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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2969 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 2969 Journals sorted alphabetically
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.476, h-index: 29)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 8.49, h-index: 101)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.44, h-index: 15)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.524, h-index: 25)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 4.97, h-index: 94)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 11.247, h-index: 87)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 26)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.731, h-index: 74)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 26)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 80)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 5.234, h-index: 165)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.969, h-index: 30)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.635, h-index: 73)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.347, h-index: 84)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.822, h-index: 31)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.064, h-index: 63)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.017, h-index: 73)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 19)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.438, h-index: 24)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 10.736, h-index: 165)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.97, h-index: 41)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 5.174, h-index: 96)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.448, h-index: 31)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.03, h-index: 58)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.034, h-index: 53)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 76)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 62)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.528, h-index: 48)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access  
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 65)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.297, h-index: 87)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.013, h-index: 77)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 13)
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 9)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.076, h-index: 28)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 41)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 7)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.603, h-index: 107)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 72)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.751, h-index: 47)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 3)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 34)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 51)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 4)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 31)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 63)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.42, h-index: 78)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 3.124, h-index: 113)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 62)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 52)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 9)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 16)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 7)
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.057, h-index: 62)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access  
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.894, h-index: 105)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 62)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 45)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.848, h-index: 76)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.832, h-index: 64)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.105, h-index: 5)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 10)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.471, h-index: 74)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 3.19, h-index: 146)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 97)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 82)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 11)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 9)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.454, h-index: 24)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 35)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.021, h-index: 70)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 7)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 28)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 55)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 15)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.463, h-index: 15)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.215, h-index: 68)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.567, h-index: 31)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 18)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 12)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.56, h-index: 3)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.13, h-index: 13)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.645, h-index: 47)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.635, h-index: 129)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 38)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 25)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.459, h-index: 59)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.211, h-index: 11)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.455, h-index: 78)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.128, h-index: 6)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.828, h-index: 66)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 3)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.34, h-index: 3)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 4)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.491, h-index: 89)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 10)
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 3)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 4.757, h-index: 38)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 20)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.945, h-index: 46)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.259, h-index: 15)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 20)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.267, h-index: 21)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 12)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access  
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access  
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 9)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.21, h-index: 6)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 5)
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.184, h-index: 3)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Artroscopia y Cirugía Articular     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cardiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.592, h-index: 43)
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Cardiología Suplementos     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 8)
Revista Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 7)
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.215, h-index: 11)
Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC     Open Access  
Revista Española de Medicina Legal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 3)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 6)
Revista Española de Patología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.118, h-index: 3)
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Cirugía de la Mano     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Fisioterapia y Kinesiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 3)
Revista Iberoamericana de Micología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.432, h-index: 28)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicologia y Salud     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Revista Internacional de Andrología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.179, h-index: 4)
Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Derecho Social     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Médica Clínica Las Condes     Open Access  
Revista Médica de Homeopatía     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
Revista Médica del Hospital General de México     Open Access  
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Oftalmología     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Opinión Pública     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ortodoncia     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Urología     Open Access  
Revista Odontológica Mexicana     Open Access  
Revista Paulista de Pediatria (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia, Medicina Dentária e Cirugia Maxilofacial     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.26, h-index: 9)
Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.305, h-index: 28)
Revue d'oncologie hématologie pédiatrique     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 31)
Revue de Micropaleontologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.085, h-index: 18)
Revue de Pneumologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.16, h-index: 12)
Revue de Stomatologie et de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.233, h-index: 20)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires Actualités     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Revue du Rhumatisme     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 29)
Revue du Rhumatisme Monographies     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 3)
Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 12)
Revue Française d'Allergologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.116, h-index: 14)
Revue Francophone des Laboratoires     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 6)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Time to address continued poor vegetable intake in Australia for
           prevention of chronic disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Kathryn Chapman, Michelle Havill, Wendy L. Watson, Lyndal Wellard, Clare Hughes, Adrian Bauman, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
      Background Australian and most international Dietary Guidelines recommend people consume more fruits and vegetables (F&V) to maintain a healthy weight and reduce chronic disease risk. Previous Australian and international surveys have shown sub-optimal consumption of F&V. Objectives This study aimed to assess adults' F&V consumption, knowledge of recommended servings, readiness to change, barriers/enabling factors, so that this knowledge might be used for campaigns that support improved consumption. Material and methods An online survey of a representative sample of adults living in New South Wales, Australia (n = 2474) measuring self-reported F&V consumption; attitudes towards F&V consumption; stage of change for increasing F&V; barriers to consumption; and knowledge of cancer-health benefits. Results F&V consumption was below recommendations, with vegetable consumption notably low. Only 10% of participants ate at least five servings of vegetables/day (median intake was two daily servings), and 57% consumed two servings fruit/day. There was poor recognition that intake of vegetables was inadequate and this was a barrier to improving vegetable consumption; with preferences for other foods, habit and cost also important barriers. Key barriers to increasing fruit intake were habit, preferences for other foods, perishability, and cost. For vegetable consumption, 49% of participants were in the pre-contemplation stage of change, whereas for fruits 56% were in the action/maintenance stage. Sixty-four percent of respondents believed that eating F&V would protect against cancer, with 56% reporting they thought not eating enough F&V would cause cancer. Implications Understanding what motivates and prevents people from consuming F&V is important for developing effective health promotion programs. Similar to previous surveys, there has been little shift in F&V consumption. Social marketing campaigns have been shown to improve health-related behaviours, and this study may assist in identifying audience segmentation for better targeted campaigns.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Whey protein stories – An experiment in writing a multidisciplinary
