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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3032 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 10)
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Artroscopia y Cirugía Articular     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cardiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.516, h-index: 48)
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Cardiología Suplementos     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 9)
Revista Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (English Edition)     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3032 journals]
  • Higher BMI is associated with stronger effects of social cues on everyday
           snacking behaviour
    • Authors: Benjamin Schüz; Sarah Revell; Andrew P. Hills; Natalie Schüz; Stuart G. Ferguson
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Benjamin Schüz, Sarah Revell, Andrew P. Hills, Natalie Schüz, Stuart G. Ferguson
      Discretionary food choices (snacks) contribute up to a third of the daily energy intake and potentially contribute to energy imbalance and weight gain. Individual snack intake behaviour is guided by internal and external cues, with social cues (seeing others eat, being alone) consistently showing large effects. A wide body of (mainly laboratory-based) research suggests marked differences in people's response to eating cues based on BMI. Here, we show that these BMI differences in cue responsiveness also pertain to everyday snacking behaviour. In two combined ecological momentary assessment studies, 122 participants with BMIs ranging from 18.34 to 45.71 kg/m2 logged their everyday snacking behaviour in real-time over two weeks along with the presence or absence of social cues. Random-effects modelling showed that people with higher BMI were more likely to consume high-energy snacks when alone, and were more likely to consume low-energy snacks in the presence of others eating. This suggests BMI differences in cue responsiveness that are in line with impression management theory and underlines the importance of social cues for snacking behaviour and provides avenues for both theory and intervention development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Need of improvement of diet and life habits among university student
           regardless of religion professed
    • Authors: Silvia Navarro-Prado; Emilio González-Jiménez; Javier S. Perona; Miguel A. Montero-Alonso; Marta López-Bueno; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      Pages: 6 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Silvia Navarro-Prado, Emilio González-Jiménez, Javier S. Perona, Miguel A. Montero-Alonso, Marta López-Bueno, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      At present, few studies have assessed the possible influence of culture and religion on healthy eating habits among the university population. The aim of this study was to identify differences in healthy and eating habits among university students of different religions. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample population of 257 students (22.4 ± 4.76 y) at the campus of the University of Granada in Melilla (Spain). The quality of diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet by a validated score (MDS). There were a higher prevalence of overweight in Christian boys and girls compared to Muslims. Muslim students omit breakfast and dinner more often than Christians. Significant differences in sodium intake (p < 0.001) were observed among boys of Christian and Muslim faith, with significantly higher intakes in Christians. In contrast, a higher cholesterol intake (p = 0.038) was observed in Muslim girls compared to Christians. Regarding alcohol intake, its consumption being much higher among students of Christian faith. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the quality of the diet as assessed by HEI, this being of poor, together with a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet in both groups. Muslim university students have a lower risk of drinking alcohol (OR = 7.88, 95% CI = 4.27, 14.54). Few differences were found between girls and boys in both religions although the Mediterranean Diet Score was lower for girls. In conclusion, Melilla university students eat low quality foods and have little adherence to the Mediterranean diet regardless of the religion professed or gender, although Christians tend to drink more alcohol and to smoke more cigarettes and Muslims skip some meals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with
           age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults
    • Authors: Mette Rosenlund Sørensen; Jeppe Matthiessen; Lotte Holm; Vibeke Kildegaard Knudsen; Elisabeth Wreford Andersen; Inge Tetens
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Mette Rosenlund Sørensen, Jeppe Matthiessen, Lotte Holm, Vibeke Kildegaard Knudsen, Elisabeth Wreford Andersen, Inge Tetens
      The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults’ recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011–2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18–75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised ‘unhealthy’, ‘somewhat healthy’ and ‘healthy’. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough ‘to a high degree’, ‘to some degree’ or ‘not at all/only partly’. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Appetite disorders in cancer patients: Impact on nutritional status and
           quality of life
    • Authors: David E. Barajas Galindo; Alfonso Vidal-Casariego; Alicia Calleja-Fernández; Ana Hernández-Moreno; Begoña Pintor de la Maza; Manuela Pedraza-Lorenzo; María Asunción Rodríguez-García; Dalia María Ávila-Turcios; Miran Alejo-Ramos; Rocío Villar-Taibo; Ana Urioste-Fondo; Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez; María D. Ballesteros-Pomar
      Pages: 23 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): David E. Barajas Galindo, Alfonso Vidal-Casariego, Alicia Calleja-Fernández, Ana Hernández-Moreno, Begoña Pintor de la Maza, Manuela Pedraza-Lorenzo, María Asunción Rodríguez-García, Dalia María Ávila-Turcios, Miran Alejo-Ramos, Rocío Villar-Taibo, Ana Urioste-Fondo, Isidoro Cano-Rodríguez, María D. Ballesteros-Pomar
      Cancer patients are at high risk of malnutrition due to several symptoms such as lack of appetite. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different appetite disorders in cancer patients and their influence on dietary intake, nutritional status, and quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall, and patients were questioned about the presence of changes in appetite (none, anorexia, early satiety, or both). Quality of life was measured using EORTC-QLQ-C30. Multivariate analysis was performed using linear regression. 128 patients were evaluated. 61.7% experienced changes in appetite: 31% anorexia, 13.3% early satiety, and 17.2% both. Appetite disorders were more common in women and with the presence of cachexia. The combination of anorexia and satiety resulted in a lower weight and BMI. However, there were no significant effects on energy or macronutrient intake among different appetite alterations. Patients with a combination of anorexia and early satiety had worse overall health perception, role function, and fatigue. Appetite disorders are highly prevalent among cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. They have a significant impact on nutritional status and quality of life, especially when anorexia and early satiety are combined.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Eating behaviour is associated with eating frequency and food consumption
           in 6–8 year-old children: The Physical Activity and Nutrition in
           Children (PANIC) study
    • Authors: H. Jalkanen; V. Lindi; U. Schwab; S. Kiiskinen; T. Venäläinen; L. Karhunen; T.A. Lakka; A.M. Eloranta
      Pages: 28 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): H. Jalkanen, V. Lindi, U. Schwab, S. Kiiskinen, T. Venäläinen, L. Karhunen, T.A. Lakka, A.M. Eloranta
      The association between eating behaviour and dietary factors has been studied narrowly in children. Therefore, we investigated whether eating frequency and food consumption are influenced by eating behaviour in a population sample of 406 children aged 6–8 years. We assessed features of eating behaviour by the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and dietary factors by a 4-day food record. The results showed that enjoyment of food was directly associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.041) and consumption of vegetables (p = 0.041), cheese (p = 0.005), and meat (p = 0.002). Food responsiveness was directly associated with consumption of fruit and berries (p = 0.013) and meat (p = 0.016). Desire to drink was directly associated with consumption of fat-containing milk (p = 0.002) and inversely associated with consumption of skimmed milk (p = 0.001). Food fussiness was inversely associated with a number of main meals (p = 0.013) and consumption of vegetables (p < 0.001), cheese (p = 0.001), and meat (p = 0.027). Satiety responsiveness was inversely associated with consumption of vegetables (p = 0.031), cheese (p = 0.010), and meat (p < 0.001) and directly associated with consumption of candies and chocolate (p = 0.026). Slowness in eating was inversely associated with consumption of meat (p = 0.018). Where sex differences existed the associations tended to be observed mostly in girls but not in boys. Our study shows that enjoyment of food and food responsiveness are directly associated with consumption of protein-rich foods and vegetables, fruit and berries, whereas food fussiness and satiety responsiveness are inversely associated with consumption of these foods. Assessment of eating behaviour can help in identifying children with various dietary needs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Simplifying mental math: Changing how added sugars are displayed on the
           nutrition facts label can improve consumer understanding
    • Authors: Neha Khandpur; Dan J. Graham; Christina A. Roberto
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Neha Khandpur, Dan J. Graham, Christina A. Roberto
