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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2570 journals)

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Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 735, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 12)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 53)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.477, h-index: 21)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.955, h-index: 56)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.532, h-index: 68)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.348, h-index: 69)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access  
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 38)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription  
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.171, h-index: 117)

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Journal Cover Appetite
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [17 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2570 journals]   [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]
  • Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting
           meat-reduced diet in Australians
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Alexa Hayley , Lucy Zinkiewicz , Kate Hardiman
      Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on ‘meat’ generally addressed ‘white meat’ and ‘fish/seafood’ as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value–attitude–behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • Gender relations and couple negotiations of British men's food practice
           changes after prostate cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Lawrence W. Mróz , Steven Robertson
      Nutrition plays an important role in the health of men diagnosed with prostate cancer and dietary interventions can therefore be a significant part of prostate cancer survivorship supportive care. Family food provision, however, involves complex social interactions, which shape how men engage with their diets and dietary interventions. The role that gender plays in shaping prostate cancer couples' food practices and men's diets after a prostate cancer diagnosis is thought to be important but is little understood. This study explored couples' accounts of nutrition information seeking and diet change to gain a better understanding of how gender relations shaped men's food practices after prostate cancer diagnosis. Qualitative health interviews with men and their partners were conducted and analysed using interpretive descriptive methods. Findings demonstrated how couples navigated food change journeys that involved seeking information, deciding what changes were warranted and implementing and regulating diet changes. Two overarching themes that illustrated couples' food negotiations were called ‘Seeking information and deciding on food changes’ and ‘Monitoring food changes’. Additional sub-themes described who led food changes, women's filtering of information, and moderation or ‘treats’. Throughout these food change journeys, interactions between men and women were at play, demonstrating how gender relations and dynamics acted to shape couples' food negotiations and men's food practices. Findings reveal that attention to gender relations and the men's family food dynamics should inform diet interventions for men with prostate cancer in order to improve uptake.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • Feeling happy and thinking about food. Counteractive effects of mood and
           memory on food consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Rebecca Collins , Lorenzo D. Stafford
      Separate lines of research have demonstrated the role of mood and memory in the amount of food we consume. However, no work has examined these factors in a single study and given their combined effects beyond food research, this would seem important. In this study, the interactive effect of these factors was investigated. Unrestrained female participants (n = 64) were randomly assigned to either a positive or neutral mood induction, and were subject to a lunch cue (recalling their previously eaten meal) or no lunch cue, followed by a snack taste/intake test. We found that in line with prediction that food intake was lower in the lunch cue versus no cue condition and in contrast, food intake was higher in the positive versus neutral mood condition. We also found that more food was consumed in the lunch cue/positive mood compared to lunch cue/neutral mood condition. This suggests that positive mood places additional demands on attentional resources and thereby reduces the inhibitory effect of memory on food consumption. These findings confirm that memory cue and positive mood exert opposing effects on food consumption and highlight the importance of both factors in weight control interventions.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • Pre-ordering lunch at work. Results of the what to eat for lunch study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Shana D. Stites , S. Brook Singletary , Adeena Menasha , Clarissa Cooblall , Donald Hantula , Saul Axelrod , Vincent M. Figueredo , Etienne J. Phipps
      The objective of this study was to evaluate an intervention that combined mindful eating and online pre-ordering to promote healthier lunch purchases at work. The study took place at an urban hospital with 26 employees who were overweight or obese. The design included a contemporaneous comparison with delayed-treatment control and a three-phase prospective study. A minimum 4-week baseline period preceded a 4-week full-intervention, in which participants received mindful eating training, pre-ordered their lunches, and received price discounts toward lunch purchases. In a 4-week reduced intervention phase, participants pre-ordered lunches without price discounts. Participant lunch purchases were tracked electronically at the point of purchase. The primary outcome measures were the amounts of kilocalories and fat grams in purchased lunches. In contemporaneous comparisons, the treatment group purchased lunches with an average of 144.6 fewer kilocalories (p = 0.01) and 8.9 fewer grams of fat (p = 0.005) compared to controls. In multivariable longitudinal analyses, participants decreased the average number of calories in their meals by 114.6 kcal per lunch and the average grams of fat by 5.4 per lunch during the partial-intervention compared to the baseline (p < 0.001). At the end of the study, a moderate increase was observed in participants' overall mindful eating behaviors as compared to the beginning of the study (p < 0.001). The majority of participants (92%) said they would use the pre-ordering system if offered in the future. Combined mindful eating training and online pre-ordering appears a feasible and useful worksite intervention to improve food choices by employees.


      PubDate: 2014-10-29T02:24:48Z
       
  • How food cues can enhance and inhibit motivation to obtain and consume
           food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Ben Colagiuri , Peter F. Lovibond
      Learning may play an important role in over-eating. One example is Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), whereby reward cues facilitate responding to obtain that reward. Whilst there is increasing research indicating PIT for food in humans, these studies have exclusively tested PIT under instrumental extinction (i.e. when the food is no longer available), which may reduce their ecological validity. To address this, we conducted two experiments exploring PIT for food in humans when tested under instrumental reinforcement. Participants first underwent Pavlovian discrimination training with an auditory cue paired with a chocolate reward (CS+) and another auditory cue unpaired (CS−). In instrumental training participants learnt to press a button to receive the chocolate reward on a VR10 schedule. In the test phase, each CS was presented whilst participants maintained the opportunity to press the button to receive chocolate. In Experiment 1, the PIT test was implemented after up to 20 min of instrumental training (satiation) whereas in Experiment 2 it was implemented after only 4 min of instrumental training. In both experiments there was evidence for differential PIT, but the pattern differed according to the rate of responding at the time of the PIT test. In low baseline responders the CS+ facilitated both button press responding and consumption, whereas in high baseline responders the CS− suppressed responding. These findings suggest that both excitatory and inhibitory associations may be learnt during PIT training and that the expression of these associations depends on motivation levels at the time the cues are encountered. Particularly concerning is that a food-paired cue can elicit increased motivation to obtain and consume food even when the participant is highly satiated and no longer actively seeking food, as this may be one mechanism by which over-consumption is maintained.


