
      In this study we investigated (the degree of) misperception of adherence to the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines in older Dutch adults and examined to what extent misperception is associated with socio-economic position (SEP) and other demographic, lifestyle and nutrition-related characteristics. The sample included 1057 community dwelling adults, aged 55–85 years, who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Respondents completed a lifestyle questionnaire which included a food frequency questionnaire to calculate fruit, vegetable and fish intake. After current dietary guidelines were explained, respondents were asked to indicate whether they believed they adhered to the fruit, vegetable and fish guidelines. Characteristics potentially associated with misperception included level of income and education, lifestyle factors, nutritional knowledge, as well as attitude, social support and self-efficacy toward healthy eating. In the total sample, 69.1% of the older adults reported to adhere to the fruit guideline, 77.5% to the vegetable guideline, and 36.4% to the fish guideline. Based on the calculated intake data, 82.6% adhered to the fruit guideline, 65.5% to the vegetable guideline and 33.8% to the fish guideline. Overestimation of adherence was most common for the vegetable guideline (18.7%). Multivariate analysis, adjusted for level of income as well as for attitude and self-efficacy toward healthy eating, showed that lower educated respondents were more likely to overestimate their adherence to the vegetable guideline (relative index of inequality (RII): 2.97 (95% CI: 1.47–6.01)). Overestimation rates for fish (3.4%) and fruit (2.3%) were lower and not associated with any of the characteristics. This study showed that overestimation in older adults was common for adherence to the vegetable guideline and especially in those with a lower education level, but not for adherence to the fruit and fish guideline.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • The effect of post-exercise drink macronutrient content on appetite and
           energy intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): David J. Clayton , David J. Stensel , Phillip Watson , Lewis J. James
      Carbohydrate and protein ingestion post-exercise are known to facilitate muscle glycogen resynthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, but the effects of post-exercise nutrient intake on subsequent appetite are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether protein induced satiety that has been reported at rest was still evident when pre-loads were consumed in a post-exercise context. Using a randomised, double blind, crossover design, 12 unrestrained healthy males completed 30 min of continuous cycling exercise at ~60% VO2peak, followed by five, 3 min intervals at ~85% VO2peak. Ten min post-exercise, subjects consumed 500 ml of either a low energy placebo (15 kJ) (PLA); a 6% whey protein isolate drink (528 kJ) (PRO); or a 6% sucrose drink (528 kJ) (CHO). Sixty min after drink ingestion, a homogenous ad-libitum pasta lunch was provided and energy intake at this lunch was quantified. Subjective appetite ratings were measured at various stages of the protocol. Energy consumed at the ad-libitum lunch was lower after PRO (5831 ± 960 kJ) than PLA (6406 ± 492 kJ) (P < 0.05), but not different between CHO (6111 ± 901 kJ) and the other trials (P > 0.315). Considering the post-exercise drink, total energy intake was not different between trials (P = 0.383). There were no differences between trials for any of the subjective appetite ratings. The results demonstrate that where post-exercise liquid protein ingestion may enhance the adaptive response of skeletal muscle, this may be possible without affecting gross energy intake relative to consuming a low energy drink.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Are clusters of dietary patterns and cluster membership stable over
           time? Results of a longitudinal cluster analysis study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Michel Jean Louis Walthouwer , Anke Oenema , Katja Soetens , Lilian Lechner , Hein de Vries
      Introduction: Developing nutrition education interventions based on clusters of dietary patterns can only be done adequately when it is clear if distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived and reproduced over time, if cluster membership is stable, and if it is predictable which type of people belong to a certain cluster. Hence, this study aimed to: (1) identify clusters of dietary patterns among Dutch adults, (2) test the reproducibility of these clusters and stability of cluster membership over time, and (3) identify sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. Methods: This study had a longitudinal design with online measurements at baseline (N = 483) and 6 months follow-up (N = 379). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed, followed by a K-means cluster analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. Results: At baseline and follow-up, a comparable three-cluster solution was derived, distinguishing a healthy, moderately healthy, and unhealthy dietary pattern. Male and lower educated participants were significantly more likely to have a less healthy dietary pattern. Further, 251 (66.2%) participants remained in the same cluster, 45 (11.9%) participants changed to an unhealthier cluster, and 83 (21.9%) participants shifted to a healthier cluster. Men and people living alone were significantly more likely to shift toward a less healthy dietary pattern. Conclusions: Distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived. Yet, cluster membership is unstable and only few sociodemographic factors were associated with cluster membership and cluster transition. These findings imply that clusters based on dietary intake may not be suitable as a basis for nutrition education interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-08-12T20:57:12Z
       
