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Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.387, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.507, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.947, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.173, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 74)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.143, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.316, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.887, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.403, h-index: 127)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.953, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.394, h-index: 43)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.393, h-index: 89)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.092, h-index: 67)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.282, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.544, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.485, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.99, h-index: 70)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.549, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 98)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.462, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.675, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.519, h-index: 55)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 5)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.321, h-index: 87)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.679, h-index: 24)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 23)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 26)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 55)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.191, h-index: 16)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.114, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.182, h-index: 33)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.055, h-index: 62)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.206, h-index: 16)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.294, h-index: 27)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.282, h-index: 39)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.255, h-index: 17)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 23)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.212, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.127, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.137, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.184, h-index: 19)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.748, h-index: 23)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 849, SJR: 1.442, h-index: 33)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 7.294, h-index: 87)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.087, h-index: 37)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 15)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.118, h-index: 1)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 69)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.462, h-index: 96)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.397, h-index: 8)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.223, h-index: 73)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 119)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.894, h-index: 44)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.837, h-index: 32)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.857, h-index: 34)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.338, h-index: 44)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 4.815, h-index: 199)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.181, h-index: 104)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 42)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.071, h-index: 71)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254, SJR: 1.333, h-index: 37)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.796, h-index: 65)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.042, h-index: 48)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.825, h-index: 47)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.936, h-index: 19)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 6)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.807, h-index: 33)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 64)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.004, h-index: 65)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.459, h-index: 15)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover   Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2586 journals]
  • Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent
           three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive
           pre-menopausal women taking oral contraceptives
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Joel Rocha , Jenny Paxman , Caroline Dalton , Edward Winter , David Broom
      This study examined the effects of an acute bout of exercise of low-intensity on food intake and energy expenditure over four days in women taking oral contraceptives. Twenty healthy, active (n = 10) and inactive (n = 10) pre-menopausal women taking oral contraceptives completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised, crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary to measure food intake and wore an Actiheart to measure energy expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. There was a condition effect for absolute energy intake (exercise vs. control: 3363 ± 668 kJ vs. 3035 ± 752 kJ; p = 0.033, d = 0.49) and relative energy intake (exercise vs. control: 2019 ± 746 kJ vs. 2710 ± 712 kJ; p < 0.001, d = −1.00) at the ad libitum lunch. There were no significant differences in energy intake over the four days in active participants and there was a suppression of energy intake on the first day after the exercise experimental day compared with the same day of the control condition in inactive participants (mean difference = −1974 kJ; 95% CI −1048 to −2900 kJ, p = 0.002, d = −0.89). There was a group effect (p = 0.001, d = 1.63) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive participants during this period. However, there were no compensatory changes in daily physical activity energy expenditure. These results support the use of low-intensity aerobic exercise as a method to induce a short-term negative energy balance in inactive women taking oral contraceptives.

      PubDate: 2015-04-20T18:30:21Z
  • Parental control over feeding in infancy: influence of infant weight,
           appetite and feeding method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015
      Author(s): Alison Fildes , Cornelia HM van Jaarsveld , Clare Llewellyn , Jane Wardle , Abigail Fisher
      Background and Objective Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Subjects and Methods Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data comes from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. Results ‘Pressure’ was associated with lower birth weight (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR=1.88, 1.29–2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR=0.59, 0.47–0.75). ‘Restriction’ was associated with higher appetite (OR=1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR=2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR=1.52, 1.13-2.04). Conclusion Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals.