      PubDate: 2014-10-24T02:21:35Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83




      PubDate: 2014-10-24T02:21:35Z
       
  • Variation in saltiness perception of soup with respect to soup serving
           temperature and consumer dietary habits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Jeong-Weon Kim , Shilpa S. Samant , Yoojin Seo , Han-Seok Seo
      Little is known about the effect of serving temperature on saltiness perception in food products such as soups that are typically consumed at high temperature. This study focused on determining whether serving temperature modulates saltiness perception in soup-base products. Eight trained panelists and 62 untrained consumers were asked to rate saltiness intensities in salt water, chicken broth, and miso soup, with serving temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 °C. Neither trained nor untrained panelists were able to find significant difference in the saltiness intensity among salt water samples served at these five different temperatures. However, untrained consumers (but not trained panelists) rated chicken broth and miso soup to be significantly less salty when served at 70 and/or 80 °C compared to when served at 40 to 60 °C. There was an interaction between temperature-related perceived saltiness and preference; for example, consumers who preferred soups served at lower temperatures found soups served at higher temperatures to be less salty. Consumers who frequently consumed hot dishes rated soup samples served at 60 °C as saltier than consumers who consumed hot dishes less frequently. This study demonstrates that soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits are influential factors affecting saltiness perception of soup.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • “Snacks are not food”. Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions
           of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): J.O. Fisher , G. Wright , A.N. Herman , K. Malhotra , E.L. Serrano , G.D. Foster , R.C. Whitaker
      Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being “real food” (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Matthew P. Pase , Natalie Grima , Robyn Cockerell , Andrew Pipingas
      Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p < 0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p < 0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p < 0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p < 0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p < 0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3–4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • Effects of inter-food interval on the variety effect in an instrumental
           food-seeking task. Clarifying the role of habituation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Eric A. Thrailkill , Leonard H. Epstein , Mark E. Bouton
      Food variety increases consumption and the rate of instrumental behavior that is reinforced by food in humans and animals. The present experiment investigated the relationship between the variety effect and habituation to food by testing the role of the interval between successive food presentations on responding in an operant food-seeking task. Habituation to food was expected at short, but not long, interfood intervals. The effects of variety on food's long-term reinforcing value were also tested. Four groups of rats were trained to lever-press on different random-interval (RI) schedules of reinforcement to earn 45-mg food pellets. Half the rats in each group received an unpredictable mix of grain and sucrose pellets, while the other half consistently received sucrose pellets. Response rate began at a high rate and then decreased within each 30-min session for groups that received short inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-3 s and RI-6 s reinforcement schedules) but not in groups that received longer inter-pellet intervals (i.e., RI-12 s and RI-24 s). A variety effect in the form of higher responding in the mix group than the sucrose-only group was also only evident at the shorter intervals. Habituation and variety effects were also most evident with the short intervals when we controlled for the number of reinforcers earned, suggesting that they were not merely due to rapid satiation. The variety effect also appeared quickly when groups trained with longer inter-pellet intervals (RI-12 s and RI-24 s) were transitioned to shorter intervals (RI-3 s and RI-6 s). There was no effect of variety on resistance to extinction or on resistance to the response-suppressing effects of pre-session feeding. The results more clearly link this version of the variety effect to the short-term effect of variety on food habituation.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • “Our” food versus “my” food. Investigating the
           relation between childhood shared food practices and adult prosocial
           behavior in Belgium
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Charlotte J.S. De Backer , Maryanne L. Fisher , Karolien Poels , Koen Ponnet
      This study focuses on the connection between prosocial behavior, defined as acting in ways that benefit others, and shared meals, defined as meals that consist of food(s) shared with others. In contrast to individual meals, where consumers eat their own food and perhaps take a sample of someone else's dish as a taste, shared meals are essentially about sharing all the food with all individuals. Consequently, these meals create situations where consumers are confronted with issues of fairness and respect. One should not be greedy and consume most of a dish; instead, rules of polite food sharing need to be obeyed. It is therefore proposed that those who have often engaged in shared meals during childhood will have a more prosocial personality, as compared to those who less often took part in shared meals during childhood. To test this hypothesis, data about frequency of shared meals during childhood and altruistic personality in early adulthood were collected using a cross-sectional survey in Belgium (n = 487). Results confirm that higher levels of shared meal consumption correspond to higher scores on the self-report altruism scale among students.


      PubDate: 2014-10-18T02:17:15Z
       
  • Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition
           students with other courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Rui Poínhos , Diogo Alves , Elisée Vieira , Sílvia Pinhão , Bruno M.P.M. Oliveira , Flora Correia
      Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T02:05:49Z
       
  • Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric
           evaluation in a sample of the general French population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Géraldine M. Camilleri , Caroline Méjean , France Bellisle , Valentina A. Andreeva , Valérie Sautron , Serge Hercberg , Sandrine Péneau
      Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between “a priori” relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r = −0.31, P < 0.0001), emotional eating (r = −0.58, P < 0.0001), uncontrolled eating (r = −0.40, P < 0.0001), and depressive symptoms (r = −0.20, P < 0.0001). IES-2 subscales showed similar correlations. Women had lower scores than did men for the IES-2 total scale (3.3 in women vs. 3.5 in men, P < 0.0001), Eating for Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P < 0.01). Finally, results showed satisfactory reliability for the IES-2 total scores (internal consistency = 0.85 and test–retest reliability = 0.79 over a mean 8-week period) and for its subscales. Thus, the French IES-2 can be considered a useful instrument for assessing adult intuitive eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the general population.


