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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2563 journals)

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Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 652, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 53)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 21)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 56)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.532, h-index: 68)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.348, h-index: 69)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access  
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 38)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 117)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.01, h-index: 47)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 4)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.472, h-index: 17)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.649, h-index: 64)

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Journal Cover Appetite
   [15 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
  • Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic
           synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Eva Neely , Mat Walton , Christine Stephens
      Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-29T19:36:50Z
       
  • Elevated objectively measured but not self-reported energy intake predicts
           future weight gain in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Eric Stice , Shelley Durant
      Background: Although obesity putatively occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed for metabolic needs, numerous risk factor studies have not observed significant positive relations between reported caloric intake and future weight gain, potentially because reported caloric intake is inaccurate. Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that objectively measured habitual energy intake, estimated with doubly labeled water, would show a stronger positive relation to future weight gain than self-reported caloric intake based on a widely used food frequency measure. Design: Two hundred and fifty-three adolescents completed a doubly labeled water (DLW) assessment of energy intake (EI), a food frequency measure, and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment at baseline, and had their body mass index (BMI) measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Results: Controlling for baseline RMR, elevated objectively measured EI, but not self-reported habitual caloric intake, predicted increases in BMI over a 2-year follow-up. On average, participants under-reported caloric intake by 35%. Conclusions: Results provide support for the thesis that self-reported caloric intake has not predicted future weight gain because it is less accurate than objectively measured habitual caloric intake, suggesting that food frequency measures can lead to misleading findings. However, even objectively measured caloric intake showed only a moderate relation to future weight gain, implying that habitual caloric intake fluctuates over time and that it may be necessary to conduct serial assessments of habitual intake to better reflect the time-varying effects of caloric intake on weight gain.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Salt taste sensitivity thresholds in adolescents: are there any
           relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Vanessa Ramos Kirsten , Mário Bernardes Wagner
      The aim of this study was to identify the salt taste sensitivity thresholds and relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels in a cross-sectional study of adolescents. Blood pressure and body composition were measured with a digital device and by anthropometry, respectively. The salt taste sensitivity threshold was measured with 9 solutions with different sodium chloride concentrations to assess the sensitivity to saltiness. The solutions (4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 250, 500 and 1000 mmol/L sodium chloride) were served in increasing concentrations until the taste was correctly identified. The taste sensitivity threshold was then classified as normal or high. In total, 421 adolescents (55.6% female), with an average age of 15.8 ± 0.91 years, were evaluated. The median threshold was 30 mmol/L, and 36.1% had a high threshold. The high blood pressure prevalence was 12.6%, and 25.5% of the subjects were overweight. When the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were compared between the normal and increased threshold groups after adjusting for gender, age, sedentary lifestyle and body mass index, only diastolic blood pressure showed a statistically significant effect (P < 0.0001) between the groups. The effect of a high threshold on body composition after adjusting for gender, age and physical inactivity was not significant (P = 0.177). There was no relationship between a high threshold and systolic pressure or body composition in the evaluated adolescents; therefore, only diastolic blood pressure was affected.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 80




      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Better quality of mother–child interaction at 4 years of age
           decreases emotional overeating in IUGR girls
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): R.S. Escobar , K.A. O'Donnell , S. Colalillo , S. Pawlby , M. Steiner , M.J. Meaney , R.D. Levitan , P.P. Silveira
      Background/Objectives: While most “fetal programming” area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal–child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children. Subjects/Methods: Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother–child interactions were scored during a structured task (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ. Results: There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = −2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months). Conclusions: IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal–child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother–infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food
           purchasing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Katherine Wingert , Drew A. Zachary , Monica Fox , Joel Gittelsohn , Pamela J. Surkan
      Shoppers make many food choices while buying groceries. Children frequently accompany caregivers, giving them the potential to influence these choices. We aimed to understand low-income shoppers' perceptions of how children influence caregivers' purchasing decisions and how the supermarket environment could be manipulated to allow children to serve as change agents for healthy food purchasing in a primarily African-American community. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, five follow-up interviews, one supermarket walk-through interview, and four focus groups with adult supermarket shoppers who were regular caregivers for children under age 16. We conducted one focus group with supermarket employees and one in-depth interview with a supermarket manager. Qualitative data were analyzed using iterative thematic coding and memo writing. Caregivers approached grocery shopping with efforts to save money, prevent waste and purchase healthy food for their families, but described children as promoting unplanned, unhealthy food purchases. This influence was exacerbated by the supermarket environment, which participants found to promote unhealthy options and provide limited opportunities for children to interact with healthier foods. Caregivers' suggestions for promoting healthy purchasing for shoppers with children included manipulating the placement of healthy and unhealthy foods and offering opportunities for children to taste and interact with healthy options.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in
