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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2800 journals)

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Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.545, h-index: 37)
Injury     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Injury Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 72)
InmunologĂ­a     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 7)
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 56)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.577, h-index: 51)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 75)
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.703, h-index: 75)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription  
Insulin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.175, h-index: 45)
Integration, the VLSI J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 24)
Integrative Medicine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.025, h-index: 54)
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.912, h-index: 33)
Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.696, h-index: 70)
Internet Interventions : The application of information technology in mental and behavioural health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.162, h-index: 2)
Intl. Biodeterioration & Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 57)
Intl. Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.936, h-index: 48)
Intl. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.353, h-index: 48)
Intl. Dairy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 87)
Intl. Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Emergency Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 23)
Intl. Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 12)
Intl. Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.97, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. for Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.76, h-index: 100)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Drugs and Drug Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 30)
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 78)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 36)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.492, h-index: 55)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.861, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.93, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.234, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.752, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.522, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.721, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Epilepsy     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.916, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.614, h-index: 121)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Gynecology & Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 65)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 116)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 76)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.338, h-index: 122)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.29, h-index: 66)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.913, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.801, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.017, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 1.295, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.363, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.886, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.387, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.507, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.947, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.173, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 74)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.143, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.316, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.887, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.403, h-index: 127)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.953, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.394, h-index: 43)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.393, h-index: 89)

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Journal Cover   Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2800 journals]
  • Table for two: The effects of familiarity, sex and gender on food
           choice in imaginary dining scenarios
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Amanda Dibb-Smith, Emily Brindal
      Introduction Existing research suggests that eating behaviours may be used to modify self-presentation and that process may be different for women compared to men. We aimed to assess how people make different food choices in situations of varying self-presentation demand. Method Via an online survey, eligible participants (n = 216; 64% female: not on a restrictive diet or severely obese/underweight) were allocated to one of four experimental conditions manipulating the familiarity (close friend v acquaintance) and sex of an eating companion (same v opposite sex). All participants were asked to imagine they were eating out with one of the manipulated companions, and were presented with a menu and asked to order items. Menu choices were used to calculate the total kilojoules ordered, percentage of kilojoules from fats and number of low-fat options selected. To assess differences in impression management, participants completed the Paulhus Deception scale. Results Despite successful manipulation checks, analyses of covariance (controlling for levels of hunger) revealed no main or interaction effects for familiarity and sex composition for any of the menu choice outcomes assessed. Impression management scores differed for sex composition (main effect only) with participants who imagined dining with someone of the same gender (M = 2.05, SE = 0.90) having higher impression management scores than those imagining dining with an opposite sex companion (M = 1.27, SE = 0.83). Conclusion We found preliminary support that gender composition could alter impression management demands but this did not translate to differences in food choice.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • Intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating among carers
           of left-behind children in rural China: A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Nan Zhang, Laia Bécares, Tarani Chandola, Peter Callery
      China's internal migration has left 61 million rural children living apart from parents and usually being cared for by grandparents. This study aims to explore caregivers' beliefs about healthy eating for left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Twenty-six children aged 6–12 (21 LBC and 5 non-LBC) and 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts) were recruited in one township in rural China. Children were encouraged to keep food diaries followed by in-depth interviews with caregivers. Distinct intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating emerged: the grandparent generation was concerned about not having enough food and tended to emphasise the importance of starchy foods for children's growth, due to their past experiences during the Great Famine. On the other hand, the parent generation was concerned about food safety and paid more attention to protein-source foods including meat, eggs and milk. Parents appeared to offer children high-energy food, which was viewed as a sign of economic status, rather than as part of a balanced diet. Lack of remittances from migrant parents may compromise LBC's food choices. These findings suggest the potential for LBC left in the care of grandparents, especially with experience of the Great Famine, may be at greater risk of malnutrition than children cared for by parents. By gaining an in-depth understanding of intergenerational differences in healthy eating beliefs for children, our findings could inform for the development of nutrition-related policies and interventions for LBC in rural China.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • Does better for the environment mean less tasty? Offering more
           climate-friendly meals is good for the environment and customer
           satisfaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Vivianne H.M. Visschers, Michael Siegrist
      Food consumption comprises a significant portion of the total environmental impact of households. One way to reduce this impact may be to offer consumers more climate-friendly meal choices, such as when eating out. However, the environmental benefits of such an intervention will depend on not only consumers' liking of the climate-friendlier meals, but also on the perceived environmental impact. We therefore investigated the relationship between the global warming potential (GWP) of and consumers' liking of meals in two field studies in the same restaurant. Visitors to the restaurant were asked to rate the taste of the meal they had just consumed. These taste ratings were then related to the meals' GWP and number of purchases. In the second study, an intervention was tested consisting of a climate-friendly choice label and information posters. Contrary to expectations, it was found in both studies that the GWP of the meals was unrelated to the taste or the number of purchases. Offering more climate-friendly meals did not change consumer satisfaction. As expected, the introduction of the climate-friendly choice label increased the number of climate-friendly meal purchases. Therefore, offering more climate-friendly meals with a climate-friendly choice label can affect consumers' meal choices, but not their preferences or satisfaction, which is beneficial for the climate, consumers and gastronomic establishments.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • A qualitative study of a food intervention in a primary school: Pupils as
           agents of change
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): H. Ensaff, C. Canavon, R. Crawford, M.E. Barker
      This study explored the impact of a school-based kitchen project at a large inner London school. Timetabled kitchen classroom sessions (90 min every fortnight) were held with all 7–9 year old pupils. Semi-structured focus group discussions (with 76 pupils, 16 parents) and interviews (with headteachers, catering managers and specialist staff) were conducted at the intervention school and a matched control school. Categories and concepts were derived using a grounded theory approach. Data analysis provided three main categories each with their related concepts: Pupil factors (enthusiasm and enjoyment of cooking, trying new foods, food knowledge and awareness, producing something tangible); School factors (learning and curriculum links, resource implications and external pressures) and Home factors (take home effects, confidence in cooking and self-esteem, parents' difficulties cooking at home with children). Children's engagement and the opportunity to cook supported increased food awareness, skills and food confidence. In the grounded theory that emerged, take home effects beyond the school gate dominate, as children act as agents of change and influence cooking and food choice at home. These short term outcomes have the potential to lead to longer term outcomes including changing eating behaviour and diet.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • How do mothers manage their preschool children's eating habits and does
           this change as children grow older? A longitudinal analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Megan Jarman, Jane Ogden, Hazel Inskip, Wendy Lawrence, Janis Baird, Cyrus Cooper, Sian Robinson, Mary Barker
      The practices mothers adopt in relation to feeding their children have been identified as important predictors of children's quality of diet. However, most studies of the impact of these practices on quality of children's diets have been cross-sectional in design, limiting conclusions about change and causality. Previous research has called for qualitative exploration of the way these practices are used in a real-life setting. This study set out to address these gaps in knowledge. At baseline, mothers recruited to a community-based intervention study and who had a preschool child, completed a questionnaire about their use of covert and overt control practices, child food neophobia and demographics. The quality of children's diets was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Both questionnaires were repeated with the mothers two years later. Complete data at both time points were available for 228 mother–child pairs. Four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 mothers of preschool children to explore their experiences of feeding young children. Mothers who increased their use of overt control had children whose level of food neophobia also increased (P = 0.02). Mothers who used more covert control had children with better quality diets at both time points (P = <0.01) and mothers who increased their use of covert control over the two year follow-up had children whose diet quality improved (P = 0.003). These associations were independent of confounders such as mother's level of education. In the focus groups, mothers suggested that feeding young children was stressful and that control was often relinquished in order to reduce conflict at mealtimes. Supporting parents to adopt more covert techniques to control their children's eating habits may be an effective way of improving the quality of young children's diets.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a
           low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Sarah E. Domoff, Alison L. Miller, Niko Kaciroti, Julie C. Lumeng
      The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; Wardle, Guthrie, Sanderson, & Rapoport, 2001) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviors. Yet, only one study has examined the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income children. In the current study, we examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and validity of the CEBQ among 1002 low-income preschool-age children recruited from Head Start locations in the United States. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated the CEBQ evidenced a reasonable fit to the data. Results also indicate that CEBQ subscales demonstrate good internal reliability (α's ≥ .70) and validity, with 7 of the 8 subscales associated with children's BMI z-scores in the expected directions. Equivalent factor loadings and indicator means across White and Black non-Hispanic participants were found, supporting measurement invariance between these two groups. In sum, our study supports the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income preschool-aged children in the United States.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • A historical exploration of Indian diets and a possible link to insulin
           resistance syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Manoshi Bhattacharya
      Background Insulin resistance syndrome, especially with diabetes, is becoming increasingly prevalent in India. The increasing consumption of low-fibre and refined carbohydrates is thought to be related to the increased risk of insulin resistance syndrome. Aim The aim was to study the history of eating behaviours in India; the patterns (macronutrients, frequency, and quantity) of food consumption amongst ancient, medieval and modern Indians; and the evolution of a primarily low-fibre and refined-carbohydrate diet. Methods The ancient dietary laws of India, historical documents, and ancient and medieval literature and poetry, spanning more than 2000 years, were studied. These data were compared with modern diets among people of different geographical regions, religions and social strata using the National Nutritional Database of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for analysis. Conclusions The data presented shows a gradual shift over the centuries from the Pastoral Age diet of large quantities of high-fibre carbohydrates, small amounts of digestible carbohydrates, moderate fats, moderate proteins, to an increasing and frequent intake of high-fibre carbohydrates associated with significant drop in protein and fat consumption between 1775 and 1947. From 1947 onwards there has been an increase in the frequency of intake and quantities of low-fibre and refined carbohydrates, and fats with protein intake improving only marginally.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • Food behavior change in late-life widowhood: A two-stage process
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Elisabeth Vesnaver, Heather H. Keller, Olga Sutherland, Scott B. Maitland, J.L. Locher
      Widowhood is a common life event for married older women. Prior research has found disruptions in eating behaviors to be common among widows. Little is known about the process underlying these disruptions. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical understanding of the changing food behaviors of older women during the transition of widowhood. Qualitative methods based on constructivist grounded theory guided by a critical realist worldview were used. Individual active interviews were conducted with 15 community-living women, aged 71–86 years, living alone, and widowed six months to 15 years at the time of the interview. Participants described a variety of educational backgrounds and levels of health, were mainly white and of Canadian or European descent, and reported sufficient income to meet their needs. The loss of regular shared meals initiated a two-stage process whereby women first fall into new patterns and then re-establish the personal food system, thus enabling women to redirect their food system from one that satisfied the couple to one that satisfied their personal food needs. Influences on the trajectory of the change process included the couple's food system, experience with nutritional care, food-related values, and food-related resources. Implications for research and practice are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective
           lay evaluations in comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): T. Bucher, B. Müller, M. Siegrist
      To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals.