  • Perseveration augments the effects of cognitive restraint on ad libitum
           food intake in adults seeking weight loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Alexis L. Graham , Marci E. Gluck , Susanne B. Votruba , Jonathan Krakoff , Marie S. Thearle
      As executive function may influence eating behaviors, our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predict ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. 78 obese, healthy individuals (40 female/38 male; age 36 ± 10 y; BMI 37.8 ± 7.2 kg/m2) completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task to measure perseveration, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN), intake correlated positively with perseveration (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with restraint (r = −0.51, p < 0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p < 0.0001), an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Increased perseveration intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and perseveration ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) %WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. The effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on restraint, and may contribute to extremes of dietary intake in some individuals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age predicts higher BMI in 48
           month old girls but not boys
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Barbara E. Wendland , Leslie Atkinson , Meir Steiner , Alison S. Fleming , Paul Pencharz , Ellen Moss , Hélène Gaudreau , Patricia P. Silveira , Tamara Arenovich , Stephen G. Matthews , Michael J. Meaney , Robert D. Levitan
      Background: Large population-based studies suggest that systematic measures of maternal sensitivity predict later risk for overweight and obesity. More work is needed to establish the developmental timing and potential moderators of this association. The current study examined the association between maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and BMI z score measures at 48 months of age, and whether sex moderated this association. Design: Longitudinal Canadian cohort of children from birth (the MAVAN project). Methods: This analysis was based on a dataset of 223 children (115 boys, 108 girls) who had structured assessments of maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and 48-month BMI data available. Mother–child interactions were videotaped and systematically scored using the Maternal Behaviour Q-Sort (MBQS)-25 items, a standardized measure of maternal sensitivity. Linear mixed-effects models and logistic regression examined whether MBQS scores at 6 months predicted BMI at 48 months, controlling for other covariates. Results: After controlling for weight-relevant covariates, there was a significant sex by MBQS interaction (P = 0.015) in predicting 48 month BMI z. Further analysis revealed a strong negative association between MBQS scores and BMI in girls (P = 0.01) but not boys (P = 0.72). Logistic regression confirmed that in girls only, low maternal sensitivity was associated with the higher BMI categories as defined by the WHO (i.e. “at risk for overweight” or above). Conclusions: A significant association between low maternal sensitivity at 6 months of age and high body mass indices was found in girls but not boys at 48 months of age. These data suggest for the first time that the link between low maternal sensitivity and early BMI z may differ between boys and girls.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Lower energy intake following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts
           compared with iso-energetic consumption of potato crisps
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Jayne A. Barbour , Peter R.C. Howe , Jonathan D. Buckley , Graeme C. Wright , Janet Bryan , Alison M. Coates
      Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61 ± 1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56–84 g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60–90 g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (−21%; p < .001 and −17%; p < .01) and over the 4 days (−11%; p < .001 and −9%; p < .01). Despite these reductions in energy intake, no differences in perceived satiety were observed. The findings suggest peanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Improving the nutritional quality of charitable meals for homeless and
           vulnerable adults. A case study of food provision by a food aid
           organisation in the UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Sophie E. Pelham-Burn , Catherine J. Frost , Jean M. Russell , Margo E. Barker