      Background Proposed variations to Nutrition Facts Labels (NFL) have included the display of added sugars (AS) content, but its impact on consumer understanding is poorly understood. Objective To examine the degree to which different formats for displaying AS influence consumer understanding, perceptions, and purchase intentions. Design Randomized-controlled online experiment. Participants A sample of 2509 U.S adults. Intervention Participants were randomized to 1 of 8 conditions and viewed 10 food or beverage images with either: (1) no label (control); (2) the current NFL (without AS); (3) the proposed NFL without AS; or the proposed NFL with AS in (4) grams, (5) grams and teaspoons, (6) grams and percent Daily Value (%DV), (7) grams with high/medium/low text, or (8) grams with high/medium/low text and %DV. Main outcome measures & statistical analysis ANCOVAs compared scores on quizzes that assessed the accuracy of judgments about AS, overall nutrition understanding and purchase intentions. Results Presenting AS in grams plus high/medium/low text with and without %DV led to the highest AS understanding scores (85% and 83% correct, respectively) compared to 70% correct when AS was not on the label or was displayed in grams only (74% correct). Displaying AS in teaspoons did not significantly improve understanding beyond grams alone. Consumers were best able to determine which of two products was healthier when AS was presented as %DV (68% correct) versus displayed in grams alone (60% correct), but %DV did not differ from high/medium/low text or teaspoons. None of the labels influenced purchase intentions relative to no label. Conclusion Displaying AS on the NFL in grams with high/medium/low text, %DV, or the combination of the two, improved consumer understanding more than presenting it in grams or teaspoons.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Structure-based feeding strategies: A key component of child nutrition
    • Authors: Maija B. Taylor; Elizabeth Emley; Mercedes Pratt; Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Maija B. Taylor, Elizabeth Emley, Mercedes Pratt, Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      Objective This study examined the relationship between structure, autonomy promotion, and control feeding strategies and parent-reported child diet. Participants Participants (N = 497) were parents of children ages 2.5 to 7.5 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. This sample was a Caucasian (79%), educated sample (61% college graduates) with most reports from mothers (76%). Methods and measures Online survey including measures of parent feeding strategies and child dietary intake. Results Use of structure-based feeding strategies explained 21% of the variance in child consumption of added sugar, 12% of the variance in child intake of added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages, and 16% of the variance in child consumption of fruits and vegetables. Higher unhealthy food availability and permissive feeding uniquely predicted higher child added sugar intake and child consumption of added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages. Greater healthy food availability uniquely predicted higher child fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions and Future Directions: In Caucasian educated families, structure-based feeding strategies appear to be a relatively stronger correlate of parent-reported child intake of added sugar and fruits and vegetables as compared to autonomy promotion and control feeding strategies. Longitudinal research may be needed in order to reveal the relationships between autonomy promotion and control feeding strategies with child diet. If future studies have similar findings to this study's results, researchers may want to focus more heavily on investigating the impact of teaching parents stimulus-control techniques and feeding-related assertiveness skills on child dietary intake.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • What is a nutritious snack? Level of processing and macronutrient content
           influences young adults' perceptions
    • Authors: Nienke M De Vlieger; Clare Collins; Tamara Bucher
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Nienke M De Vlieger, Clare Collins, Tamara Bucher
      Snacking has become more prevalent in developed countries. While poor food choices pose health risks, nutritious choices contribute important nutrients to overall dietary intakes. Young adults consumer snacks frequently and nutritious choices should be promoted among this group. However, how young adults define the term ‘nutritious’ currently and how they evaluate the nutritiousness of various snack foods required further investigation. The current study used a mixed methods design with 115 young adults invited to sort 32 commonly available snack foods into a line ranging from 'not nutritious' to 'very nutritious'. The sorting data was analysed by hierarchical cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Participants were also asked to define the word ‘nutritious’, with definitions then categorized and number of counts per category analysed. Predictors of perceived snack nutritiousness were sugar (β = −0.45, P < 0.005), fat (β = −0.43, P < 0.05), nut (β = 0.45, P < 0.05) and fruit/vegetable (β = 0.33, P < 0.05) content. Level of food processing was significantly related to perceived nutritiousness (β = 0.79, P=<0.05). The terms given within the definitions most frequently were: ‘vitamins’ (40%), ‘good for body/body needs’ (40%), ‘minerals’ (39%), ‘low in sugars’ (36%), ‘protein’ (32%), ‘healthy’ (28%) and ‘long lasting source of energy’ (27%). Results of the current study provide first insight into how young adults interpret the term ‘nutritious’. This could help in the design of more effective nutrition education materials and food product labels to guide healthy choices in this age group.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Eating dependence and weight gain; no human evidence for a
           ‘sugar-addiction’ model of overweight
    • Authors: C. Rob Markus; Peter J. Rogers; Fred Brouns; Robbie Schepers
      Pages: 64 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): C. Rob Markus, Peter J. Rogers, Fred Brouns, Robbie Schepers
      Background and aims There is an increasing societal concern that consumption of specific foods such as sugar might become ‘addictive’ and, hence, promote weight gain. Claims about the addictiveness of sugar however are based largely on findings from few animal studies, whereas there is a lack of direct human evidence for symptoms of sugar-related substance dependence. The current study examined in a large sample of human participants whether foods mainly containing sugar in particular might cause ‘addiction-like’ problems that meet clinical DSM criteria for substance dependence, and, also whether in turn this relates to body weight and negative affectivity (depressed mood). Methods In a cross-sectional study, n = 1495 university students from a variety of faculties were assessed for DSM-related signs of food addiction for particular food categories (YFAS), and, also BMI and negative affectivity. Results Results revealed that from the total sample, 95% experienced at least one symptom of food dependence and 12.6% met the YFAS classification for ‘food addiction’ as related to DSM-IV criteria. The majority of respondents experienced these problems for combined high-fat savoury (30%) and high-fat sweet (25%) foods, whereas only a minority experienced such problems for low-fat/savoury (2%) and mainly sugar-containing foods (5%). Overweight correlated only with addictive-like problems for high-fat savoury and high-fat sweet foods (P < 0.0001), while this was not found for foods mainly containing sugar. Conclusion The current findings indicate that sugary foods contribute minimally to ‘food dependence’ and increased risk of weight gain. Instead, they are consistent with the current scientific notion that food energy density, and the unique individual experience of eating, plays an important role in determining the reward value of food and promoting excessive energy intake.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • The effect of a change to healthy vending in a major Australian health
           service on sales of healthy and unhealthy food and beverages
    • Authors: Tara Boelsen-Robinson; Kathryn Backholer; Kirstan Corben; Miranda R. Blake; Claire Palermo; Anna Peeters
      Pages: 73 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Tara Boelsen-Robinson, Kathryn Backholer, Kirstan Corben, Miranda R. Blake, Claire Palermo, Anna Peeters

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by
           Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch
    • Authors: Gerben A. Bekker; Hilde Tobi; Arnout R.H. Fischer
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Gerben A. Bekker, Hilde Tobi, Arnout R.H. Fischer
      In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Identifying the mechanisms through which behavioral weight-loss treatment
           improves food decision-making in obesity
    • Authors: Kathryn E. Demos; Jeanne M. McCaffery; J. Graham Thomas; Kimberly A. Mailloux; Todd A. Hare; Rena R. Wing
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Kathryn E. Demos, Jeanne M. McCaffery, J. Graham Thomas, Kimberly A. Mailloux, Todd A. Hare, Rena R. Wing
      Objectives Behavioral weight loss (BWL) programs are the recommended treatment for obesity, yet it is unknown whether these programs change one's ability to use self-control in food choices and what specific mechanisms support such change. Using experimental economics methods, we investigated whether changes in dietary behavior in individuals with obesity following BWL are driven by one or more of the following potential mechanisms: changes in the perception of the 1) health or 2) taste of food items, and/or 3) shifting decision weights for health versus taste attributes. Therefore, we compared these mechanisms between obese participants and lifetime normal weight controls (NW) both before and after BWL. Methods Females with obesity (N = 37, mean BMI = 33.2) completed a food choice task involving health ratings, taste ratings, and decision-making pre- and post-standard BWL intervention. NW controls (N = 30, BMI = 22.4) completed the same task. Results Individuals with obesity exhibited increased self-control (selecting healthier, less tasty food choices) post-treatment. However, their rates of self-control remained significantly lower than NW. We found no differences in initial health perceptions across groups, and no changes with treatment. In contrast, taste ratings and the relative value of taste versus health decreased following treatment. Although, post-treatment participants continued to perceive unhealthy foods as tastier and used less self-control than NW controls, they showed significant improvements in these domains following a BWL intervention. Conclusions To help individuals improve dietary decisions, additional research is needed to determine how to make greater changes in taste preferences and/or the assignment of value to taste versus health attributes in food choices.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Do emotion regulation difficulties when upset influence the association
           between dietary restraint and weight gain among college students?
