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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
Polish Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.928, h-index: 68)
Polski Przegląd Otorynolaryngologiczny : Polish J. of Otorhinolaryngology Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 78)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 197)
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.241, h-index: 112)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.947, h-index: 69)
Porto Biomedical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • An investigation of two dimensions of impulsivity as predictors of
           loss-of-control eating severity and frequency
    • Authors: Hallie M. Espel; Alexandra F. Muratore; Michael R. Lowe
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Hallie M. Espel, Alexandra F. Muratore, Michael R. Lowe
      Loss-of-control (LOC) eating episodes represent one form of dysregulated eating common to full- and sub-threshold eating disorders. Extensive evidence suggests that impulsivity, particularly in the context of negative affect and/or depression, may play an important etiological role in the development and maintenance of LOC eating. However, most prior studies have considered LOC eating as a dichotomous rather than dimensional construct, and few studies have considered the interaction of multiple dimensions of impulsivity while also accounting for the role of depressive symptoms. The present study examined the independent and interacting effects of two facets of impulsivity—response inhibition and negative urgency—on LOC eating episode severity and frequency among college women (N = 102). Depressive symptom severity was included as a covariate. Results indicated that greater negative urgency was associated with greater LOC severity; this effect was moderated by response inhibition, such that the effect of urgency was particularly pronounced for individuals with higher response inhibition capacity. Negative urgency was the only significant predictor of LOC frequency. Depression had no significant effect on either LOC severity or frequency (ps ≥ 0.16). Results support the importance of considering multiple facets of impulsivity in predicting LOC eating behavior, and further indicate that factors influencing subjective severity and frequency of LOC may be distinct.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T10:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • The rural school meal as a site for learning about food
    • Authors: Irene Torres; Jette Benn
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Irene Torres, Jette Benn
      The aim of the article is to contribute to the understanding of the school meal as a site for learning about food, nutrition and the wider determinants of health in three small rural schools of Ecuador. Based on a year-long qualitative fieldwork, the multiple case study associates Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning with Noddings' theory of care to analyze the findings. In the study, elements of care in the relationships between children and adults seemed to promote dialogue and, in this way, adults were able to model what is required to care for others and oneself. This entails that a focus solely on food or limitations on social interaction during the school meal may reduce its learning opportunities. The study concurs with the research that the food is better received when it is more aligned with the students' expectations. In addition, the findings support the view that rural school meal programs should address the views of parents and teachers because of their influence on how the meal is prepared and provided. The article proposes that schools work within a flexible framework emphasizing attention to the caring aspects of the meal, as a means to develop this dimension of the school meal. The study also contends that a collaborative reshaping of conditions formally set by school food policy is consistent with a critical approach to food and nutrition. In connection with this, the study concludes by highlighting the value of revisiting Noddings' perspective of care as deriving from the practice of opening up and meeting the other.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T10:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.055
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Family food talk, child eating behavior, and maternal feeding practices
    • Authors: Elizabeth Roach; Gail B. Viechnicki; Lauren B. Retzloff; Pamela Davis-Kean; Julie C. Lumeng; Alison L. Miller
      Pages: 40 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Elizabeth Roach, Gail B. Viechnicki, Lauren B. Retzloff, Pamela Davis-Kean, Julie C. Lumeng, Alison L. Miller
      Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • A walnut-containing meal had similar effects on early satiety, CCK, and
           PYY, but attenuated the postprandial GLP-1 and insulin response compared
           to a nut-free control meal
    • Authors: Cheryl L. Rock; Shirley W. Flatt; Hava-Shoshana Barkai; Bilge Pakiz; Dennis D. Heath
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Cheryl L. Rock, Shirley W. Flatt, Hava-Shoshana Barkai, Bilge Pakiz, Dennis D. Heath
      Regular nut consumption is associated with lower adiposity and reduced weight gain in adulthood. Walnut feeding studies have observed minimal effect on body weight despite potential additional energy intake. Several mechanisms may explain why consuming nuts promotes weight control, including increased early phase satiety, possibly reflected in postprandial response of gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides hypothesized to affect appetite. The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial insulin, glucagon and gastrointestinal peptide response and satiety following a meal with ∼54% of energy from walnuts or cream cheese, using a within-subject crossover study design in overweight/obese adults (N = 28). Sixty minutes after the walnut-containing meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 was lower than after the reference meal (p=0.0433), and peptide YY, cholecystokinin and ghrelin did not differ after the two meals. Sixty and 120 min after the walnut-containing meal, pancreatic polypeptide (p = 0.0014 and p = 0.0002) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0079) were lower than after the reference meal, and 120 min after the walnut-containing meal, glucagon was higher (p=0.0069). Insulin and C-peptide increased at 60 min in response to both meals but were lower at 120 min after the walnut-containing meal (p=0.0349 and 0.0237, respectively). Satiety measures were similar after both meals. These findings fail to support the hypothesis that acute postprandial gastrointestinal peptide response to a walnut-containing meal contributes to increased satiety. However, inclusion of walnuts attenuated the postprandial insulin response, which may contribute to the more favorable lipid profile observed in association with regular walnut consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Incentivizing healthy eating in children: An investigation of the
           “ripple” and “temporal” effects of a reward-based intervention
    • Authors: Saied Toossi
      Pages: 58 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Saied Toossi
      Although previous studies have established the effectiveness of using small reward-based incentives in inducing the choice and consumption of healthier foods among children, little is known about their impact outside of experimental settings or their effectiveness over time when administered daily. This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted to provide insight on these matters. The study employs a removed treatment within-subject design and was conducted at a summer program catering to low-income children between the ages of 5 and 12. The month long experiment—wherein participants were offered a small prize for choosing a fruit cup for dessert after lunch in lieu of cookies—involved 23 children between the ages of 5 and 8. Corroborating existing studies, the introduction of small reward-based incentives in this context was found to induce large increases in the number of children choosing the healthy dessert options after lunch, but disaggregating the results by week and day suggests that their impact diminished over time. Attempts to ascertain their effect outside of experimental settings did not indicate that the introduction of rewards had any adverse effects, but also did not provide definitive conclusions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and
           influences snack preferences in adult men and women
    • Authors: Jamie I. Baum; Brianna L. Gaines; Gabrielle C. Kubas; Charlayne F. Mitchell; Sarah L. Russell
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Jamie I. Baum, Brianna L. Gaines, Gabrielle C. Kubas, Charlayne F. Mitchell, Sarah L. Russell
      Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P < 0.0001), resulting in lower calorie intake. Taken together these data suggest that protein source, as part of a higher protein breakfast, does not affect appetite response or snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Participants with pharmacologically impaired taste function seek out more
           intense, higher calorie stimuli
    • Authors: Corinna A. Noel; Meaghan Sugrue; Robin Dando
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Corinna A. Noel, Meaghan Sugrue, Robin Dando
      Objective Research suggests a weaker sense of taste in people with obesity, with the assumption that a debilitated taste response increases the desire for more intensely tasting stimuli to compensate for decreased taste input. However, empirical testing of this supposition remains largely absent. Method In a randomized, repeated measures design, 51 healthy subjects were treated with varying concentrations of a tea containing Gymnema sylvestre (GS), to temporarily and selectively diminish sweet taste perception, or a control tea. Following treatment in the four testing sessions, taste intensity ratings for various sweet stimuli were captured on the generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS), liking for real foods assessed on the hedonic gLMS, and optimal level of sweetness quantified via an ad-libitum mixing task. Data were analyzed with mixed models assessing both treatment condition and each subject's resultant sweet response with various taste-related outcomes, controlling for covariates. Results GS treatment diminished sweet intensity perception (p < 0.001), reduced liking for sweet foods (p < 0.001), and increased the desired sucrose content of these foods (p < 0.001). Regression modeling revealed a 1% reduction in sweet taste response was associated with a 0.40 g/L increase in optimal concentration of sucrose (p < 0.001). Discussion Our results show that an attenuation in the perceived taste intensity of sweeteners correlates with shifted preference and altered hedonic response to select sweet foods. This suggests that those with a diminished sense of taste may desire more intense stimuli to attain a satisfactory level of reward, potentially influencing eating habits to compensate for a lower gustatory input.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • The association of addictive-like eating with food intake in children
    • Authors: Rebekah L. Richmond; Christina A. Roberto; Ashley N. Gearhardt
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rebekah L. Richmond, Christina A. Roberto, Ashley N. Gearhardt