           inactive adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Leah M. Panek , Kelly R. Jones , Jennifer L. Temple
      Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Effects of children's self-regulation of eating on parental feeding
           practices and child weight
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Matthew B. Cross , Allen M. Hallett , Tracey A. Ledoux , Daniel P. O'Connor , Sheryl O. Hughes
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-regulation of eating in minority preschool-aged children mediates the relationship between parent feeding practices and child weight. Participants were 299 low-income African American and Hispanic parents and their preschool-aged children who participated in Head Start. Parents completed questionnaires about controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction) and children's appetitive characteristics (enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness). Path analyses were used to determine whether children's self-regulation of eating mediated the relationship between feeding practices and child weight. Greater satiety responsiveness in African American preschool-age children partially mediated the inverse association between pressure to eat and children's weight, B (SE) = −0.073 (0.036), P < .05. Enjoyment of food and food responsiveness did not mediate the relationship between pressure to eat and weight in the African American sample, ps > .05, nor did appetitive characteristics mediate the relationship between restriction and child weight, ps > .05. Appetitive characteristics did not mediate the relationship between controlling feeding practices and child weight in the Hispanic sample, ps > .05. Implications include the need for culturally sensitive self-report measures and for researchers to account for the possible effects of racial/ethnic differences when designing interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Studying the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Malagasy school
           children parents. A contribution to the understanding of malnutrition in
           Madagascar
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Vonimihaingo Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana , Gaëlle Arvisenet , Dominique Valentin
      Madagascar is severely affected by the problem of children malnutrition. The present study aimed at exploring school children Malagasy parents’ food practices and beliefs structures about the nutritional value of foods, to better understand the causes of this malnutrition. A combination of Focus Groups (72 participants), and questionnaires (1000 interviewees) was used to evaluate the food beliefs and the nutritional habits of low income parents of school age children in urban and rural areas of Antananarivo and Antsiranana. The respondents’ beliefs were shown to focus not only on the nutrient and energetic composition of food, but also to involve more general relations between food and health and particularly the sanitary properties of food. Compared with such sanitary properties, nutrient content was not considered to be the priority in food choice and food preparation. The food category considered to be the most nutritive was cereals, ahead of protein foods, or vegetables and fruit. Nutritional beliefs were not the same in the Antananarivo and Antsiranana areas, nor between urban and rural areas of Antsiranana. Different socio-economic contexts, food availability and information may explain these differences. This study could guide actors involved in nutrition promotion to adapt to specific areas their nutrition programmes in the fight against malnutrition.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Parent Attribution for Child Eating Scale (PACES). Psychometric
           characteristics and associations with child and parent variables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Helen M. Hendy , Keith E. Williams , Whitney Harclerode , Katherine Riegel
      Parent participation in interventions for their children's feeding problems may depend on parent attributions for the origins of these problems, but no measure is available to identify these parent perceptions. The purpose of the present paper was to develop a new Parent Attribution for Child Eating Scale (PACES), then to examine how parent perceptions measured by the PACES were associated with child variables and parent feeding practices. Participants included parents of 393 children from a hospital feeding clinic (68.2% boys; mean age = 55.4 months). Parents completed surveys to report children's demographic, medical, and feeding variables, three-point ratings for possible origins of these feeding problems, and their own use of nine child-feeding practices. Exploratory factor analysis of the parent ratings produced the 21-item PACES with four dimensions: Permissive Parenting, Medical Treatments, Oral Problems, and Vomiting Fear. The PACES showed acceptable goodness-of-fit, internal reliability, test-retest reliability, and support for its validity with expected correlations with child and parent variables. Multiple regression revealed that nine child variables (age, body mass index, gender, autism, gastrointestinal problems, neurological problems, oral motor problems, texture feeding problems, diet variety) explained 19–41% of the variance in the four PACES attributions, with oral motor problems significantly correlated with all of them (negatively with Permissive Parenting, positively with the other three), suggesting that its occurrence in combination with other child variables guides parent explanations for children's feeding problems. Multiple regression also found that Many Food Choices was the only parent feeding practice significantly correlated with all four PACES attributions (positively with Permissive Parenting, negatively with the other three), suggesting that it may be parents' primary response to attributions they develop for their children's feeding problems.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Effects of exposure to television advertising for
           energy-dense/nutrient-poor food on children's food intake and obesity in
           South Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Bora Lee , Hyogyoo Kim , Soo-Kyung Lee , Jihyun Yoon , Sang-Jin Chung
      The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11–13 years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7 months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of
           GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three
           months in overweight women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Caroline Montelius , Daniel Erlandsson , Egzona Vitija , Eva-Lena Stenblom , Emil Egecioglu , Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
      The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40–65 years of age, body mass index 25–33 kg/m2) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Liking the odour, liking the food. Toddlers’ liking of strongly