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tenna Jensen, Rasmus L. Bechshoeft, Davide Giacalone, Marie Haulund Otto, Josue Castro-Mejía, Hajar Fauzan Bin Ahmad, Søren Reitelseder, Astrid Pernille Jespersen
      This is an experimental, dual-purpose article about whey protein and how to conduct interdisciplinary analyses and writings. On the one hand, this article is a multidisciplinary commodity biography, which consists of five descriptions of whey protein written by the five different research groups involved in the interdisciplinary research project CALM(Counteracting Age-related loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass). On the other hand, it is a meta-analysis, which aims to uncover and highlight examples of how the five descriptions contribute to each other with insights into the contextualisation of knowledge, contrasts between the descriptions and the new dimensions they bring to established fields of interest. The meta-analysis also contains a discussion of interdisciplinary study objects and the usefulness of the multidisciplinary commodity biography as a format for interdisciplinary publications. The article contributes to the field of food studies with a multidisciplinary biography of whey protein – including its sensory qualities and challenges, insights into its cultural history, its nutritional value and effects on the human body and an analysis of how it is perceived by people who consume it. The biography thereby expands upon existing understandings of whey protein while discussing the usefulness of employing the commodity biography format in interdisciplinary writing. Moreover, the article contributes to the field of interdisciplinary research by providing a practical example of a joint publication and reflections upon the existence, interaction and possibilities of monodisciplinary knowledge structures within interdisciplinary studies and publications.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Tempting foods and the affordability axiom: Food cues change beliefs about
           the costs of healthy eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sarah E. Hill, Kaily Baskett, Hannah K. Bradshaw, Marjorie L. Prokosch, Danielle J. DelPriore, Christopher D. Rodeheffer
      Many consumers report that healthy eating is more expensive than unhealthy eating (the affordability axiom). We hypothesize that endorsement of this belief may be driven by the motivation to eat unhealthy foods. We tested this hypothesis in three studies. Study 1 revealed that the affordability axiom is associated with poorer eating habits and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Study 2 found that the presence of a tasty food cue in the environment increased endorsement of affordability axiom. Study 3 found that these effects were moderated by one's food intake goals. Food cues led non-dieters to increase endorsement of the affordability axiom, but had the opposite effect among those seeking to restrict their calorie intake. The affordability axiom might persist as a means of validating unhealthy food choices.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Regulating food consumption: Action messages can help or hurt
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Christina Nisson, Allison Earl
      Objective Previous research suggests that messages promoting active behavior change may inadvertently increase food consumption by promoting a general goal to act. We suggest that this is only the case for active-approach behaviors and that messages promoting active-avoidance behaviors may be used to effectively decrease food consumption. Methods Participants were presented with healthy eating messages pretested to vary on the dimensions of direction (approach vs. avoid) and amount (action vs. inaction) of behavior. After viewing the messages, participants selected and consumed a healthy or unhealthy snack during a taste test. Results There were no differences in snack selection (healthy vs. unhealthy) across message conditions. For messages promoting more active behavior, however, there was a significant difference in snack consumption such that participants viewing active-approach messages consumed significantly more food than participants viewing active-avoidance messages. This happened regardless of whether participants selected a healthy or unhealthy snack. For messages promoting less active behavior there was no difference in consumption between approach and avoidance based messages. Conclusions These findings suggest that when viewing health messages that promote active behavior change, individuals are sensitive to the direction of action advocated by the message (approach vs. avoidance) and modulate consumption accordingly.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • The prevalence and predictors of disordered eating in women with coeliac
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Rose-Marie Satherley, Ruth Howard, Suzanne Higgs
      Purpose The need for dietary management in coeliac disease may lead to the development of disordered eating. This study examined the prevalence of disordered eating and factors predicting disordered eating in women with coeliac disease, compared with other dietary-controlled conditions. Methods A cross-sectional, online survey assessing psychological well-being, disordered eating behaviours (Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26); Binge Eating Scale (BES)) was distributed using online forums, to those with coeliac disease (N = 157), inflammatory bowel disease (N = 116), type two diabetes (N = 88) and healthy controls (N = 142). Hierarchical regressions were conducted to explore and compare the predictors of EAT-26 and BES scores across all groups. Within the coeliac disease group, a cluster analysis was conducted to examine types of disordered eating. Results Higher EAT-26 scores were found in those with coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease compared with healthy controls and type two diabetes; participants with a chronic health condition had higher BES than healthy control participants. The factors associated with EAT-26 scores differed across the dietary-controlled health conditions, with dietary management being important for those with coeliac disease. Psychological distress was associated with binge-eating behaviour across all groups. Cluster analyses found two types of disordered eating in coeliac disease; a binge eating type and a restrictive type. Conclusions Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are more prevalent in participants with chronic health conditions relative to healthy controls. The presence of binge eating behaviours in coeliac disease may be related to non-coeliac disease specific factors such as the distress associated with dietary-controlled illness. EAT-26 scores in coeliac disease are associated with disease specific factors, unique to following the gluten-free diet. These factors are important for identifying and supporting those with coeliac disease and disordered eating.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • The effect of two weeks ingestion of a bitter tastant mixture on energy
           intake in overweight females
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Harry P.F. Peters, Wieneke Koppenol, Ewoud A.H. Schuring, Robin Gouka, David J. Mela, Wendy A.M. Blom
      Triggering of gastro-intestinal bitter taste receptors might have implications for appetite and food intake, but the evidence in humans is mixed and limited to acute studies. We previously reported that 15-days consumption of drinks with purified Hoodia gordonii extract and its taste-matched control both produced similar, significant energy intake (EI) reductions in females in an in-patient setting, with no significant differences between treatments. In that study the control was matched to Hoodia flavour and bitterness using Raisin Flavour (RF), Sucrose Octa Acetate (SOA) and Quassia Extract (QE). As triggering of gastrointestinal bitter receptors might have produced shared effects on EI, our objective here was to assess the effects of sustained exposure to capsules containing the same bitter RF + SOA + QE mix itself on EI, compared to a non-bitter placebo. In this randomized, double-blind study, sixty slightly overweight women in parallel groups consumed twice-daily capsules without (placebo) or with the tastant mixture (0.88 mg SOA, 0.088 mg QE, 0.22 mg RF) on days 1–14. On day 0 all subjects received placebo capsules at 0800 and 1600, ad libitum meals at 0900, 1300, 1700, and snacks after 1900. On day 14 these test procedures were repeated. Changes in EI on days 14 versus 0 between treatment groups were assessed using ANCOVA. Total EI differences on days 14 versus 0 were not significant (mean active-placebo treatment difference −109 kcal, SE 71, P = 0.13), nor was this significant when analyzed separately for each meal within the test day. Body weight changes were negligible. In conclusion, sustained exposure to these encapsulated bitter tastants did not significantly affect EI in overweight females.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Neural signature of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ)-Trait
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Martin Ulrich, Leon Steigleder, Georg Grön
      The Trait and State versions of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ) have been used in numerous behavioral and physiological eating studies. However, the neurobiological signature of the FCQ has not been reported yet. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants performed a food/non-food discrimination task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated where in the brain greater activation upon high-caloric minus low-caloric food cues correlated with participants' scores on the German version of the FCQ-Trait, with the FCQ-State total scores included as a covariate, and vice versa. It was also tested whether individual subscales would map onto distinguishable neural correlates. Significant positive correlations with total scores on the FCQ-Trait were evident in several bilateral loci of the striatum, and in the right middle/lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Correlations with scores on the FCQ-Trait subscales Reinforcement and Hunger were found for subsets of voxels within the ventral striatum, whereas the FCQ-Trait subscales Intentions/Lack of control and Thoughts/Guilt mapped onto right OFC. There were no significant correlations between calorie-sensitive brain activation and scores on the FCQ-State when including the total scores on the FCQ-Trait as a covariate. Present findings show that the trait version of the FCQ associates with neural correlates known to be involved in coding motivational salience, detecting and estimating reward value, and representing information of expected outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Perceived reasons for changes in the use of wild food plants in Saaremaa,
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Renata Sõukand
      Recent studies on the use of wild food plants have identified various reasons for their use and underlined their importance as an emergency food supply. This work analysed the content of narratives obtained as comments regarding the reasons for using or not using wild food plants mentioned during 48 semi-structured recorded interviews. The results show that past demand for the diversification of food experiences and taste was essential for the consumption of wild plants, while the present concern for the disappearance of wild food taxa familiar from childhood is one of the main reasons for decrease in their consumption. This indicates that people do not really feel that they need to use wild food plants anymore (except for the health benefits), and that they are concerned that their favourite plants are no longer available. The erosion of the practical use of wild food plants is also supported by the very small frequency in which the influence of teachings coming from outside the community was mentioned in discussions of both the past and present, and thus the loss of traditional uses is not really substituted by new uses acquired from elsewhere. Further research is needed to understand lay perceptions of the changes that have occurred in nature, society and the economy, in the context of their influence on the everyday use of wild food plants to appreciate the ways in which knowledge erosion takes place and to find means of retaining this basic knowledge within the society.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Managing uncertainty about food risks – Consumer use of food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Emma Tonkin, John Coveney, Samantha B. Meyer, Annabelle M. Wilson, Trevor Webb