      The prevalence of homelessness in the UK is rising, and demand for food aid through charitable meal services has increased. Charitable services make a substantial contribution to the food and nutrient intake of vulnerable people, and thus offer a platform for dietary improvement. This study examined food provision by a large charitable organisation in a major UK city. It had several objectives: Firstly to quantify nutritional composition of breakfast and lunch meals, secondly to understand factors that influence the composition of menus and meals, and thirdly to determine whether, within the context of these influences, improvements to the menu would be possible and whether these would be acceptable to clients. Mixed methods of ethnography, semi-structured interviews, quantitative nutrient analysis, recipe adaptation and taste tests were employed. The research team worked as volunteers in the organisation for a 3-week period and interviews were held with the kitchen staff. Food choice was recorded for 189 clients at breakfast and 251 clients at lunch over a 5-day period and nutrient content of these meals was estimated. Meals were weighted towards fat and sugar energy. Energy, potassium, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc and magnesium content of meals were below Dietary Reference Value (DRV) targets for at least 20% of breakfast and lunch meals. Such inadequacies may be addressed by the addition of simple foods to the breakfast menu and adaptation of lunchtime recipes. Twelve lunchtime dishes were proposed and eight of these were seemingly acceptable to clients in taste testing. Barriers to provision of healthier meals include budget, food donations and acceptability of meals.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Food reinforcement and parental obesity predict future weight gain in
           non-obese adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Leonard H. Epstein , Sonja Yokum , Denise M. Feda , Eric Stice
      Background: Food reinforcement, the extent to which people are willing to work to earn a preferred snack food, and parental obesity are risk factors for weight gain, but there is no research comparing the predictive effects of these factors for adolescent weight gain. Methods: 130 non-obese adolescents (M age = 15.2 ± 1.0; M BMI = 20.7 ± 2.0; M zBMI = 0.16 ± 0.64) at differential risk for weight gain based on parental obesity completed baseline food and money reinforcement tasks, and provided zBMI data over a 2-year follow-up. Results: The number of obese (BMI ≥ 30) parents (p = 0.007) and high food reinforcement (p = 0.046) were both significant independent predictors of greater zBMI increases, controlling for age, sex, parent education and minority status. Having no obese parents or being low or average in food reinforcement was associated with reductions in zBMI, but those high in food reinforcement showed larger zBMI increases (0.102) than having one obese parent (0.025) but less than having two obese parents (0.177). Discussion: Food reinforcement and parental obesity independently predict future weight gain among adolescents. It might be fruitful for obesity prevention programs to target both high risk groups.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Destructuration or continuity? The daily rhythm of eating in Denmark,
           Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Thomas Bøker Lund , Jukka Gronow
      There is a widely shared belief that contemporary eating culture is undergoing a process of ‘destructuration’ in which collective norms guiding temporal, social, and spatial aspects of eating as well as cuisine will decline or disappear. From another theoretical perspective one could argue that shared and regular patterns are quite resistant to change because they are functionally necessary for the organization and maintenance of social actions in everyday life. Using questionnaire data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from the years 1997 and 2012 we investigate whether culturally shared timing of eating rhythms has disappeared or declined. At the population-wide level, we find clear national peaks (occurring around breakfast, lunch, and to a lesser extent dinner) during which a great number, or even the majority, of people eat. These basic rhythms of eating are nationally specific and clearly identifiable in 1997 and 2012, and only small changes were found to have occurred over the period studied. Subsequent examination of within-country differences in daily eating rhythms identified a specific sub-population with very similar features in all countries. The sub-population deviates temporally from the collective peaks of eating, and in it conventional meal types such as breakfast and lunch are skipped to a higher extent, giving what we call an ‘unsynchronized’ eating pattern. Interestingly, the pattern has become more common in all countries. While the growth of this sub-population may be a sign of a coming destructuration of meal culture, further analysis suggests this is not the case. Thus, we find clear socio-structural explanations for unsynchronized eating. It is related to the social coordination of work, and unsynchronized eating tends to be abandoned over the life course: with the establishment of a family, and old age, people tend to synchronize their eating habits with collective activities in society. Coupling this with the relatively modest growth of the unsynchronized pattern, and bearing in mind that it is a minority phenomenon, encompassing approximately one quarter of the population in 2012, we argue that an all-encompassing temporal destructuration will not develop. Additional analysis shows that the idea of a simultaneous rupture of eating culture on several dimensions (temporal, social, spatial, manners, cuisine) is doubtful. Thus, although, to a higher extent, individuals with an unsynchronized eating rhythm lack “manners” and eat more unhealthily, they do not display a higher degree of destructuration in the social and spatial dimensions of eating. Indeed, unsynchronized eating leads to fewer daily eating events, which contradicts the ‘grazing’ theory altogether.