           flavoured foods correlates with liking of their odour
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): S. Wagner , S. Issanchou , C. Chabanet , C. Lange , B. Schaal , S. Monnery-Patris
      Olfaction plays a significant role in the sensing of foods. However, little information is available at any age on the relationship between the hedonic responses to given food odours and the effective liking and disliking of foods bearing these same odours. The present study aimed to assess the relationships between food odour liking and liking of the corresponding foods. This study relied on a longitudinal design involving 235 toddlers who were assessed for both their observed liking of a set of food odours and their parent-reported liking of foods at 12 and 22 months. To assess odour liking, eight odorants representing pleasant and unpleasant foods were presented in bottles along with neutral stimuli. The participants’ behaviour towards the odorized and control bottles was measured in terms of mouthing, a behaviour considered to reflect attraction. For each odorant, odour-liking scores were calculated relative to the control. The participants’ food liking was rated by the parents at the periods 12–15 and 21–24 months. Positive correlations were found between the odour-liking scores for some of the odours and the liking of the associated foods. These correlations concerned foods with strong, unpleasant flavours at 12 months only, suggesting that the olfactory system acts as an ‘alarm’ system during this period of food transition. At 22 months, no significant correlations were found, except a marginal one for green vegetables. Whatever the age, no significant correlations were found for pleasant odours. Thus, some correlations were found between the observed odour liking for food-related odours and the liking for the corresponding foods. However, these relationships are subject to developmental fluctuations depending on the hedonic nature of the odorants and the age when infants are tested.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in specialty milk
           products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Osman Gulseven , Michael Wohlgenant
      This article investigates the socio-demographic determinants affecting the demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in milk products based on a two-stage model. In order to derive the implicit market values of these enhancements, first we estimated the relationship between the prices of differentiated dairy products and the amount or respectively the presence of specific characteristics in these products. Next, using these implicit prices along with the information on households' demographic background, we analyzed the socio-demographic factors that affect consumer demand for specific functional and nutritional enhancements. The model is estimated using a combined panel data set based on AC Nielsen Retail Homescan Panel and the USDA Nutrient Database. Our results indicate that being lactose/cholesterol free (LFCF) and organic implies substantially higher price premiums, whereas soy has a negative price. Socio-demographic factors such as income, racial profile, presence of children; education level and age have significant effects on the demand for functional enhancements. Specialty milk consumption increases with age, education, and presence of kids, whereas it declines with income. The ratio of specialty milk consumption to total milk consumption is substantially higher among Hispanic, Asian and African-American households.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Can merely learning about obesity genes affect eating behavior'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Ilan Dar-Nimrod , Benjamin Y. Cheung , Matthew B. Ruby , Steven J. Heine
      Public discourse on genetic predispositions for obesity has flourished in recent decades. In three studies, we investigated behaviorally-relevant correlates and consequences of a perceived genetic etiology for obesity. In Study 1, beliefs about etiological explanations for obesity were assessed. Stronger endorsement of genetic etiology was predictive of a belief that obese people have no control over their weight. In Study 2, beliefs about weight and its causes were assessed following a manipulation of the perceived underlying cause. Compared with a genetic attribution, a non-genetic physiological attribution led to increased perception of control over one's weight. In Study 3, participants read a fictional media report presenting either a genetic explanation, a psychosocial explanation, or no explanation (control) for obesity. Results indicated that participants who read the genetic explanation ate significantly more on a follow-up task. Taken together, these studies demonstrate potential effects of genetic attributions for obesity.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why
           the relationship matters for policy makers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): T. Bettina Cornwell , Anna R. McAlister , Nancy Polmear-Swendris
      Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3–6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Appetite and gut peptide responses to exercise and calorie restriction.
           The effect of modest energy deficits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Kevin Deighton , Rachel L. Batterham , David J. Stensel
      Weight loss is the result of a sustained negative energy balance, which is typically achieved by decreasing food intake and/or increasing physical activity. Current evidence suggests that acute energy deficits of ~4820 kJ elicit contrasting homeostatic responses when induced by exercise and food restriction but the response to government-recommended energy deficits is unknown. Twelve healthy men (mean(SD): age 24(5) years, body mass index 23.8(2.7) kg⋅m−2, maximum oxygen uptake 55.4(9.1) mL⋅kg−1⋅min−1) completed three 8 h trials (control (Con), exercise-induced energy deficit (Ex-Def) and food restriction (Food-Def)) separated by 1 week. Thirty minutes of cycling at 64.5(3.2)% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed in Ex-Def from 0 to 0.5 h, which induced an energy deficit of 1469(256) kJ. An equivalent energy deficit was induced in Food-Def (1478(275) kJ) by reducing the energy content of standardised test meals at 1 h and 4 h. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin and peptide YY3–36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. An ad libitum meal was provided at 7 h. Appetite was higher in Food-Def than Ex-Def from 4 to 8 h (P = 0.033) and tended to be higher across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.059). However, energy intake at the ad libitum meal did not differ between trials (P = 0.634; Con 4376 (1634); Food-Def 4481 (1846); Ex-Def 4217 (1850) kJ). Acylated ghrelin was not related to changes in appetite but plasma PYY3–36 concentrations were higher in Ex-Def than Food-Def (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with changes in appetite across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.037). An energy deficit of ~1475 kJ stimulated compensatory increases in appetite when induced via calorie restriction but not when achieved by an acute bout of exercise. Appetite responses were associated with changes in plasma PYY3–36 but not acylated ghrelin concentrations and did not influence subsequent energy intake.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants.