      PubDate: 2015-08-29T15:06:31Z
       
  • A qualitative study exploring how school and community environments shape
           the food choices of adolescents with overweight/obesity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Allison W. Watts, Chris Y. Lovato, Susan I. Barr, Rhona M. Hanning, Louise C. Mâsse
      This study explored perceived barriers and facilitators to healthful eating in schools and communities among overweight teens who completed an E-health intervention. Twenty-two teens were recruited to a photovoice study and asked to take pictures of things that made it easier or harder to make healthful food choices at school and in their community. Digital photographs were reviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcribed audio-recordings were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Similar themes emerged from the school and community environments with food/beverage availability emerging most frequently, followed by peer influence, accessibility/convenience, price, classroom practices, marketing and online influences. Teens described an obesity-promoting environment and perceived very limited healthful options. Policy-driven environmental changes as well as strategies that help teens navigate food choices in their schools and communities are needed to support healthful eating.


      PubDate: 2015-08-12T03:32:34Z
       
  • Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment,
           prevalence and dietary intakes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Caroline M. Taylor, Susan M. Wernimont, Kate Northstone, Pauline M. Emmett
      Picky eating (also known as fussy, faddy or choosy eating) is usually classified as part of a spectrum of feeding difficulties. It is characterised by an unwillingness to eat familiar foods or to try new foods, as well as strong food preferences. The consequences may include poor dietary variety during early childhood. This, in turn, can lead to concern about the nutrient composition of the diet and thus possible adverse health-related outcomes. There is no single widely accepted definition of picky eating, and therefore there is little consensus on an appropriate assessment measure and a wide range of estimates of prevalence. In this review we first examine common definitions of picky eating used in research studies, and identify the methods that have been used to assess picky eating. These methods include the use of subscales in validated questionnaires, such as the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire as well as study-specific question(s). Second, we review data on the prevalence of picky eating in published studies. For comparison we present prevalence data from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in children at four time points (24, 38, 54 and 65 months of age) using a study-specific question. Finally, published data on the effects of picky eating on dietary intakes (both variety and nutrient composition) are reviewed, and the need for more health-related data and longitudinal data is discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:30:46Z
       
  • The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack
           food intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): A.K. Rose, C.A. Hardman, P. Christiansen
      Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:30:46Z
       
  • Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in
           preschoolers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Erin M. Norton, Seletha A. Poole, Hollie A. Raynor
      It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p < 0.05) beverage type and size interaction for amount of beverage consumed, with the 12 oz. juice condition consuming the greatest amount of beverage (226.6 ± 116.4 g), and for energy consumed from food, with the 12 oz. water condition consuming more than the 12 oz. juice condition (117.7 ± 69.1 kcal vs. 88.5 ± 64.1 kcal). A main effect of beverage type was found on overall snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p < 0.001). Providing preschool-aged children with a larger size of beverage at a snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:30:46Z
       