      PubDate: 2014-10-14T02:05:49Z
       
  • A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric
           institutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Virginie Pouyet , Gérard Cuvelier , Linda Benattar , Agnès Giboreau
      From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same assessor. The results also revealed that the accuracy of this method was not dependent on the type of food studied, thus, the photographic method was not specific to a particular food type. Finally, the photographic method was able to provide more detailed data because it allowed differentiation between food item intakes. These findings clearly suggest that the photographic method is a valid and useful method to measure food intake in geriatric institutions.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • It's my party and I eat if I want to. Reasons for unhealthy snacking
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Aukje A.C. Verhoeven , Marieke A. Adriaanse , Emely de Vet , Bob M. Fennis , Denise T.D. de Ridder
      Investigating the reasons that people give for unhealthy snacking behavior is important for developing effective health interventions. Little research, however, has identified reasons that apply to a large audience and most studies do not integrate multiple factors, precluding any conclusions regarding their relative importance. The present study explored reasons for unhealthy snacking among a representative community sample. Participants (N = 1544) filled out the newly developed Reasons to Snack inventory assessing an elaborate range of motives at baseline and 1-month follow-up. Exploratory and replication factor analyses identified six categories: opportunity induced eating, coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion, rewarding oneself, social pressure, and gaining energy. The highest mean scores were obtained for enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating. Regression analyses with participant characteristics as independent variables and each category of reasons as dependent variables showed differences for age. For all reasons except to enjoy a special occasion, younger people reported a higher score. Women indicated a higher score than men on coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion and gaining energy. People who diet to a stronger extent reported a higher score for snacking because of social pressure, to reward oneself and to cope with negative emotions, with the latter also being related to a higher BMI. Finally, a higher education was associated with enjoying a special occasion. Future health interventions could allocate more attention to diminishing unhealthy snacking with regard to the six identified categories, specifically focusing on enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • Exposure to foods' non-taste sensory properties. A nursery intervention to
           increase children's willingness to try fruit and vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Paul Dazeley , Carmel Houston-Price
      Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • Feel your food. The influence of tactile sensitivity on picky eating in
           children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Chantal Nederkoorn , Anita Jansen , Remco C. Havermans
      Children who are very picky in eating frequently refuse the intake of foods. This rejection is not only based on the evaluation of taste, but also on tactile qualities of foods. It matters whether food is crispy or slimy, consistent, or with bits and pips. It is hypothesised that children who are more sensitive to touch and dislike the feel of various tactile stimuli in general, are also more dismissive of tactile stimulation in their mouth and therefore more selective in their eating. In the present study, 44 children between the ages of 4 and 10 were asked to feel different tactile stimuli with their hands and to taste different foods. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the evaluations of the two modalities, especially for the younger subjects. This suggests that tactile sensitivity might play a role in the acceptance of food. Future research could explore if training children to tolerate more tactile stimuli would also increase their appreciation of a wider variety of foods.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T01:49:27Z
       
  • Chefs move to schools. A pilot examination of how chef-created dishes can
           increase school lunch participation and fruit and vegetable intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): David R. Just , Brian Wansink , Andrew S. Hanks
      To demonstrate the feasibility of introducing a main dish designed by a professional chef in the National School Lunch Program and to document the impact on child participation, a chef was recruited to design pizza to be served in an upstate New York school district. The pizza was designed to meet both the cost and ingredient requirements of the NSLP. High school students were significantly more likely to select the pizza prepared by the chef. While the chef had no significant impact on main dish consumption given selection, more students took a vegetable and vegetable consumption increased by 16.5%. This pilot study demonstrates the plausibility of using chefs to boost participation in the school lunch program, and potentially increase nutrition through side selection, among high school students.


      PubDate: 2014-09-29T00:46:16Z
       
  • ‘Just a pinch of salt’. An experimental comparison of the
           effect of repeated exposure and flavor-flavor learning with salt or spice
           on vegetable acceptance in toddlers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sofia Bouhlal , Sylvie Issanchou , Claire Chabanet , Sophie Nicklaus
      Children's vegetable intake is below the recommended amounts. No studies to date have tested the relevance of using salt or spices to increase children's vegetable acceptance. Our objective was to compare the effect of repeated exposure (RE) and of flavor-flavor learning (FFL) on toddlers' acceptance of a non-familiar vegetable. Two unconditioned stimuli were used: salt and a salt-associated spice. Toddlers attending six nurseries were assigned to 3 groups in a between subject design. Groups were exposed 8 times to a basic salsify puree (0.2% salt w/w; RE group; n = 47), a salty salsify puree (0.5% salt w/w; FFL-Salt group; n = 54) or a spiced salsify puree (0.2% salt and 0.02% nutmeg w/w; FFL-Nutmeg group; n = 50). Acceptance (intake and liking) of the target vegetable (basic salsify puree) and of a control vegetable (carrot puree) was evaluated at pre-exposure, at each exposure of the learning period, at post-exposure, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after exposure. In all groups, intake of the target vegetable increased from pre- to post-exposure. This increase was significantly higher in the RE group (64 ± 11 g) than in the FFL-Salt group (23 ± 11 g) and marginally higher than in the FFL-Nutmeg group (36 ± 11 g). No difference between groups was observed on the increase in liking of the target vegetable from pre- to post-exposure. The increase of the target vegetable intake was still observed after 6 months for all groups. Thus, repeated exposure appears to be the simplest choice to increase vegetable intake on the short and long term in toddlers.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:15:10Z
       