           Results from the SAIDI study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Gloria A. Koh , Jane A. Scott , Richard J. Woodman , Susan W. Kim , Lynne A. Daniels , Anthea M. Magarey
      Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1–3) for fruit and 3 (2–5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p < 0.05). This highlights the need for addressing antecedents of maternal feeding self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal
           well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural
           setting
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Netalie Shloim , Mary Rudolf , Richard Feltbower , Marion Hetherington
      Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2–6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range −12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers’ perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Nutritional quality, labelling and promotion of breakfast cereals on the
           New Zealand market
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Anandita Devi , Helen Eyles , Mike Rayner , Cliona Ni Mhurchu , Boyd Swinburn , Emily Lonsdale-Cooper , Stefanie Vandevijvere
      Breakfast cereals substantially contribute to daily energy and nutrient intakes among children. In New Zealand, new regulations are being implemented to restrict nutrition and health claims to products that meet certain ‘healthy’ criteria. This study investigated the difference in nutritional quality, labelling and promotion between ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ breakfast cereals, and between breakfast cereals intended for children compared with other breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market. The cross-sectional data collection involved taking pictures of the nutrition information panel (NIP) and front-of pack (FoP) for all breakfast cereals (n = 247) at two major supermarkets in Auckland in 2013. A nutrient profiling tool was used to classify products into ‘healthy’/‘less healthy’. In total 26% of cereals did not meet the ‘healthy’ criteria. ‘Less healthy’ cereals were significantly higher in energy density, sugar and sodium content and lower in protein and fibre content compared with ‘healthy’ cereals. Significantly more nutrition claims (75%) and health claims (89%) featured on ‘healthy’ compared with ‘less healthy’ cereals. On the ‘less healthy’ cereals, nutrition claims (65%) were more predominant than health claims (17%). Of the 52 products displaying promotional characters, 48% were for ‘cereals for kids’, and of those, 72% featured on ‘less healthy’ cereals. In conclusion, most breakfast cereals met the ‘healthy’ criteria; however, ‘cereals for kids’ were ‘less healthy’ and displayed more promotional characters than other cereal categories. Policy recommendations include: food composition targets set or endorsed by government, strengthening and enforcing current regulations on health and nutrition claims, considering the application of nutrient profiling for nutrition claims in addition to health claims, introducing an interpretative FoP labelling system and restricting the use of promotional characters on ‘less healthy’ breakfast cereals.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • How partial reinforcement of food cues affects the extinction and
           reacquisition of appetitive responses. A new model for dieting
           success'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Karolien van den Akker , Remco C. Havermans , Mark E. Bouton , Anita Jansen
      Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in responding that occurs during extinction is slow. After extinction, increases in responding with renewed reinforcement of food cues (reacquisition) might be less rapid after acquisition with partial reinforcement. In humans, it may be that the eating behaviour of some individuals resembles partial reinforcement schedules to a greater extent, possibly affecting dieting success by interacting with extinction and reacquisition. Furthermore, impulsivity has been associated with less successful dieting, and this association might be explained by impulsivity affecting the learning and extinction of appetitive responses. In the present two studies, the effects of different reinforcement schedules and impulsivity on the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition of appetitive responses were investigated in a conditioning paradigm involving food rewards in healthy humans. Overall, the results indicate both partial reinforcement schedules and, possibly, impulsivity to be associated with worse extinction performance. A new model of dieting success is proposed: learning histories and, perhaps, certain personality traits (impulsivity) can interfere with the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses to food cues and they may be causally related to unsuccessful dieting.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Parental feeding practices and associations with child weight status.