    • Authors: Tyler K. Hunt; Kelsie T. Forbush; Kelsey E. Hagan; Danielle A.N. Chapa
      Pages: 101 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Tyler K. Hunt, Kelsie T. Forbush, Kelsey E. Hagan, Danielle A.N. Chapa
      Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects more than one-fifth of adolescents aged 12–19 in the United States. Theoretical models suggest that prolonged dietary restraint leads to binge-eating behaviors, which in turn increases individuals' risk for weight gain or obesity. Results from the literature indicate a potential role for negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) as a mediating variable that explains the link between dietary restraint and binge-eating episodes. The current study tested short-term, prospective longitudinal associations among dietary restraint, binge eating, negative urgency, and weight gain among college students – a population at increased risk for the development of overweight and obesity. We hypothesized that dietary restraint and weight gain would be mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. College students (N = 227) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory, UPPS-P Impulsivity Scale, and self-reported weight and height to calculate body mass index. Results showed that the association between dietary restraint and weight gain was mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. Our findings indicated that negative urgency might represent a mechanism that explains why dietary restraint leads to future binge-eating episodes and weight gain among college students with overweight and obesity. Results suggest that future treatment and prevention programs for overweight and obesity may benefit from incorporating strategies to improve emotion regulation as a way to reduce binge eating and to prevent additional weight gain among ‘at-risk’ populations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.029
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Food neophobia and its association with intake of fish and other selected
           foods in a Norwegian sample of toddlers: A cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Sissel H. Helland; Elling Bere; Helga Birgit Bjørnarå; Nina Cecilie Øverby
      Pages: 110 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Sissel H. Helland, Elling Bere, Helga Birgit Bjørnarå, Nina Cecilie Øverby
      Reluctance to try novel foods (food neophobia) prevents toddlers from accepting healthy foods such as fish and vegetables, which are important for child development and health. Eating habits established between ages 2 and 3 years normally track into adulthood and are therefore highly influential; even so, there are few studies addressing food neophobia in this age group. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the level of food neophobia and the frequency of toddlers' intake of fish, meat, berries, fruit, vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks. Parents of 505 toddlers completed a questionnaire assessing the degree of food neophobia in their toddlers (mean age 28 months, SD ± 3.5), and frequency of intake of various foods. Food neophobia was rated by the Children's Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS, score range 6–42). Associations between CFNS score and food frequency were examined using hierarchical multiple regression models, adjusting for significant covariates. Toddlers with higher CFNS scores had less frequent intake of vegetables (β = −0.28, p < 0.001), berries (β = −0.17, p = 0.002), fruits (β = −0.16, p < 0.001), and fish (β = −0.15, p = 0.001). No significant associations were found for CFNS score and frequency of toddlers' intakes of meat or of sweet and fatty snacks. These findings suggest that food neophobia in toddlers is associated with lower diet quality, and indicate a need for intervention studies to address the food neophobia.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Influence of product placement in children's movies on children's snack
    • Authors: Callie L. Brown; Camden E. Matherne; Cynthia M. Bulik; Janna B. Howard; Sophie N. Ravanbakht; Asheley C. Skinner; Charles T. Wood; Anna M. Bardone-Cone; Jane D. Brown; Andrew J. Perrin; Cary Levine; Michael J. Steiner; Eliana M. Perrin
      Pages: 118 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Callie L. Brown, Camden E. Matherne, Cynthia M. Bulik, Janna B. Howard, Sophie N. Ravanbakht, Asheley C. Skinner, Charles T. Wood, Anna M. Bardone-Cone, Jane D. Brown, Andrew J. Perrin, Cary Levine, Michael J. Steiner, Eliana M. Perrin
      Background Media exposure affects health, including obesity risk. Children's movies often contain food placements—frequently unhealthy foods. However, it is not known if these cues influence children's food choices or consumption after viewing. We explored whether children's snack choices or consumption differs based on: 1) recent exposure to movies with high versus low product placement of unhealthy foods; and 2) children's weight status. Methods Children ages 9–11 were assigned to watch a high (“Alvin and the Chipmunks,” n = 54) or low (“Stuart Little,” n = 60) product-placement movie. After viewing, participants selected a snack choice from each of five categories, several of which were specifically featured in “Alvin.” Uneaten snacks from each participant were weighed upon completion. Snack choice and amount consumed by movie were compared by t-tests, and differences in snack choices by movie were tested with logistic regression. Results Participants consumed an average of 800.8 kcal; mean kcal eaten did not vary by movie watched. Participants who watched the high product-placement movie had 3.1 times the odds (95% CI 1.3–7.2) of choosing cheese balls (most featured snack) compared to participants who watched the low product-placement movie. Children who were overweight or obese consumed a mean of 857 kcal (95% CI: 789–925) compared to 783 kcal (95% CI: 742–823, p = 0.09) for children who were underweight or healthy weight. Children's weight status did not significantly affect their choice of snack. Conclusions Branding and obesogenic messaging in children's movies influenced some choices that children made about snack foods immediately following viewing, especially food with greatest exposure time in the film, but did not affect total calories consumed. Future studies should examine how the accumulation of these messages affects children's long-term food choices.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of German
           adults: A DEDIPAC-study
    • Authors: Friederike Wittig; Eva Hummel; Germaine Wenzler; Thorsten Heuer
      Pages: 125 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Friederike Wittig, Eva Hummel, Germaine Wenzler, Thorsten Heuer
      The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005–2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods ‘morning’, ‘midday’, ‘afternoon’, ‘evening’, and ‘night’. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine differences in energy and macronutrient intake. For women and men, a three-main-meal pattern (‘morning’, ‘midday’, and ‘evening’) was observed, indicated as peaks in energy intake at 08:00 to 09:00, 13:00 and 19:00 o'clock. The distributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake mirror the distribution of energy intake over the course of the day. The highest energy intake was found in the ‘evening’ period, especially in young adults, overweight persons, persons with a high SES, and men with a low diet quality. Women of the oldest age group showed a similar energy intake across the three-main-meals in contrast to young adults, who had lower peaks in the ‘morning’ and ’midday’ periods as well as a shift to later meal times. Young adults seem to have a higher variability in energy intake and a less distinct meal pattern, while seniors have a more structured day. Because a high energy intake in the ‘evening’ period is associated with negative health-related factors, the distribution of energy intake should be considered by recommendations for a healthy nutritional behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • The dual-pathway model of binge eating: Is there a need for
    • Authors: Marie Sehm; Petra Warschburger
      Pages: 137 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Marie Sehm, Petra Warschburger