  • Food-related attentional bias. Word versus pictorial stimuli and the
           importance of stimuli calorific value in the dot probe task,11Present
           address: School of Psychology &amp; Speech Pathology, Curtin
           University, WA 6845, Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Tanya Freijy , Barbara Mullan , Louise Sharpe
      Objective: The primary aim of this study was to extend previous research on food-related attentional biases by examining biases towards pictorial versus word stimuli, and foods of high versus low calorific value. It was expected that participants would demonstrate greater biases to pictures over words, and to high-calorie over low-calorie foods. A secondary aim was to examine associations between BMI, dietary restraint, external eating and attentional biases. It was expected that high scores on these individual difference variables would be associated with a bias towards high-calorie stimuli. Methods: Undergraduates (N = 99) completed a dot probe task including matched word and pictorial food stimuli in a controlled setting. Questionnaires assessing eating behaviour were administered, and height and weight were measured. Results: Contrary to predictions, there were no main effects for stimuli type (pictures vs words) or calorific value (high vs low). There was, however, a significant interaction effect suggesting a bias towards high-calorie pictures, but away from high-calorie words; and a bias towards low-calorie words, but away from low-calorie pictures. No associations between attentional bias and any of the individual difference variables were found. Discussion: The presence of a stimulus type by calorific value interaction demonstrates the importance of stimuli type in the dot probe task, and may help to explain inconsistencies in prior research. Further research is needed to clarify associations between attentional bias and BMI, restraint, and external eating.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:15:10Z
       
  • A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in
           Hispanic families with young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kristen M. Stenger , Paula K. Ritter-Gooder , Christina Perry , Julie A. Albrecht
      Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:15:10Z
       
  • Chocolate craving and disordered eating. Beyond the gender divide?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Julia M. Hormes , Natalia C. Orloff , C. Alix Timko
      Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n = 645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:15:10Z
       
  • Taste perception in kidney disease and relationship to dietary sodium
           intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Emma J. McMahon , Katrina L. Campbell , Judith D. Bauer
      Taste abnormalities are prevalent in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) potentially affecting food palatability and intake, and nutrition status. The TASTE CKD study aimed to assess taste and explore the relationship of dietary sodium intake with taste disturbance in CKD subjects. This was a cross-sectional study of 91 adult stage 3–5 CKD participants (78% male) aged 65.9 ± 13.5 years with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 33.1 ± 12.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 30 controls (47% male) aged 55.2 ± 7.4 years without kidney dysfunction. Taste assessment was performed in both groups, presenting five basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, umami and bitter) in blinded 2 ml solution which the participants tasted, identified (identification) and rated perceived strength (intensity) on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. Sodium intake was measured in the CKD group using validated food frequency questionnaire to determine high or low sodium intake (cut-off 100 mmol sodium/day). Differences between groups (CKD vs controls; high vs low sodium intake) were analysed using chi-square for identification and t-test for intensity. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for age and gender differences between CKD and controls. The control group identified mean 3.9 ± 1.0 tastants correctly compared with 3.0 ± 1.2 for CKD group (p < 0.001), which remained significant after adjustment for age and gender. After adjustment for age and gender, sour identification and intensity and salty and umami intensity were impaired in CKD compared with controls. Participants with low sodium intake were more likely to correctly identify salty and umami, and rated intensity of umami and bitter significantly higher than those with high sodium intake. These findings add to the body of evidence suggesting that taste changes occur with CKD, independent of age and gender differences, with specific impairment in sour, umami and salty tastes. Our finding that sodium intake is related to umami and bitter disturbance as well as salty taste warrants further investigation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:15:10Z
       
  • Infant temperament and feeding history predict infants' responses to novel
           foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kameron J. Moding , Leann L. Birch , Cynthia A. Stifter
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether infant temperament and previous feeding history were associated with infants' acceptance and rejection of a novel food at 12 months of age. Mother–infant dyads (n = 89) were video-recorded during a novel food (hummus, cottage cheese) feeding task. Infants' reactions (acceptance and rejection behaviors) and maternal responsiveness and affect during the interaction were coded from the recordings by teams of coders. Mothers reported on their infants' temperamental approach via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) and their infants' feeding history (previous exposure to solid foods and exclusive breastfeeding). Regression analyses revealed that infants rated lower on approach showed less acceptance of the first offer of novel food than infants rated higher on approach. Additionally, low approach infants who were previously exposed to a greater number of solid foods showed fewer rejection behaviors in response to the later offers of food. Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months did not appear to have an effect on acceptance or rejection. Finally, greater maternal responsiveness was related to the infants' acceptance of the new food whereas lower maternal responsiveness was associated with rejection of the novel food. These results suggest that the acceptance and rejection of new foods by infants is dependent upon their temperament and previous exposure to solid foods, as well as the manner in which mothers present the novel food.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:15:10Z
       
  • Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel
           healthy and cool snack products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Maria Kümpel Nørgaard , Bjarne Taulo Sørensen , Klaus G. Grunert
      Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9–16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors.