           Swedish validation of the Child Feeding Questionnaire finds parents of
           4-year-olds less restrictive
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Paulina Nowicka , Kimmo Sorjonen , Angelo Pietrobelli , Carl-Erik Flodmark , Myles S. Faith
      The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status
           in young women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Alecia J. Leonard , Kerry A. Chalmers , Clare E. Collins , Amanda J. Patterson
      Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18–35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. Results: One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Conclusions: Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Students as subjects in food advertising studies. An appraisal of
           appropriateness
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Hojoon Choi , Leonard N. Reid
      Considerable knowledge on food advertising has been generated by research on consumers' psychological reactions to food advertising messaging using either students or nonstudents as subjects. Building on past research, this article investigates the methodological question of whether students are appropriate surrogates for nonstudents in food advertising studies. Following exposure to print advertisements featuring healthy and unhealthy foods with two different nutrient attribute-based message appeals, student and nonstudent subjects were asked to complete five standard evaluative response measures to the food ads: claim believability, attitude-toward-the ad, attitude-toward-the-product, attitude-toward-the-brand, and purchase intention. Among the findings, students were found to react differently and more negatively to identical food advertisements than nonstudents. Overall, the message sent to health communication researchers, policy officials, and practicing professionals is – unless certain criteria are satisfied – students should be considered inadequate subjects to represent all age groups of the general population in food advertising research. Thus, conclusions drawn from student-based research about advertising processing and effects should be questioned and broad generalizations avoided.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice
           and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Rafael Monge-Rojas , Josiemer Mattei , Tamara Fuster , Walter Willett , Hannia Campos
      Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40–65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Consuming calories and creating cavities: beverages NZ children associate
           with sport
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Moira Smith , Gabrielle Jenkin , Louise Signal , Rachael McLean
      Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are widely available, discounted and promoted, and despite recommendations to the contrary, frequently consumed by children. They provide few nutritional benefits, and their consumption is implicated in a number of poor health outcomes. This study examined the nature of the beverages that sport-playing New Zealand (NZ) children associate with sport. It assessed how well the beverages aligned with nutrition guidelines and relevant regulations, and their likely impacts on health. Eighty-two children (38 girls and 44 boys) aged 10–12 years were purposively selected from netball, rugby and football clubs in low and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods, in Wellington, New Zealand (NZ). Children photographed beverages they associated with sport. The beverages were then purchased and analysed in accordance with NZ nutrition guidelines, and relevant content and labelling regulations, by: package and serving size; energy, sugar, sodium and caffeine content; pH; and advisory statements. The beverages the children associated with sport overwhelmingly had characteristics which do not support children in adhering to NZ nutrition guidelines. Implementing public health mechanisms, such as healthy food and beverage policies, widely promoting water as the beverage of choice in sport, and implementing healthy eating and drinking campaigns in sports clubs, would assist children who play organised sport to select beverages that are in keeping with children's nutrition guidelines. As part of a comprehensive public health approach they would also reduce the substantial, unnecessary and potentially harmful contribution sugar-sweetened beverages make to their diet.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Is eating science or common sense' Knowledge about “natural
           foods” among self-identified “natural food” consumers,
           vendors and producers in rural and urban Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Anneke Kooijmans , Fátima Flores-Palacios
      Objective: To explore the common sense knowledge that consumers, vendors and producers hold of “natural foods”. The focus was on common knowledge because this is infrequently explored in social psychology where most studies focus on the implementation of scientific knowledge. The focus was on natural foods because the naturalness of foods seems to be one of the particular concerns that current consumers have about today's food market and because a specific natural food preference was observed in the contexts of study. Method: Fifty-seven informants in a rural context and 58 informants in an urban context participated in either a free association study or an interview study. Data content were analyzed. Results: In the urban context natural foods obtain their significance in the relationship between food and the self-concept; eating natural (or good) food is a task that requires effort and attitude, and foods obtain a moral value. In the rural context natural foods obtain their significance as an expression of a social and cultural system of interdependence that establishes practices and customs that have a long history in the community. Conclusions: It is suggested that these common knowledge systems are related to practical challenges that are particular to the informants’ context and that the structure of their common sense knowledge systems depend on the mediation of the flow of scientific knowledge and technological knowledge in each context.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Who reports noticing and using calorie information posted on fast food
           restaurant menus'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Andrew Breck , Jonathan Cantor , Olivia Martinez , Brian Elbel
      Objective: Identify consumer characteristics that predict seeing and using calorie information on fast food menu boards. Methods: Two separate data collection methods were used in Philadelphia during June 2010, several weeks after calorie labeling legislation went into effect: (1) point-of-purchase survey and receipt collection conducted outside fast food restaurants (N = 669) and (2) a random digit dial telephone survey (N = 702). Logistic regressions were used to predict the odds of reporting seeing, and of reporting seeing and being influenced by posted calorie information. Results: Approximately 35.1% of point-of-purchase and 65.7% of telephone survey respondents reported seeing posted calorie information, 11.8% and 41.7%, respectively, reported that the labels influenced their purchasing decisions, and 8.4% and 17% reported they were influenced in a healthful direction. BMI, education, income, gender, consumer preferences, restaurant chain, and frequency of visiting fast food restaurants were associated with heterogeneity in the likelihood of reporting seeing and reporting seeing and using calorie labels. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics and consumer preferences are important determinants in the use of posted calorie information. Future work should consider the types of consumers this information is intended for, and how to effectively reach them.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Effects of starting weaning exclusively with vegetables on vegetable