      General consumer knowledge of and engagement with the production of food has declined resulting in increasing consumer uncertainty about, and sensitivity to, food risks. Emphasis is therefore placed on providing information for consumers to reduce information asymmetry regarding food risks, particularly through food labelling. This study examines the role of food labelling in influencing consumer perceptions of food risks. In-depth, 1-h interviews were conducted with 24 Australian consumers. Participants were recruited based on an a priori defined food safety risk scale, and to achieve a diversity of demographic characteristics. The methodological approach used, adaptive theory, was chosen to enable a constant interweaving of theoretical understandings and empirical data throughout the study. Participants discussed perceiving both traditional (food spoilage/microbial contamination) and modern (social issues, pesticide and ‘chemical’ contamination) risks as present in the food system. Food labelling was a symbol of the food system having managed traditional risks, and a tool for consumers to personally manage perceived modern risks. However, labelling also raised awareness of modern risks not previously considered. The consumer framing of risk presented demonstrates the need for more meaningful consumer engagement in policy decision making to ensure risk communication and management meet public expectations. This research innovatively identifies food labelling as both a symbol of, and a tool for, the management of perceived risks for consumers. Therefore it is imperative that food system actors ensure the authenticity and trustworthiness of all aspects of food labelling, not only those related to food safety.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Not merely a question of self-control: The longitudinal effects of
           overeating behaviors, diet quality and physical activity on dieters'
           perceived diet success
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Carmen Keller, Christina Hartmann
      This longitudinal study was conducted between 2010 (T1) and 2014 (T2) on a random sample from the general Swiss population (N = 2781, 46% male). Results showed that dieters (restrained eaters) who reported lack of success in T2 were overweight in T1, had higher levels of emotional and external eating, overeating, and ambivalence toward eating palatable food in T1, and a significantly increased body mass index (BMI) in the period between T1 and T2. Dieters who reported success in T2 had maintained a normal BMI between T1 and T2, had a higher diet quality in T1 and had maintained regular physical activity for at least one year before T2. The logistic regression revealed that high levels of dispositional self-control provided the most important predictor of being a successful dieter. When controlling for dispositional self-control, high levels of emotional eating, overeating, and ambivalence in T1, together with increases in these levels between T1 and T2, were associated with a decreased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. High levels of diet quality in T1 and the maintenance of regular physical activity were associated with an increased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. Results suggest that diet success and failure is a long-term phenomenon, partly but not fully explained by dispositional self-control. Independent of self-control persistent patterns of overeating due to emotional eating and ambivalent feelings toward eating palatable food, also explain long-term diet failure. A high diet quality and maintenance of regular physical activity accounted for dieters' long-term success. This is the first study that examined the long-term psychological and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese
           healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Kara L. Breymeyer, Johanna W. Lampe, Bonnie A. McGregor, Marian L. Neuhouser
      Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at NCT00622661.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Testing the role of glucose in self-control: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Junhua Dang
      The glucose view of self-control posited glucose as the physiological substrate of self-control “resource”, which results in three direct corollaries: 1) engaging in a specific self-control activity would result in reduced glucose level; 2) the remaining glucose level after initial exertion of self-control would be positively correlated with following self-control performance; 3) restoring glucose by ingestion would help to improve the impaired self-control performance. The current research conducted a meta-analysis to test how well each of the three corollaries of the glucose view would be empirically supported. We also tested the restoring effect of glucose rinsing on subsequent self-control performance after initial exertion. The results provided clear and consistent evidence against the glucose view of self-control such that none of the three corollaries was supported. In contrast, the effect of glucose rinsing turned out to be significant, but with alarming signs of publication bias. The implications and future directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • The effect of parental monitoring on trajectories of disordered eating
           attitudes and behaviors among adolescents: An individual growth curve
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Laura E. Martinson, Christianne Esposito-Smythers, Dan V. Blalock
      The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether parental monitoring, as reported by adolescents and their parents, predicts more or less favorable trajectories of disordered eating behavior and attitudes over the course of one year in a sample of adolescent males and females. An additional aim was to explore whether these trajectories vary when study analyses are limited to females. Participants included 87 adolescents (mean age = 15.5 ± 1.4) in mental health treatment and their parents. Self-report measures included the Parental Monitoring Questionnaire, completed at baseline, and the Eating Attitudes Test-Dieting Subscale, completed at baseline as well as 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. Individual growth curve (IGC) analyses were used to examine change in disordered eating behavior and attitudes. Adolescents who reported lower parental monitoring showed trajectories characterized by increases in disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The same pattern emerged when using parent report of monitoring, though only a trend was evident. When analyses were restricted to females, the main effect of parental and adolescent report of monitoring on disordered eating were equally strong. Results may suggest that parents who are less knowledgeable about their adolescents’ daily lives, may be less aware of potential disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and thus less likely to intervene. Findings could be used to inform family-based interventions for this population.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Examining the relationship between selective attentional bias for food-
           and body-related stimuli and purging behaviour in bulimia nervosa
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ian P. Albery, Thomas Wilcockson, Daniel Frings, Antony C. Moss, Gabriele Caselli, Marcantonio M. Spada
      Previous research exploring cognitive biases in bulimia nervosa suggests that attentional biases occur for both food-related and body-related cues. Individuals with bulimia were compared to non-bulimic controls on an emotional-Stroop task which contained both food-related and body-related cues. Results indicated that bulimics (but not controls) demonstrated a cognitive bias for both food-related and body-related cues. However, a discrepancy between the two cue-types was observed with body-related cognitive biases showing the most robust effects and food-related cognitive biases being the most strongly associated with the severity of the disorder. The results may have implications for clinical practice as bulimics with an increased cognitive bias for food-related cues indicated increased bulimic disorder severity.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Can a virtual supermarket bring realism into the lab? Comparing shopping
           behavior using virtual and pictorial store representations to behavior in
           a physical store
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Erica van Herpen, Eva van den Broek, Hans C.M. van Trijp, Tian Yu
      Immersive virtual reality techniques present new opportunities for research into consumer behavior. The current study examines whether the increased realism of a virtual store compared to pictorial (2D) stimuli elicits consumer behavior that is more in line with behavior in a physical store. We examine the number, variety, and type of products selected, amount of money spent, and responses to price promotions and shelf display, in three product categories (fruit & vegetables, milk, and biscuits). We find that virtual reality elicits behavior that is more similar to behavior in the physical store compared to the picture condition for the number of products selected (Milk: M store  = 1.19, M virtual  = 1.53, M pictures  = 2.58) and amount of money spent (Milk: M store  = 1.27, M virtual  = 1.53, M pictures  = 2.60 Euro), and for the selection of products from different areas of the shelf, both vertically (purchases from top shelves, milk and biscuits: P store  = 21.6%, P virtual  = 33.4%, P pictures  = 50.0%) and horizontally (purchase from left shelf, biscuits: P store  = 35.5%, P virtual  = 53.3%, P pictures  = 66.7%). This indicates that virtual reality can improve realism in responses to shelf allocation. Virtual reality was not able to diminish other differences between lab and physical store: participants bought more products and spent more money (for biscuits and fruit & vegetables), bought more national brands, and responded more strongly to price promotions in both virtual reality and pictorial representations than in the physical store. Implications for the use of virtual reality in studies of consumer food choice behavior as well as for future improvement of virtual reality techniques are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations
           between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices
           and child dietary intake and weight outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): K.A. Loth, S. Friend, M.L. Horning, D. Neumark-Sztainer, J.A. Fulkerson
      This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8–12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education. Overall variance explained by directive and non-directive control constructs was also calculated. Markers of directive control included pressure-to-eat and food restriction, assessed using subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire; markers of non-directive control were assessed with a parental role modeling scale and a home food availability inventory in which an obesogenic home food environment score was assigned based on the types and number of unhealthful foods available within the child's home food environment. Directive control Food restriction and pressure-to-eat were positively and negatively associated with BMI z-scores, respectively, but not with dietary outcomes. Non-directive control An obesogenic home food environment was inversely associated with both dietary outcomes; parental role modeling of healthful eating was positively associated with both dietary outcomes. Neither non-directive behavioral construct was significantly associated with BMI z-scores. Total variance Greater total variance in BMI-z was explained by directive control; greater total variance in dietary outcomes was explained by non-directive control. Including a construct of food-related parenting practices with separate markers for directive and non-directive control should be considered for future research. These concepts address different forms of parental control and, in the present study, yielded unique associations with child dietary and weight outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Explicit and implicit approach vs. avoidance tendencies towards high vs.