      The dual-pathway model proposes that body dissatisfaction might lead to binge eating (BE) through restraint eating and negative affect. Both pathways have been confirmed longitudinally, but there is evidence that the affect-pathway might rather be found in the short-term, whereas other variables might be involved over longer periods. Research suggests that self-esteem represents a key-factor in the etiology of BE in adolescent girls and might serve as a mediator between body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Based on these findings, the aim of this study was to investigate the original dual-pathway model across 20 months and to evaluate a modified version of the model with self-esteem instead of negative affect as a mediator in the affect-pathway. We assessed eating pathology, negative affect and self-esteem by self-report in a sample of 523 adolescent girls at two time points separated by 20 months. Data were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. Both, the original and the modified model provided good fit to the data, but results yielded limited support for the assumptions of the original model. Neither restraint eating nor negative affect mediated the link between body dissatisfaction and BE. The modified model fit the data slightly better and results indicated that low self-esteem mediated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and BE. Notably, our results indicated that restraint eating might even reduce the risk for BE through the enhancement of self-esteem. Results suggest that the dual-pathway model could benefit from the inclusion of a more trait-like variable such as self-esteem when evaluated across the long-term. Furthermore, our findings indicate that healthy restraint eating might have positive effects on self-esteem, thereby reducing risk for BE in adolescent girls, who are dissatisfied with their bodies.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T22:59:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.028
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • What makes dietary restraint problematic? Development and validation of
           the Inflexible Eating Questionnaire
    • Authors: Cristiana Duarte; Cláudia Ferreira; José Pinto-Gouveia; I.A. Trindade; A. Martinho
      Pages: 146 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Cristiana Duarte, Cláudia Ferreira, José Pinto-Gouveia, I.A. Trindade, A. Martinho
      This study presents the Inflexible Eating Questionnaire (IEQ), which measures the inflexible adherence to subjective eating rules. The scale's structure and psychometric properties were examined in distinct samples from the general population comprising both men and women. IEQ presented an 11-item one-dimensional structure, revealed high internal consistency, construct and temporal stability, and discriminated eating psychopathology cases from non-cases. The IEQ presented significant associations with dietary restraint, eating psychopathology, body image inflexibility, general psychopathology symptoms, and decreased intuitive eating. IEQ was a significant moderator on the association between dietary restraint and eating psychopathology symptoms. Findings suggested that the IEQ is a valid and useful instrument with potential implications for research on psychological inflexibility in disordered eating.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.034
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Trait-based food-cravings are encoded by regional homogeneity in the
           parahippocampal gyrus
    • Authors: Shuaiyu Chen; Debo Dong; Todd Jackson; Qian Zhuang; Hong Chen
      Pages: 155 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Shuaiyu Chen, Debo Dong, Todd Jackson, Qian Zhuang, Hong Chen
      Food cravings can reflect an intense trait-like emotional-motivational desire to eat palatable food, often resulting in the failure of weight loss efforts. Studies have linked trait-based food-cravings to increased risk of overeating. However, little is known about resting-state neural mechanisms that underlie food cravings. We investigated this issue using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity occurs in regions implicated in emotional memory and reward motivation associated with food cravings. Spontaneous regional activity patterns correlating to food cravings were assessed among 65 young healthy women using regional homogeneity analysis to assess temporal synchronization of spontaneous activity. Analyses indicated that women with higher scores on the Food Cravings Questionnaire displayed increased local functional homogeneity in brain regions involved in emotional memory and visual attention processing (i.e., parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform gyrus) but not reward. In view of parahippocampal gyrus involvement in hedonic learning and incentive memory encoding, this study suggests that trait-based food cravings are encoded by emotional memory circuits.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.033
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Why do Dutch people use dietary supplements? Exploring the role of
           socio-cognitive and psychosocial determinants
    • Authors: E.M. Pajor; S.M. Eggers; K.C.J. Curfs; A. Oenema; H. de Vries
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): E.M. Pajor, S.M. Eggers, K.C.J. Curfs, A. Oenema, H. de Vries
      Background In the Netherlands, the prevalence of dietary supplement use has doubled (from 17 to 40 per cent) since the 1980s. Yet, limited data is available on which socio-cognitive factors are associated with dietary supplement use. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to explain dietary supplement use with determinants deriving from the Integrated Change Model (ICM) and from formative research. Method/design Socio-cognitive and psychosocial factors were measured among users and non-users of dietary supplements in a longitudinal survey study, with measurements at baseline (N = 1448) and at one-month follow-up (N = 1161). Negative binomial regression analysis was applied to de data. Results Intention emerged as the main predictor of dietary supplement use (OR = 1.99). Further predictors of dietary supplement use with smaller effect-sizes were: health regulatory focus (promotion, OR = 1.46), social modelling (OR = 1.44), attitude (pros, OR = 1.37), attitude (cons, OR = 0.87), health locus of control (OR = 0.77), and risk perception (chance of getting ill, OR = 1.22). Conclusions Individuals tend to use dietary supplements if they are promotion oriented, notice dietary supplement users in their social environment, estimate their chances of getting ill higher, and have positive attitudes towards dietary supplements. In contrast, non-users believe that external factors affect their health, and hold negative attitudes towards dietary supplements. Practical implications Mapping out individuals' socio-cognitive profile may contribute to the development of online health communication. Based on socio-cognitive and demographical factors, personalised advice can be given about dietary supplement use.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.036
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Australian consumers' insights into potatoes - Nutritional knowledge,
           perceptions and beliefs
    • Authors: Katie Wood; John Carragher; Robbie Davis
      Pages: 169 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Katie Wood, John Carragher, Robbie Davis
      Background There has been a decline in the consumption of potatoes in developed countries worldwide due to many factors including the introduction of new foods and meal trends. In turn, this shift in eating patterns has dramatically affected the Australian potato industry which represents the largest horticulture contributor to gross food revenue. Many factors may influence consumers' food preferences, including the individual's nutrition knowledge, lifestyle factors, personal preferences, attitudes and beliefs. The present study aimed to capture an understanding of the consumer's level of nutritional knowledge and what currently drives consumer decision making. Methods Participants aged between 25 and 54 years responded to an online survey which included 52 questions specifically looking at potatoes, nutritional knowledge, views, eating habits and lifestyle factors, preferences and beliefs. Questions in the survey included multiple choice, rank and scale responses and free answers. Results A total of 1208 males and females (males n = 598, females n = 610) were included in the final analysis. The results show that the majority (88.5%) of the participants consume potatoes (not including hot chips/french fries) 4 times per week or less (41.6% ≤ 1 week; 46.9% 2–4 times/week). Overall, 33% of the participants stated that their potato consumption over the last five years had decreased. The main reasons stated for this decrease were that potatoes were high in carbohydrates (30%) and that starchy vegetables were not a healthy option (23%). Conclusions Results showed that consumers believe that potatoes are good for all ages, are versatile, convenient, good value for money and delicious. However, the results indicate the majority of people have limited knowledge regarding the nutrient composition of potatoes and associate them negatively with carbohydrates.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.038
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Lost in processing? Perceived healthfulness, taste and caloric content of
           whole and processed organic food
    • Authors: Marília Prada; Margarida V. Garrido; David Rodrigues
      Pages: 175 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Marília Prada, Margarida V. Garrido, David Rodrigues
      The “organic” claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables – self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns – was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.031
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Deconstructing family meals: Do family structure, gender and employment
           status influence the odds of having a family meal?