      PubDate: 2014-09-23T00:15:10Z
       
  • Running-based pica in rats. Evidence for the gastrointestinal discomfort
           hypothesis of running-based taste aversion
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sadahiko Nakajima , Tomomi Katayama
      Voluntary running in an activity wheel establishes aversion to paired taste in rats. A proposed mechanism underlying this taste aversion learning is gastrointestinal discomfort caused by running. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) of rats, because it is known that rats engage in pica behavior after various nausea-inducing treatments including irradiation, motion sickness, and injection of emetic drugs such as lithium chloride (LiCl). Following a demonstration of the already-known phenomenon of LiCl-based pica in Experiment 1, we successfully showed running-based pica behavior in Experiment 2 where the running treatment was compared with a non-running control treatment (i.e., confinement in a locked wheel). These results suggest that not only LiCl but also running induces nausea in rats, supporting the gastrointestinal discomfort hypothesis of running-based taste aversion learning.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Katrina Heredia-Blonval , Adriana Blanco-Metzler , Marielos Montero-Campos , Elizabeth K. Dunford
      Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey–Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Molecular weight of barley β-glucan does not influence satiety or
           energy intake in healthy male subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Miriam E. Clegg , Pariyarath S. Thondre
      Previous studies have shown the ability of high molecular weight barley β-glucan with increased viscosity to attenuate glycemic response, gastric emptying and in vitro starch digestion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of molecular weight of barley β-glucan in a semisolid meal on energy intake and subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption in healthy male subjects. In a randomised, controlled, crossover trial, 23 healthy male subjects (BMI 24.2 ± 2.5 kg/m2) tested soups equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate containing high or low molecular weight barley β-glucan (~3 g) as preload after a standard breakfast. The viscosity of soup with high molecular weight β-glucan was 350 Pa·s whereas the soup with low molecular weight β-glucan had a viscosity of 100 Pa·s. Appetite ratings before and for two hours after consumption of β-glucan soups and subsequent ad libitum energy intake at lunch were recorded and compared with a control soup with no β-glucan. There was no significant difference in food intake at the ad libitum meal or for the remainder of the day following consumption of the three test foods (p > 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in hunger, fullness, desire to eat or prospective food consumption following β-glucan soups. The current study provides evidence that the molecular weight of barley β-glucan may not impact on perceived feelings of hunger or food intake at the current dose and viscosity.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • The relationship between appetite scores and subsequent energy intake: An
           analysis based on 23 randomized controlled studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Bastien C. Sadoul , Ewoud A.H. Schuring , David J. Mela , Harry P.F. Peters
      Background/Objectives: Several studies have assessed relationships of self-reported appetite (eating motivations, mainly by Visual Analogue Scales, VAS) with subsequent energy intake (EI), though usually in small data sets with limited power and variable designs. The objectives were therefore to better quantify the relationships of self-reports (incorporating subject characteristics) to subsequent EI, and to estimate the quantitative differences in VAS corresponding to consistent, significant differences in EI. Subjects/Methods: Data were derived from an opportunity sample of 23 randomized controlled studies involving 549 subjects, testing the effects of various food ingredients in meal replacers or 100–150 ml mini-drinks. In all studies, scores on several VAS were recorded for 30 min to 5 h post-meal, when EI was assessed by ad libitum meal consumption. The relationships between pre-meal VAS scores and EI were examined using correlation, linear models (including subject characteristics) and a cross-validation procedure. Results: VAS correlations with subsequent EI were statistically significant, but of low magnitude, up to r = 0.26. Hunger, age, gender, body weight and estimated basal metabolic rate explained 25% of the total variance in EI. Without hunger the prediction of EI was modestly but significantly lower (19%, P < 0.001). A change of ≥15–25 mm on a 100 mm VAS was the minimum effect consistently corresponding to a significant change in subsequent EI, depending on the starting VAS level. Conclusions: Eating motivations add in a small but consistently significant way to other known predictors of acute EI. Differences of about 15 mm on a 100 mm VAS appear to be the minimum effect expected to result in consistent, significant differences in subsequent EI.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from
           a student and a weight-loss seeking population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): M.M. Boggiano , E.E. Burgess , B. Turan , T. Soleymani , S. Daniel , L.D. Vinson , K.L. Lokken , B.C. Wingo , A. Morse
      The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R2 = .57) and patients (R2 = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p < 0.01), and in patients despite their truncated BMI range (p < 0.05). Among students, the motives Conformity and Reward Enhancement were also independently associated with binge-eating. For this younger sample with a greater range of BES scores, eating for these motives, but not for Social ones, may indicate early maladaptive eating habits that could later develop into disorders characterized by binge-eating if predisposing factors are present. Thus, identifying one's tasty food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Healthy–unhealthy weight and time preference. Is there an
           association? An analysis through a consumer survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Alessia Cavaliere , Elisa De Marchi , Alessandro Banterle
      Individual time preference has been recognized as key driver in explaining consumers' probability to have a healthy weight or to incur excess weight problems. The term time preference refers to the rate at which a person is disposed to trade a current satisfaction for a future benefit. This characteristic may affect the extent at which individuals invest in health and may influence diet choices. The purpose of this paper is to analyse which could be the role of time preference (measured in terms of diet-related behaviours) in explaining consumers' healthy or unhealthy body weight. The analysis also considers other drivers predicted to influence BMI, specifically information searching, health-related activities and socio-demographic conditions. The survey was based on face-to-face interviews on a sample of 240 consumers living in Milan. In order to test the hypothesis, we performed a set of seven ORM regressions, all having consumers' BMI as the dependent variable. Each ORM contains a different block of explanatory variables, while time preference is always included among the regressors. The results suggest that the healthy weight condition is associated with a high orientation to the future, with a high interest in nutrition claims, a low attention to health-related claims, and a high level of education. On the opposite, the probability to be overweight or obese increases when consumers are less future-concerned and is associated with a low searching for nutrition claims and to a high interest in health claims.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides
           insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working
           mothers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Maria Guadalupe Rodriguez-Oliveros , Carole A. Bisogni , Edward A. Frongillo
      Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children < 2 y of age in 14 manufacturing businesses were studied. Using 31 key foods, we conducted free-listings, pile-sort, and food attributes exercises. Hierarchical clustering showed that mothers identified nine classes of key foods, including milk derivatives, complements, junk food, infant products, chicken parts, and other meats. From multidimensional scaling, mothers used three primary classification systems: food groups, food introduction stages, and food processing. Secondary classification systems were healthy–junk, heavy–light, hot–cold, good–bad fat, and main dish–complement. Child health and nutrition, particularly vitamin content, were salient attributes. Fruits and vegetables were preferred for initiating complementary feeding on the second month of age. Consumption of guava, mango, and legumes, however, was associated with digestive problems (empacho). Red meats were viewed as cold-type, heavy, and hard, not suitable for young children, but right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T23:56:04Z
       