      Objectives The potential role of an addictive process in problematic eating is a growing area of interest and debate. Children are more vulnerable to the negative effects of addictive substances than adults and may be at increased risk for addictive-like eating behavior. No prior study has evaluated the association of addictive-like eating with objectively measured eating behavior in adults or children. We examined the association between “food addiction” and observed food consumption among children and whether age moderated this association. Method Seventy children participated in an observed dinner meal, completed a dietary recall interview, and answered the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (YFAS-C), a questionnaire assessing symptoms of “food addiction”. Children's total calories ordered, calories consumed at dinner, calories consumed post-dinner, and a total of calories consumed at dinner and post-dinner were calculated along with their BMI percentile. We used generalized estimated equation models to investigate the relationship between the YFAS-C and food consumption. Results Elevated “food addiction” symptoms, but not BMI percentile, were positively associated with an increased amount of calories consumed at dinner and post-dinner. Age significantly moderated the relationship between YFAS-C and caloric intake, with only younger children exhibiting this association. Conclusions As the first study of objectively measured eating behavior, we found addictive-like eating scores in children were positively associated with the total amount of calories consumed. Among younger children, “food addiction” was more strongly associated with the total calories consumed than BMI percentile, highlighting the importance of assessing behavioral phenotypes when evaluating caloric intake. This association between addictive-like eating and caloric intake among younger, but not older children may be due to differences in inhibitory control and dietary restraint.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • The role of Compensatory Health Beliefs in eating behavior change: A mixed
           method study
    • Authors: Melanie A. Amrein; Pamela Rackow; Jennifer Inauen; Theda Radtke; Urte Scholz
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Melanie A. Amrein, Pamela Rackow, Jennifer Inauen, Theda Radtke, Urte Scholz
      Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in another healthy behavior, are assumed to hinder health behavior change. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHBs for two distinct eating behaviors (increased fruit and vegetable consumption and eating fewer unhealthy snacks) with a mixed method approach. Participants (N = 232, mean age = 27.3 years, 76.3% women) were randomly assigned to a fruit and vegetable or an unhealthy snack condition. For the quantitative approach, path models were fitted to analyze the role of CHBs within a social-cognitive theory of health behavior change, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). With a content analysis, the qualitative approach investigated the occurrence of CHBs in smartphone chat groups when pursuing an eating goal. Both analyses were conducted for each eating behavior separately. Path models showed that CHBs added predictive value for intention, but not behavior over and above HAPA variables only in the unhealthy snack condition. CHBs were significantly negatively associated with intention and action planning. Content analysis revealed that people generated only a few CHB messages. However, CHBs were more likely to be present and were also more diverse in the unhealthy snack condition compared to the fruit and vegetable condition. Based on a mixed method approach, this study suggests that CHBs play a more important role for eating unhealthy snacks than for fruit and vegetable consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T09:17:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Convenience food with environmentally-sustainable attributes: A consumer
    • Authors: Stefanella Stranieri; Elena Claire Ricci; Alessandro Banterle
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Stefanella Stranieri, Elena Claire Ricci, Alessandro Banterle
      The use of chemicals in agriculture poses risks on both human health and the environment. Regulatory measures, both mandatory and voluntary, have been introduced to promote a reduction in the use of pesticides. The proliferation of such standards is related to the gradual shift of consumer preferences towards food with reduced negative health and environmental impacts. Beside consumer demand for sustainable food products, convenience food is also assuming an increasingly important role in developed countries. Among such products, minimally-processed vegetables are showing a growing positive trend, but their production has also negative effects on the environment. The goal of this study is to investigate the interaction between environmentally-friendly and healthy convenience food, and to investigate the determinants behind the purchase of healthy convenience food products with environmentally-sustainable attributes, focusing on minimally-processed vegetables labelled with voluntary standards related to integrated agriculture. To do so, we started from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and tested the efficacy of an extended model by considering also other variables which were found to affect significantly food choices. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews with 550 consumers in charge of grocery shopping in the metropolitan area of Milan, in northern Italy. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the relative importance of the constructs on consumer behaviour. Results confirm the relations of Ajzen's theory and reveal positive relations with consumer food shopping habits, food-related environmental behaviour, gender, income and knowledge. A negative relation with agricultural practices concern also emerges, highlighting that the most concerned consumers may prefer other more stringent environmental certifications.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Decreased comfort food intake and allostatic load in adolescents carrying
           the A3669G variant of the glucocorticoid receptor gene
    • Authors: Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues; Roberta Sena Reis; Roberta Dalle Molle; Tania Diniz Machado; Amanda Brondani Mucellini; Andressa Bortoluzzi; Rudineia Toazza; Juliano Adams Pérez; Giovanni Abrahão Salum; Marilyn Agranonik; Luciano Minuzzi; Robert D. Levitan; Augusto Buchweitz; Alexandre Rosa Franco; Gisele Gus Manfro; Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Roberta Sena Reis, Roberta Dalle Molle, Tania Diniz Machado, Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Andressa Bortoluzzi, Rudineia Toazza, Juliano Adams Pérez, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Marilyn Agranonik, Luciano Minuzzi, Robert D. Levitan, Augusto Buchweitz, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
      Background The A3669G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene NR3C1 is associated with altered tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs modulate the food reward circuitry and are implicated in increased intake of palatable foods, which can lead to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that presence of the G variant of the A3669G SNP would affect preferences for palatable foods and alter metabolic, behavioural, and neural outcomes. Methods One hundred thirty-one adolescents were genotyped for the A3669G polymorphism, underwent anthropometric assessment and nutritional evaluations, and completed behavioural measures. A subsample of 74 subjects was followed for 5 years and performed a brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to verify brain activity in response to food cues. Results Sugar and total energy consumption were lower in A3669G G allele variant carriers. On follow-up, this group also had reduced serum insulin concentrations, increased insulin sensitivity, and lower anxiety scores. Because of our unbalanced sample sizes (31/37 participants non-G allele carriers/total), our imaging data analysis failed to find whole brain-corrected significant results in between-group t-tests. Conclusion These results highlight that a genetic variation in the GR gene is associated, at the cellular level, with significant reduction in GC sensitivity, which, at cognitive and behavioural levels, translates to altered food intake and emotional stress response. This genetic variant might play a major role in decreasing risk for metabolic and psychiatric diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Looking is buying. How visual attention and choice are affected by
           consumer preferences and properties of the supermarket shelf
    • Authors: Kerstin Gidlöf; Andrey Anikin; Martin Lingonblad; Annika Wallin
      Pages: 29 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Kerstin Gidlöf, Andrey Anikin, Martin Lingonblad, Annika Wallin
      There is a battle in the supermarket isle, a battle between what the consumer wants and what the retailer and others want her to see, and subsequently to buy. Product packages and displays contain a number of features and attributes tailored to catch consumers' attention. These are what we call external factors comprising the visual saliency, the number of facings, and the placement of each product. But a consumer also brings with her a number of goals and interests related to the products and their attributes. These are important internal factors, including brand preferences, price sensitivity, and dietary inclinations. We fit mobile eye trackers to consumers visiting real-life supermarkets in order to investigate to what extent external and internal factors affect consumers' visual attention and purchases. Both external and internal factors influenced what products consumers looked at, with a strong positive interaction between visual saliency and consumer preferences. Consumers appear to take advantage of visual saliency in their decision making, using their knowledge about products’ appearance to guide their visual attention towards those that fit their preferences. When it comes to actual purchases, however, visual attention was by far the most important predictor, even after controlling for all other internal and external factors. In other words, the very act of looking longer or repeatedly at a package, for any reason, makes it more likely that this product will be bought. Visual attention is thus crucial for understanding consumer behaviour, even in the cluttered supermarket environment, but it cannot be captured by measurements of visual saliency alone.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The effect of social norms messaging regarding skin carotenoid
           concentrations among college students
    • Authors: Heidi J. Wengreen; Elizabeth Nix; Gregory J. Madden
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Heidi J. Wengreen, Elizabeth Nix, Gregory J. Madden
      Descriptive social-normative messaging positively influences short-term dietary choices and healthy food intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of descriptive normative messages on college students' skin carotenoid concentrations (a biomarker of carotenoid-containing fruit and vegetable [FV] intake) over an 8-week period. 251 college students consented to participate and 74% completed the study. Students were randomly assigned to groups who, following a baseline evaluation of skin-carotenoid levels, were told how their score ranked within a peer group of college students attending the same university (Individualized Normative group), that their score was in the lower 20th percentile of the peer group (Manipulated Normative group), or were given no information about their score or the peer group (Control group). Skin carotenoid concentrations were reassessed 8 weeks after the normative messages were presented or withheld. Skin carotenoid levels of those in the Manipulated Normative group increased significantly more than did scores of those in the Control group (t (126) = 3.74, p < 0.001; d = 0.67), but these students' self-reported FV intake did not increase. This finding suggests normative messaging can influence behavior for up to 8 weeks, but future research must better evaluate if the increase in skin carotenoids reflects increased FV consumption, increased consumption of carotenoid-containing FV (with decreased consumption of other FV), or is accounted for by some other behavior change (e.g., increased use of supplements). These findings support further exploration of normative messaging as a technique for producing the long-term behavior change needed to impact public health.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.027