      PubDate: 2014-08-07T20:28:07Z
       
  • Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 suppresses energy
           intake acutely
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Anne Toksvig Bjerg , Mette Kristensen , Christian Ritz , Jens Juul Holst , Charlotte Rasmussen , Thomas Dyrmann Leser , Anja Wellejus , Arne Astrup
      Background: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have various effects on the microbiota; this may also affect appetite and may help promote weight loss and maintenance. Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei L. casei W8 (L. casei W8) on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses in an isolated pig intestine, in piglets and postprandially in humans. Additionally, the effect on subjective appetite, ad libitum energy intake, and glucose and insulin responses in humans was investigated. Design: Piglets were fed with probiotics for 2 weeks and the effect on glucagon encoding gene (GCG) was investigated. An isolated pig intestine was perfused with L. casei W8 and the GLP-1 response was measured. Twenty-one subjects completed a randomized, controlled, crossover study with three arms. Each participant completed 3 test days testing the effect of low dose (LD) (109 CFU), high dose (HD) (1010 CFU) L. casei W8 or placebo capsule. Subjective appetite was assessed before an ad libitum lunch was served. GLP-1, insulin and glucose concentrations were analyzed. Results: Two weeks of treatment of piglets with L. casei W8 resulted in an increase in GCG expression compared to control animals (P < 0.05). L. casei W8 increased the GLP-1 response in the isolated pig intestine. In humans, L. casei W8 had an overall effect on energy intake (P = 0.03), but no effects on subjective appetite sensation, overall glucose and insulin response and on GLP-1 release were observed (P > 0.1). Conclusion: The probiotic bacteria L. casei W8 appears to lower food intake acutely, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • The influence of plate size on meal composition. Literature review and
           experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): E. Libotte , M. Siegrist , T. Bucher
      Environmental factors, such as the size of containers, can influence our energy intake. Even though different sized food containers are often recommended to control portion sizes, the evidence to support this is contradictory. In the present study, we conducted a literature review and a controlled laboratory experiment to investigate whether plate size influences the composition of a meal and the total meal energy. The results of the review suggest that distraction factors, the type of container, the food-serving mode (self-service or being served) and the type of food offered all influenced the results observed in the various published studies. For the experiment in this study, eighty-three participants were individually invited to serve themselves a lunch from a buffet containing 55 replica food items. Either a standard size plate (27 cm) or a large plate (32 cm) was provided to the participants. The results of the experiment suggest that the plate size had no significant effect on the total energy of the meal (F(1,81)  = 0.782, P > .05). However, participants using a large plate served themselves significantly more vegetables (F(1,81)  = 4.786, P < .05), particularly vegetables generally eaten as side dishes (F(1,81)  = 6.804, P < .05). Therefore, reducing the plate size does not seem to be an appropriate intervention to reduce the total energy intake in order to promote weight loss. Rather, using a large plate might be a simple and inexpensive strategy to increase vegetable consumption.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Initial evidence that GLP-1 receptor blockade fails to suppress
           postprandial satiety or promote food intake in humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Susan J. Melhorn , Vidhi Tyagi , Anne Smeraglio , Christian L. Roth , Ellen A. Schur
      Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has incretin effects that are well-documented, but the independent role of GLP-1 action in human satiety perception is debated. We hypothesized that blockade of GLP-1 receptors would suppress postprandial satiety and increase voluntary food intake. After an overnight fast, eight normal weight participants (seven men, BMI 19–24.7 kg/m2, age 19–29 year) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin-[9-39] (Ex-9) to determine if the satiating effects of a meal are dependent on GLP-1 signaling in humans. Following a fasting blood draw, iv infusion of Ex-9 (600–750 pmol/kg/min) or saline began. Thirty minutes later, subjects consumed a standardized breakfast followed 90 min later (at the predicted time of maximal endogenous circulating GLP-1) by an ad libitum buffet meal to objectively measure satiety. Infusions ended once the buffet meal was complete. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and fullness and serial assessments of plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 concentrations were done throughout the experiment. Contrary to the hypothesis, during Ex-9 infusion subjects reported a greater decrease in hunger due to consumption of the breakfast (Ex-9 −62 ± 5; placebo −41 ± 9; P = 0.01) than during placebo. There were no differences in ad libitum caloric intake between Ex-9 and placebo. Ex-9 increased glucose, insulin, and endogenous GLP-1, which may have counteracted any effects of Ex-9 infusion to block satiety signaling. Blockade of GLP-1 receptors failed to suppress subjective satiety following a standardized meal or increase voluntary food intake in healthy, normal-weight subjects.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • The associations of meals and snacks on family meals among a sample of
           grade 7 students from Southwestern Ontario
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Sarah J. Woodruff , Katherine Campbell , Ty Campbell , Mary Cole