  • Memory processes in the development of reduced-salt foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Vanessa Herbert , Emma J. Bertenshaw , Elizabeth H. Zandstra , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Acceptance of a reduced-salt food is likely to be influenced by a mismatch between the sensory characteristics of a reformulated product and a memory for a previously-encountered formulation. In two initial pilot studies we established the reliability of a new measure of memory for saltiness, based on a method of constant stimuli. We then used this technique to explore the effects of different patterns of repeated exposure on memory for the taste of a reduced-salt soup. Participants (N = 135) were assigned to one of four exposure patterns: (1) reduced-salt, (2) no salt reduction, i.e. regular-salt, (3) reduced- and regular-salt, in an alternating pattern, and (4) gradually declining salt concentration. In the final session, all participants received an identical reduced-salt soup. Memory for the saltiness of this sample was assessed, together with its expected liking. Our results indicate that different interactions with the test soup had little effect on taste memory. Nevertheless, (1) participants remembered the final exposure soup as saltier than the reduced-salt formulation that they had received and (2) remembered salt concentrations correlated with individual ideal salt concentrations. These findings are consistent with contemporary models of reconstructive memory and they illustrate the importance of understanding ‘memory for saltiness’ in the acceptance of reduced-salt formulations.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet
           during a behavioral weight loss intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Megan A. McVay , Corrine I. Voils , Cynthia J. Coffman , Paula J. Geiselman , Ronette L. Kolotkin , Stephanie B. Mayer , Valerie A. Smith , Leslie Gaillard , Marsha J. Turner , William S. Yancy Jr.
      Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the ‘choice’ arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p < 0.0001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, only FPQ diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences. Research is needed to determine if congruency between food preferences and dietary approach is associated with weight loss.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Luca Lavagnino , Federico Amianto , Mirko Parasiliti Caprino , Mauro Maccario , Emanuela Arvat , Ezio Ghigo , Giovanni Abbate Daga , Secondo Fassino
      Background: Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Methods: Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. Results: We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Conclusions: Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Nutrient and core and non-core food intake of Australian schoolchildren
           differs on school days compared to non-school days
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Carley A. Grimes , Lynn J. Riddell , Caryl A. Nowson
      Overall the diets of Australian schoolchildren are suboptimal, but differences in nutrient and food intake on school versus non-school days have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient and core and non-core food intake on school days versus non-school days in Australian schoolchildren aged 6–16 years. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Dietary intake was assessed via one 24-h dietary recall. A school day was defined as Monday–Friday, a non-school day included Saturday, Sunday and public/school holidays. Independent t-tests and χ2 tests were used to assess differences in continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multiple linear and logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Forty-eight per cent of recalls were completed on a non-school day. On non-school days primary schoolchildren aged 6–11 years (n = 1334) and secondary schoolchildren aged 12–16 years (n = 1362) had significantly higher absolute intakes of sugars, total fat and saturated fat (all P < 0.05). In addition the energy density of foods consumed was greater (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in the energy density of fluids. The sodium density of the diet did not differ across day types. On non-school days, total core food intake was ~30% higher and children were more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and take-away pizzas and burgers (all P < 0.05). Important differences in the intake of sugar, total fat, and saturated fat and noncore foods exist on non-school days compared to school days in Australian schoolchildren. To improve the diets of schoolchildren there is scope for strategies that target non-school day eating practices.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Attitudes and beliefs of health risks associated with sodium intake in
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kristy L. Gray , Kristina S. Petersen , Peter M. Clifton , Jennifer B. Keogh
      Background:  Despite good evidence that reducing sodium intake can reduce blood pressure (BP), salt intake in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains high. The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of health risks associated with a high salt diet in adults with diabetes. Methods: Men and women with T1DM (n = 27; age 38 ± 16 years) or T2DM (n = 124; age 60 ± 11 years) were recruited. Results: Nine (6.0%) respondents knew the correct maximum daily recommended upper limit for salt intake. Thirty-six (23.9%) participants were not concerned with the amount of salt in their diet. Most participants knew that a diet high in salt was related to high BP (88.1%) and stroke (78.1%) and that foods such as pizza (80.8%) and bacon (84.8%) were high in salt. Fewer than 30% of people knew that foods such as white bread, cheese and breakfast cereals are high in salt (white bread 28.5%, cheese 29.1%, breakfast cereals 19.9%) and 51.0% correctly ranked three different nutrition information panels based on the sodium content. Label reading and purchase of low salt products was used by 60–80% of the group. Estimated average 24 hour urinary sodium excretion was 169 ± 32 mmol/24 h in men and 115 ± 27 mmol/24 h in women. Conclusion: Label reading and purchase of low salt products was used by the majority of the group but their salt excretion was still high. Men who used label reading had a lower salt intake. Other strategies to promote a lower sodium intake such as reducing sodium in staple foods such as bread need investigation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Appetite predicts mortality in free-living older adults in association
           with dietary diversity. A NAHSIT cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Yi-Chen Huang , Mark L. Wahlqvist , Meei-Shyuan Lee