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • What makes people leave their food? The interaction of personal and
           situational factors leading to plate leftovers in canteens
    • Authors: Bettina Anne-Sophie Lorenz; Monika Hartmann; Nina Langen
      Pages: 45 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Bettina Anne-Sophie Lorenz, Monika Hartmann, Nina Langen
      In order to provide a basis for the reduction of food losses, our study analyzes individual food choice, eating and leftover behavior in a university canteen by consideration of personal, social and environmental determinants. Based on an extended literature review, a structural equation model is derived and empirically tested for a sample of 343 students. The empirical estimates support the derived model with a good overall model fit and sufficient R2 values for dependent variables. Hence, our results provide evidence for a general significant impact of behavioral intention and related personal and social determinants as well as for the relevance of environmental/situational determinants such as portion sizes and palatability of food for plate leftovers. Moreover, we find that environmental and personal determinants are interrelated and that the impact of different determinants is relative to perceived time constraints during a visit of the university canteen. Accordingly, we conclude that simple measures to decrease avoidable food waste may take effects via complex and interrelated behavioral structures and that future research should focus on these effects to understand and change food leftover behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms, frequency of bitter food intake,
           and blood biomarkers among elderly woman
    • Authors: Joanna Mikołajczyk-Stecyna; Anna M. Malinowska; Agata Chmurzynska
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Joanna Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, Anna M. Malinowska, Agata Chmurzynska
      Objective Taste sensitivity is one of the most important biological determinants of food choice. Three SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939) give rise to two common haplotypes: PAV and AVI. These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception. The extent of consumption of bitter food may influence some health outcomes. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impact of the TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms on the choice of bitter food, BMI, blood lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations as well as systemic inflammation in elderly women. Methods The associations between the TAS2R38 diplotype, CA6 genotype, and the intake of bitter-tasting foods were studied in a group of 118 Polish women over 60 years of age. The intake of Brassica vegetables, grapefruit, and coffee was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical parameters were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Genotyping was performed using the high resolution melting method. Results We found a correlation between lipid profile, glucose and CRP levels, and frequency of bitter food intake. The AVI/AVI subjects drank coffee more frequently than did the PAV/PAV homozygotes, as did the A carriers of CA6 in comparison with the GG homozygotes. We also observed that simultaneous carriers of the PAV haplotype and A allele of TAS2R38 and CA6, respectively, choose white cabbage more frequent and had lower plasma levels of CRP and glucose than did AVI/AVI and GG homozygotes. Conclusions In elderly women, the TAS2R38 and CA6 polymorphisms may affect the frequency of consumption of coffee and white cabbage, but not of other bitter-tasting foods.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.029
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The effects of experimental gestational hypertension on maternal blood
    • Authors: Juan Arguelles; Carmen Perillan; Terry G. Beltz; Baojian Xue; Daniel Badaue-Passos; Jose A. Vega; Alan Kim Johnson
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Juan Arguelles, Carmen Perillan, Terry G. Beltz, Baojian Xue, Daniel Badaue-Passos, Jose A. Vega, Alan Kim Johnson
      To examine the fetal programming effects of maternal hypertension, natriophilia and hyperreninemia [experimentally induced in rats by partial inter-renal aortic ligature (PAL) prior to mating] fos immunoreactivity was studied in 6-day-old offspring of PAL and control mothers. The purposes of the present set of experiments were twofold. The first was to characterize the effects of PAL on the mother's arterial blood pressure and intake of salt (1.8% NaCl solution) and water over the course of gestation. Second, was to study the pattern of neuronal activation in key brain areas of 6-day-old offspring treated with the dipsogen isoproterenol that were from PAL and control mothers. Beta-adrenergic receptor agonist-treated pups allowed the determination whether there were neuroanatomical correlates within the neural substrates controlling thirst and the enhanced water intake evidenced by the isoproterenol treated pups of PAL mothers. Hydromineral ingestive behavior along with blood pressure and heart rate of PAL (M-PAL) and control (M-sPAL) dams throughout gestation was studied. Higher salt and water intakes along with blood pressures and heart rates were found during gestation and lactation in the M-PAL group. Maternal PAL evoked significantly increased isoproterenol-elicited Fos staining in brain regions (e.g. subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, supraoptic nucleus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and median preoptic nucleus) of 6-day-old pups, which is the age of animals shown enhanced thirst responses in PAL offspring. These results indicate that PAL is compatible with pregnancy, producing a sustained increase in blood pressure and heart rate, along with increased water and salt intake. The present study demonstrates that the neural substrates involved in cardiovascular homeostasis and fluid balance in adult rats are responsive in six-day-old rats, and can be altered by fetal programming.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Promoting toddlers’ vegetable consumption through interactive
           reading and puppetry
    • Authors: Simone M. de Droog; Roselinde van Nee; Mieke Govers; Moniek Buijzen
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Simone M. de Droog, Roselinde van Nee, Mieke Govers, Moniek Buijzen
      Picture books with characters that promote healthy eating are increasingly being used to make this behavior more attractive. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of vegetable-promoting picture books on toddlers' vegetable consumption differed according to the reading style and the use of a hand puppet during reading. The second aim was to investigate whether these effects were mediated by toddlers’ narrative involvement and character imitation. In a 2 (reading style: interactive vs. passive) x 2 (puppet use: with vs. without puppet) between-subjects design, 163 toddlers (2–3 years) were randomly assigned to one of the four reading conditions. The story was about a rabbit that loves to eat carrots. After the fourth reading day, the eating task was conducted in which children could eat freely from four different snacks, including carrots. The main finding was that interactive reading produced the greatest carrot consumption. The explanation for this effect was that interactive reading stimulated toddlers to imitate poses of the book characters, even more when interactive reading was supported by the use of a hand puppet. The findings underline that young children should be actively involved with health interventions in order for them to be effective.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Caloric compensation in preschool children: Relationships with body mass
           and differences by food category
    • Authors: S. Carnell; L. Benson; E.L. Gibson; L.A. Mais; S. Warkentin
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): S. Carnell, L. Benson, E.L. Gibson, L.A. Mais, S. Warkentin
      Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density ‘junk’ foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4–5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs. 200 kcal]). For Test B, the preloads varied substantially in both macronutrient composition and learned gustatory cues to caloric content (200 ml water [0 kcal] vs. 200 ml strawberry milkshake [200 kcal]). Each preload was followed 30 min later by a multi-item ad-libitum meal containing junk foods (chocolate cookies, cheese-flavored crackers) and core foods (fruits and vegetables, bread rolls, protein foods). Testing took place at the children's own school under normal lunch-time conditions. Children were weighed and measured. Caloric compensation occurred in both tests, in terms of total, junk and core food intake (RMANOVA, all p < 0.01). Higher BMI z scores were associated with greater average caloric compensation (r = -0.26; p < 0.05), such that overweight/obese children showed least compensation (41%), children over the 50th centile the next least (59%), and children under the 50th centile (80%) the most. For Test A only, obese/overweight children compensated less well than normal-weight children in terms of junk food intake (RMANOVA preload-by-weight group interaction p < 0.05), with no significant effect for core foods. Our results suggest that caloric compensation is consistently poorer in heavier children, and that overweight/obese children's preferences for junk foods may overwhelm intake regulation mechanisms within meals containing those foods.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Satiety regulation in children with loss of control eating and
           attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A test meal study
    • Authors: Susanne Kurz; Dominik Schoebi; Daniela Dremmel; Wieland Kiess; Simone Munsch; Anja Hilbert
      Pages: 90 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Susanne Kurz, Dominik Schoebi, Daniela Dremmel, Wieland Kiess, Simone Munsch, Anja Hilbert
      Children with loss of control (LOC) eating and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for excessive weight gain. However, it is unclear whether or not these children show disturbances in hunger and satiety regulation. The goal was to examine the food intake and sense of LOC over eating as well as LOC eating-related characteristics during test meal in children with LOC eating and ADHD. Children aged 8–13 y with LOC eating (n = 33), ADHD (n = 32), and matched healthy controls (n = 33), consumed a test meal consisting of their chosen lunch food, with the instruction to eat until feeling full. Sense of LOC over eating, desire to eat, feelings of hunger, and liking of food were repeatedly assessed during test meal. Children with LOC eating and ADHD did not show a higher food intake at maximum satiety compared to control children. Sense of LOC over eating was significantly higher in children with LOC eating compared to children with ADHD and matched controls. Secondary analyses revealed that children with LOC eating ate marginally faster than control children. Both children with LOC eating and ADHD reported greater desire to eat, feelings of hunger, and liking of food during test meal than control children. Even though the results did not reveal statistical evidence to support the assumption of a disturbed food intake in children with LOC eating and ADHD, LOC eating related characteristics were significantly higher in these children compared to the control children. Sense of LOC over eating was confirmed as a specific characteristic of LOC eating. The examination of behavioral indicators of hunger and satiety dysregulation should be complemented with physiological indicators in future research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • When hunger does (or doesn't) increase unhealthy and healthy food