    • Authors: Mienah Z. Sharif; Héctor E. Alcalá; Stephanie L. Albert; Heidi Fischer
      Pages: 187 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Mienah Z. Sharif, Héctor E. Alcalá, Stephanie L. Albert, Heidi Fischer
      Objectives We assessed the odds of having a family dinner by parental gender, family structure and parental employment. Methods This study used data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) (2006–2008). Multivariate analyses assessed the odds of two outcomes among parents: 1) eating at all with children and 2) having a family dinner. Results Single men had lower odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner in comparison to partnered/married males. Partnered/married women had increased odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner compared to their partnered/married male counterparts. While single women had increased odds of eating at all with children compared to partnered/married males, no difference was detected in the odds of having a family dinner. Among dual-headed households, women had lower odds of eating a family dinner when both parents were employed compared a dual-headed household with employed male/non-employed female. There were no differences among men regardless of their employment status or that of their partner/spouse. Conclusions Family structure, parental gender and employment status all influence the odds of having a family dinner. Future research on family meals should consider all of these factors to better understand trends and disparities across household compositions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:34:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.032
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Parenting practices toward food and children's behavior: Eating away from
           home versus at home
    • Authors: Michelle Kasparian; Georgianna Mann; Elena L. Serrano; Alisha R. Farris
      Pages: 194 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Michelle Kasparian, Georgianna Mann, Elena L. Serrano, Alisha R. Farris
      Parenting style influences a child's overall diet quality and establishes food preferences. Parenting style and “food rules” for children differ by eating at home or away from home. Eating meals away from home is increasing despite associations with consumption of unhealthy foods and higher weight status. The objective of the current study was to compare parenting practices and decision-making at restaurants versus at home. A mixed methods approach was utilized: facilitated, individual interviews to explore decision-making and parenting practices; written questionnaires for socio-demographic information; and body mass index. Summaries and emergent themes were generated based on examination of tapes and transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire data. Twenty-five mothers of children of five to eight years who ate at restaurants at least two times per week participated. Mothers reported more permissive food rules at restaurants yet maintained higher behavioral expectations. Mothers were also more likely to make decisions about whether they eat out, where to eat, and children's meal selections than their children. The findings suggest that parenting practices toward overall behavior and food choices may differ at restaurants than at home, highlighting the importance of healthy menu options, further research, and educational strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.045
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectives on
           their effectiveness
    • Authors: Gemma P. Faulkner; M. Barbara E. Livingstone; L. Kirsty Pourshahidi; Michelle Spence; Moira Dean; Sinead O'Brien; Eileen R. Gibney; Julie M.W. Wallace; Tracy A. McCaffrey; Maeve A. Kerr
      Pages: 200 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Gemma P. Faulkner, M. Barbara E. Livingstone, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi, Michelle Spence, Moira Dean, Sinead O'Brien, Eileen R. Gibney, Julie M.W. Wallace, Tracy A. McCaffrey, Maeve A. Kerr
      Objective This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA. Design Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach. Setting The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. Participants General population, males (n = 17) and females (n = 15) aged 18–64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups. Results The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup (household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for “visual” PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than ‘quantities and measures’ such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a “one size fits all” approach. Conclusions This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of “visual” PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.027
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and
           body temperature in young women
    • Authors: Maki Suzuki; Rie Kimura; Yasue Kido; Tomoko Inoue; Toshio Moritani; Narumi Nagai
      Pages: 209 - 216
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Maki Suzuki, Rie Kimura, Yasue Kido, Tomoko Inoue, Toshio Moritani, Narumi Nagai
      The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers’ motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.041
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Developing a digital photography-based method for dietary analysis in
           self-serve dining settings
    • Authors: Mary J. Christoph; Brett R. Loman; Brenna Ellison
      Pages: 217 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Mary J. Christoph, Brett R. Loman, Brenna Ellison
      Current population-based methods for assessing dietary intake, including food frequency questionnaires, food diaries, and 24-h dietary recall, are limited in their ability to objectively measure food intake. Digital photography has been identified as a promising addition to these techniques but has rarely been assessed in self-serve settings. We utilized digital photography to examine university students' food choices and consumption in a self-serve dining hall setting. Research assistants took pre- and post-photos of students’ plates during lunch and dinner to assess selection (presence), servings, and consumption of MyPlate food groups. Four coders rated the same set of approximately 180 meals for inter-rater reliability analyses; approximately 50 additional meals were coded twice by each coder to assess intra-rater agreement. Inter-rater agreement on the selection, servings, and consumption of food groups was high at 93.5%; intra-rater agreement was similarly high with an average of 95.6% agreement. Coders achieved the highest rates of agreement in assessing if a food group was present on the plate (95–99% inter-rater agreement, depending on food group) and estimating the servings of food selected (81–98% inter-rater agreement). Estimating consumption, particularly for items such as beans and cheese that were often in mixed dishes, was more challenging (77–94% inter-rater agreement). Results suggest that the digital photography method presented is feasible for large studies in real-world environments and can provide an objective measure of food selection, servings, and consumption with a high degree of agreement between coders; however, to make accurate claims about the state of dietary intake in all-you-can-eat, self-serve settings, researchers will need to account for the possibility of diners taking multiple trips through the serving line.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.050
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Eating patterns in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Associations with
           metabolic control, insulin omission, and eating disorder pathology
    • Authors: Line Wisting; Deborah Lynn Reas; Lasse Bang; Torild Skrivarhaug; Knut Dahl-Jørgensen; Øyvind Rø
      Pages: 226 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Line Wisting, Deborah Lynn Reas, Lasse Bang, Torild Skrivarhaug, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Øyvind Rø
      Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate eating patterns among male and female adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the associations with age, zBMI, eating disorder (ED) pathology, intentional insulin omission, and metabolic control. Method The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (58.6% females) with child-onset T1D, mean age of 15.7 years (SD 1.8) and mean zBMI of 0.4 (SD 0.8). The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) assessed meal/snack frequency and ED pathology. T1D clinical data was obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results A significantly lower proportion of females than males (73.8% vs 97.7%) consumed breakfast on a daily basis. Approximately 50% of both genders ate lunch and 90% ate dinner daily. Among females, skipping breakfast was significantly associated with higher global ED psychopathology, shape concerns, self-induced vomiting, binge eating, insulin omission due to shape/weight concerns, and poorer metabolic control. Less frequent lunch consumption was significantly associated with poorer metabolic control. Skipping dinner was significantly associated with older age, higher dietary restraint, eating concerns, self-induced vomiting, and insulin omission. Among males, less frequent consumption of lunch and evening snacks was associated with attitudinal features of ED, including shape/weight concerns and dietary restraint. Discussion Among adolescents with T1D, irregular or infrequent meal consumption appears to signal potential ED pathology, as well as being associated with poorer metabolic control. These findings suggest the importance of routinely assessing eating patterns in adolescents with T1D to improve detection of ED pathology and to facilitate improved metabolic control and the associated risk of somatic complications.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.035
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and
           understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers
    • Authors: Frej Daniel Hertz; Bente Halkier
      Pages: 232 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Frej Daniel Hertz, Bente Halkier
      The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners’ uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • A bio-cultural approach to the study of food choice: The contribution of
           taste genetics, population and culture
    • Authors: Davide S. Risso; Cristina Giuliani; Marco Antinucci; Gabriella Morini; Paolo Garagnani; Sergio Tofanelli; Donata Luiselli
      Pages: 240 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Davide S. Risso, Cristina Giuliani, Marco Antinucci, Gabriella Morini, Paolo Garagnani, Sergio Tofanelli, Donata Luiselli
      The study of food choice, one of the most complex human traits, requires an integrated approach that takes into account environmental, socio-cultural and biological diversity. We recruited 183 volunteers from four geo-linguistic groups and highly diversified in terms of both genetic background and food habits from whom we collected genotypes and phenotypes tightly linked to taste perception. We confirmed previous genetic associations, in particular with stevioside perception, and noted significant differences in food consumption: in particular, broccoli, mustard and beer consumption scores were significantly higher (Adjusted P = 0.02, Adjusted P < 0.0001 and Adjusted P = 0.01, respectively) in North Europeans, when compared to the other groups. Licorice and Parmesan cheese showed lower consumption and liking scores in the Sri Lankan group (Adjusted P = 0.001 and Adjusted P < 0.001, respectively). We also highlighted how rs860170 (TAS2R16) strongly differentiated populations and was associated to salicin bitterness perception. Identifying genetic variants on chemosensory receptors that vary across populations and show associations with taste perception and food habits represents a step towards a better comprehension of this complex trait, aimed at improving the individual health status. This is the first study that concurrently explores the contribution of genetics, population diversity and cultural aspects in taste perception and food consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.046
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • The social image of food: Associations between popularity and eating
    • Authors: Laura M. König; Helge Giese; F. Marijn Stok; Britta Renner
      Pages: 248 - 258
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Laura M. König, Helge Giese, F. Marijn Stok, Britta Renner
      One factor that determines what we eat and why we eat is our social environment. In the present research, two online studies examined the relationship between food intake and social images. Specifically, the present research assessed the relationship between the food intake university students ascribed to peers who varied in popularity and own self-reported food intake, and whether this relationship was moderated by identification with the peer group. Participants (N = 97 in Study 1; N = 402 in Study 2) were randomly presented with one of four (Study 1) or two of eight (Study 2) vignettes describing a popular or unpopular student (male or female) from their university without receiving any information about the peer's eating behavior. Subsequently, healthy and unhealthy eating ascribed to the peers and own self-reported eating behavior were assessed. Results indicated that popular peers were perceived to eat more healthily than unpopular peers. Moreover, eating behavior ascribed to popular peers were associated with own healthy and unhealthy eating. Importantly, the relationship between healthy eating behavior ascribed to popular peers and own healthy eating behavior was moderated by identification with the student group – the more participants identified with their peers, the more their own eating was aligned with the healthy eating ascribed to a popular peer. Hence, the popularity of others seems to shape perceptions of the food they eat and may facilitate healthy eating via social influence.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.039
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Changes in sucrose and quinine taste reactivity patterns in infant
           rat pups after exposure to the other tastant
    • Authors: A.B. Suárez; M.C. Ifrán; R.M. Pautassi; G.V. Kamenetzky
      Pages: 259 - 264
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): A.B. Suárez, M.C. Ifrán, R.M. Pautassi, G.V. Kamenetzky
      The taste reactivity test is considered as an objective measure to assess the hedonic impact of tastes. Both the appetitive and aversive pattern of responses are plastic and can change based on previous experience. The present study assessed the repertoire of taste responses elicited by sucrose and quinine in preweanling rats, and described changes in these taste reactivity patterns after exposure to the other tastant. We exposed infant rats (17 days old at the start of training) to sweet (2% sucrose) or bitter (0.01% quinine) tastants during 4, 10-min trials in two different random sequences. The subjects were weighed before and after each trial to provide a measure of percent body weight gained. The following taste reactivity responses were registered: duration of mouthing and paw lick, frequency of chin rub, head shake and flailing of the forelimbs, frequency and duration of face washing, wall climbing and paw tread. The consummatory and affective taste responses changed depending on the order in which the solutions were administered. The order of exposure to the tastants did not affect the levels of sucrose intake. Conversely, rat pups showed more ingestive, and fewer aversive, responses to the sweet tastant when access to the solution followed the intraoral infusion of quinine. Likewise, intraoral delivery of quinine elicited a more aversive taste reactivity pattern when delivered after the access to sucrose than when presented to sucrose-naïve pups. This research contributes to the analysis of taste reactivity responses during the early ontogeny of the rat and highlights the importance of previous experiences on the subsequent assessment of rewards.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:53:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.040
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite
           sensation and subsequent food intake
    • Authors: Wenting Yin; Louise Hewson; Robert Linforth; Moira Taylor; Ian D. Fisk
      Pages: 265 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Wenting Yin, Louise Hewson, Robert Linforth, Moira Taylor, Ian D. Fisk
      Food flavour is important in appetite control. The effects of aroma and taste, independently or in combination, on appetite sensation and subsequent food intake, were studied. Twenty-six females (24 ± 4 years, 20.9 ± 1.9 kg⋅m−2) consumed, over 15 min period, one of four sample drinks as a preload, followed by an ad libitum consumption of a pasta meal (after 65 min). Sample drinks were: water (S1, 0 kcal), water with strawberry aroma (S2, 0 kcal), water with sucrose and citric acid (S3, 48 kcal) and water with strawberry aroma, sucrose and citric acid (S4, 48 kcal). Appetite sensation did not differ between the S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste) conditions. Compared with S1 (water), S2 (aroma) and S3 (taste), S4 (aroma + taste) suppressed hunger sensation over the 15 min sample drink consumption period (satiation) (p < 0.05). S4 (aroma + taste) further reduced hunger sensation (satiety) more than S1 at 5, 20 and 30 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), more than S2 (aroma) at 5 and 20 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05), and more than S3 (taste) at 5 min after the drink was consumed (p < 0.05). Subsequent pasta energy intake did not vary between the sample drink conditions. S4 (aroma + taste) had the strongest perceived flavour. This study suggests that the combination of aroma and taste induced greater satiation and short-term satiety than the independent aroma or taste and water, potentially via increasing the perceived flavour intensity or by enhancing the perceived flavour quality and complexity as a result of aroma-taste cross-modal perception.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Secretive eating among youth with overweight or obesity
    • Authors: Andrea E. Kass; Denise E. Wilfley; Kamryn T. Eddy; Kerri N. Boutelle; Nancy Zucker; Carol B. Peterson; Daniel Le Grange; Angela Celio-Doyle; Andrea B. Goldschmidt
      Pages: 275 - 281
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Andrea E. Kass, Denise E. Wilfley, Kamryn T. Eddy, Kerri N. Boutelle, Nancy Zucker, Carol B. Peterson, Daniel Le Grange, Angela Celio-Doyle, Andrea B. Goldschmidt
      Purpose Secretive eating, characterized by eating privately to conceal being seen, may reflect eating- and/or body-related shame, be associated with depression, and correlate with binge eating, which predicts weight gain and eating disorder onset. Increasing understanding of secretive eating in youth may improve weight status and reduce eating disorder risk. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of secretive eating in youth with overweight or obesity. Methods Youth (N = 577) presented to five research/clinical institutions. Using a cross-sectional design, secretive eating was evaluated in relation to eating-related and general psychopathology via linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Secretive eating was endorsed by 111 youth, who were, on average, older than youth who denied secretive eating (mean age = 12.07 ± 2.83 versus 10.97 ± 2.31). Controlling for study site and age, youth who endorsed secretive eating had higher eating-related psychopathology and were more likely to endorse loss of control eating and purging than their counterparts who did not endorse secretive eating. Groups did not differ in excessive exercise or behavioral problems. Dietary restraint and purging were elevated among adolescents (≥13y) but not children (<13y) who endorsed secretive eating; depression was elevated among children, but not adolescents, who endorsed secretive eating. Conclusions Secretive eating may portend heightened risk for eating disorders, and correlates of secretive eating may differ across pediatric development. Screening for secretive eating may inform identification of problematic eating behaviors, and understanding factors motivating secretive eating may improve intervention tailoring.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.042