           low calorie food cues in patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Georgios Paslakis, Simone Kühn, Anke Schaubschläger, Katharina Schieber, Kathrin Röder, Elisabeth Rauh, Yesim Erim
      Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a strong ability to limit food intake. Thus, dysfunctional approach vs. avoidance behaviors towards food are evident in AN. We applied an approach-avoidance task (AAT), in which n = 41 AN patients and n = 42 controls either approached (“pull”) or avoided (“push”) high (HC) vs. low calorie (LC) food pictures based solely on the presented picture format (landscape vs. portrait). We tested the hypothesis that -in opposition to controls displaying an approach bias towards HC food cues- AN patients would show an avoidance bias (measured as different response times) towards HC food. Explicit ratings of food cues were also performed. We found a significant interaction “group” x “direction” (p = 0.03). rm-ANOVAs performed for each of the two groups separately showed a main effect for “direction” of motion in controls (p = 0.02), but not in AN patients (p = 0.40). The two groups did not differ in their reaction times (RTs) with regard to “push” (p = 0.27). However, RTs with regard to “pull” were significantly different between the groups (p = 0.04). Controls show a clear approach bias, expressed by significantly faster RTs for “pull” compared to “push”, independent of “calorie” content of the food stimuli. This approach bias is absent in the group of AN patients. This is indicative of a global loss of incentive value of food in AN. Implicit trainings as add-on to psychotherapy in AN patients are asked for.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • Regulation of plasma agouti-related protein and its relationship with
           hunger in lean and obese men
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tom J. Hazell, Laura Sawula, Brittany A. Edgett, Jeremy J. Walsh, Brendon J. Gurd
      Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic (appetite stimulating) neuropeptide suggested to exert tonic control over long-term energy balance. While some have speculated AgRP is not involved in the episodic (i.e. meal to meal energy intake) control, acute decreases in plasma agouti-related protein (AgRP) following a meal have been observed in humans in a role consistent with episodic control for AgRP. Whether changes in plasma AgRP are associated with episodic, and/or tonic changes in appetite has yet to be directly examined. The present study examined the relationship between agouti-related protein (AgRP), leptin and the regulation of appetite following a 48-h fast and an acute meal challenge. Blood samples were obtained from young lean and obese men before and after a 48 h fast (lean n = 10; obese n = 7). Fasting resulted in an increase in AgRP and a decrease in leptin with these changes being greater in lean than obese. In addition, blood samples were obtained from lean men before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after a meal (n = 8). Following a meal, AgRP was reduced from 2 to 4 h, a change that was dissociated from both leptin and subjective measures of hunger and satiety. These results demonstrate that AgRP is not associated with changes in hunger or satiety, and can change without corresponding changes in leptin. This suggests that AgRP may not be involved in the episodic control of appetite and the release of AgRP may involve signals other than leptin.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • Alterations in taste perception as a result of hyperbaric oxygen therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Magdalena Hartman-Petrycka, Grzegorz Knefel, Agata Lebiedowska, Joanna Kosmala, Ewa Klimacka-Nawrot, Marek Kawecki, Mariusz Nowak, Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska
      The present study evaluates the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on taste sensitivity, hedonic perception of taste, and food preferences. The studied groups included 197 people in total (79 in the study group; 118 in the control group). All patients from the study group were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy due to chronic non-healing wounds. The control group consisted of healthy people, who did not receive hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The taste intensity, recognition thresholds, and hedonic perception were examined using gustatory tests. The aqueous solutions of sucrose for sweet, sodium chloride for salty, citric acid for sour, quinine hydrochloride for bitter, and monosodium glutamate for umami taste were used. The participants fulfilled the questionnaire to examine pleasure derived from eating certain types of dishes. Gustatory tests and analyses of the pleasure derived from eating in the study group were carried out before the first exposure to hyperbaric oxygen and then at the end of therapy, after at least 25 sessions of treatment. In the control group, examination of perception of taste sensations was conducted only once. The results of comparing patients with non-healing wounds with healthy people are characterized by reduced taste sensitivity. After participation in hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the improvement in perception of taste sensations and changes in hedonic evaluation have occurred among patients with non-healing wounds. In terms of food preference, a decreased desire for eating sweet desserts, chocolate, and crisps was observed in those patients who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • Effects on satiation, satiety and food intake of wholegrain and refined
           grain pasta
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Iolanda Cioffi, Sabine Ibrugger, Jessica Bache, Mette Torp Thomassen, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi, Mette Kristensen
      Wholegrains have received much attention in recent years due to their role in prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. Many studies about energy regulation are focused on the effect between meals (satiety), but the effect within meal (satiation) for wholegrain foods has not been extensively studied. The objective was to investigate the effect of WG pasta (WGP) compared to refined grain pasta (RGP), on ad libitum energy intake (EI) within and at the subsequent meal as well as appetite. Two different ad libitum lunch meals (study A) and two different iso-caloric lunch meals (study B) were administered in sixteen overweight/obese subjects in a crossover design. The test meals consisted of RGP and WGP served with tomato sauce. Study A: the ad libitum lunch meal was consumed then EI registered. Study B: the iso-caloric lunch meal was served, then subjective appetite sensation and breath hydrogen excretion were assessed for 240 min followed by an ad libitum meal where EI was calculated. Overall, WGP did not significantly differ in the effect on ad libitum EI within meal (p = 0.23) in study A. In study B, WGP resulted in an increased sensation of satiety (p < 0.001) and lower ratings of hunger (p < 0.001) without increased in breath hydrogen excretion (p = 0.11). Again, no overall effect on EI at the subsequent meal was seen (p = 0.12). In conclusion, WGP increased satiety, diminished hunger without modifying energy intake at the subsequent meals.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
  • “I feel good and I am not overweight” – A qualitative study of
           considerations underlying lay people's self-assessments of unhealthy diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Mette Rosenlund Sørensen, Lotte Holm
      It has been suggested that optimistic self-assessments of unhealthy diets constitute a barrier to the promotion of healthier eating practices. In order to discuss possible reasons for such optimistic assessments, knowledge about the considerations underlying self-assessments of unhealthy diets is needed. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore this issue by comparing considerations underlying the assessments of people who overestimate the healthiness of their unhealthy diets with those of people who express more realistic assessments. Interviewees were recruited among those respondents to the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011–2013, who had been accorded a low diet index score. A thematic analysis of qualitative interviews is undertaken (N = 16). When interviewees are asked to assess the healthiness of their diets, they draw upon their nutritional knowledge and their perceptions of healthy eating practices. However, these considerations tend to be overruled by more decisive criteria. Thus, diets are assessed as being not exactly healthy, but nevertheless healthy enough – so long as interviewees feel good. Moreover, a personal history of weight status and weight concerns emerge as decisive criteria in self-assessments. Those who experience problems in these areas tend to be realistic about the unhealthy character of their diets, while optimistic assessments appear to be linked to tendencies to perceive oneself as not being overweight, not having experienced weight gain or loss, or not being concerned about weight. This study concludes that decisive criteria in lay people's self-assessments of unhealthy diets – with regard to feeling and looking good – differ markedly from the criteria employed in food-based dietary guidelines. These broader criteria of assessment should be recognized by professionals engaged in planning health promotion strategies with reference to dietary health.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
  • Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or
           habits explained by time perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): M.C. Onwezen, J. Van 't Riet, H. Dagevos, S.J. Sijtsema, H.M. Snoek
      Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why some individuals are more prone to rely on habits and others on intentions. Study 1 (N = 1503) provides a first exploration of the role of time perspective by exploring individual differences in perception of long-term and short-term consequences. In accordance with our hypotheses, Study 1 shows that habits are associated with short-term consequences and intentions with long-term consequences. Study 2 (N = 1497) shows that the effects of habits on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a present time perspective, whereas the effects of intentions on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a future time perspective. These findings imply that there is a fundamental difference in the guiding function of intentions and habits which might explain individual differences in following intentions versus habits. Individuals with a long-term perspective are more inclined to follow intentions and individuals with a short-term perspective are more inclined to follow habits.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