           intake at the age of 12 and 23 months
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Coraline Barends , Jeanne H.M. de Vries , Jos Mojet , Cees de Graaf
      Background: The low vegetable intake in children may be attributed to their low preference for vegetables. During the first year of life, first taste preferences are formed, which may track over time. In a previous study to increase infants' vegetable intake and liking, we found that at the start of weaning, infants had a higher vegetable intake in the lab after repeated exposure to vegetable purées than to fruit purées. The current study is a follow-up of these infants at the age of 12 and 23 months, and examined whether the group that started weaning with vegetables continued eating more vegetables than the group that started weaning with fruits. Methods: At 12 (n = 86) and 23 (n = 81) months of age the children's daily vegetable consumption was reported by their parents using a 3-day food diary. The intake of green beans and apple purée was measured in the laboratory. Results: Reported daily intake of vegetables at 12 months of age was 38 % higher (P = 0.02) in the vegetable group (75 ± 43 g) than in the fruit group (54 ± 29 g), but was similar for both groups at 23 months of age (49 ± 43, 57 ± 35 g, respectively; NS). Both at 12 and 23 months of age, apple and green beans intake in the lab did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that weaning exclusively with vegetables results in a higher daily vegetable consumption until at least 12 months of age. More research is needed to investigate how to maintain this effect.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Corrina A. Tucker
      Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these ‘meat’ alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of
           sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Susan L. Ames , Yasemin Kisbu-Sakarya , Kim D. Reynolds , Sarah Boyle , Christopher Cappelli , Matthew G. Cox , Mark Dust , Jerry L. Grenard , David P. Mackinnon , Alan W. Stacy
      Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks – and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not receiving treatment for eating disorders.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Do we know how much we put on the plate' Assessment of the accuracy of
           self-estimated versus weighed vegetables and whole grain portions using an
           Intelligent Buffet at the FoodScape Lab
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): T.R. Nørnberg , L. Houlby , L.N. Jørgensen , C. He , F.J.A. Pérez-Cueto
      The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of self-estimated vegetable and whole grain serving sizes in a self-served buffet meal. The study took place in a laboratory setting where an Intelligent Buffet was used to register the exact weight of each food type that was self-served by each participant. The initial sample consisted of 58 participants recruited from Aalborg University in Copenhagen, of which 52 participants (59% male) provided complete estimates on the weight of whole grains and 49 participants (63% male) provided complete estimates on the weight of vegetable servings in their meal. The majority of the participants were students aged 20–29 years (85% for whole grain responses and 82% for vegetable responses). Significant differences between self-estimated and actual portion size estimates were observed for both vegetables and whole grains (P < 0.001). The mean self-estimated weight of a vegetable serving was 218(±134) g compared to the mean actual weight of 74(±44) g. The mean self-estimated and mean actual weights of a whole grain serving were 36(±34) g and 10(±9) g, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-estimated and actual weights for each food group (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the participants’ ability to accurately assess the serving size of vegetables and whole grains in a self-served meal did not correspond with the actual amount served. This may have implications for consumer interpretation of dietary recommendations used in nutrition interventions in Denmark.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Balancing safety and enjoyment. Current practice when recommending tastes
           for people with intellectual disabilities who are non-orally fed
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Darren David Chadwick
      Eating and drinking problems are common among people with intellectual disabilities. Having a compromised swallow or being at risk of inadequate nutrition are two reasons for introducing non-oral feeding. Such procedures involve the creation of an external opening for food and drink to be delivered directly into the stomach through a tube. In recent years maintenance of the swallow and quality of life issues have led to introduction of small amounts of food and drink (oral tastes) for people who are non-orally fed. Little evidence exists about the reasoning used to inform this decision or the types of oral tastes offered. This study aims to address these omissions. An exploratory survey, distributed via email, was used to gather information from speech and language therapists and dietitians about their current practice and their decision-making processes when offering oral tastes to people who are non-orally fed. Data presented here reflect the responses from respondents working primarily with people with intellectual disabilities (55 out of 158 respondents). Oral tastes were being offered and clinical decision-making around this centred on balancing the wellbeing and wishes of the person with intellectual disabilities and their carers with the risks to wellbeing inherent in implementing and supporting an oral taste programme.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Gastric bypass patients’ goal-strategy-monitoring networks for
           long-term dietary management
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Amanda Lynch , Carole A. Bisogni
      Following gastric bypass surgery, patients must make dramatic dietary changes, but little is known about patients’ perspectives on long-term dietary management after this surgery. This grounded theory, qualitative study sought to advance conceptual understanding of food choice by examining how gastric bypass patients constructed personal food systems to guide food and eating behaviors 12 months post-surgery. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each of 16 adults, purposively sampled from bariatric support groups. Using constant comparative analysis of verbatim interview transcripts, researchers identified participants’ goal-strategy-monitoring networks representing how participants used specific food and eating behaviors towards their main goals of: Weight Management, Overall Health, Avoiding Negative Reactions to Eating, and Integrating Dietary Changes with Daily Life. Linked to each main goal was a hierarchy of intermediary goals, strategies, and tactics. Participants used monitoring behaviors to assess strategy effectiveness towards goal achievement. Individuals’ Weight Management networks were compared to uncover similarities and differences among strategy use and monitoring methods among those who maintained weight loss and those who regained weight. The complex, multilevel goal-strategy-monitoring networks identified illustrate the “work” involved in constructing new personal food systems after surgery, as well as advance understanding of strategies as a component of people's personal food systems. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with insight into the long-term dietary issues that gastric bypass patients face and a potential method for representing how people relate deliberate dietary behaviors to their goals.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Comparison of text messaging and paper-and-pencil for ecological momentary