           consumption through food wanting: The distinctive role of impulsive
           approach tendencies toward healthy food
    • Authors: Boris Cheval; Catherine Audrin; Philippe Sarrazin; Luc Pelletier
      Pages: 99 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Boris Cheval, Catherine Audrin, Philippe Sarrazin, Luc Pelletier
      Objective Hunger indirectly triggers unhealthy high-calorie food consumption through its positive effect on the incentive value (or “wanting”) for food. Yet, not everyone consumes unhealthy food in excess, suggesting that some individuals react differently when they are exposed to unhealthy high-calorie food, even when they are hungry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in impulsive approach tendencies toward food may explain how, and for whom, hunger will influence unhealthy food consumption through its effect on food wanting. A complementary goal was to explore whether these individual differences also influence healthy food consumption. Methods Students (N = 70) completed a questionnaire measuring their hunger and food wanting. Then, they performed a manikin task designed to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward unhealthy food (IAUF) and healthy food (IAHF). The main outcomes variables were the amount of sweets (i.e., unhealthy food) and raisins (i.e., healthy food) consumed during a product-testing task. Results A moderated mediation analysis revealed that the indirect effect of hunger on unhealthy consumption through food wanting was moderated by IAHF. Specifically, hunger positively predicted sweets consumption through wanting for food among individuals with a low or moderate, but not high IAHF. The moderated mediation pattern was, however, not confirmed for IAUF. Finally, results revealed a direct and positive effect of IAHF on raisins consumption. Conclusion These findings showed that IAHF play a protective role by preventing hunger to indirectly increase unhealthy food consumption through wanting for food. It confirms the importance of considering how individuals may differ in their impulsive approach tendencies toward food to better understand why some individuals will increase their unhealthy food intake when they are hungry, whereas other will not.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.028
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire offers a concise alternative to
           the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire for measuring eating behaviors
           related to weight loss
    • Authors: Brittany L. James; Eric Loken; Liane S. Roe; Barbara J. Rolls
      Pages: 108 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Brittany L. James, Eric Loken, Liane S. Roe, Barbara J. Rolls
      Objective During a one-year weight loss trial, we compared the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), a valid 51-item measure of restraint, disinhibition, and hunger subscales, with the newer 16-item Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ) measuring routine and compensatory restraint and external and emotional eating. Methods Both questionnaires were administered to women with overweight or obesity (n = 186, mean ± SD, age 50 ± 10.6 y, BMI 34 ± 4.2 kg/m2) at five time points. Completion rates were 100% at baseline and Month 1, 94% at Month 3, 83% at Month 6, and 76% at Month 12. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on baseline WREQ data and correlations were calculated between TFEQ and WREQ subscales. Multilevel models evaluated the relationship between each subscale and weight change over time. Results Factor analysis revealed a WREQ structure consistent with previous research, and corresponding subscales on the TFEQ and WREQ were correlated. Lower baseline TFEQ restraint predicted greater weight loss. Across five administrations, TFEQ and WREQ restraint scores were positively related to weight loss (p < 0.01) and TFEQ disinhibition and WREQ external and emotional eating scores were negatively related (p < 0.001). Thus, with one baseline administration, only TFEQ restraint was significantly related to weight change, but multiple administrations showed relationships between all TFEQ and WREQ subscales and weight change. Conclusions The WREQ offers a shorter alternative to the TFEQ when repeatedly assessing eating behaviors related to weight change.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Examining the impact of a school-based fruit and vegetable co-op in the
           Hispanic community through documentary photography
    • Authors: Lani Alcazar; Margaret Raber; Kimberly Lopez; Christine Markham; Shreela Sharma
      Pages: 115 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Lani Alcazar, Margaret Raber, Kimberly Lopez, Christine Markham, Shreela Sharma
      Hispanic families are at elevated risk for certain diet related illnesses including obesity and diabetes. Brighter Bites is a 16-week school-based program that delivers produce and nutrition education to high-need areas. The purpose of this study was to explore the adoption of Brighter Bites healthy eating strategies in low-income Spanish-speaking families as well as barriers to the sustainability of improved dietary behaviors using Photovoice. Two researchers worked with a predominately Hispanic, low-income public school to conduct the project. Spanish speaking parents participating in Brighter Bites were recruited and five mothers completed the study. Participants developed research questions, took documentary photos, attended group analysis sessions, and organized a community event. Photos from participants were gathered at two time points: i) during the Brighter Bites produce distributions, and ii) when the distributions were no longer in session. Participants organized resulting photos into themes during discussion groups that proceeded each photo-taking period. Themes that emerged during the produce distribution period included: cost savings, increased variety and accessibility of fresh produce, and ability to practice healthy eating. Themes that emerged when the weekly produce distributions were no longer in session included: increased costs, lack of variety, the continued effect of Brighter Bites, and innovative ways to cook with produce. Overall, participants were enthusiastic about the benefits they experienced with the program, but noted hardships in accessing nutritious food without the produce distributions in session. Innovative approaches are needed to create sustainable pathways to healthful food access after community nutrition interventions are complete.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.025
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Observed differences in child picky eating behavior between home and
           childcare locations
    • Authors: Virginia Luchini; Salma Musaad; Soo-Yeun Lee; Sharon M. Donovan
      Pages: 123 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Virginia Luchini, Salma Musaad, Soo-Yeun Lee, Sharon M. Donovan
      Picky eating (PE) is a common mealtime difficulty that is reported by up to 50% of caregivers. Most of the research to date on PE has focused on parents, even though millions of children also eat meals in home- or center-based childcare settings. Currently, little is known about PE behaviors manifested by the child across the home and childcare settings, or how these behaviors differ between home-based childcare (HBCC) and center-based childcare (CBCC) locations. The objectives of this study were to compare PE behaviors between the child's home and HBCC or CBCC environments, and compare PE behaviors between HBCC and CBCC environments. Children, ages 3–5 years, were recruited from CBCC (n = 26) or HBCC (n = 24) locations. Caregivers and children were videotaped consuming two different lunchtime meals in their home and childcare. Picky eating behaviors were coded from the videos using a codebook created for the study. Observational results showed that children in CBCC displayed more PE behaviors when at home than at childcare, while HBCC children displayed PE behaviors more similarly between the two locations. Thus, interventions to reduce PE behaviors should be personalized for location-specific intervention programs focused on raising healthy eaters across multiple locations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T00:09:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Child feeding style is associated with food intake and linear growth in
           rural Ethiopia
    • Authors: Zeweter Abebe; Gulelat Desse Haki; Kaleab Baye
      Pages: 132 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Zeweter Abebe, Gulelat Desse Haki, Kaleab Baye
      Background Little is known about mother-child feeding interactions and how this is associated with food intake and linear growth. Objective To characterize mother-child feeding styles and investigate their associations with accepted mouthful and linear growth in west Gojam, rural Ethiopia. Subjects/design Two, in-home, meal observations of children aged 12–23 months (n = 100) were video-taped. The number of mouthful accepted was counted and the caregiver/child feeding styles were coded into positive/negative categories of self-feeding, responsive-feeding, active-feeding, social-behavior and distraction. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding practices, perception about child's overall appetite, and strategies adopted to overcome food refusal were collected through questionnaire-based interviews. Child and mothers' anthropometric measurements were also taken. Results Stunting was highly prevalent (48%) and the number of mouthful accepted was very low. Offering breastmilk and threatening to harm were the main strategies adopted to overcome food refusal. Although all forms of feeding style were present, active positive feeding style was dominant (90%) and was positively associated with mouthful accepted. Talking with non-feeding partner (64%), and domestic animals (24%) surrounding the feeding place were common distractions of feeding. Feeding was mostly terminated by caregivers (75%), often prematurely. Overall, caregivers of stunted children had poorer complementary- and breast-feeding practices and were less responsive to child's hunger and satiation cues (P < 0.05). Positive responsive feeding behaviors were associated with child's number of mouthful accepted (r = 0.27; P = 0.007) and stunting (r = 0.4; P < 0.001). Conclusion Low complementary food intake in this setting is associated with caregivers’ feeding style and stunting. Nutrition interventions that reinforce messages of optimal infant and young child feeding and integrate the promotion of responsive feeding behaviors are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T16:17:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.033
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on
           children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the
           traffic-light system
    • Authors: Alejandra Arrúa; María Rosa Curutchet; Natalia Rey; Patricia Barreto; Nadya Golovchenko; Andrea Sellanes; Guillermo Velazco; Medy Winokur; Ana Giménez; Gastón Ares
      Pages: 139 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Alejandra Arrúa, María Rosa Curutchet, Natalia Rey, Patricia Barreto, Nadya Golovchenko, Andrea Sellanes, Guillermo Velazco, Medy Winokur, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
      Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T16:17:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Predicting sugar consumption: Application of an integrated dual-process,
           dual-phase model
    • Authors: Martin S. Hagger; Nadine Trost; Jacob J. Keech; Derwin K.C. Chan; Kyra Hamilton
      Pages: 147 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Martin S. Hagger, Nadine Trost, Jacob J. Keech, Derwin K.C. Chan, Kyra Hamilton