  • Association of TAS2R38 variants with sweet food intake in children aged
           1–6 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ingrid Pawellek, Veit Grote, Peter Rzehak, Annick Xhonneux, Elvira Verduci, Anna Stolarczyk, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Eva Reischl, Berthold Koletzko
      We aimed at studying whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 gene are associated with energy intake from sweet tasting foods, total energy and macronutrient intake and body weight in children. Children (n = 691) from five European countries were genotyped for the first variant site rs713598 of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor gene. Three-day dietary records were obtained yearly from one to six years of age. Foods were categorized in sweet and non-sweet-tasting. Mixed models were used to describe group differences in food and nutrient intake and BMI z-score over time. TAS2R38 genotype was related to energy intake from sweet tasting foods: Children with PP and PA genotype consumed an average 83 kJ/d (95% CI 21 to 146; p = 0.009) more sweet tasting foods than children with AA genotype and a mean 56 kJ/d (95% CI 15 to 98; p = 0.007) more energy from energy dense sweet products. Intake of sweet tasting foods was lower in girls than boys and differed between countries. TAS2R38 genotype was not associated with the intake of energy, macronutrients, sugar, single food groups and BMI z-score. Despite many other factors influencing food preference and intake in children, actual intake of sweet food items is associated with TAS2R38 genotype. Children with PP or PA genotype consume more (energy dense) sweet tasting foods.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
  • Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to
           polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Valerie B. Duffy, Shristi Rawal, Jeeha Park, Mark H. Brand, Mastaneh Sharafi, Bradley W. Bolling
      Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from ‘Viking’ aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Changes in PYY and gastric emptying across the phases of the menstrual
           cycle and the influence of the ovarian hormones
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Marta Campolier, Sangeetha Pariyarath Thondre, Miriam Clegg, Amir Shafat, Ali Mcintosh, Helen Lightowler
      Nutrition-related studies avoid the participation of pre-menopausal women due to the potential effect of the menstrual cycle (MC) on their appetite regulation. It is generally accepted that women increase their energy intake during the luteal phase (LPh) compared to the follicular (FPh), however what happens in the menstrual phase (MPh) and how this might be regulated remains uncertain. Although some research indicates changes in the gastric emptying (GE) velocity, whether PYY is affected by the MC phase, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether eating the same breakfast in each of the three MC phases would change the GE time, the PYY response and post-prandial satiety such that they might affect subsequent food intake. Furthermore, the aim was to associate any potential differences to the fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) within a MC. Nine naturally cycling women attended to the laboratory to consume a standardised breakfast on three occasions, each of them representing one of the MC phases. Breath samples to measure GE time, plasma samples to quantify PYY levels and hunger scores were collected for a total of 4 h after which food intake was assessed by an ad-libitum buffet lunch. GE and PYY levels changed significantly across the phases of the MC (p < 0.05). GE was correlated to P4 and E2-P4 ratio (r = −0.5 and 0.4, respectively). To conclude, the appetite regulators PYY and GE time change depending upon the MC phases with GE time associated with the ovarian hormone levels which suggests the necessity of controlling the MC phase in studies looking at the appetite response.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • The impact of caffeine use across the lifespan on cognitive performance in
           elderly women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Clinton S. Perry, Ayanna K. Thomas, Holly A. Taylor, Paul F. Jacques, Robin B. Kanarek
      Habitual caffeine consumption has often been associated with decreasing age-related cognitive decline. However, whether habitual caffeine use preferentially spares different cognitive processes is unclear. Furthermore, whether basing habitual caffeine consumption patterns on current consumption or on a lifetime measure better represents an individual's use remains unclear. In the present study, we collected information from women, aged 56–83, about their current caffeine consumption patterns and history of use, including age they began consuming caffeine. Regression models assessed the relationship between caffeine consumption and performance on batteries designed to probe speed of processing, inhibition, memory, and executive function. While we found no direct associations between caffeine exposure and cognitive performance, we found that caffeine consumption and participant BMI interacted for inhibitory function and speed of processing performance. We discuss possible protective effects of long term caffeine use as well as the possibility of dose dependent effects.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Reported appetite, taste and smell changes following Roux-en-Y gastric
           bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: Effect of gender, type 2 diabetes and
           relationship to post-operative weight loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Janine M. Makaronidis, Sabrina Neilson, Wui-Hang Cheung, Urszula Tymoszuk, Andrea Pucci, Nicholas Finer, Jacqueline Doyle, Majid Hashemi, Mohamed Elkalaawy, Marco Adamo, Andrew Jenkinson, Rachel L. Batterham
      Reduced energy intake drives weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) procedures. Post-operative changes in subjective appetite, taste, and smell and food preferences are reported and suggested to contribute to reduced energy intake. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these changes following RYGB and SG and to evaluate their relationship with weight loss. 98 patients post-RYGB and 155 post-SG from a single bariatric centre were recruited to a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a questionnaire, previously utilised in post-operative bariatric patients, to assess the prevalence of post-operative food aversions and subjective changes in appetite, taste and smell. Anthropometric data were collected and percentage weight loss (%WL) was calculated. The relationship between food aversions, changes in appetite, taste and smell and %WL was assessed. The influence of time post-surgery, gender and type 2 diabetes (T2D) were evaluated. Following RYGB and SG the majority of patients reported food aversions (RYGB = 62%, SG = 59%), appetite changes (RYGB = 91%, SG = 91%) and taste changes (RYGB = 64%, SG = 59%). Smell changes were more common post-RYGB than post-SG (RYGB = 41%, SG = 28%, p = 0.039). No temporal effect was observed post-RYGB. In contrast, the prevalence of appetite changes decreased significantly with time following SG. Post-operative appetite changes associated with and predicted higher %WL post-SG but not post-RYGB. Taste changes associated with and predicted higher %WL following RYGB but not post-SG. There was no gender effect post-RYGB. Post-SG taste changes were less common in males (female = 65%, males = 40%, p = 0.008). T2D status in females did not influence post-operative subjective changes. However, in males with T2D, taste changes were less common post-SG than post-RYGB together with lower %WL (RYGB = 27.5 ± 2.7, SG = 14.6 ± 2.1, p = 0.003). Further research is warranted to define the biology underlying these differences and to individualise treatments.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Short-term cross-sensitizion of need-free sugar intake by combining sodium
           depletion and hypertonic NaCl intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Bruna M. Santos, Carina A.F. de Andrade, José V. Menani, Laurival A. De Luca
      History of sodium depletion cross-sensitizes the effects of drugs of abuse. The objective of the present study was to find out if history of sodium depletion also cross-sensitizes a natural reward such as sugar intake in the rat. Sodium depletion was induced by furosemide combined with removal of ambient sodium for 24 h; it was repeated seven days later. The depletion was immediately followed by 0.3 M NaCl intake in a sodium appetite test (active sodium repletion). Seven days after the last depletion, hydrated and fed (need-free) sucrose-naïve animals were offered 10% sucrose in a first 2-h sucrose test. The sucrose test was repeated once a day in a series of five consecutive days. History of sodium depletion enhanced sucrose intake in the first and second tests; it had no effect from the third to fifth sucrose test. The effect on the initial sucrose intake tests disappeared if the rats did not ingest 0.3 M NaCl in the sodium appetite test. Prior experience with sucrose intake in need-free conditions had no effect on sodium appetite. History of intracellular dehydration transiently influenced sucrose intake in the first sucrose test. We found no evidence for thirst sensitization. We conclude that history of dehydration, particularly that resulting from sodium depletion, combined to active sodium repletion, produced short-term cross-sensitization of sucrose intake in sucrose-naïve rats. The results suggest that the cross-sensitization of sucrose intake related with acquisition of sugar as a novel nutrient rather than production of lasting effects on sugar rewarding properties.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • “Happy goat says”: The effect of a food selection inhibitory control
           training game of children's response inhibition on eating behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Qianxia Jiang, Dexian He, Wanyi Guan, Xianyou He