           assessment of food craving and intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Elliot T. Berkman , Nicole R. Giuliani , Alicia K. Pruitt
      Electronic devices such as mobile phones are quickly becoming a popular way to gather participant reports of everyday thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, including food cravings and intake. Electronic devices offer a number of advantages over alternative methods such as paper-and-pencil (PNP) assessment including automated prompts, on-the-fly data transmission, and participant familiarity with and ownership of the devices. However, only a handful of studies have systematically compared compliance between electronic and PNP methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and none have examined eating specifically. Existing comparisons generally find greater compliance for electronic devices than PNP, but there is variability in the results across studies that may be accounted for by differences across research domains. Here, we compared the two EMA methods in an unexamined domain – eating – in terms of response rate and response latency, and their sensitivity to individual difference variables such as body mass index (BMI). Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to report on their food craving, food intake, and hunger four times each day for 2 weeks using either a PNP diary (N = 19) or text messaging (TXT; N = 25). Response rates were higher for TXT than PNP (96% vs. 70%) and latencies were faster (29 min vs. 79 min), and response rate and latency were less influenced by BMI in the TXT condition than in the PNP condition. These results support the feasibility of using text messaging for EMA in the eating domain, and more broadly highlight the ways that research domain-specific considerations (e.g., the importance of response latency in measuring short-lived food craving) interact with assessment modality during EMA.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Disinhibited eating and weight-related insulin mismanagement among
           individuals with type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Rhonda M. Merwin , Ashley A. Moskovich , Natalia O. Dmitrieva , Carl F. Pieper , Lisa K. Honeycutt , Nancy L. Zucker , Richard S. Surwit , Lori Buhi
      Objective: Withholding insulin for weight control is a dangerous practice among individuals with type 1 diabetes; yet little is known about the factors associated with this behavior. Studies of nondiabetic individuals with weight concerns suggest that eating in a disinhibited manner (e.g., binge eating) predicts the use of maladaptive compensatory strategies (e.g., self-induced vomiting). The purpose of this study was to test whether individuals with type 1 diabetes are less restrained in their eating when they think their blood glucose (BG) is low and whether this contributes to insulin omission for weight control purposes and subsequently higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods: Two-hundred and seventy-six individuals with type 1 diabetes completed an online survey of eating behaviors, insulin dosing and most recent HbA1c. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that disinhibited eating when blood sugar is thought to be low predicts weight-related insulin mismanagement, and this, in turn, predicts higher HbA1c. Results: The majority of participants endorsed some degree of disinhibition when they think their blood glucose is low (e.g., eating foods they do not typically allow) and corresponding negative affect (e.g., guilt/shame). The frequency of disinhibited eating was positively associated with weight-related insulin mismanagement. Controlling for age, sex, education, and insulin pump use, the model explained 31.3% of the variance in weight-related insulin mismanagement and 16.8% of the variance in HbA1c. Conclusion: Addressing antecedents to disinhibited eating that are unique to type 1 diabetes (e.g., perceived BG level) and associated guilt or shame may reduce weight-related insulin omission.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment
           process'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): David Marchiori , Esther K. Papies , Olivier Klein
      People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal
           energy intake in overweight and obese males
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Katy M Horner , Nuala M Byrne , Neil A King
      Background: To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Methods: Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m2, aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Results: Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P < 0.01). Using a paired design and a power of 0.8, a minimum of 12 participants would be needed to detect a 10 mm change in 5 h postprandial mean ratings and 17 to detect a 500 kJ difference in ad libitum EI. Conclusion: Intra-individual variability of appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Scents boost preference for novel fruits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Yuki Yamada , Kyoshiro Sasaki , Satomi Kunieda , Yuji Wada
      When faced with a novel food, multisensory information that includes appearance and smell is a very important cue for preference, categorization, and the decision of whether or not to eat it. We elucidated whether olfactory information leads to biased visual categorization of and preference for fruits, even when odors are presented subliminally. We employed morphed images of strawberries and tomatoes combined with their corresponding odorants as stimuli. Participants were asked to categorize the images into either of two categories, to evaluate their preference for each visual image, and to judge the presence/absence of the odor. Results demonstrated that visual categorization was not affected by the odor manipulation; however, preference for uncategorizable images increased when odors were presented regardless of the participant's awareness of the odor. Our findings suggest that visual preference for novel fruits is based on both conscious and unconscious olfactory processing regarding edibility.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Trajectories of dietary change and the social context of migration: a
           qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Ietza Bojorquez , Daniela Rentería , Claudia Unikel