      Background: Research has shown the positive associations of family meals and diet quality. However, little is known about how other meals/snacks may be associated with family meals. Objective: The purpose was to determine the associations among the frequency and calorie consumption of meals/snacks and family dinners. Design: Cross-sectional. Data were collected using Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q), including a 24-h diet recall for breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Measured height and weight were used to determine body weight status (BMI). Participants/setting: Participants included 1068 grade 7 students (52% males) from 26 schools in Windsor Essex County, Ontario, Canada. Main outcome measures: Meal, snack, and total daily caloric intake; meal and snack frequency; with whom dinner was consumed, and weekly family dinner frequency. Statistical analyses performed: Exploratory one-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests; nominal and ordinal logistic regression. Results: Ninety-three percent of participants consumed dinner with family members on the night prior to the survey and 77% reported usually consuming dinner/supper with at least one parent on six to seven nights/week. Those who had dinner with family members consumed 4.88 (SD 1.1) meals/snacks per day compared with 4.40 (SD 1.3) and 4.40 (SD 1.3) times/day for consuming dinner alone or with friends, respectively (p = 0.006). On the day prior to the survey, participants were less likely to consume a family meal if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), p < 0.001). Similarly, participants were less likely to consume regular family meals if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.96), p = 0.009). Conclusions: While specific meals and snacks were not associated with family dinner, overall eating frequency was positively associated with family meals.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Interpretive front-of-pack nutrition labels. Comparing competing
           recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Ninya Maubach , Janet Hoek , Damien Mather
      Many stakeholders support introducing an interpretive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label, but disagree over the form it should take. In late 2012, an expert working group established by the New Zealand government recommended the adoption of an untested summary rating system: a Star label. This study used a best–worst scaling choice experiment to estimate how labels featuring the new Star rating, the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL), Daily Intake Guide (DIG), and a no-FOP control affected consumers' choice behaviours and product perceptions. Nutrient-content and health claims were included in the design. We also assessed whether respondents who used more or less information during the choice tasks differed in their selection patterns. Overall, while respondents made broadly similar choices with respect to the MTL and Star labels, the MTL format had a significantly greater impact on depressing preference as a food's nutritional profile became less healthy. Health claims increased rankings of less nutritious options, though this effect was less pronounced when the products featured an MTL. Further, respondents were best able to differentiate products' healthiness with MTL labels. The proposed summary Stars system had less effect on choice patterns than an MTL label and our findings highlight the need for policy makers to ensure that decisions to introduce FOP labels are underpinned by robust research evidence. These results suggest that the proposed summary Stars system will have less effect on shifting food choice patterns than interpretive FOP nutrition label featuring traffic light ratings.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Eating like you are overweight: the effect of overweight models on food
           intake in a remote confederate study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Eric Robinson , Maxine Sharps , Nicola Price , Rebecca Dallas
      There is consistent evidence that people model the eating behaviour of others. The extent to which people model the amount of food consumed by other people of different weight statuses has received less attention. Here we tested the effect on food consumption of exposing female participants to information about the food consumption of either normal/healthy weight or overweight individuals. Eighty female participants took part in a between-subjects experiment, in which we used a remote-confederate design and manipulated whether participants saw intake information about normal/healthy weight or overweight previous participants (remote confederates). Regardless of the weight-status of the remote confederates, participants ate more food when they believed that previous participants had eaten a large amount of food, in comparison with when they believed previous participants had eaten a smaller amount of food. These findings indicate that women may model the food intake of other women, even when they believe they are of a different weight status to themselves.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • A brief intervention increases fruit and vegetable intake. A comparison of
           two intervention sequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Pempa Lhakhang , Cristina Godinho , Nina Knoll , Ralf Schwarzer
      Background and Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of two subsequent intervention components (motivational and self-regulatory components), placed in different order, to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Methods: After baseline assessment, university students (N = 205, aged 18–26 years) were allocated to two groups. One group received a motivational intervention (outcome expectancies, risk perception, and task self-efficacy) followed by a self-regulatory intervention (planning and dietary self-efficacy) after 17 days. The second group received the same intervention conditions in the opposite order. Follow-up assessments were done after another 17 days. Results: Both intervention sequences yielded gains in terms of FV intake and self-efficacy. However, this gain was only due to the self-regulatory component whereas the motivational component did not contribute to the changes. Moreover, changes in intention and self-efficacy mediated between intervention sequence and follow-up behavior, suggesting that improving these proximal predictors of FV intake was responsible for the behavioral gains. Conclusions: Findings highlight the superiority of a self-regulatory intervention over a motivational intervention when it comes to dietary changes in this sample of young adults. Moreover, changes in dietary self-efficacy may drive nutritional changes.