      Excess consumption of added dietary sugars is related to multiple metabolic problems and adverse health conditions. Identifying the modifiable social cognitive and motivational constructs that predict sugar consumption is important to inform behavioral interventions aimed at reducing sugar intake. We tested the efficacy of an integrated dual-process, dual-phase model derived from multiple theories to predict sugar consumption. Using a prospective design, university students (N = 90) completed initial measures of the reflective (autonomous and controlled motivation, intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control), impulsive (implicit attitudes), volitional (action and coping planning), and behavioral (past sugar consumption) components of the proposed model. Self-reported sugar consumption was measured two weeks later. A structural equation model revealed that intentions, implicit attitudes, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption had small, significant effects on sugar consumption. Attitudes, subjective norm, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption predicted intentions. There were no effects of the planning constructs. Model effects were independent of the effects of past sugar consumption. The model identified the relative contribution of reflective and impulsive components in predicting sugar consumption. Given the prominent role of the impulsive component, interventions that assist individuals in managing cues-to-action and behavioral monitoring are likely to be effective in regulating sugar consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T16:17:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.032
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Permissive flexibility in successful lifelong weight management: A
           qualitative study among Finnish men and women
    • Authors: Anu Joki; Johanna Mäkelä; Mikael Fogelholm
      Pages: 157 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Anu Joki, Johanna Mäkelä, Mikael Fogelholm
      Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior). The informants reported certain routines that supported their weight management: regular eating, sufficient meal sizes, eating in response to hunger, healthy and vegetable-rich diet along with moderate feasting and flexible eating restriction. Flexibility in routines allowed freedom in their eating behavior. In addition, informants regarded themselves as physically active, and they enjoyed regular exercise. Regular weighing was generally considered unnecessary. Normal weight was regarded as a valuable and worthwhile issue, and most of the informants worked to keep their weight stable. Although the perceived workload varied among informants, the weight management strategies were similar. It was crucial to be conscious of the balance between eating and energy consumption. Further, flexibility characterized their behavior and was the basis of successful weight management. Women were more aware of weight control practices and knowledge than men, but otherwise, women and men reported similar weight management methods and attitudes. In conclusion, the interviewees who have maintained the normal weight had created a personal weight-management support environment where weight management was a lifestyle.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T16:17:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.031
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • An etiological model of disordered eating behaviors among Brazilian women
    • Authors: Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho; Marle dos Santos Alvarenga; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
      Pages: 164 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho, Marle dos Santos Alvarenga, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
      The Tripartite Influence Model posits that parents, peers and media influences mediated by internalization and appearance social comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, the Tripartite Influence Model has not been tested in Brazil where the people are known to have high levels of body image and appearance concerns. This study aimed to test an adapted Tripartite Influence Model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among Brazilian women. A sample of 741 undergraduate students (Mage = 23.55 years, SD = 4.09) completed measures of sociocultural influences, internalization of body ideal, social appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, muscularity dissatisfaction, disordered eating and body change behaviors. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women has good fit indexes (χ2(2064) = 6793.232; p = 0.0001; χ2/gl = 3.29; CFI = 0.82; PCFI = 0.79; RMSEA = 0.056 [IC90% = 0.053–0.057]). Parent and media influences were related with both internalization and social comparison, while peer influence with social comparison. A full mediation model was found, with both internalization and social comparison contributing to body dissatisfaction. Finally, body dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating behaviors. The findings inform the importance of considering cultural aspects that influence body image and eating behaviors, and highlight the validity of the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women, that can be used for research and clinical purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T16:17:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.037
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Back-of-pack information in substitutive food choices: A process-tracking
           study in participants intending to eat healthy
    • Authors: Vincent J. van Buul; Catherine A.W. Bolman; Fred J.P.H. Brouns; Lilian Lechner
      Pages: 173 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Vincent J. van Buul, Catherine A.W. Bolman, Fred J.P.H. Brouns, Lilian Lechner
      People are increasingly aware of the positive effects of a healthy diet. Concurrently, daily food consumption decisions – choices about both the quality and quantity of food that is ingested – are steered more by what consumers consider healthy. Despite the increased aim to eat healthier, however, consumers often do not read or incorrectly interpret on-pack nutrition information, resulting in suboptimal food choices in terms of health. This study aims to unravel the determinants of such inadvertent food choices from these consumers. In an online process-tracking study, we measured the actual usage of available back-of-pack nutrition information during substitutive food choices made by 240 participants who had the intention to eat healthy. Using mouse-tracking software in a computerized task in which participants had to make dichotomous food choices (e.g., coconut oil or olive oil for baking), we measured the frequency and time of nutritional information considered. Combined with demographic and psychosocial data, including information on the level of intention, action planning, self-efficacy, and nutrition literacy, we were able to model the determinants of inadvertent unhealthy substitutive food choices in a sequential multiple regression (R2 = 0.40). In these consumers who intended to eat healthy, the quantity of obtained nutrition information significantly contributed as an associative factor of the percentage of healthy food choices made. Moreover, the level of correct answers in a nutrition literacy test, as well as taste preferences, significantly predicted the percentage of healthier choices. We discuss that common psychosocial determinants of healthy behavior, such as intention, action planning, and self-efficacy, need to be augmented with a person's actual reading and understanding of nutrition information to better explain the variance in healthy food choice behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T16:17:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.036
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • A qualitative analysis of men's experiences of binge eating
    • Authors: Jillian B. Carey; Karen K. Saules; Meagan M. Carr
      Pages: 184 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Jillian B. Carey, Karen K. Saules, Meagan M. Carr
      Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent overeating episodes, accompanied by loss of control (LOC), in the absence of compensatory behaviors. The literature supports that men overeat as often or more often than do women, but they are less likely to endorse LOC and other BED symptoms. Thus, rates of BED are lower among men. However, differences in prevalence rates may reflect gender bias in current conceptualizations of eating disorders and BED diagnostic criteria, not necessarily truly lower rates of disordered eating among men. The purpose of this study was to gather detailed information about how men experience overeating and related body image concerns, to identify common themes. The grounded theory approach was utilized to examine narratives from 11 overweight/obese male college students about their experiences with overeating, with results suggesting that overeating is consistent with male gender role, but LOC is not. Other overeating themes included mindless eating, emotional antecedents, negative consequences, unintentional dietary restriction, and social encouragement to overeat. Participants also reported dissatisfaction with their bodies, a desire for their bodies to be both muscular and thin, concerns related to their physical functioning and health, and a distinction between body image and self-worth. Collectively, these themes suggest further study to more fully explore the features and consequences of how disordered eating and body image concerns may manifest among men.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.030
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Increasing water intake in pre-school children with unhealthy drinking
           habits: A year-long controlled longitudinal field experiment assessing the
           impact of information, water affordance, and social regulation
    • Authors: Bradley Franks; Saadi Lahlou; Jeanne H. Bottin; Isabelle Guelinckx; Sabine Boesen-Mariani
      Pages: 205 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Bradley Franks, Saadi Lahlou, Jeanne H. Bottin, Isabelle Guelinckx, Sabine Boesen-Mariani
      Objective We investigated the effect of three interventions to increase the plain water consumption of children with unhealthy drinking habits, with an innovative approach combining the three layers of Installation Theory: embodied competences, affordances and social regulation. Methods 334 preschool children and their carers were allocated to three interventions: Control (control): no intervention, Information (info): online coaching sessions on water health benefits aiming at modifying embodied competences (knowledge), Information + Water Affordance (info + w): the same plus home delivery of small bottles of water. After three months, half of the info and info + w subjects were allocated to Social Regulation (+social) (on-line discussion forum) or no further intervention (-social). Intake of plain water and all other fluid types of the children were recorded by the carers 6 times over a year using an online 7-day fluid-specific dietary record. Results Over 1 year, all groups significantly increased daily water consumption by 3.0–7.8 times (+118 to +222 mL). Info + w + social and Info-social generated the highest increase in plain water intake after one year compared to baseline, by 7.8 times (+216 mL) and 6.7 times (+222 mL) respectively; both significantly exceeded the control (3.0 times, +118 mL), whilst the effect of info + w-social (5.0 times, +158 mL) and info + social (5.3 times, +198 mL) did not differ from that of control. All groups saw a decrease of sweetened beverages intake, again with info + w + social generating the largest decrease (−27%; −172 mL). No changes in other fluids or total fluid intake were observed. Conclusions Sustainable increased water consumption can be achieved in children with unhealthy drinking habits by influencing representations, changing material affordances, and providing social regulation. Combining the three provided the strongest effect as predicted by Installation Theory.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • From the children's perspective: What are candy, snacks, and meals?