      Recent studies suggest that when inhibitory control is lacking, people are more inclined to indulge in high-calorie food, but inhibitory control can be trained. In this study, a daily-life training game was used to train children and investigate whether strengthening or weakening inhibitory control influences food intake in opposite directions. The baseline of response inhibition was measured by the go/no-go task, and the baseline of food intake was measured by a bogus food taste task. Then, participants performed a food selection training game named “Happy goat says” with three within-subject conditions: the first type of instruction was always paired without a go signal (inhibition manipulation); the second type of instruction was always presented with a go signal (impulsivity manipulation); and the third type of instruction was presented either with a go or no-go signal, both in 50% of the time (control manipulation). Following these manipulations, they went through the go/no-go task and bogus food taste task. In the pre-training food taste task, commission errors were positively correlated with body mass index. Relative to a control group playing Lego blocks (n = 20), the trained group showed a performance improvement on the go/no-go task. The intake of food in the inhibition manipulation was significantly less in the post-training food taste task. These findings demonstrate that children can gain control over the consumption of high-calorie food after a daily-life response inhibition training game.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Consumer acceptance of insect-based foods in the Netherlands: Academic and
           commercial implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Jonas House
      Despite growing interest in the use of insects as food, uptake of insect-based foods in Europe is low. Existing research into Western consumer acceptance of insects as food tends to emphasise the role of individual cognition in food choice at the expense of social or contextual factors, and typically frames consumer acceptance as a general issue, rather than relevant only for relatively few early adopters. This paper outlines empirical work, theoretically and methodologically informed by a critical appraisal of previous research, with consumers of insect-based convenience foods in the Netherlands. Reported initial motivations for trying insect foods are shown to be substantially different from factors – such as price, taste, availability, and ‘fit’ with established eating practices – which affect repeat consumption. Such factors are congruent with those affecting routine consumption of more conventional foods, indicating that insect foods should be analysed according to similar criteria and should be designed with more practical considerations in mind. Further, a reorientation of consumer acceptance research is proposed. Research should shift from attempts to forecast acceptance and engage with ‘actual’ examples of insect consumption; social, practical and contextual factors affecting food consumption should be emphasised; and – following work on the establishment of other novel foods – early adopters, rather than general populations, should receive greater analytic attention.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Alterations in taste perception due to recreational drug use are due to
           smoking a substance rather than ingesting it
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Terence M. Dovey, Emma J. Boyland, Penelope Trayner, Jo Miller, Amin Rarmoul-Bouhadjar, Jon Cole, Jason C.G. Halford
      Two studies explored the differences in tastant (salt, sour, bitter, sweet and spicy) concentration preference between recreational drug users and abstainers. In study 1, 250 opportunistically recruited abstainers, cannabis only users and multiple-drug users completed psychometric questionnaires and a concentration preference tastant test. In study 2, 76 participants purposefully recruited abstainers, daily tobacco users, recreational cannabis users and daily cannabis users completed the same protocol as study 1. Study 1 demonstrated that both multiple drug users and cannabis users had a higher preference for salt and sour tastants than abstainers. Study 2 showed that daily cannabis and tobacco users had a higher preference for sweet and spicy tastants than recreational cannabis users and abstainers. As predicted, recreational drug users scored higher on both sensation-seeking and impulsivity compared to abstainers. Participants who habitually smoke tobacco or cannabis daily have different concentration preference for specific tastants. The aim of the current study was to provide an explanation for the inconsistency in published results on taste preferences in recreational drug users. The data offered in this paper indicate that variation in recruitment strategy, definition of ‘drug users’, and mode of drug delivery, as well as multiple drug use, may explain the preference for stronger tastants in habitual drug users. Future research exploring the psychobiological underpinnings of the impact of drug use on food preferences should carefully define recreational drug user groups.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Effects of development on indigenous dietary pattern: A Nigerian case
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Bookie Ezeomah, Karim Farag
      The traditional foods of indigenous people in Nigeria are known for their cultural symbolism and agricultural biodiversity which contributes to their daily healthy and rich diet. In the early 90s, rapid development of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) was noted and the resettlement of indigenes to other parts of the region was reported. These changes have facilitated the modification of indigenous diets, as indigenous groups rapidly embraced modern foods and also adopted the food culture of migrant ethnic groups. This has led to a gradual erosion of indigenous diets and traditional food systems in the FCT. This study explored the impact of development on traditional food systems and determined indigenes perception of the modification to their food culture as a result of the development of their land within the FCT. Field survey was carried out in four indigenous communities in the FCT (30 indigenes from each of the four areas) using structured questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews. Person Chi Square analysis of indigenes socio-economic characteristics revealed significant relationships between gender of indigenes and farm size, Age and farm size, Educational level and farm/herd size. Qualitative analysis of FGDs revealed indigenes opinion on the socio-cultural changes in behaviour and food systems as a result of development. The study also identified indigenous youths as being most influenced by development especially through education, white collar jobs and social interactions with migrant ethnic groups in the FCT. The study recommended that indigenes should be provided with more secure land tenure and “back-to-farm” initiatives should be put in place by the Nigerian government to encourage indigenous youth to engaged more in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Clarifying the prospective relationships between social anxiety and eating
           disorder symptoms and underlying vulnerabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Cheri A. Levinson, Thomas L. Rodebaugh
      Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Several explanations for these high levels of comorbidity have been theorized. First, social anxiety might be a vulnerability factor for eating disorders. Second, eating disorders might be a vulnerability factor for social anxiety. Third, the two kinds of disorders may have common, shared psychological vulnerabilities. The current study (N = 300 undergraduate women) investigates a model of social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms that examines each of these possibilities across two time points (Time 1 and six months later). We do not find support for either social anxiety or eating disorder symptoms per se predicting each other across time. Instead, we find that some underlying vulnerabilities prospectively predict symptoms of both disorders, whereas other vulnerabilities are specific to symptoms of one disorder. Specifically we find that maladaptive perfectionism is a shared prospective vulnerability for social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Alternatively, we find that social appearance anxiety is specific for eating disorder symptoms, whereas high standards is specific for social anxiety symptoms. These data help clarify our understanding of how and why social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms frequently co-occur.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Effects of prolonged hypoxia and bed rest on appetite and appetite-related
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tadej Debevec, Elizabeth J. Simpson, Igor B. Mekjavic, Ola Eiken, Ian A. Macdonald
      Environmental hypoxia and inactivity have both been shown to modulate appetite. To elucidate the independent and combined effects of hypoxia and bed rest-induced inactivity on appetite-related hormones and subjective appetite, eleven healthy, non-obese males underwent three experimental interventions in a cross-over and randomized fashion: 1) Hypoxic confinement combined with daily moderate-intensity exercise (HAMB, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg) 2) Bed rest in normoxia (NBR, FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg) and 3) Bed rest in hypoxia (HBR, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). A mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), followed by an ad libitum meal were performed before (Pre) and after 16-days (Post) of each intervention. Composite satiety scores (CSS) during the MTT were calculated from visual analogue scores, while fasting and postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and leptin were quantified from arterialized-venous samples. Postprandial CSS were significantly lower at Post compared to Pre in NBR only (P < 0.05) with no differences observed in ad libitum meal intakes. Postprandial concentrations and incremental area under the curve (AUC) for total ghrelin and PYY were unchanged following all interventions. Postprandial GLP-1 concentrations were only reduced at Post following HBR (P < 0.05) with resulting AUC changes being significantly lower compared to HAMB (P < 0.01). Fasting leptin was reduced following HAMB (P < 0.05) with no changes observed following NBR and HBR. These findings suggest that independently, 16-day of simulated altitude exposure (∼4000 m) and bed rest-induced inactivity do not significantly alter subjective appetite or ad libitum intakes. The measured appetite-related hormones following both HAMB and HBR point to a situation of hypoxia-induced appetite stimulation, although this did not reflect in higher ad libitum intakes. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02293772.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and body mass
           in children and adolescents: A moderated mediation model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Adrian Meule, Johannes Hofmann, Daniel Weghuber, Jens Blechert