  • Visual illusions and inattention: Their association with adiposity among
           adolescent girls
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Lance O. Bauer
      The Delboeuf concentric circle illusion is frequently invoked as an explanation for the hypothesized association between dinner plate size and overeating. We examined its association with adiposity among 162 girls, aged 14–18 years. We also examined the association of adiposity with neural and behavioral responses during a separate visual discrimination task. The analysis showed that girls with a body mass index percentile ≥ 85, or with greater triceps skinfold thickness, exhibited less sensitivity to the Delboeuf illusion than girls with normal adiposity. The excess adiposity group also exhibited significantly smaller electroencephalographic responses and more errors during the separate visual discrimination task. In combination, the findings from the two tasks suggest that girls with an elevated body mass are less sensitive to visual cues in their environment. The implications of these findings for weight loss education should be considered.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:30:46Z
       
  • Effect of sensory exposure on liking for fat- or sugar-reduced biscuits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Coralie Biguzzi, Christine Lange, Pascal Schlich
      This study investigates the effect of exposure to fat- or sugar-reduced biscuits on liking for these products. Two sets of biscuits were manufactured, each including a standard variant and 4 variants differing by the level of reduction of either fat or sugar content, to 33% of fat content or 28% of sugar content. Biscuit consumers were recruited to eat either the fat (n = 113) or the sugar-reduced set of biscuits (n = 106). They participated in 5 testing sessions, once a week, in laboratory conditions. During each session, they rated their liking of the 5 variants. At the end of each of the 4 first sessions, consumers were given 16 biscuits for their home consumption during the week. Participants were split into 3 groups of exposure: every week, a control group received the standard variant, a “direct” group received the most reduced variant and a “stepwise” group received a more and more reduced variant. After both control and stepwise exposure, almost no evolution of liking was observed. At the end of the direct exposure period to the 33% fat-reduced variant, liking for this variant significantly improved. On the contrary, after the direct exposure to the 28% sugar-reduced variant, liking only improved for 9 and 16% sugar-reduced variants.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:30:46Z
       
  • Smell differential reactivity, but not taste differential reactivity, is
           related to food neophobia in toddlers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Sandrine Monnery-Patris, Sandra Wagner, Natalie Rigal, Camille Schwartz, Claire Chabanet, Sylvie Issanchou, Sophie Nicklaus
      Previous research has identified relationships between chemosensory reactivity and food neophobia in children. However, most studies have investigated this relationship using declarative data and without separately analysing smell and taste reactivity. Our first objective was to assess the relationships between smell and taste differential reactivity in toddlers (i.e. reactivity towards several stimuli), using experimental behavioural measurements. The second objective was to determine the relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia in toddlers, with the hypothesis that the more responsive a toddler was across food odours or tastes, the more neophobic s/he would be. An additional objective was to determine whether the potential relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia differ according to gender. One hundred and twenty-three toddlers aged from 20 to 22 months from the Opaline birth cohort (Observatory of Food Preferences in Infants and Children) were involved. A questionnaire was used to assess child's food neophobia. Toddlers' differential reactivity for smell (and for taste) was defined as the variability of behavioural responses over 8 odorants, and over the five basic tastes. Smell and taste differential reactivities were not correlated. Food neophobia scores were modestly but significantly positively correlated with smell differential reactivity but not with taste differential reactivity. When gender was considered, smell reactivity and neophobia were correlated only among boys. This indicates the need to study smell and taste reactivity separately to determine their associations with eating behaviours. This suggests that the rejection of novel foods in neophobic boys could be partly due to food odour. This finding is new and clearly requires further investigation.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:30:46Z
       
  • “Because we missed the way that we eat at the middle of the
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Pamela Weisberg-Shapiro, Carol M. Devine
      Better understanding of dietary change mechanisms among growing immigrant populations is needed in light of increased risk for diet-related chronic health conditions and inconsistent associations between acculturation and diet. This grounded theory research aimed to understand the lived experiences of interactions between food culture and social, economic, and physical environments in an immigrating population, Dominican women living in the Dominican Republic and New York City. Twenty-nine Dominican women participated in qualitative interviews about food and eating behaviors, life course experiences, and environments. Daily food and eating routines, framed by shopping for, preparation of, and consumption of ‘la comida’ or the main meal, emerged as dominant themes reflecting differences in women's economic, social, and physical environments. Routines were shaped by employment, household characteristics, and the food environment. Participating women attributed weight gain to changes in their food routines following immigration. The construction, disruption, and reconstruction of food and eating routines in response to differing economic, social, and physical environments in the sending and the receiving cultures provided new insights into the relationship between structural and cultural contexts of food and eating in an immigrant population. A food routines framework provides new insights into behavioral and weight changes with immigration.


      PubDate: 2015-08-08T03:30:46Z
       
  • Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to reduce binge eating symptoms
           in African American and Hispanic women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Scherezade K. Mama, Susan M. Schembre, Daniel P. O'Connor, Charles D. Kaplan, Sharon Bode, Rebecca E. Lee
      Objective Lifestyle interventions that promote physical activity and healthy dietary habits may reduce binge eating symptoms and be more feasible and sustainable among ethnic minority women, who are less likely to seek clinical treatment for eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether participating in a lifestyle intervention is a feasible way to decrease binge eating symptoms (BES) and (2) whether changes in BES differed by intervention (physical activity vs. dietary habits) and binge eating status at baseline (binger eater vs. non-binge eater) in African American and Hispanic women. Method Health Is Power (HIP) was a longitudinal randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and improve dietary habits. Women (N = 180) who completed anthropometric measures and questionnaires assessing fruit and vegetable and dietary fat intake, BES and demographics at baseline and post-intervention six months later were included in the current study. Results Over one-fourth (27.8%) of participants were categorized as binge-eaters. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant two- and three-way interactions. Decreases in BES over time were greater in binge eaters than in non-binge eaters (F(1,164) = 33.253, p < .001), and women classified as binge eaters who participated in the physical activity intervention reported greater decreases in BES than non-binge eaters in the dietary habits intervention (F(1,157) = 5.170, p = .024). Discussion Findings suggest behavioral interventions to increase physical activity may lead to reductions in BES among ethnic minority women and ultimately reduce the prevalence of binge eating disorder and health disparities in this population.


      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:26:52Z
       
  • Eating to live or living to eat? Exploring the causal attributions of
           self-perceived food addiction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Helen K. Ruddock, Joanne M. Dickson, Matt Field, Charlotte A. Hardman
      Previous studies indicate that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. However, little is known about how the concept of ‘food addiction’ is defined amongst members of the lay public. The current study examined beliefs about the cognitive and behavioural manifestations of food addiction. Participants (N = 210) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire in which they indicated whether or not they perceived themselves to be a food addict and provided a brief explanation for their response. Over a quarter of participants (28%) perceived themselves to be food addicts and self-diagnosis was predicted by increased BMI and younger age, but not by gender. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore the causal attributions provided by self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. Six characteristics were identified: 1) Reward-driven eating (i.e. eating for psychological rather than physiological reasons), 2) A functional or psychological preoccupation with food, 3) A perceived lack of self-control around food, 4) Frequent food cravings, 5) Increased weight or an unhealthy diet, and 6) A problem with a specific type of food. The emergent themes, and their frequency, did not differ between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. However, self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts reported divergent cognitions, behaviours and attitudes within each common theme. This study is the first to provide qualitative insight into beliefs about food addiction in both self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. The findings appear to reflect a view of food addiction that is identifiable through several core behaviours.