    • Authors: Elizabeth L. Adams; Jennifer S. Savage
      Pages: 215 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Elizabeth L. Adams, Jennifer S. Savage
      Objective There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. Methods Participants were children aged 5–8 years (N = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit). Children sorted each card into either a “snack” or “candy” pile followed by a semi-structured one-on-one interview to identify children's perceptions of candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to derive major themes. Results All children classified foods such as crackers and dry cereal as snacks; all children classified foods such as skittles and solid chocolate as candy. There was less agreement for “dessert like foods,” such as cookies and ice cream, whereby some children classified these foods as candy and others as snacks. Specifically, more children categorized ice cream and chocolate chip cookies as candy (61% and 63%, respectively), than children who categorized these as snack foods (39% and 36%, respectively). Qualitative interviews revealed 4 overarching themes that distinguished among candy, snack foods, and food served at meals: (1) taste, texture, and type; (2) portion size; (3) perception of health; and (4) time of day. Conclusion Children categorized a variety of foods as both a candy and a snack. Accurate measurement of candy and snack consumption is needed through the use of clear, consistent terminology and comprehensive diet assessment tools. Intervention messaging should clearly distinguish between candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals to improve children's eating behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.034
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The bogus taste test: Validity as a measure of laboratory food intake
    • Authors: Eric Robinson; Ashleigh Haynes; Charlotte A. Hardman; Eva Kemps; Suzanne Higgs; Andrew Jones
      Pages: 223 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Eric Robinson, Ashleigh Haynes, Charlotte A. Hardman, Eva Kemps, Suzanne Higgs, Andrew Jones
      Because overconsumption of food contributes to ill health, understanding what affects how much people eat is of importance. The ‘bogus’ taste test is a measure widely used in eating behaviour research to identify factors that may have a causal effect on food intake. However, there has been no examination of the validity of the bogus taste test as a measure of food intake. We conducted a participant level analysis of 31 published laboratory studies that used the taste test to measure food intake. We assessed whether the taste test was sensitive to experimental manipulations hypothesized to increase or decrease food intake. We examined construct validity by testing whether participant sex, hunger and liking of taste test food were associated with the amount of food consumed in the taste test. In addition, we also examined whether BMI (body mass index), trait measures of dietary restraint and over-eating in response to palatable food cues were associated with food consumption. Results indicated that the taste test was sensitive to experimental manipulations hypothesized to increase or decrease food intake. Factors that were reliably associated with increased consumption during the taste test were being male, have a higher baseline hunger, liking of the taste test food and a greater tendency to overeat in response to palatable food cues, whereas trait dietary restraint and BMI were not. These results indicate that the bogus taste test is likely to be a valid measure of food intake and can be used to identify factors that have a causal effect on food intake.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Appetitive conditioning to specific times of day
    • Authors: Karolien van den Akker; Remco C. Havermans; Anita Jansen
      Pages: 232 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Karolien van den Akker, Remco C. Havermans, Anita Jansen
      Human laboratory studies have shown that eating desires are easily learned through classical conditioning: after a few pairings of an initially neutral stimulus (e.g., a box) with the intake of palatable food (e.g., chocolate), the stimulus elicits increased eating expectancies and eating desires (acquisition). After repeated non-reinforced presentations of the chocolate-associated stimulus, eating expectancies and desires decrease again (extinction). It is commonly assumed that eating desires in daily life are acquired and extinguished in a similar manner, but to date, this has not been empirically tested. In two studies, we examined whether the repeated consumption of chocolate at a specific time of day elicits increased eating expectancies and eating desires over a period of 5 days (study 1) or 15 days (study 2), and relative to a time of day not paired with chocolate intake. Further, it was tested whether acquired responding diminishes again during extinction (study 1). Ecological momentary assessment was used to carry out the studies in daily life. Results showed that eating expectancies were acquired in both studies. Only in study 2, eating desires were also successfully learned. It is concluded that eating expectancies and eating desires can be conditioned to ecologically valid cues and under real-life circumstances. This highlights the importance of associative learning processes in the experience of eating desires in daily life.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Influence of seasoning on vegetable selection, liking and intent to
    • Authors: Joanna Manero; Carter Phillips; Brenna Ellison; Soo-Yeun Lee; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson; Karen M. Chapman-Novakofski
      Pages: 239 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Joanna Manero, Carter Phillips, Brenna Ellison, Soo-Yeun Lee, Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, Karen M. Chapman-Novakofski
      Low vegetable intake continues to be a health concern, and strategies to increase vegetable intake have resulted in only small increases. One strategy that has received less attention is the use of seasonings. This study's objective was to determine the impact of seasoning on vegetable selection, liking, and intent to purchase. We conducted a 3-week study in a public café on a university campus. Customers buying a main dish could select a vegetable side (seasoned [SS] or steamed [ST]) at no cost. Based on café data and power analysis (alpha 0.05, 80% power), 2 days per vegetable pair were conducted with carrot, broccoli, and green bean pairs randomized 3 days/week 1 and 3, with normal service week 2. Selection was greater for SS vs ST, n = 335 vs. 143 for all 3 vegetables combined; n = 97 vs 47 for carrots; n = 114 vs. 55 for broccoli; n = 124 vs. 41 for green beans (p < 0.001 Chi-Square). Liking responses were similar for SS vs ST and were high for all vegetables. Response distribution was not significantly different for SS vs ST vegetables when people were asked if they would purchase the vegetable that they selected. More customers chose the 'somewhat likely' and 'very likely' (n = 353) than the 'not likely' and 'definitely would not' (n = 121) purchase responses. Regression showed that people who did not often consume a vegetable with lunch while dining out were 1.59 times more likely to select the SS vegetables over the ST (p = 0.007). Given a choice, consumers were more likely to select a seasoned vegetable. With low vegetable consumption as a predictor of seasoned vegetable choice, offering seasoned vegetables may increase intake in those with poor vegetable intake in a café setting.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.035
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the
           supermarket and the relation to food waste in households
    • Authors: Jessica Aschemann-Witzel; Jacob Haagen Jensen; Mette Hyldetoft Jensen; Viktorija Kulikovskaja
      Pages: 246 - 258
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, Jacob Haagen Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft Jensen, Viktorija Kulikovskaja
      To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers’ food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with
           school lunch choice
    • Authors: Eleanor M. Winpenny; Kirsten L. Corder; Andy Jones; Gina L. Ambrosini; Martin White; Esther M.F. van Sluijs
      Pages: 259 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Eleanor M. Winpenny, Kirsten L. Corder, Andy Jones, Gina L. Ambrosini, Martin White, Esther M.F. van Sluijs
      Background There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. Methods The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. Results From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (−2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (−0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (−3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (−1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (−8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (−25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Conclusions Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Working memory and attentional bias on reinforcing efficacy of food
    • Authors: Katelyn A. Carr; Leonard H. Epstein
      Pages: 268 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Katelyn A. Carr, Leonard H. Epstein
      Reinforcing efficacy of food, or the relationship between food prices and purchasing, is related to obesity status and energy intake in adults. Determining how to allocate resources for food is a decision making process influenced by executive functions. Attention to appetitive cues, as well as working memory capacity, or the ability to flexibly control attention while mentally retaining information, may be important executive functions involved in food purchasing decisions. In two studies, we examined how attention bias to food and working memory capacity are related to reinforcing efficacy of both high energy-dense and low energy-dense foods. The first study examined 48 women of varying body mass index (BMI) and found that the relationship between attentional processes and reinforcing efficacy was moderated by working memory capacity. Those who avoid food cues and had high working memory capacity had the lowest reinforcing efficacy, as compared to those with low working memory capacity. Study 2 systematically replicated the methods of study 1 with assessment of maintained attention in a sample of 48 overweight/obese adults. Results showed the relationship between maintained attention to food cues and reinforcing efficacy was moderated by working memory capacity. Those with a maintained attention to food and high working memory capacity had higher reinforcing efficacy than low working memory capacity individuals. These studies suggest working memory capacity moderated the relationship between different aspects of attention and food reinforcement. Understanding how decision making process are involved in reinforcing efficacy may help to identify future intervention targets.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T11:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Lack of negative autocorrelations of daily food intake on successive days