      This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of appetite for mortality among representative free-living Taiwanese older adults. A total of 1856 participants aged 65 years or over from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey during 1999–2000 completed an appetite question in a larger questionnaire. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview at baseline, together with a 24-hour dietary recall and simplified food frequency questionnaire which provided a dietary diversity score and food intake frequency. Survivorship was ascertained from the Death Registry until December 31, 2008. Participants with a poor appetite had lower dietary diversity scores (DDS) and intake frequencies of meat, fish and sea food, egg, vegetable and fruit intake, along with lower energy, protein, vitamin B-1, niacin, iron and phosphate intakes. Those who had fair and poor appetites had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to those with good appetite, with hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.28 (1.03–1.58) and 2.27 (1.71–3.02), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, the HRs (95% CI) were 1.05 (0.83–1.33) and 1.50 (1.03–2.18), respectively. With further adjustment for DDS or general health these HRs became non-significant. The joint HR (95% CI) for “DDS ≤ 4 and poor appetite” was 1.77 (1.04–3.00) compared to “DDS > 4 and good appetite” as referent. Poor appetite is associated with lower food and nutrient intakes and an independent risk for mortality in older Taiwanese. In conclusion, appetite is separate, mediated by general health and modulated by dietary quality in its predictive capacity for mortality.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and
           post-consumption satisfaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sarah E. Hill , Marjorie L. Prokosch , Amanda Morin , Christopher D. Rodeheffer
      Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that – over time – may increase calorie intake.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Food references and marketing in popular magazines for children and
           adolescents in New Zealand: A content analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Elizabeth No , Bridget Kelly , Anandita Devi , Boyd Swinburn , Stefanie Vandevijvere
      Food marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing children's food preferences and consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of unhealthy food marketing and non-branded food references in magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents 10–17 years old in New Zealand. A content analysis was conducted of all food references (branded and non-branded) found in the five magazines with the highest readership among 10–17 year olds, and the three magazines (of which two were already included among the five most popular magazines) targeted to 10–17 year olds. For each of the six magazines, one issue per month (n = 72 issues in total) over a one-year period (December 2012–January 2014) was included. All foods referenced were classified into healthy/unhealthy according to the food-based Ministry of Health classification system. Branded food references (30% of total) were more frequent for unhealthy (43%) compared to healthy (25%) foods. Magazines specifically targeted to children and adolescents contained a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy branded food references (n = 51/71, 72%) compared to the most popular magazines among children and adolescents (n = 133/317, 42%), of which most were targeted to women. ‘Snack items’ such as chocolates and ice creams were marketed most frequently (n = 104; 36%), while ‘vegetables and fruits’ were marketed the least frequently (n = 9; 3%). Direct advertisements accounted for 27% of branded food references and 25% of those featured health or nutrition claims. Both branded and non-branded food references were common within magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents, and skewed toward unhealthy foods. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of self-regulation in marketing and emphasizes that government regulations are needed in order to curb children's current potential high exposures to unhealthy food marketing. In addition, magazine editors could take socially responsible editorial positions in regard to healthy eating.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Shoppers' perceived embeddedness and its impact on purchasing behavior at
           an organic farmers' market
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Weiping Chen , Steffanie Scott
      This study explores the concept of perceived embeddedness (PE) and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market. Based on a review of the prior literature, the study refines the conceptualization and measurement of PE as a second-order factor construct reflected in its three dimensions: perceived social embeddedness, perceived spatial embeddedness, and perceived natural embeddedness. The study also suggests that organic farmers' market shoppers' PE is positively related to the two measures of purchasing behavior: expenditure per visit and repurchase intention. In a sample of 492 organic farmers' market shoppers in Beijing municipality, China, the study find support for the second-order factor structure of PE and the theorized relationship between the shoppers' PE and their purchasing behavior. The study also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Bidirectional associations between binge eating and restriction in
           anorexia nervosa. An ecological momentary assessment study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kyle P. De Young , Jason M. Lavender , Ross D. Crosby , Stephen A. Wonderlich , Scott G. Engel , James E. Mitchell , Scott J. Crow , Carol B. Peterson , Daniel Le Grange
      This study examined the association between restrictive eating behaviors and binge eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) using data collected in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with DSM-IV full or subthreshold AN reported eating disorder behaviors, including binge eating episodes, going ≥ 8 waking hours without eating, and skipping meals, during 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Time-lagged generalized estimating equations tested the following hypotheses: 1) dietary restriction would predict binge eating while controlling for binge eating the previous day; 2) binge eating would predict restriction the subsequent day while controlling for restriction the previous day. After controlling for relevant covariates, the hypotheses were not supported; however, there appeared to be a cumulative effect of repeatedly going 8 consecutive hours without eating (i.e. fasting) on the risk of binge eating among individuals who recently engaged in binge eating. In addition, skipping meals was associated with a lower risk of same day binge eating. The relationship between binge eating and dietary restriction appears to be complex and may vary by type of restrictive eating behavior. Future research should aim to further clarify the nature of the interaction of binge eating and restrictive eating among individuals with AN in order to effectively eliminate these behaviors in treatment.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in
           Spanish adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kristin Keller , Santiago Rodríguez López , M. Margarita Carmenate Moreno , Paula Acevedo Cantero
      The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event ‘Semanas del Corazon 2008’ in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T23:11:09Z
       