      Impulsivity has been suggested to contribute to overeating and obesity. However, findings are inconsistent and it appears that only specific facets of impulsivity are related to eating-related variables and to body mass. In the current study, relationships between self-reported impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and objectively measured body mass were examined in N = 122 children and adolescents. Scores on attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, but not body mass: Higher attentional impulsivity was associated with lower perceived self-regulatory success at high levels of motor impulsivity, but not at low levels of motor impulsivity. A moderated mediation model revealed an indirect effect of attentional and motor impulsivity on body mass, which was mediated by perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. Thus, results show that only specific facets of impulsivity are relevant in eating- and weight-regulation and interact with each other in the prediction of these variables. These facets of impulsivity, however, are not directly related to higher body mass, but indirectly via lower success in eating-related self-regulation in children and adolescents.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Influence of maternal feeding goals and practices on children's eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Debra A. Hoffmann, Jenna M. Marx, Allison Kiefner-Burmeister, Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      Parents are highly influential in shaping their children's dietary habits. This study examined whether negative feeding practices mediated the relationship between feeding goals (health and convenience) and children's eating behaviors. One hundred ninety-two mothers (mean age = 34.2; mean BMI = 27.0) of 7–11 year old children participated via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results showed that negative feeding practices fully mediated the relationship between convenience feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.08/.09, n.s.; goals to feeding practices: β = 0.27, p < 0.01; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.57/.48, p < 0.05). On the other hand, negative feeding practices did not fully mediate the relationship between health feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = 0.66/-0.29, p < 0.01; goals to feeding practices: β = −0.28, p < 0.001; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.26/.44, p < 0.05). In other words, children whose mothers emphasized health goals consumed more healthy food and less unhealthy food, above and beyond the use of negative feeding practices. Because parents are on the front lines of shaping children's eating habits, understanding the best point of intervention for parents (e.g., shaping parents' goals, changing parents' feeding practices) might be especially fruitful, considering that childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis and energy intake is one of the key factors contributing to this problem.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Validation of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among
           Maltese women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Elaine Dutton, Terence M. Dovey
      The main aim of this study was to assess the dimensional structure of the Maltese version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and evaluate the instrument's validity and reliability among Maltese women (N = 586). Exploratory factor analysis reflected the theoretical structure of three factors; emotional, restrained and external eating which was supported by a Confirmatory Factor analysis. Minor issues with specific items in the Emotional and External eating scale were identified and discussed. Criterion-related validity was ascertained through correlations with the EAT-26. The study also assessed the DEBQ's predictive value in differentiating between BMI groups and between dieters and weight maintainers. The results suggest that the Maltese DEBQ is a psychometrically valid and reliable instrument for assessing eating behaviours with women in the Maltese community. The study also highlights the critical role of Emotional and Restrained eating in dieting and overweight Maltese women.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • A scoping review of anorexia of aging correlates and their relevance to
           population health interventions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Mathieu Roy, Pierrette Gaudreau, Hélène Payette
      Anorexia of aging (AA, i.e., loss of appetite and/or reduction of food intake with aging) is an important public health issue. It leads to unintentional weight loss, which is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality among seniors. AA has mainly been studied from a biological perspective and regarded as a normal physiological consequence of aging, rather than a negative health outcome with underlying determinants. Some potentially modifiable correlates have however been found to be associated with this geriatric condition. Here, we conducted a scoping review of the literature to: 1) identify AA correlates, and 2) discuss their relevance to population health interventions. Our results indicate two main categories of AA correlates, namely, physiopathological and non-physiopathological. The first category relates to physiological dysfunctions, pathologies involving (or culminating in) biomarker dysregulation, and polypharmacy. These correlates are difficult to modify, especially through population health interventions. The second category, which contains fewer correlates, includes potentially modifiable public health targets, such as food-related properties, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental issues. We conclude that there are several AA correlates. Some of them are modifiable and could be targeted for development and implementation as appropriate population health interventions to prevent appetite loss and promote maintenance of adequate food intake in aging.

      PubDate: 2016-07-23T13:42:47Z
  • Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase
           intention under the moderating role of uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Chih-Ching Teng, Chi-Heng Lu
      Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers’ consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Running induces nausea in rats: Kaolin intake generated by voluntary and
           forced wheel running
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Sadahiko Nakajima
      Three experiments were conducted showing rats’ pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) due to running in activity wheels. The amount of kaolin consumed was a positive function of the available time of voluntary running (20, 40, or 60 min), although this relationship was blunted by a descending (i.e., 60 → 40 → 20 min) test series of execution (Experiment 1). Pica was also generated by forced running in a motorized wheel for 60 min as a positive function of the speed of wheel rotations at 98, 185, or 365 m/h, independent of the order of execution (Experiment 2). Voluntary running generated more pica than did forced running at 80 m/h, although the distance travelled in the former condition was 27% lesser than that in the latter condition (Experiment 3). Because kaolin intake is regarded as a reliable measure of nausea in rats, these results show that wheel running, either voluntary or forced, induces nausea in rats.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Analysis of nutrition judgments using the Nutrition Facts Panel
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Claudia González-Vallejo, Bethany D. Lavins, Kristina A. Carter
      Consumers’ judgments and choices of the nutritional value of food products (cereals and snacks) were studied as a function of using information in the Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP, National Labeling and Education Act, 1990). Brunswik’s lens model (Brunswik, 1955; Cooksey, 1996; Hammond, 1955; Stewart, 1988) served as the theoretical and analytical tool for examining the judgment process. Lens model analysis was further enriched with the criticality of predictors’ technique developed by Azen, Budescu, & Reiser (2001). Judgment accuracy was defined as correspondence between consumers’ judgments and the nutritional quality index, NuVal®, obtained from an expert system. The study also examined several individual level variables (e.g., age, gender, BMI, educational level, health status, health beliefs, etc.) as predictors of lens model indices that measure judgment consistency, judgment accuracy, and knowledge of the environment. Results showed varying levels of consistency and accuracy depending on the food product, but generally the median values of the lens model statistics were moderate. Judgment consistency was higher for more educated individuals; judgment accuracy was predicted from a combination of person level characteristics, and individuals who reported having regular meals had models that were in greater agreement with the expert’s model. Conclusions: Lens model methodology is a useful tool for understanding how individuals perceive the nutrition in foods based on the NFP label. Lens model judgment indices were generally low, highlighting that the benefits of the complex NFP label may be more modest than what has been previously assumed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Dietary interventions among university students: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Tom Deliens, Rob Van Crombruggen, Sofie Verbruggen, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Benedicte Deforche, Peter Clarys
      Purpose This study aimed to provide an overview of available literature on interventions aiming to improve dietary intake among university students. Materials and methods A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Risk of bias was assessed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Results Twenty studies were identified, consisting of 12 randomised controlled trials, 1 quasi-experiment and 7 pre-experiments. Six studies were conducted outside the US. Risk of bias assessment revealed an average quality score of 5.8/10. Of the 13 interventions which were effective in improving students’ dietary intake, 8 used an intrapersonal approach, with 6 of them using the web or some kind of media to facilitate the intervention. The 5 remaining studies used an environmental (point-of-purchase) approach. Only 1 intervention, using 10 web-based lessons, based on non-diet principles and focused on eating competence and size acceptance to promote healthy eating, was found to be effective in the long term. Conclusions Nutrition education, enhancing self-regulation components towards dietary intake (often facilitated by the worldwide web or other media devices), and point-of-purchase messaging strategies may improve university or college students’ dietary intake. Future high quality randomised controlled trials should evaluate sustainability of intervention effects, as well as further investigate the effectiveness of realistic and low-cost environmental (preferably combined with intrapersonal) interventions which can easily and instantly reach a great part of the university population.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Can evaluative conditioning decrease soft drink consumption?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jena A. Shaw, Evan M. Forman, Hallie M. Espel, Meghan L. Butryn, James D. Herbert, Michael R. Lowe, Chantal Nederkoorn