           challenges the concept of the regulation of body weight in humans
    • Authors: David A. Levitsky; Ji Eun Raea Limb; Lua Wilkinson; Anna Sewall; Yingyi Zhong; Ammar Olabi; Jean Hunter
      Pages: 277 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): David A. Levitsky, Ji Eun Raea Limb, Lua Wilkinson, Anna Sewall, Yingyi Zhong, Ammar Olabi, Jean Hunter
      According to most theories, the amount of food consumed on one day should be negatively related to intake on subsequent days. Several studies have observed such a negative correlation between the amount consumed on one day and the amount consumed two to four days later. The present study attempted to replicate this observation by re-examining data from a previous study where all food ingested over a 30-day observation period was measured. Nine male and seven female participants received a vegan diet prepared, dispensed, and measured in a metabolic unit. Autocorrelations were performed on total food intake consume on one day and that consumed one to five days later. A significant positive correlation was detected between the weight of food eaten on one day and on the amount consumed on the following day (r = 0.29, 95% CI [0.37, 0.20]). No correlation was found between weights of food consumed on one day and up to twelve days later (r = 0.09, 95% CI [0.24, −0.06]), (r = 0.11, 95% CI [0.26, −0.0.26]) (r = 0.02, 95% CI [0.15, −0.7]) (r = −0.08, 95% CI [0.11, −0.09]). The same positive correlation with the previous day's intake was observed at the succeeding breakfast but not at either lunch or dinner. However, the participants underestimated their daily energy need resulting in a small, but statistically significant weight loss. Daily food intake increased slightly (13 g/day), but significantly, across the 30-day period. An analysis of the previous studies revealed that the negative correlations observed by others was caused by a statistical artifact resulting from normalizing data before testing for the correlations. These results, when combined with the published literature, indicate that there is little evidence that humans precisely compensate for the previous day's intake by altering the amount consumed on subsequent days. Moreover, the small but persistent increase in food intake suggests that physiological mechanisms that affect food intake operate more subtly and over much longer periods of time than the meal or even total daily intake.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T11:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.04.038
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • “What time is my next meal?” delay-discounting individuals choose
           smaller portions under conditions of uncertainty
    • Authors: Annie R. Zimmerman; Danielle Ferriday; Sarah R. Davies; Ashley A. Martin; Peter J. Rogers; Alice Mason; Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Annie R. Zimmerman, Danielle Ferriday, Sarah R. Davies, Ashley A. Martin, Peter J. Rogers, Alice Mason, Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      ‘Dietary’ delay discounting is typically framed as a trade-off between immediate rewards and long-term health concerns. Our contention is that prospective thinking also occurs over shorter periods, and is engaged to select portion sizes based on the interval between meals (inter-meal interval; IMI). We sought to assess the extent to which the length of an IMI influences portion-size selection. We predicted that delay discounters would show ‘IMI insensitivity’ (relative lack of concern about hunger or fullness between meals). In particular, we were interested in participants' sensitivity to an uncertain IMI. We hypothesized that when meal times were uncertain, delay discounters would be less responsive and select smaller portion sizes. Participants (N = 90) selected portion sizes for lunch. In different trials, they were told to expect dinner at 5pm, 9pm, and either 5pm or 9pm (uncertain IMI). Individual differences in future-orientation were measured using a monetary delay-discounting task. Participants chose larger portions when the IMI was longer (p < 0.001). When the IMI was uncertain, delay-discounting participants chose smaller portions than the average portion chosen in the certain IMIs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, monetary discounting mediated a relationship between BMI and smaller portion selection in uncertainty (p < 0.05). This is the first study to report an association between delay discounting and IMI insensitivity. We reason that delay discounters selected smaller portions because they were less sensitive to the uncertain IMI, and overlooked concerns about potential future hunger. These findings are important because they illustrate that differences in discounting are expressed in short-term portion-size decisions and suggest that IMI insensitivity increases when meal timings are uncertain. Further research is needed to confirm whether these findings generalise to other populations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T11:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Dietary customs and food availability shape the preferences for basic
    • Authors: Agnieszka Sorokowska; Robert Pellegrino; Marina Butovskaya; Michalina Marczak; Agnieszka Niemczyk; Tomas Huanca; Piotr Sorokowski
      Pages: 291 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Agnieszka Sorokowska, Robert Pellegrino, Marina Butovskaya, Michalina Marczak, Agnieszka Niemczyk, Tomas Huanca, Piotr Sorokowski
      Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced. Hence, our study focused on basic taste preferences in three populations, covering a broad difference in diet due to environmental and cultural conditions, market availability, dietary habits and food acquirement: 1) a modern society (Poles, n = 200), 2) forager-horticulturalists from Amazon/Bolivia (Tsimane', n = 138), and 3) hunter-gatherers from Tanzania (Hadza, n = 85). The preferences for basic tastes were measured with sprays containing supra-threshold levels of sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami taste solutions. We observed several interesting differences between participating societies. We found that Tsimane’ and Polish participants liked the sweet taste more than other tastes, while Hadza participants liked salty and sour tastes more than the remaining tastes. Further, Polish people found bitter taste particularly aversive, which was not observed in the traditional societies. Interestingly, no cross-cultural differences were observed for relative liking of umami taste – it was rated closely to neutral by members of all participating societies. Additionally, Hadza showed a pattern to like basic tastes that are more common to their current diet than societies with access to different food sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of diet and market availability on preference for basic tastes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T11:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Empowered to cook: The crucial role of ‘food agency’ in making
    • Authors: Amy B. Trubek; Maria Carabello; Caitlin Morgan; Jacob Lahne
      Pages: 297 - 305
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Amy B. Trubek, Maria Carabello, Caitlin Morgan, Jacob Lahne
      What makes an individual, on any given occasion, able and willing to prepare a meal for themselves: that is, to cook? As home cooking has increasingly become the focus of public-health, nutrition, and policy interventions and campaigns, the need for a better understanding has become apparent. It is clear that cooking is not merely a matter of mechanical skill or rote training; beyond this, it is difficult to explain why similar individuals have such different capacities for setting and achieving food-related goals. This paper proposes a new paradigm for cooking and food provisioning – termed “food agency” – that attempts to describe how an individual's desires form and are enacted in correspondence with social environments: broadly, agency emerges from the complex interplay of individual technical skills and cognitive capacities with social and cultural supports and barriers. Drawing on a close reading of anthropological and sociological research into cooking, the authors propose that an individual's ability to integrate such complexity in regard to provisioning – to possess ‘food agency’ – is crucial. This argument is supplemented by empirical case studies from a large body of ethnographic observations and interviews with home cooks from the United States, conducted over the last decade. Overall, more food agency means the cook is more empowered to act. Adopting the paradigm of food agency into the consideration of everyday cooking practices has the potential to support transdisciplinary food scholarship integrating individual actions within a food system and thus inform nutrition and public health interventions related to meal preparation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T11:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Academic stress and personality interact to increase the neural response
           to high-calorie food cues
    • Authors: Selin Neseliler; Beth Tannenbaum; Maria Zacchia; Kevin Larcher; Kirsty Coulter; Marie Lamarche; Errol B. Marliss; Jens Pruessner; Alain Dagher
      Pages: 306 - 314
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Selin Neseliler, Beth Tannenbaum, Maria Zacchia, Kevin Larcher, Kirsty Coulter, Marie Lamarche, Errol B. Marliss, Jens Pruessner, Alain Dagher
      Psychosocial stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and weight gain in stress-reactive individuals. Personality traits have been shown to predict stress-reactivity. However, it is not known if personality traits influence brain activity in regions implicated in appetite control during psychosocial stress. The current study assessed whether Gray's Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) scale, a measure of stress-reactivity, was related to the activity of brain regions implicated in appetite control during a stressful period. Twenty-two undergraduate students participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment once during a non-exam period and once during final exams in a counter-balanced order. In the scanner, they viewed food and scenery pictures. In the exam compared with the non-exam condition, BIS scores related to increased perceived stress and correlated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response to high-calorie food images in regions implicated in food reward and subjective value, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, (vmPFC) and the amygdala. BIS scores negatively related to the functional connectivity between the vmPFC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results demonstrate that the BIS trait influences stress reactivity. This is observed both as an increased activity in brain regions implicated in computing the value of food cues and decreased connectivity of these regions to prefrontal regions implicated in self-control. This suggests that the effects of real life stress on appetitive brain function and self-control is modulated by a personality trait. This may help to explain why stressful periods can lead to overeating in vulnerable individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T11:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The effects of acclimation to the United States and other demographic