      The aim of this article was to explore the influence of migration on changes in dietary practices, relating these changes to the social contexts in which they occur. Numerous studies have described how migration from poor countries and regions to more developed ones leads migrants to adopt a modern diet associated to the risk of acquiring chronic diseases. However, different contexts might influence dietary change in migrants in diverse ways. For this purpose, 28 semi-structured interviews were conducted with adult, female internal migrants to a border city in Mexico. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results showed trajectories of dietary change to be associated to social position before and after migration. For the participants from rural areas, migration was accompanied by an increase in the consumption of processed foods, and also changes in food insecurity. Migrants who came from urban areas reported a decrease in the perceived quality of food available to them, but their eating pattern was modified only slightly. For some interviewees, migration resulted in the possibility to choose what to eat in a more autonomous way. We discuss how the effect of migration on dietary changes can be manifold, and the necessity to delve into how social context influences these changes.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure
           by herb and spice seasonings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Sameer Khalil Ghawi , Ian Rowland , Lisa Methven
      There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy
           intake. An experimental field study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Rachel A. Crockett , Susan A. Jebb , Matthew Hankins , Theresa M. Marteau
      There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. “low-fat”) compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = −2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = −2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Sweetened blood sweetens behavior. Ego depletion, glucose, guilt, and
           prosocial behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Hanyi Xu , Laurent Bègue , Laure Sauve , Brad J. Bushman
      Although guilt feels bad to the individual, it is good for society because guilty feelings can prompt people to perform good deeds. Previous research shows that fatigue decreases guilty feelings and helpful behavior. This present research tests whether glucose restores guilty feelings and increases helpful behavior. Depleted participants watched a movie about butchering animals for their meat or skin and were told to express no emotions, whereas non-depleted participants watched the same movie, but could express their emotions. Afterwards they drank a glucose or placebo beverage. Having participants play a game in which another person was punished for their errors induced guilt. Finally, participants played a dictator game in which they could leave lottery tickets for the next participant. Depleted participants felt less guilty and helped less than non-depleted participants, and those who consumed a placebo beverage felt less guilt and helped less than those who consumed a glucose beverage.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in
           self-imposed exercisers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Navina Fenzl , Katja Bartsch , Joerg Koenigstorfer
      The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout ‘fat-burning’ (vs. labeling an exercise bout ‘endurance’ exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55–65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Confirmatory factor analysis of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
           and associations with infant weight, gender and feeding mode in an
           Australian sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kimberley M. Mallan , Lynne A. Daniels , Susan J. de Jersey
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) in an Australian community sample of mother–infant dyads. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between the BEBQ subscales and infant gender, weight and current feeding mode. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilising structural equation modelling examined the hypothesised four-factor model of the BEBQ. Only mothers (N = 467) who completed all items on the BEBQ (infant age: M = 17 weeks, SD = 3 weeks) were included in the analysis. The original four-factor model did not provide an acceptable fit to the data due to poor performance of the Satiety responsiveness factor. Removal of this factor (three items) resulted in a well-fitting three-factor model. Cronbach's α was acceptable for the Enjoyment of food (α = 0.73), Food responsiveness (α = 0.78) and Slowness in eating (α = 0.68) subscales but low for the Satiety responsiveness (α = 0.56) subscale. Enjoyment of food was associated with higher infant weight whereas Slowness in eating and Satiety responsiveness were both associated with lower infant weight. Differences on all four subscales as a function of feeding mode were observed. This study is the first to use CFA to evaluate the hypothesised factor structure of the BEBQ. Findings support further development work on the Satiety responsiveness subscale in particular, but confirm the utility of the Enjoyment of food, Food responsiveness and Slowness in eating subscales.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the
           expression of food neophobia in toddlers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Erin L. Cassells , Anthea M. Magarey , Lynne A. Daniels , Kimberley M. Mallan
      Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M = 30.4, SD = 5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother–child feeding relationship is still required.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of
           healthy eating. An exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Nicklas Neuman , Christine Persson Osowski , Ylva Mattsson Sydner , Christina Fjellström
      This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an “inauthenticity discourse” where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based
           survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Priscila de Morais Sato , Patrícia da Rocha Pereira , Isis de Carvalho Stelmo , Ramiro Fernandez Unsain , Mariana Dimitrov Ulian , Fernanda Sabatini , Paula Andrea Martins , Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered ‘nutritionally proper’ to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food
           consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): Kevin V. Cavanagh , Blina Kruja , Catherine A. Forestell
      The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n = 84) and unrestrained eaters (n = 104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi®) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco®). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
  • Weight stigma is stressful. A review of evidence for the Cyclic
           Obesity/Weight-Based Stigma model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 82
      Author(s): A. Janet Tomiyama
      Weight stigma is highly pervasive, but its consequences are understudied. This review draws from theory in social psychology, health psychology, and neuroendocrinology to construct an original, generative model called the cyclic obesity/weight-based stigma (COBWEBS) model. This model characterizes weight stigma as a “vicious cycle” – a positive feedback loop wherein weight stigma begets weight gain. This happens through increased eating behavior and increased cortisol secretion governed by behavioral, emotional, and physiological mechanisms, which are theorized to ultimately result in weight gain and difficulty of weight loss. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the existing literature for evidence supporting such a model, propose ways in which individuals enter, fight against, and exit the cycle, and conclude by outlining fruitful future directions in this nascent yet important area of research.


      PubDate: 2014-07-24T19:08:58Z
       
 
 
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