      The present study examined the effect of a picture-picture evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure on soft drink (soda) outcomes, including negative implicit attitudes, consumption during a taste test, and real-world consumption reported during the week after the intervention. In the EC condition (n = 43), soda images were paired with disgust images and water images were paired with pleasant images, whereas in the control condition (n = 41), the same images were viewed without pairing. The EC condition showed a larger reduction in real-world soda consumption across the week following the intervention. However, individuals in the EC condition did not consume less soda during a taste test immediately following the intervention. EC only significantly increased negative implicit attitudes towards soda among individuals who already had relatively higher baseline negative attitudes. These findings generally favored the potential for EC to impact soda drinking habits, but suggest that a brief EC intervention may not be strong enough to change attitudes towards a well-known brand unless negative attitudes are already present.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Make up your mind about food: A healthy mindset attenuates attention for
           high-calorie food in restrained eaters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jessica Werthmann, Anita Jansen, Anne Roefs
      Attention bias for food could be a cognitive pathway to overeating in obesity and restrained eating. Yet, empirical evidence for individual differences (e.g., in restrained eating and body mass index) in attention bias for food is mixed. We tested experimentally if temporarily induced health versus palatability mindsets influenced attention bias for food, and whether restrained eating moderated this relation. After manipulating mindset (health vs. palatability) experimentally, food-related attention bias was measured by eye-movements (EM) and response latencies (RL) during a visual probe task depicting high-calorie food and non-food. Restrained eating was assessed afterwards. A significant interaction of mindset and restrained eating on RL bias emerged, β = 0.36, t(58) = 2.05, p = 0.045: A health mindset – as compared to a palatability mindset – attenuated attention bias for high-caloric food only in participants with higher eating restraint. No effects were observed on EM biases. The current results demonstrate that state differences in health versus palatability mindsets can cause attenuated attention bias for high-calorie food cues in participants with higher eating restraint. Our findings add to emerging evidence that state differences in mindsets can bias attention for food, above the influence of trait differences.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality
           in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Tamara Tabbakh, Jean H. Freeland-Graves
      The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11–14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p < 0.01), as well as lower scores on empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3–1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Validation of a French-Canadian adaptation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2
           for the adult population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Elise Carbonneau, Noémie Carbonneau, Benoît Lamarche, Véronique Provencher, Catherine Bégin, Maude Bradette-Laplante, Catherine Laramée, Simone Lemieux
      Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating style based on the reliance on physiological cues to determine when, what, and how much to eat. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) is a validated four-subscale tool measuring the degree of adherence to intuitive eating principles. The present series of studies aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of a French-Canadian adaptation of the IES-2 for the adult population. The factor structure, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), the construct validity, and the discriminant validity were evaluated in 334 women and 75 men from the Province of Québec, Canada, across two studies. A confirmatory factor analysis upheld that the four-factor structure of the original IES-2 was adequate for the present sample of French-Canadians. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity evidence was obtained with the significant associations between intuitive eating and psychological and eating-related variables. Intuitive eating was negatively associated with eating disorder symptomatology and with food- and weight-preoccupation, and positively associated with body-esteem and well-being. The French-Canadian IES-2 was also able to discriminate between genders and body mass index categories. The properties of this new version of the IES-2 are demonstrative of a reliable and valid tool to assess intuitive eating in the French-Canadian adult population of the Province of Québec.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Satiety effects of psyllium in healthy volunteers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jose M. Brum, Roger D. Gibb, John C. Peters, Richard D. Mattes
      Controlling hunger between meals is a challenge for many individuals. This manuscript comprises 2 sequential clinical trials investigating the effects of psyllium (Metamucil) on satiety, both using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. The first study determined the effects of 3.4 g, 6.8 g, and 10.2 g of psyllium taken before breakfast and lunch for 3 days. The second study determined the effects of 6.8 g (taken before breakfast and lunch on Days 1 and 2 and before breakfast on Day 3) on the satiety of participants receiving an energy restricted meal in the morning (breakfast) for 3 days. Efficacy endpoints were mean inter-meal hunger, desire to eat, and Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude Visual Analog Scale scores. In Study 1, all 3 psyllium doses resulted in directional or statistically significant mean reductions in hunger and desire to eat, and increased fullness between meals compared to placebo, with both higher doses better than placebo or 3.4 g. The 6.8 g dose provided more consistent (p ≤ 0.013) satiety benefits versus placebo. In Study 2, satiety was assessed similarly to Study 1. A significant (p ≤ 0.004) decrease in the 3-day mean hunger and desire to eat, as well as an increase in fullness for psyllium relative to placebo was observed. Most adverse events were mild gastrointestinal symptoms and were similar for psyllium compared to placebo. These results indicate that psyllium supplementation contributes to greater fullness and less hunger between meals.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • Systemic injection of the DAD1 antagonist SCH 23390 reduces saccharin
           seeking in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Kenjiro Aoyama, Jesse Barnes, Jon Koerber, Edwin Glueck, Kylan Dorsey, Laura Eaton, Jeffrey W. Grimm
      Conditioned cues can elicit drug- and sucrose-seeking behaviors that have been shown to depend on dopamine (DA) D1 receptors. If DAD1 receptors are also involved in seeking behavior in general, blocking these receptors should reduce seeking behavior for a non-caloric, non-drug of abuse reinforcer such as saccharin. Forty-six male Long-Evans rats lever pressed for 0.3% saccharin solution 1 h/day for 10 days. A lever response also activated a tone plus a white stimulus light. This compound stimulus lasted for 5 s. After 1 day of forced abstinence, rats received systemic (0, 1, or 10 μg/kg IP; n = 15–16 per group) injections of SCH 23390 15 min prior to extinction testing. Systemic SCH 23390 reduced saccharin seeking evidenced by a significant reduction in active lever responding and a significant reduction in the number of active lever-contingent deliveries of the tone + light cue following pretreatment with 10 μg/kg SCH 23390. The slope of responding across the Test session in this group was also significantly steeper, indicating that SCH 23390 may have reduced the persistence of saccharin seeking. The results indicate that DAD1 receptors are involved in saccharin seeking and generalize the previously demonstrated anti-seeking effects of DAD1 antagonism to a non-caloric, non-drug of abuse reinforcer.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
  • The relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and
           perceptions of infant eating behaviours at 4 months
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 105
      Author(s): Kimberley M. Mallan, Serena E. Sullivan, Susan J. de Jersey, Lynne A. Daniels
      Parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours are inter-related and both have been implicated in the development of childhood obesity. However, research on the parent-child feeding relationship during the first few months of life is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours in a community sample. Mothers (N = 413) of 4 month old infants recruited during pregnancy for the New Beginnings: Healthy Mothers and Babies study self-reported feeding beliefs/practices and eating behaviours of their infants on established tools. Data on a comprehensive range of maternal and infant characteristics were also collected. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the associations between five feeding beliefs and practices and four eating behaviours, adjusting for key maternal and infant covariates. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming underweight rated the infant higher on satiety responsiveness and lower on enjoyment of food. Higher awareness of infant feeding cues was associated with higher infant enjoyment of food. Mothers concerned about their infant becoming overweight and those who used food to calm their baby rated the infant as higher on food responsiveness. Feeding to a schedule (vs on demand) was not associated with any of the infant eating behaviours. A relationship between maternal feeding beliefs and practices and infant eating behaviours is apparent early in life, therefore longitudinal investigation to establish the directions of this relationship is warranted.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:00:07Z
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