      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:26:52Z
       
  • Simply adding the word “fruit” makes sugar healthier: The
           misleading effect of symbolic information on the perceived healthiness of
           food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Bernadette Sütterlin, Michael Siegrist
      People may use simple heuristics to assess the healthiness of food products. For instance, the information that a product contains “fruit sugar” (in German, “fruit sugar” is the colloquial term for fructose) could be interpreted as a cue that the product is relatively healthy, since the term “fruit” symbolizes healthiness. This can have a misleading effect on the perceived healthiness of a product. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 164) were asked to evaluate the healthiness of one of two breakfast cereals based on the information provided in a nutrition table. For one group, the label “fruit sugar” was used; for the other, the label “sugar” was used. Results suggest that the phrase “fruit sugar” listed as an ingredient of the breakfast cereal resulted in a more positive perception of the healthiness of the cereal compared with the ingredient labeled “sugar.” In Experiment 2 (N = 202), the results of Experiment 1 were replicated with a within-subjects design in which participants evaluated the two products simultaneously. Experiment 3 (N = 251) ruled out the alternative explanation that the effect could be due to differing inferences about the product's ingredients based on the label used, that is, that the product labeled with “fruit sugar” contains fruit. Finally, in Experiment 4 (N = 162), the results show that the healthiness associated with the labeling of the ingredient “sugar” (“fruit sugar” vs. “sugar”) mediates the observed effect. Results of the four experiments indicate that symbolic information is an important factor that can influence people's health perceptions of food. These findings have implications for marketing and public health.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T20:52:08Z
       
  • Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young
           adult women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Laura E. Finch, A. Janet Tomiyama
      Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18–19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T20:52:08Z
       
  • Experimental analysis of the effect of taxes and subsides on calories
           purchased in an on-line supermarket
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Leonard H. Epstein, Eric Finkelstein, Hollie Raynor, Chantal Nederkoorn, Kelly D. Fletcher, Noelle Jankowiak, Rocco A. Paluch
      Taxes and subsidies are a public health approach to improving nutrient quality of food purchases. While taxes or subsidies influence purchasing, it is unclear whether they influence total energy or overall diet quality of foods purchased. Using a within subjects design, selected low nutrient dense foods (e.g. sweetened beverages, candy, salty snacks) were taxed, and fruits and vegetables and bottled water were subsidized by 12.5% or 25% in comparison to a usual price condition for 199 female shoppers in an experimental store. Results showed taxes reduced calories purchased of taxed foods (coefficient = −6.61, CI = −11.94 to −1.28) and subsidies increased calories purchased of subsidized foods (coefficient = 13.74, CI = 8.51 to 18.97). However, no overall effect was observed on total calories purchased. Both taxes and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for grains (taxes: coefficient = −6.58, CI = −11.91 to −1.24, subsidies: coefficient = −12.86, CI = −18.08 to −7.63) and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for miscellaneous foods (coefficient = −7.40, CI = −12.62 to −2.17) (mostly fats, oils and sugars). Subsidies improved the nutrient quality of foods purchased (coefficient = 0.14, CI = 0.07 to 0.21). These results suggest that taxes and subsidies can influence energy purchased for products taxed or subsidized, but not total energy purchased. However, the improvement in nutrient quality with subsidies indicates that pricing can shift nutritional quality of foods purchased. Research is needed to evaluate if differential pricing strategies based on nutrient quality are associated with reduction in calories and improvement in nutrient quality of foods purchased.


      PubDate: 2015-07-30T20:52:08Z
       
  • Indirect effects of exercise on emotional eating through psychological
           predictors of weight loss in women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): James J. Annesi, Nicole Mareno
      An improved understanding of how weight-loss interventions might be tailored to improve emotional eating is required. This study aimed to assess mediation of the relationship between increased exercise and decreased emotional eating so that behavioral treatments might be optimized. After randomization, women with obesity (N = 108; mean age = 48 years) were assigned to either a previously tested treatment of manual-based self-help for nutrition and exercise plus brief phone follow-ups, or a new protocol of cognitive-behavioral methods of exercise support intended to carry-over psychological improvements to better controlled eating and weight loss. A community-based field setting was incorporated. Validated self-report measures were administered over 6 months. Significant overall improvements in exercise outputs, emotional eating, mood, and self-regulation and self-efficacy for controlled eating were found. The newly developed treatment protocol demonstrated significantly greater improvements in exercise outputs and self-regulation. In a multiple mediation analysis, changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood significantly mediated the relationship between changes in exercise and emotional eating. Changes in self-efficacy and mood were significant independent mediators. Within follow-up analyses, the substitution of emotional eating subscales that addressed specific moods, and a subscale of self-efficacy for controlled eating that addressed that factor specifically in the presence of negative emotions, yielded results generally consistent with those of the multiple mediation analysis. Results suggested a psychological pathway of exercise's association with emotional eating changes in women with obesity. Guided by the present findings, tailoring exercise support and leveraging it to induce specific psychological improvements might reduce emotional eating and improve weight-management outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-07-26T21:36:39Z
       
  • The effectiveness of an implementation intentions intervention for fruit
           and vegetable consumption as moderated by self-schema status
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Deborah Kendzierski, Rebecca L. Ritter, Tammy K. Stump, Chelsea L. Anglin
      Two experiments were conducted to determine whether self-schema status moderates the effectiveness of an implementation intentions intervention on nutrition behavior among university students not meeting relevant dietary guidelines. In Experiment 1, students were asked to eat at least 2 servings of fruit and 3 of vegetables daily for a week. Implementation intention condition participants listed what fruits and vegetables they would eat and when and where they would eat them; control condition participants did not. Among those who did not initially meet vegetable targets (n = 108), implementation intentions increased the vegetable consumption of healthy eater schematics, but not of nonschematics. There were no significant effects for fruit consumption among those initially not meeting fruit targets (n = 83). Experiment 2 replicated the moderating effect of healthy eater self-schema status in regard to the effectiveness of an implementation intentions intervention for vegetable consumption among undergraduates who were not initially eating at least 3 servings of vegetables daily (n = 62). Findings are discussed in regard to promoting healthy eating among university students, as well as the implementation intention, self-schema, and self-concordance literatures.