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Self-perceived food addiction: Prevalence, predictors, and prognosis
    • Authors: Angela Meadows; Laurence J. Nolan; Suzanne Higgs
      Pages: 282 - 298
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Angela Meadows, Laurence J. Nolan, Suzanne Higgs
      Food addiction is controversial within the scientific community. However many lay people consider themselves addicted to certain foods. We assessed the prevalence and characteristics of self-perceived “food addiction” and its relationship to a diagnostic measure of “clinical food addiction” in two samples: (1) 658 university students, and (2) 614 adults from an international online crowdsourcing platform. Participants indicated whether they considered themselves to be addicted to food, and then completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale, measures of eating behavior, body image, and explicit and internalized weight stigma. Participants in the community sample additionally completed measures of impulsivity, food cravings, binge eating, and depressive symptomatology. Follow-up data were collected from a subset of 305 students (mean follow-up 280 ± 30 days). Self-perceived “food addiction” was prevalent, and was associated with elevated levels of problematic eating behavior, body image concerns, and psychopathology compared with “non-addicts”, although individuals who also received a positive “diagnosis” on the Yale Food Addiction Scale experienced the most severe symptoms. A clear continuum was evident for all measures despite no differences in body mass index between the three groups. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that perceived lack of self-control around food was the main factor distinguishing between those who did and did not consider themselves addicted to food, whereas severity of food cravings and depressive symptoms were the main discriminating variables between self-classifiers and those receiving a positive “diagnosis” on the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Self-perceived “food addiction” was moderately stable across time, but did not appear predictive of worsening eating pathology. Self-classification as a “food addict” may be of use in identifying individuals in need of assistance with food misuse, loss-of-control eating, and body image issues.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.051
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Vegetarianism and meat consumption: A comparison of attitudes and beliefs
           between vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous subjects in Belgium
    • Authors: Amy Mullee; Leen Vermeire; Barbara Vanaelst; Patrick Mullie; Peter Deriemaeker; Tobias Leenaert; Stefaan De Henauw; Aoibheann Dunne; Marc J. Gunter; Peter Clarys; Inge Huybrechts
      Pages: 299 - 305
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Amy Mullee, Leen Vermeire, Barbara Vanaelst, Patrick Mullie, Peter Deriemaeker, Tobias Leenaert, Stefaan De Henauw, Aoibheann Dunne, Marc J. Gunter, Peter Clarys, Inge Huybrechts
      High levels of meat consumption in Belgium may be contributing to increased risk of non-communicable diseases in this population. The objective of this study is to investigate the attitudes and beliefs about vegetarianism and meat consumption among the Belgian population, ultimately to better understand the motivations underlying these dietary behaviours. This cross-sectional study was initiated in March 2011. A total of 2436 individuals from a representative consumer panel from the Flemish and Brussels communities participated. The study sample was evenly distributed by education level and sex (1238 men and 1198 women). An online questionnaire with multiple-choice questions about vegetarianism and meat consumption was completed by all participants. Although representative of the prevalence of vegetarians in the population, the number of vegetarians in the study was low (n = 38); the number of semi-vegetarians (n = 288) and omnivores was high (n = 2031). Vegetarians were more likely than semi-vegetarians to agree that meat production is bad for the environment and that meat consumption is unhealthy. Important reasons for not being vegetarian included lack of interest and awareness, taste, and limited cooking skills. Encouragingly, health and discovering new tastes were seen as the most important motives for considering eating a more vegetarian-based diet. The results of this study highlight the motivations that can be used for encouraging the general public to reduce their meat consumption in favour of a plant-rich diet, and will help to inform more targeted health campaigns for reducing meat consumption in Belgium.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.052
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • The impact of video technology on learning: A cooking skills experiment
    • Authors: Dawn Surgenor; Lynsey Hollywood; Sinéad Furey; Fiona Lavelle; Laura McGowan; Michelle Spence; Monique Raats; Amanda McCloat; Elaine Mooney; Martin Caraher; Moira Dean
      Pages: 306 - 312
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Dawn Surgenor, Lynsey Hollywood, Sinéad Furey, Fiona Lavelle, Laura McGowan, Michelle Spence, Monique Raats, Amanda McCloat, Elaine Mooney, Martin Caraher, Moira Dean
      This study examines the role of video technology in the development of cooking skills. The study explored the views of 141 female participants on whether video technology can promote confidence in learning new cooking skills to assist in meal preparation. Prior to each focus group participants took part in a cooking experiment to assess the most effective method of learning for low-skilled cooks across four experimental conditions (recipe card only; recipe card plus video demonstration; recipe card plus video demonstration conducted in segmented stages; and recipe card plus video demonstration whereby participants freely accessed video demonstrations as and when needed). Focus group findings revealed that video technology was perceived to assist learning in the cooking process in the following ways: (1) improved comprehension of the cooking process; (2) real-time reassurance in the cooking process; (3) assisting the acquisition of new cooking skills; and (4) enhancing the enjoyment of the cooking process. These findings display the potential for video technology to promote motivation and confidence as well as enhancing cooking skills among low-skilled individuals wishing to cook from scratch using fresh ingredients.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.037
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status
    • Authors: Sang Ah Lee; Eun-Cheol Park; Yeong Jun Ju; Tae Hoon Lee; Euna Han; Tae Hyun Kim
      Pages: 313 - 319
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Sang Ah Lee, Eun-Cheol Park, Yeong Jun Ju, Tae Hoon Lee, Euna Han, Tae Hyun Kim
      Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: “seldom,” “sometimes,” and “always.” We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast (“seldom”: OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36–1.52; “sometimes”: OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23–1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Preschool children's sensitivity to teacher-served portion size is linked
           to age related differences in leftovers
    • Authors: Keri McCrickerd; Claudia Leong; Ciaran G. Forde
      Pages: 320 - 328
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Keri McCrickerd, Claudia Leong, Ciaran G. Forde
      A strong predictor of children's food intake at a meal is the amount they are served, and with a high percentage children attending preschool, there is a need to consider the relationship between portion size and intake in this context. In a two-part repeated measures study we investigated whether the portions teachers serve to children i) differ from those children would serve themselves and ii) impact food intake at a local preschool in Singapore. Part 1 (n = 37, 20 boys, 3.0–6.8 years) compared the quantity of food served, consumed and leftover across three serving methods: ‘regular’ teacher-serving; child self-served portions; and a deliberately large portion served by the teacher (150% of each child's average previous gram intake). Part 2 (n = 44, 23 boys, 2.4–6.2 years old) consisted of three additional observations of school-based servings outside of the experimental manipulation and enhance external validity of the study findings. Results indicated that serving size and intake was similar when the children and teachers served their ‘regular’ portions, but children consumed most overall when the teacher served the larger 150% portion. This was dependent on the child's age, with the oldest children being most responsive to the large portions while the youngest children tended to serve and consume a similar weight of food, regardless of the serving method. Though the younger children were generally served less than the older children, they consistently had more leftovers across all of the study observations. These data suggest that younger preschool children moderated food intake by leaving food in their bowl, and emphasise the unique influence of caregivers over children's eating behaviours outside of the home environment.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers
    • Authors: Kristen Harrison; Jessica Moorman; Mericarmen Peralta; Kally Fayhee
      Pages: 329 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Kristen Harrison, Jessica Moorman, Mericarmen Peralta, Kally Fayhee
      Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.049
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Sugar, perceived healthfulness, and satiety: When does a sugary preload
           lead people to eat more?