           factors on responses to salt levels in foods: An examination utilizing
           face reader technology
    • Authors: Adrian L. Kerrihard; Mohamad B. Khair; Renata Blumberg; Charles H. Feldman; Shahla M. Wunderlich
      Pages: 315 - 322
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Adrian L. Kerrihard, Mohamad B. Khair, Renata Blumberg, Charles H. Feldman, Shahla M. Wunderlich
      The aim of this study was to assess the role of extended time in the United States (as defined as a continuous period greater than two years; referred to hereafter as “US Acclimated”), as well as other demographic factors, on the level of net positive response of consumers to different salt levels in food samples. One hundred panelists were recruited, including 50 meeting our US acclimation criterion. Panelists assessed samples of potatoes with five different levels of salt concentrations, and the levels of their net positive responses were evaluated with FaceReader technology (Noldus). The data of our study showed a significant positive association between US Acclimated participants and the level of net positive response to samples with higher salt contents. This interaction remained statistically significant even when modeling the effects with consideration of race/ethnicity and gender. Another notable outcome was the unexpected significant interaction between gender and US acclimation in regards to evaluated positive response across all salt concentrations (US Acclimated females demonstrating substantially and significant higher levels of positive response than US Acclimated males). The association between living in the United States and showing more positive response to higher salt contents is consistent with many persistent characterizations of the eating habits in the United States, but it is not in fact well explained by the most recent data regarding the observed levels of average sodium consumption across worldwide geographical regions. The results of this study may be demonstrating evidence of underlying as-yet-unknown factors contributing to the responses of consumers to salt levels in foods. Further examination of these possible factors may well be warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T11:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The impact of front-of-pack marketing attributes versus nutrition and
           health information on parents' food choices
    • Authors: Catherine Georgina Russell; Paul F. Burke; David S. Waller; Edward Wei
      Pages: 323 - 338
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Catherine Georgina Russell, Paul F. Burke, David S. Waller, Edward Wei
      Front-of-pack attributes have the potential to affect parents' food choices on behalf of their children and form one avenue through which strategies to address the obesogenic environment can be developed. Previous work has focused on the isolated effects of nutrition and health information (e.g. labeling systems, health claims), and how parents trade off this information against co-occurring marketing features (e.g. product imagery, cartoons) is unclear. A Discrete Choice Experiment was utilized to understand how front-of-pack nutrition, health and marketing attributes, as well as pricing, influenced parents' choices of cereal for their child. Packages varied with respect to the two elements of the Australian Health Star Rating system (stars and nutrient facts panel), along with written claims, product visuals, additional visuals, and price. A total of 520 parents (53% male) with a child aged between five and eleven years were recruited via an online panel company and completed the survey. Product visuals, followed by star ratings, were found to be the most significant attributes in driving choice, while written claims and other visuals were the least significant. Use of the Health Star Rating (HSR) system and other features were related to the child's fussiness level and parents' concerns about their child's weight with parents of fussy children, in particular, being less influenced by the HSR star information and price. The findings suggest that front-of-pack health labeling systems can affect choice when parents trade this information off against marketing attributes, yet some marketing attributes can be more influential, and not all parents utilize this information in the same way.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T11:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Maternal emotional feeding practices and adolescent daughters' emotional
           eating: Mediating roles of avoidant and preoccupied coping
    • Authors: Miriam Goldstein; Cin Cin Tan; Chong Man Chow
      Pages: 339 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Miriam Goldstein, Cin Cin Tan, Chong Man Chow
      The current study examined the link between early childhood emotional feeding and adolescent girls' emotional eating, using maladaptive coping styles as the underlying mechanisms mediating these associations. We examined adolescent girls' and mothers' retrospective reports of emotional feeding during childhood, as well as adolescent girls' current reports of their coping behaviors (i.e., preoccupied and avoidant) and emotional eating. Findings showed that adolescent girls' and mothers' retrospective reports of early emotional feeding were positively associated with adolescent girls' emotional eating. Preoccupied coping, but not avoidant coping, mediated the associations between early emotional feeding (reported by adolescents and mothers) and adolescents’ current emotional eating. In conclusion, findings suggest that early childhood feeding experiences are linked to the development of maladaptive coping and emotional eating among adolescent girls.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T11:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.021
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • The building blocks of drinking experience across men and women: A case
           study with craft and industrial beers
    • Authors: Carlos Gómez-Corona; Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía; Sylvie Chollet; Dominique Valentin
      Pages: 345 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Carlos Gómez-Corona, Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía, Sylvie Chollet, Dominique Valentin
      In today's market, every product seems to be marked by the label of "experience". It is expected that successful products give the consumer "extraordinary experiences". The research in consumption experience is growing, but much work still needs to be done to understand the food and beverage experience. A qualitative study was conducted using contextual focus groups to explore the building blocks of consumers' drinking experience of industrial and craft beers. The results show that drinking experience is shaped by our cognitive, sensory or affective systems, especially during the core consumption experience. Elements such as attitudes, consumption habits, and individual versus social consumption, shopping experience and product benefits are also responsible for shaping the experience, but are more relevant during the pre-consumption or post-consumption experience. Gender differences occur more frequently in the affective experience, as women search more for relaxation while men for excitement and stimulation while drinking beer. When comparing industrial users versus craft, in the latter the cognitive and shopping experiences are more relevant. Overall, the results showed that the drinking experience of beers can be studied as a function of the salient human system used during product interaction, and this systems act as the building blocks of the drinking experience of beer. This information can be applied in consumer research studies to further study the experiential differences across products and consumers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T11:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Using Temporal Self-Regulation Theory to understand healthy and unhealthy
           eating intentions and behaviour
    • Authors: Rachel Evans; Paul Norman; Thomas L. Webb
      Pages: 357 - 364
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 116
      Author(s): Rachel Evans, Paul Norman, Thomas L. Webb
      Objectives The present research investigated whether Temporal Self-Regulation Theory (TST) can be used to help understand healthy and unhealthy eating intentions and behaviour. Design A prospective design with two waves of data collection one week apart. Method An online survey measured the key components of TST (i.e., connectedness, timing and valence beliefs, intentions, past behaviour, habit strength, perceived environmental cues, and self-control) with respect to eating fruit and vegetables (F&V; N = 133) or unhealthy snacks (N = 125). Eating behaviour was assessed one week later. Results The components of TST explained significant amounts of the variance in intentions and behaviour for intake of F&Vs (22% and 64%, respectively) and unhealthy snacks (18% and 35%, respectively). Beliefs about positive and negative short-term outcomes significantly predicted intentions to perform both behaviours. Intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted consumption of F&Vs, and past behaviour moderated the relationship between intention and behaviour which became stronger as past behaviour increased. Past behaviour and habit strength significantly predicted unhealthy snacking. Conclusions The findings suggest that TST may be a useful framework for understanding eating intentions and behaviour. However, research did not find support for all of the hypothesised relationships (e.g., self-regulatory capacity did not significantly predict eating behaviour and also failed to moderate the relationships between intentions and behaviour). Research using alternative measures of self-regulatory capacity, along with experimental manipulations of TST variables, may be needed to further understand eating intentions and behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T11:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.022
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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