      PubDate: 2015-07-26T21:36:39Z
       
  • Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links
           to each other and well-being could provide an answer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Tracy L. Tylka, Rachel M. Calogero, Sigrún Daníelsdóttir
      Researchers have found that rigid dietary control is connected to higher psychological distress, including disordered and disinhibited eating. Two approaches have been touted by certain scholars and/or health organizations as healthier alternatives: intuitive eating and flexible control—yet these approaches have not been compared in terms of their shared variance with one another and psychological well-being (adjustment and distress). The present study explored these connections among 382 community women and men. Findings revealed that intuitive eating and flexible control are inversely related constructs. Intuitive eating was related to lower rigid control, lower psychological distress, higher psychological adjustment, and lower BMI. In contrast, flexible control was strongly related in a positive direction to rigid control, and was unrelated to distress, adjustment, and BMI. Further, intuitive eating incrementally contributed unique variance to the well-being measures after controlling for both flexible and rigid control. Flexible control was positively associated with psychological adjustment and inversely associated with distress and BMI only when its shared variance with rigid control was extracted. Collectively, these results suggest that intuitive eating is not the same phenomenon as flexible control, and that flexible control demonstrated substantial overlap and entanglement with rigid control, precluding the clarity, validity, and utility of flexible control as a construct. Discussion addresses the implications of this distinction between intuitive eating and flexible control for the promotion of healthy eating attitudes and behaviors.


      PubDate: 2015-07-26T21:36:39Z
       
  • Self-reported eating traits: Underlying components of food responsivity
           and dietary restriction are positively related to BMI
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Menna Price, Suzanne Higgs, Michelle Lee
      Self-report measures of dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, hedonic response to food and loss of control over eating have been related to over eating, overweight and obesity. Impulsivity has emerged as a potential moderator in this relationship. However, the exact relationship between these measures and obesity is poorly defined. Self-report data was collected from a student and community based sample (N = 496) of males (N = 104) and females, with a wide age (18–73yrs; M = 27.41) and BMI (15.3–43.6; M = 24.2) range. Principle component analysis was used to explore the underlying structure of the sub-scales from a variety of eating behaviour questionnaires. Two emergent components relating to ‘dietary restriction’ and ‘food reward responsivity’ were supported in the analysis. Food reward responsivity component scores positively predicted BMI, but this relationship was moderated by impulsiveness. Dietary restriction component scores positively predicted BMI but were not moderated by impulsiveness. These findings suggest that frequently used eating behaviour measures can be reduced to two underlying components. Food reward responsivity positively predicts BMI, but only when impulsiveness is also high, supporting a dual-system approach where both bottom-up food reward drives and top-down impulse control are associated with overweight and obesity. Dietary restriction is an independent, positive predictor of BMI and is likely to be reflecting repeated unsuccessful attempts at weight control.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Approach bias and cue reactivity towards food in people with high versus
           low levels of food craving
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Timo Brockmeyer, Carolyn Hahn, Christina Reetz, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
      Objective Even though people suffering from high levels of food craving are aware of the negative consequences of binge eating, they cannot resist. Automatic action tendencies (i.e. approach bias) towards food cues that operate outside conscious control may contribute to this dysfunctional behavior. The present study aimed to examine whether people with high levels of food craving show a stronger approach bias for food than those with low levels of food craving and whether this bias is associated with cue-elicited food craving. Method Forty-one individuals reporting either extremely high or extremely low levels of trait food craving were recruited via an online screening and compared regarding approach bias towards visual food cues by means of an implicit stimulus-response paradigm (i.e. the Food Approach-Avoidance Task). State levels of food craving were assessed before and after cue exposure to indicate food cue reactivity. Results As expected, high food cravers showed stronger automatic approach tendencies towards food than low food cravers. Also in line with the hypotheses, approach bias for food was positively correlated with the magnitude of change in state levels of food craving from pre-to post-cue exposure in the total sample. Discussion The findings suggest that an approach bias in early stages of information processing contributes to the inability to resist food intake and may be of relevance for understanding and treating dysfunctional eating behavior.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and
           toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Cynthia A. Stifter, Kameron J. Moding
      The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • The habitual nature of unhealthy snacking: How powerful are habits in
           adolescence?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Emely De Vet, F. Marijn Stok, John B.F. De Wit, Denise T.D. De Ridder
      Many adolescents engage in unhealthy snacking behavior, and the frequency and amount of unhealthy consumption is increasing further. In this study, we aim to investigate the role that habit strength plays in unhealthy snacking during adolescence and whether self-regulation strategies can overcome habitual snacking. A total of 11,392 adolescents aged 10–17 years from nine European countries completed a cross-sectional survey about healthy eating intentions, snacking habit strength, eating self-regulation strategies, and daily intake of unhealthy snacks. The results showed that habit strength was positively associated with intake of unhealthy snack foods, also when healthy eating intentions were accounted for. Use of self-regulation strategies was negatively associated with unhealthy snacking. The interaction effect of habit strength and use of self-regulation strategies was significant. Strong snacking habits were associated with higher consumption, but this effect could be attenuated by use of temptation-oriented self-regulation strategies. The present study highlights that habit strength is associated with unhealthy snacking already in adolescents. The findings suggest that teaching self-regulation strategies may help adolescents to overcome unhealthy snacking habits.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Low demanding parental feeding style is associated with low consumption of
           whole grains among children of recent immigrants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Alison Tovar, Silvina F. Choumenkovitch, Erin Hennessy, Rebecca Boulos, Aviva Must, Sheryl O. Hughes, David M. Gute, Emily Kuross Vikre, Christina D. Economos
      We explored the influence of immigrant mothers feeding style on their children's fruit, vegetable and whole grain intake and how this relationship differed by mother's time in the U.S. Baseline data were collected on mother-child (3–12 yrs) dyads enrolled in Live Well (n = 313), a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention (2008–2013). Socio-demographics, years of residence in the U.S., behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were obtained from the mother. Measured heights and weights were obtained for both mother and child. Child dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Screener. Separate multiple linear regression models were run, adjusting for child and mother covariates. Interactions between feeding styles and years in the U.S. (<5 and ≥ 5 years), ethnicity, and child age were tested. Sixty-nine percent of mothers were overweight or obese, 46% of the children were overweight or obese. For mothers in the U.S. for<5 years, having a low demanding/high responsive style was associated with lower child intake of whole grains in adjusted models vs. a high demanding/high responsive style (p < 0.05). This was not seen for mothers in the U.S. for≥5 years. Thus, the influence of feeding style on dietary intake may change with length of time in the U.S. These hypotheses-generating findings call for future research to understand how broader socio-cultural factors influence the feeding dynamic among immigrants.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs
           and practices among low-income mothers of young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Christy Y.Y. Leung, Alison L. Miller, Julie C. Lumeng, Niko A. Kaciroti, Katherine L. Rosenblum
      Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions.