    • Authors: Naomi Mandel; Daniel Brannon
      Pages: 338 - 349
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Naomi Mandel, Daniel Brannon
      In this research, we examine the interplay between physiological and psychological factors that determine whether the sugar level of a preload increases or decreases consumption on a subsequent snack-eating task. In study 1, participants who drank a high-sugar protein shake (which they believed to be healthy) consumed more subsequent snacks than participants who drank a low-sugar protein shake. Study 2 replicated these findings, but only when the shake was labeled as “healthy.” When the shake was labeled as “indulgent,” the effect was mitigated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Consumer motivations toward buying local rice: The case of northern
           Iranian consumers
    • Authors: Hassan Rahnama
      Pages: 350 - 359
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Hassan Rahnama
      This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey. Regarding Iranian local rice buyers, 884 people buy local rice. Chi-square test showed that there is a significant difference between gender, having children, and marital status in buying local rice. Habitual Iranian local rice buyers include: female (51%), people who are more than 45 years old (51%), people with children (63%), people who are living urban (61%), married people (48%) and individuals that their monthly income is between 321.5 and 625 Dollars (53%). Regarding non-Iranian rice buyers, 616 people buy it. Also there is a significant difference between gender, location, marital status, and income in buying local rice. For considering consumers motivation toward buying local rice the econometrical model is used. Model had three aspects including; quality aspects (taste, good appearance), economic aspects (price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism), and safety aspects (health, not using pesticides and environment protection) and seven subset. The results of analysis indicated that quality aspects, economic aspects and safety aspects have positive effects on buying Iranian local rice. Also, indicative variables including; taste, good appearance, price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism, health, not using pesticides and environment have significant effects on buying it.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.044
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Cross-national investigation of the drivers of obesity: Re-assessment of
           past findings and avenues for the future
    • Authors: Katrien Cooremans; Maggie Geuens; Mario Pandelaere
      Pages: 360 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 114
      Author(s): Katrien Cooremans, Maggie Geuens, Mario Pandelaere
      In this paper we question whether prior cross-national differences in food attitudes still exist and if so, to what extent. Due to societal evolutions such as sedentarism and globalization, international variations in food attitudes may not be as pronounced as currently believed. A cross-sectional web-based survey was carried out in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Belgium. A total of 2167 respondents (52% women; mean age = 39.0 years, SD = 11.4) participated. To successfully combat obesity, a joint approach focusing on food choice and physical activity is required; therefore we included behavioral measures by means of choice tasks for these two important drivers. Further, the extent to which respondents subscribe to the unhealthy = tasty intuition, together with health and taste interest were investigated. Socio-demographic information and self-reported heights and weights were also incorporated. Logistic regressions were fitted with weight status as the dependent variable and the attitudinal and behavioral measures as independent variables. Our findings indicate that having a higher interest in healthy eating decreases the chance of being overweight (odds = 0.88) and believing that unhealthy food is tasty significantly increases the chance of being obese by 1.18 times. Overall, we find that food attitudes have largely converged across the countries we investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:02:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • Intermittent feeding alters sensitivity to changes in reward value
    • Authors: Shauna L. Parkes; Teri M. Furlong; Alanna D. Black; Bernard W. Balleine
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Shauna L. Parkes, Teri M. Furlong, Alanna D. Black, Bernard W. Balleine
      The influence of binge-like feeding schedules on subsequent food-related behavior is not well understood. We investigated the effect of repeated cycles of restriction and refeeding on two food-related behaviors; goal-directed responding for a palatable food reward and sensory-specific satiety. Hungry rats were trained to perform two instrumental actions for two distinct food outcomes and were then subjected to repeated cycles of restricted and unrestricted access to their maintenance chow for 30-days or were maintained on food restriction. Goal-directed control was then assessed using specific satiety-induced outcome devaluation. Rats were given 1 h access to one of theoutcomes and were then immediately given a choice between the two actions. Rats maintained on restriction responded more for the valued than the devalued reward but rats with a history of restriction and refeeding failed to show this effect. Importantly, all rats showed sensory-specific satiety when offered a choice between the two foods, indicating that pre-feeding selectively reduced the value of the pre-fed food. By contrast, sensory-specific satiety was not observed in rats with a history of intermittent feeding when the foods were offered sequentially. These results indicate that, similar to calorically dense diets, intermittent feeding patterns can impair the performance of goal-directed actions as well as the ability to reject a pre-fed food when it is offered alone.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • The effect of real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an
           augmented fork on eating rate, satiation, and food intake
    • Authors: Roel C.J. Hermans; Sander Hermsen; Eric Robinson; Suzanne Higgs; Monica Mars; Jeana H. Frost
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Roel C.J. Hermans, Sander Hermsen, Eric Robinson, Suzanne Higgs, Monica Mars, Jeana H. Frost
      Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation, as people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. Without assistance, eating rate is difficult to modify due to its automatic nature. In the current study, participants used an augmented fork that aimed to decelerate their rate of eating. A total of 114 participants were randomly assigned to the Feedback Condition (FC), in which they received vibrotactile feedback from their fork when eating too fast (i.e., taking more than one bite per 10 s), or a Non-Feedback Condition (NFC). Participants in the FC took fewer bites per minute than did those in the NFC. Participants in the FC also had a higher success ratio, indicating that they had significantly more bites outside the designated time interval of 10 s than did participants in the NFC. A slower eating rate, however, did not lead to a significant reduction in the amount of food consumed or level of satiation. These findings indicate that real-time vibrotactile feedback delivered through an augmented fork is capable of reducing eating rate, but there is no evidence from this study that this reduction in eating rate is translated into an increase in satiation or reduction in food consumption. Overall, this study shows that real-time vibrotactile feedback may be a viable tool in interventions that aim to reduce eating rate. The long-term effectiveness of this form of feedback on satiation and food consumption, however, awaits further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by
           visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food
    • Authors: Eliza Kostyra; Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans; Katarzyna Śniegocka; Anna Piotrowska
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Eliza Kostyra, Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans, Katarzyna Śniegocka, Anna Piotrowska
      The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T21:59:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Consumers’ acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and
           functional dairy products: A systematic review
    • Authors: Francesco Bimbo; Alessandro Bonanno; Giuseppe Nocella; Rosaria Viscecchia; Gianluca Nardone; Biagia De Devitiis; Domenico Carlucci
      Pages: 141 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Francesco Bimbo, Alessandro Bonanno, Giuseppe Nocella, Rosaria Viscecchia, Gianluca Nardone, Biagia De Devitiis, Domenico Carlucci
      This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional dairy products, such as yogurt enriched with calcium, fiber and probiotics. Acceptance for functional dairy products increases among consumers with higher diet/health related knowledge, as well as with aging. General interest in health, food-neophobia and perceived self-efficacy seem also to contribute shaping the acceptance for functional dairy products. Furthermore, products with “natural” matches between carriers and ingredients have the highest level of acceptance among consumers. Last, we find that brand familiarity drives consumers with low interest in health to increase their acceptance and preference for health-enhanced dairy products, such as probiotic yogurts, or those with a general function claim.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T01:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research
    • Authors: Patricia DeCosta; Per Møller; Michael Bom Frøst; Annemarie Olsen
      Pages: 327 - 357
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Patricia DeCosta, Per Møller, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
      The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children's attitudes and eating behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia
    • Authors: Marie Damsbo-Svendsen; Michael Bom Frøst; Annemarie Olsen
      Pages: 358 - 367
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Marie Damsbo-Svendsen, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
      Background Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. Objective We evaluate strengths and weaknesses of previously developed instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Design Literature was searched through the databases Web of Science and Google Scholar. We identified 255 studies concerning neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Of these, 13 studies encompassing 13 instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods were included in the review. Results are summarized and evaluated with a narrative approach. Results In the 13 instruments to assess neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, 113 to 16.644 subjects aged 2–65 years were involved, scales with 3–7 response categories were used and behavioral validation tests were included in 6 studies. Conclusions Several instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods exist. We recommend selecting one or more among the 13 instruments reviewed in this paper to assess relevant aspects of neophobia.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:34:11Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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