      PubDate: 2014-08-03T20:06:22Z
       
  • Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic
           synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Eva Neely , Mat Walton , Christine Stephens
      Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-29T19:36:50Z
       
  • Confirmatory factor analysis of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
           and associations with infant weight, gender and feeding mode in an
           Australian sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kimberley M. Mallan , Lynne A. Daniels , Susan J. de Jersey
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) in an Australian community sample of mother–infant dyads. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between the BEBQ subscales and infant gender, weight and current feeding mode. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilising structural equation modelling examined the hypothesised four-factor model of the BEBQ. Only mothers (N = 467) who completed all items on the BEBQ (infant age: M = 17 weeks, SD = 3 weeks) were included in the analysis. The original four-factor model did not provide an acceptable fit to the data due to poor performance of the Satiety responsiveness factor. Removal of this factor (three items) resulted in a well-fitting three-factor model. Cronbach's α was acceptable for the Enjoyment of food (α = 0.73), Food responsiveness (α = 0.78) and Slowness in eating (α = 0.68) subscales but low for the Satiety responsiveness (α = 0.56) subscale. Enjoyment of food was associated with higher infant weight whereas Slowness in eating and Satiety responsiveness were both associated with lower infant weight. Differences on all four subscales as a function of feeding mode were observed. This study is the first to use CFA to evaluate the hypothesised factor structure of the BEBQ. Findings support further development work on the Satiety responsiveness subscale in particular, but confirm the utility of the Enjoyment of food, Food responsiveness and Slowness in eating subscales.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the
           expression of food neophobia in toddlers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Erin L. Cassells , Anthea M. Magarey , Lynne A. Daniels , Kimberley M. Mallan
      Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M = 30.4, SD = 5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother–child feeding relationship is still required.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of
           healthy eating. An exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Nicklas Neuman , Christine Persson Osowski , Ylva Mattsson Sydner , Christina Fjellström
      This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an “inauthenticity discourse” where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based
           survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Priscila de Morais Sato , Patrícia da Rocha Pereira , Isis de Carvalho Stelmo , Ramiro Fernandez Unsain , Mariana Dimitrov Ulian , Fernanda Sabatini , Paula Andrea Martins , Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered ‘nutritionally proper’ to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food
           consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kevin V. Cavanagh , Blina Kruja , Catherine A. Forestell
      The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n = 84) and unrestrained eaters (n = 104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi®) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco®). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic
           Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): A. Janet Tomiyama
      Weight stigma is highly pervasive, but its consequences are understudied. This review draws from theory in social psychology, health psychology, and neuroendocrinology to construct an original, generative model called the cyclic obesity/weight-based stigma (COBWEBS) model. This model characterizes weight stigma as a “vicious cycle” – a positive feedback loop wherein weight stigma begets weight gain. This happens through increased eating behavior and increased cortisol secretion governed by behavioral, emotional, and physiological mechanisms, which are theorized to ultimately result in weight gain and difficulty of weight loss. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the existing literature for evidence supporting such a model, propose ways in which individuals enter, fight against, and exit the cycle, and conclude by outlining fruitful future directions in this nascent yet important area of research.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
 
 
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