      PubDate: 2015-07-22T21:36:02Z
       
  • The impact of image-size manipulation and sugar content on children's
           cereal consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): E. Neyens, G. Aerts, T. Smits
      Previous studies have demonstrated that portion sizes and food energy-density influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential effects of front-of-pack image-sizes of serving suggestions and sugar content have not been tested. Using a mixed experimental design among young children, this study examines the effects of image-size manipulation and sugar content on cereal and milk consumption. Children poured and consumed significantly more cereal and drank significantly more milk when exposed to a larger sized image of serving suggestion as compared to a smaller image-size. Sugar content showed no main effects. Nevertheless, cereal consumption only differed significantly between small and large image-sizes when sugar content was low. An advantage of this study was the mundane setting in which the data were collected: a school's dining room instead of an artificial lab. Future studies should include a control condition, with children eating by themselves to reflect an even more natural context.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to
           an isoenergetic confectionary snack
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Lewis J. James, Mark P. Funnell, Samantha Milner
      Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m−2; body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (∼5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (P<0.001) after consumption of the BERRY snack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (P<0.001) than the CONF snack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • The way to her heart? Response to romantic cues is dependent on hunger
           state and dieting history: An fMRI pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Alice V. Ely, Anna Rose Childress, Kanchana Jagannathan, Michael R. Lowe
      Normal weight historical dieters (HDs) are prone to future weight gain, and show higher levels of brain activation in reward-related regions after having eaten than nondieters (NDs) in response to food stimuli (Ely, Childress, Jagannathan, & Lowe, 2014), a similar pattern to that seen in obesity. We hypothesized that HDs are differentially sensitive after eating to rewards in general, and thus extended prior findings by comparing the same groups' brain activation when viewing romantic pictures compared to neutral stimuli while being scanned in a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI paradigm in a fasted and fed state. Results show that 1) in fed relative to fasted conditions, both HDs and NDs were more responsive in areas related to reward and 2) in HDs, greater fed versus fasted activation extended to areas linked to perception and goal-directed behavior. HDs relative to NDs were more responsive to romantic cues in the superior frontal gyrus when fasted and the middle temporal gyrus when fed. This pattern of response is similar to HDs' activation when viewing highly palatable food cues, and is consistent with research showing overlapping brain-based responses to sex, drugs and food.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • Maternal intuitive eating as a moderator of the association between
           concern about child weight and restrictive child feeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Tracy L. Tylka, Julie C. Lumeng, Ihuoma U. Eneli
      Mothers who are concerned about their young child's weight are more likely to use restrictive feeding, which has been associated with increased food seeking behaviors, emotional eating, and overeating in young children across multiple prospective and experimental studies. In the present study, we examined whether mothers' intuitive eating behaviors would moderate the association between their concern about their child's weight and their use of restrictive feeding. In a sample of 180 mothers of young children, two maternal intuitive eating behaviors (i.e., eating for physical reasons, trust in hunger and satiety cues) moderated this association after controlling for maternal age, body mass index, years of education, race/ethnicity, awareness of hunger and satiety cues and perceptions of child weight. More specifically, concern about child weight was unrelated to restrictive feeding for mothers with higher levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. However, concern about child weight was positively related to restrictive feeding among mothers with lower or average levels of eating for physical reasons and trust in hunger and satiety cues. These findings indicate that it may be important address maternal intuitive eating within interventions designed to improve self-regulated eating in children, as mothers who attend these interventions tend to be highly concerned about their child's weight and, if also low in intuitive eating, may be at risk for using restrictive feeding behaviors that interfere with children's self-regulated eating.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • Attached to meat? (Un)Willingness and intentions to adopt a more
           plant-based diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): João Graça, Maria Manuela Calheiros, Abílio Oliveira
      In response to calls to expand knowledge on consumer willingness to reduce meat consumption and to adopt a more plant-based diet, this work advances the construct of meat attachment and the Meat Attachment Questionnaire (MAQ). The MAQ is a new measure referring to a positive bond towards meat consumption. It was developed and validated through three sequential studies following from an in-depth approach to consumer representations of meat. The construct and initial pool of items were firstly developed drawing on qualitative data from 410 participants in a previous work on consumers’ valuation of meat. Afterwards, 1023 participants completed these items and other measures, providing data to assess item selection, factor structure, reliability, convergent and concurrent validity, and predictive ability. Finally, a sample of 318 participants from a different cultural background completed the final version of the MAQ along with other measures to assess measurement invariance, reliability and predictive ability. Across samples, a four-factor solution (i.e., hedonism, affinity, entitlement, and dependence) with 16 items and a second-order global dimension of meat attachment fully met criteria for good model fit. The MAQ subscales and global scale were associated with attitudes towards meat, subjective norm, human supremacy beliefs, eating habits, and dietary identity. They also provided additional explanatory variance above and beyond the core TPB variables (i.e. attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) in willingness and intentions concerning meat substitution. Overall, the findings point towards the relevance of the MAQ for the study of meat consumption and meat substitution, and lend support to the idea that holding a pattern of attachment towards meat may hinder a shift towards a more plant-based diet.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • Technology-based interventions in the treatment of overweight and obesity:
           A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Lieke C.H. Raaijmakers, Sjaak Pouwels, Kim A. Berghuis, Simon W. Nienhuijs
      The prevalence of obesity increases worldwide. The use of technology-based interventions can be beneficial in weight loss interventions. This review aims to provide insight in the effectiveness of technology-based interventions on weight loss and quality of life for patients suffering overweight or obesity compared to standard care. Pubmed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CINAHL and Embase were searched from the earliest date (of each database) up to February 2015. Interventions needed to be aimed at reducing or maintaining weight loss in persons with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and have a technology aspect. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used for rating the methodological quality. Twenty-seven trials met inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies showed significant effects on weight loss compared to controls. Most interventions used a web-based approach (42%). Interventions were screened for five technical key components: self-monitoring, counsellor feedback and communication, group support, use of a structured program and use of an individually tailored program. All interventions that used a combination of all five or four components showed significant decreases in weight compared to controls. No significant results for quality of life were found. Outcomes on program adherence were reported in six studies. No significant results were found between weight loss and program adherence. Evidence is lacking about the optimal use of technology in weight loss interventions. However, when the optimal combination of technological components is found, technology-based interventions may be a valid tool for weight loss. Furthermore, more outcomes on quality of life and information about the effect of technology-based intervention after bariatric surgery are needed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-18T21:35:25Z
       