  • How practice contributes to trolley food waste. A qualitative study among
           staff involved in serving meals to hospital patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): K.T. Ofei , M. Holst , H.H. Rasmussen , B.E. Mikkelsen
      This study investigated the generation of trolley food waste at the ward level in a hospital in order to provide recommendations for how practice could be changed to reduce food waste. Three separate focus group discussions were held with four nurses, four dietitians and four service assistants engaged in food service. Furthermore, single qualitative interviews were conducted with a nurse, a dietitian and two service assistants. Observations of procedures around trolley food serving were carried out during lunch and supper for a total of 10 weekdays in two different wards. All unserved food items discarded as waste were weighed after each service. Analysis of interview and observation data revealed five key themes. The findings indicate that trolley food waste generation is a practice embedded within the limitations related to the procedures of meal ordering. This includes portion size choices and delivery, communication, tools for menu information, portioning and monitoring of food waste, as well as the use of unserved food. Considering positive changes to these can be a way forward to develop strategies to reduce trolley food waste at the ward level.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates ERP-indexed inhibitory
           control and reduces food consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Olivia Morgan Lapenta , Karina Di Sierve , Elizeu Coutinho de Macedo , Felipe Fregni , Paulo Sérgio Boggio
      Food craving can be defined as the “urge to eat a specific food”. Previous findings suggest impairment of inhibitory control, specifically a regulatory deficit in the lateral prefrontal circuitry that is associated with a compulsion for food. As demonstrated by three previous studies, bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (anode right/cathode left) reduces food craving and caloric intake. We designed the present study to evaluate the neural mechanisms that underlie these effects. We replicated the design of one of these previous studies but included electroencephalographic assessments to register evoked potentials in a Go/No-go task that contained pictures of food and furniture (a control visual stimulus). We collected data from nine women (mean age = 23.4 ± 2 years) in a crossover experiment. We observed that active DLPFC tDCS (anode right/cathode left), compared with sham stimulation, reduced the frontal N2 component and enhanced the P3a component of responses to No-go stimuli, regardless of the stimulus condition (food or furniture). Active tDCS was also associated with a reduction in caloric intake. We discuss our findings in the context of cortico-subcortical processing of craving and tDCS effects on inhibitory control neural circuitry.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Compliance to step count and vegetable serve recommendations mediates
           weight gain prevention in mid-age, premenopausal women. Findings of the
           40-Something RCT
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Jenna L. Hollis , Lauren T. Williams , Myles D. Young , Katherine T. Pollard , Clare E. Collins , Philip J. Morgan
      The 40-Something RCT aimed to determine if a 12-month health professional-led intervention could modify diet and physical activity behaviour for obesity prevention, in 44–50 year old, non-obese (BMI = 18.5–29.9 kg/m2) premenopausal women. Women were monitored for an additional 12 months to determine if effects could be maintained. This paper aimed to explore dietary and physical activity behavioural mediators hypothesised to be causally associated with weight change. Fifty-four women were randomised to a Motivational Interviewing Intervention (MI) (n = 28; five health professional consultations) or a Self-Directed Intervention (n = 26; written advice). Compliance to 10 study recommendations was measured at three months by a four-day weighed food and physical activity record including pedometer-measured step counts, self-reported exercise minutes and sitting time. The 10 compliance scores were independently assessed in mediation models for 12- and 24-month weight change. The MI effect on step count was an increase of 0.99 points on the 10-point compliance scale (p ≤ 0.01). This MI effect on step count significantly mediated the 12 and 24 month effect on weight (12 months AB = −0.74, 95%CI = −1.95, −0.14; 24 months AB = −1.06, 95% CI = −2.56, −0.36), accounting for 37.23% and 53.79% of the effect, respectively. The MI effect on vegetable serves was an increase of 1.50 points on the compliance scale (p = 0.02). The MI effect on vegetable compliance significantly mediated the effect on weight at 24 months (AB = −0.54, 95% CI = −1.50, −0.04), accounting for 24.92% of the effect. The remaining eight dietary and physical activity compliance scores did not significantly mediate weight loss. Encouraging women to take 10,000 steps and eat five vegetable serves per day may be a promising strategy to achieve long-term weight control at mid-life.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Method of assessing parent–child grocery store purchasing
           interactions using a micro-camcorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Eric E. Calloway , Cindy Roberts-Gray , Nalini Ranjit , Sara J. Sweitzer , Katie A. McInnis , Maria J. Romo-Palafox , Margaret E. Briley
      The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using participant worn micro-camcorders (PWMC) to collect data on parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store. Parent–child dyads (n = 32) were met at their usual grocery store and shopping time. Parents were mostly Caucasian (n = 27, 84.4%), mothers (n = 30, 93.8%). Children were 2–6 years old with 15 girls and 17 boys. A micro-camcorder was affixed to a baseball style hat worn by the child. The dyad proceeded to shop while being shadowed by an in-person observer. Video/audio data were coded for behavioral and environmental variables. The PWMC method was compared to in-person observation to assess sensitivity and relative validity for measuring parent–child interactions, and compared to receipt data to assess criterion validity for evaluating purchasing decisions. Inter-rater reliability for coding video/audio data collected using the PWMC method was also assessed. The PWMC method proved to be more sensitive than in-person observation revealing on average 1.4 (p < 0.01) more parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions per shopping trip. Inter-rater reliability for coding PWMC data showed moderate to almost perfect agreement (Cohen's kappa = 0.461–0.937). The PWMC method was significantly correlated with in-person observation for measuring occurrences of parent–child food purchasing interactions (rho = 0.911, p < 0.01) and characteristics of those interactions (rho = 0.345–0.850, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was substantial agreement between the PWMC method and receipt data for measuring purchasing decisions (Cohen's kappa = 0.787). The PWMC method proved to be well suited to assess parent–child food and beverage purchasing interactions in the grocery store.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • School-based intervention with children. Peer-modeling, reward and
           repeated exposure reduce food neophobia and increase liking of fruits and
           vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Monica Laureati , Valentina Bergamaschi , Ella Pagliarini
      This study investigated the effectiveness of the ‘Food Dudes’ school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • I'm watching you. Awareness that food consumption is being monitored is a
           demand characteristic in eating-behaviour experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Eric Robinson , Inge Kersbergen , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom , Matt Field
      Eating behaviour is often studied in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Yet people care about the impressions others form about them so may behave differently if they feel that their eating behaviour is being monitored. Here we examined whether participants are likely to change their eating behaviour if they feel that food intake is being monitored during a laboratory study. In Study 1 participants were provided with vignettes of typical eating behaviour experiments and were asked if, and how, they would behave differently if they felt their eating behaviour was being monitored during that experiment. Study 2 tested the effect of experimentally manipulating participants' beliefs about their eating behaviour being monitored on their food consumption in the lab. In Study 1, participants thought they would change their behaviour if they believed their eating was being monitored and, if monitored, that they would reduce their food consumption. In Study 2 participants ate significantly less food after being led to believe that their food consumption was being recorded. Together, these studies demonstrate that if participants believe that the amount of food they eat during a study is being monitored then they are likely to suppress their food intake. This may impact the conclusions that are drawn from food intake studies.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
  • Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces
           attraction to and selection of these beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): John Milton Adams , William Hart , Lauren Gilmer , Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson , K. Alex Burton
      In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming “70g” of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic.


      PubDate: 2014-09-02T22:23:49Z
       
 
 
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