  • The effect of emotional state on taste perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Corinna Noel , Robin Dando
      Taste perception can be modulated by a variety of extraneously applied influences, such as the manipulation of emotion or the application of acute stress. To evaluate the effect of more commonplace day-to-day emotional variation on taste function, taste intensity ratings and hedonic evaluations were collected from approximately 550 attendees following men's hockey games spanning the 2013–2014 season, a period encompassing 4 wins, 3 losses, and 1 tie. Since different outcomes at competitive sporting events are shown to induce varying affective response, this field study presented a unique environment to evaluate the effect of real-life emotional manipulations on our perception of taste, where previous research focused more on extraneous manipulation within a laboratory environment. Analysis revealed that positive emotions correlated with enhanced sweet and diminished sour intensities while negative emotions associated with heightened sour and decreased sweet tastes. Theoretically, both an increase in sweet and a decrease in sour taste intensity would drive acceptance of a great number of foods. Indeed, hedonic ratings for samples that were less liked (and parenthetically mostly sweet and sour in nature), selectively increased as positive affect grew, possibly due to the perceived decrease in sourness and increase in sweetness. The results of this field study indicate that emotional manipulations in the form of pleasantly or unpleasantly perceived real-life events can influence the intensity perception of taste, driving hedonics for less acceptable foods. These results suggest that such modulation of taste perception could play a role in emotional eating.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Response of appetite and potential appetite regulators following intake of
           high energy nutritional supplements
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Sadia Fatima , Konstantinos Gerasimidis , Charlotte Wright , Melina Tsiountsioura , Eirini-Iro Arvanitidou , Dalia Malkova
      Background The net clinical benefit of high-energy nutritional supplements (HENSDs) consumption is lower than expected. Objectives To investigate the extent to which consumption of oral HENSD in the fasted state reduces energy intake in slim females during consecutive breakfast and lunch, and whether this relates to changes in appetite and metabolic appetite regulators. Design Twenty three females of 24.4 ± 2.8 years with BMI of 18.2 ± 0.8 kg/m2 consumed HENSD (2.5 MJ) or PLACEBO (0.4 MJ) in fasted state in a single blind randomized cross-over study. Appetite and metabolic rate measurements and blood collection were conducted prior to and during 240 min after the intake of the supplements. Energy intake was recorded during ad libitum buffet breakfast and lunch served 60 min and 240 min post supplementation respectively. Results Energy intake during breakfast was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the HENSD trial but the net cumulative effect on energy intake was 1.07 ± 0.34 MJ higher in the HENSD compared to PLACEBO. Plasma concentration of CCK and PYY and insulin and were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENSD trial while appetite measures were not significantly different between HENSD and PLACEBO trials. Correlations for the within participant relations between the responses of plasma hormones and appetite scores were significant (P < 0.05) for PYY and insulin but not CCK. The energy expended above resting metabolic rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HENDS trial but relative increase in energy expenditure was not significantly different between the two trials. Conclusion Oral high-energy nutritional supplements have a partial and relatively short lived suppressive action on energy intake and can be expected to increase net energy intake by approximately half the energy value of the supplement consumed.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Perceptions and attitudes towards food choice in adolescents in Gaborone,
           Botswana
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Corbett Brown , Sheila Shaibu , Segametsi Maruapula , Leapetswe Malete , Charlene Compher
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the factors that influence adolescent and adult perceptions and attitudes related to adolescent diet in Botswana. A series of 15 focus groups [12 adolescent focus groups (6 male and 6 female) & 3 parent focus groups] of approximately six to eleven members each were conducted in Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana in 2009–2010. Adolescents and parents of adolescents suggest that the main drivers of adolescent food choices have much to do with where the adolescent is in terms of time of day as well as with whom the adolescent is with. Outside of the home adolescents suggest that the real or perceived influence of companions place social standing on the ability to purchase and consume non-traditional foods, and that traditional foods leave adolescents open to ridicule. Additionally parents of adolescents suggest that while they prefer for their children to consume healthy foods, they frequently purchase unhealthy food items for their children based on the child's taste preferences as well as social influence to prove you can buy “nice things” for one's family. Adolescents and parents of adolescents suggest that increasing the availability and decreasing the costs of healthy food options are preferred possible interventions to increase healthful eating among adolescents. However, the adolescents also suggest that these healthy food options should not crowd out or completely replace unhealthy options, thus preserving the adolescents' freedom to choose. This could pose a major challenge in any school-based adolescent obesity prevention program.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Energy-dense snacks can have the same expected satiation as
           sugar-containing beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Ashley A. Martin , Liam R. Hamill , Sarah Davies , Peter J. Rogers , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative ‘expected satiation’ (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expected satiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500 ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p < 0.05). Further, Experiment 2 showed that this difference was greater in participants who were familiar with our test beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5–205.2 kcal; p = 0.87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • “He just has to like ham” – The centrality of meat in
           home and consumer studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Ingela Bohm , Cecilia Lindblom , Gun Åbacka , Carita Bengs , Agneta Hörnell
      This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited time frames and resources of Home and Consumer Studies.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Eating behaviour in treatment-seeking obese subjects – Influence of
           sex and BMI classes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Barbara Ernst , Britta Wilms , Martin Thurnheer , Bernd Schultes
      Obese subjects frequently show an adversely altered eating behaviour. However, little is known on differences in eating behaviour across different degree of obesity. We analysed data on the three factor eating questionnaire assessing cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger that were filled in by 664 obese patients (469 women) who seeked treatment in our Interdisciplinary Obesity Center. Patients were divided in five BMI classes (30 – <35 kg/m2, 35 – <40 kg/m2, 40 – <50 kg/m2, and >50 kg/m2). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that sex was significantly related to all three eating behaviour traits (all P < 0.042) but no significant relation to BMI (as a continuous variable) was observed. Women in comparison to men showed significantly higher cognitive restraint (9.7 ± 4.3 vs. 7.7 ± 4.4; P < 0.001) and disinhibition (9.0 ± 3.5 vs. 7.7 ± 3.5; P < 0.001) scores and also showed higher hunger scores (6.9 ± 3.7 vs. 6.3 ± 3.5; P = 0.042). Analyses on different BMI classes revealed that cognitive restraint decreased (P = 0.016) while disinhibition (P = 0.010) and hunger (P = 0.044) increased independently of sex with increasing BMI classes. However, above the obesity grade I class (i.e. BMI 30 – < 35 kg/m2) there were no differences in eating behaviour variables between the remaining BMI classes. Data indicate profound differences in eating behaviour between women and men that persist across a wide range of obesity. Furthermore, data suggest that while grade I obese patients show higher cognitive restraint and less disinhibition and hunger scores than more severe obese patients these dimensions of eating behaviour do not systematically vary across higher BMI classes.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Individual differences in the interoceptive states of hunger, fullness and
           thirst
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Richard J. Stevenson , Mehmet Mahmut , Kieron Rooney
      Interoception is the ability to perceive internal bodily states. This involves the detection and awareness of static and changing afferent signals from the viscera, motivational states, affective reactions, and associated cognitions. We examined whether there are individual differences in any or all of these aspects of ingestion-related interoception and their possible causes. Individual variation in almost all aspects of interoception was documented for hunger, fullness and thirst – including how participants use, prioritise and integrate visceral, motivational, affective and cognitive information. Individual differences may arise from multiple causes, including genetic influences, developmental changes hypothesised to result from child feeding practices, and from conditions such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and certain subtypes of obesity. A nutritionally poor diet, and dietary restraint, may also affect ingestion-related interoception. Finally, certain forms of brain injury, notably to the medial temporal lobes are associated with impaired ingestion-related interoception. We conclude by examining the practical and theoretical consequences of these individual differences.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • “It's like giving him a piece of me.”: Exploring UK and
           Israeli women's accounts of motherhood and feeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): N. Shloim , S. Hugh-Jones , M.C.J. Rudolf , R.G. Feltbower , O. Lans , M.M. Hetherington
      Objective The present study explored how Israeli and UK mothers integrate feeding into their conceptualisations of mothering 2–6 months post-partum. Background The nature and importance of motherhood is subject to differential contextual, cultural, political and historical influences. We set out to compare experiences of motherhood and feeding between these two countries using a qualitative approach. Methods Forty one women (mean age 36.4 ± 2.7 years) from Israel and the UK, mostly married or in a committed relationship were interviewed about their experience of pregnancy, motherhood and feeding. Data were analysed thematically. Results The experience of motherhood in the early postnatal period was dominated, for all mothers, by the experience of breastfeeding and clustered around three representations of mothering, namely; 1) a devoted mother who ignores her own needs; 2) a mother who is available for her infant but acknowledges her needs as well; and 3) a struggling mother for whom motherhood is a burden. Such representations existed within both cultural groups and sometimes coexisted within the same mothers. UK women described more struggles within motherhood whereas a tendency towards idealising motherhood was observed for Israeli women. Conclusion There are similarities in the ways that UK and Israeli women experienced motherhood and feeding. Where family life is strongly emphasized, mothers reported extremes of idealism and burden and associated an “ideal” mother with a breastfeeding mother. Where motherhood is represented as just one of many roles women take up, they are more likely to represent a “good enough” approach to mothering. Understanding the experience of motherhood and feeding in different cultural settings is important to provide the context for postnatal care specifically where mothers are reluctant to share problems or difficulties encountered.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Child feeding perceptions among mothers with eating disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Shiri Sadeh-Sharvit , Rachel Levy-Shiff , Talya Feldman , Anca Ram , Eitan Gur , Eynat Zubery , Evelyne Steiner , Yael Latzer , James D. Lock
      Feeding and eating difficulties are documented among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders. Understanding the perspective of mothers with eating disorders is likely essential to develop parent-based early prevention programs for children of these mothers. In the present study, twenty-nine mothers who were diagnosed with an eating disorder prior to becoming mothers and who currently had toddler age children participated in a semi-structured interview examining maternal functioning and child feeding. The maternal perceptions that emerged from the interviews were sorted into central themes and subcategories using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data indicate that mothers with eating disorders express preoccupation with their child's eating, shape and weight, and many dilemmas about child feeding. They also reported rarity of family meals and their toddlers' preliminary awareness of maternal symptoms. Maternal concerns regarding child nutrition, feeding and weight were reported as more intense in regards to daughters. These maternal perceptions illuminate the maternal psychological processes that underlie the feeding and eating problems of the children of mothers with lifetime eating disorders. Findings should be addressed in the evaluation, treatment, and research of adult and childhood eating disorders.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Impact of olfactory and auditory priming on the attraction to foods with
           high energy density
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): S. Chambaron , Q. Chisin , C. Chabanet , S. Issanchou , G. Brand
      Recent research suggests that non-attentively perceived stimuli may significantly influence consumers' food choices. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether an olfactory prime (a sweet-fatty odour) and a semantic auditory prime (a nutritional prevention message), both presented incidentally, either alone or in combination can influence subsequent food choices. The experiment included 147 participants who were assigned to four different conditions: a control condition, a scented condition, an auditory condition or an auditory-scented condition. All participants remained in the waiting room during15 min while they performed a ‘lure’ task. For the scented condition, the participants were unobtrusively exposed to a ‘pain au chocolat’ odour. Those in the auditory condition were exposed to an audiotape including radio podcasts and a nutritional message. A third group of participants was exposed to both olfactory and auditory stimuli simultaneously. In the control condition, no stimulation was given. Following this waiting period, all participants moved into a non-odorised test room where they were asked to choose, from dishes served buffet-style, the starter, main course and dessert that they would actually eat for lunch. The results showed that the participants primed with the odour of ‘pain au chocolat’ tended to choose more desserts with high energy density (i.e., a waffle) than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.06). Unexpectedly, the participants primed with the nutritional auditory message chose to consume more desserts with high energy density than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.03). In the last condition (odour and nutritional message), they chose to consume more desserts with high energy density than the participants in the control condition (p = 0.01), and the data reveal an additive effect of the two primes.


      PubDate: 2015-07-14T17:03:19Z
       
  • Consumers’ view on determinants to food satisfaction. A qualitative
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Barbara Vad Andersen , Grethe Hyldig
      The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the multiple determinants to food satisfaction from a consumer perspective. The study includes two focus groups with a total of 20 consumers varying in gender, age, employment and food interest. The results were divided into sections based on the main themes that arose from analysing the focus groups; i) sensory properties, ii) physical wellbeing, iii) expectations and desires, iv) the food context and v) comparison of the importance of the various determinants to satisfaction. Factors important for food satisfaction appear before as well as during and after intake. Before intake, the important factors are; expectations and desires based on memories about previous food experiences and the context in which the food is perceived. Physical wellbeing was mentioned important for the feeling of satisfaction, included in physical wellbeing is the experience of an appropriate energy level after intake. In general the sensory experience seems to be the primary determinant to satisfaction. The hedonic experience of eating could be enhanced by the social company and knowledge about the food inclusive health value and origin. Findings from the study will prospectively be used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire will be applied in case studies to measure factors influential in food satisfaction.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
  • Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and
           reduced energy intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Natalia S. Lawrence , Jamie O'Sullivan , David Parslow , Mahmood Javaid , Rachel C. Adams , Christopher D. Chambers , Katarina Kos , Frederick Verbruggen
      The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
  • Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary
           behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: Results of
           the JAGES
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 95
      Author(s): Yukako Tani , Naoki Kondo , Daisuke Takagi , Masashige Saito , Hiroyuki Hikichi , Toshiyuki Ojima , Katsunori Kondo
      We examined whether eating alone is associated with dietary behaviors and body weight status, and assessed the modifying effects of cohabitation status in older Japanese people. Data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, with a self-reported questionnaire for 38,690 men and 43,674 women aged ≥65 years, were used. Eating status was classified as eating with others, sometimes eating alone, or exclusively eating alone. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity, and underweight, adjusting for age, education, income, disease, and dental status using Poisson regression. Overall, 16% of men and 28% of women sometimes or exclusively ate alone. Among those who exclusively ate alone, 56% of men and 68% of women lived alone. Men who exclusively ate alone were 3.74 times more likely to skip meals than men who ate with others. Among men who exclusively ate alone, those who lived alone had a higher APR than men who lived with others. Compared with subjects who ate and lived with others, the APRs of being obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) among men who exclusively ate alone were 1.34 (1.01–1.78) in those who lived alone and 1.17 (0.84–1.64) in those who lived with others. These combined effects of eating and living alone were weaker in women, with a potential increase in the APRs among those who ate alone despite living with others. Men who exclusively ate alone were more likely to be underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) than men who ate with others in both cohabitation statuses. Eating alone and living alone may be jointly associated with higher prevalence of obesity, underweight and unhealthy eating behaviors in men.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:49:43Z
       
 
 
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