      PubDate: 2015-04-15T09:00:44Z
  • Making food labels social. The impact of colour of nutritional labels and
           injunctive norms on perceptions and choice of snack foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2015
      Author(s): Milica Vasiljevic , Rachel Pechey , Theresa M. Marteau
      Recent studies report that using green labels to denote healthier foods, and red to denote less healthy foods increases consumption of green- and decreases consumption of red-labelled foods. Other symbols (e.g. emoticons conveying normative approval and disapproval) could also be used to signal the healthiness and/or acceptability of consuming such products. The present study tested the combined effects of using emoticons and colours on labels amongst a nationally representative sample of the UK population (n = 955). In a 3 (emoticon expression: smiling vs. frowning vs. no emoticon) × 3 (colour label: green vs. red vs. white) ×2 (food option: chocolate bar vs. cereal bar) between-subjects experiment, participants rated the level of desirability, healthiness, tastiness, and calorific content of a snack bar they had been randomised to view. At the end they were further randomised to view one of nine possible combinations of colour and emoticon labels and asked to choose between a chocolate and a cereal bar. Regardless of label, participants rated the chocolate as tastier and more desirable when compared to the cereal bar, and the cereal bar as healthier than the chocolate bar. A series of interactions revealed that a frowning emoticon on a white background decreased perceptions of healthiness and tastiness of the cereal bar, but not the chocolate bar. In the explicit choice task selection was unaffected by label. Overall nutritional labels had limited effects on perceptions and no effects on choice of snack foods. Emoticon labels yielded stronger effects on perceptions of taste and healthiness of snacks than colour labels. Frowning emoticons may be more potent than smiling emoticons at influencing the perceived healthiness and tastiness of foods carrying health halos.

      PubDate: 2015-04-09T20:42:41Z
  • RETRACTED: Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding
           practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 71
      Author(s): Laura Hubbs-Tait , Katherine L. Dickin , Madeleine Sigman-Grant , Lisa Jahns , Amy R. Mobley
      This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( This article has been retracted at the request of the Author and Editor in Chief due to serious errors in the data.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • The skinny on cocaine: Insights into eating behavior and body weight in
           cocaine-dependent men
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 71
      Author(s): Karen D. Ersche , Jan Stochl , Jeremy M. Woodward , Paul C. Fletcher
      There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n =35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n =30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Estimating food portions. Influence of unit number, meal type and energy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 71
      Author(s): Eva Almiron-Roig , Ivonne Solis-Trapala , Jessica Dodd , Susan A. Jebb
      Estimating how much is appropriate to consume can be difficult, especially for foods presented in multiple units, those with ambiguous energy content and for snacks. This study tested the hypothesis that the number of units (single vs. multi-unit), meal type and food energy density disrupts accurate estimates of portion size. Thirty-two healthy weight men and women attended the laboratory on 3 separate occasions to assess the number of portions contained in 33 foods or beverages of varying energy density (1.7–26.8kJ/g). Items included 12 multi-unit and 21 single unit foods; 13 were labelled “meal”, 4 “drink” and 16 “snack”. Departures in portion estimates from reference amounts were analysed with negative binomial regression. Overall participants tended to underestimate the number of portions displayed. Males showed greater errors in estimation than females (p =0.01). Single unit foods and those labelled as ‘meal’ or ‘beverage’ were estimated with greater error than multi-unit and ‘snack’ foods (p =0.02 and p <0.001 respectively). The number of portions of high energy density foods was overestimated while the number of portions of beverages and medium energy density foods were underestimated by 30–46%. In conclusion, participants tended to underestimate the reference portion size for a range of food and beverages, especially single unit foods and foods of low energy density and, unexpectedly, overestimated the reference portion of high energy density items. There is a need for better consumer education of appropriate portion sizes to aid adherence to a healthy diet.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Behavioural strategies to control the amount of food selected and consumed
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 72
      Author(s): Maartje P. Poelman , Emely de Vet , Elizabeth Velema , Jacob C. Seidell , Ingrid H.M. Steenhuis
      Several factors within the food environment may stimulate overconsumption. The present study aimed to (1) identify behavioural strategies to cope with this environment to control the amount of food consumed, (2) examine the feasibility and usefulness of the strategies, and (3) evaluate the association between the strategies and body mass index (BMI). After the literature was screened for evidence of factors that contribute to the consumption of large amounts of food, 32 behavioural strategies were identified to overcome these influences (study 1). Subjectively reported feasibility and usefulness of the 32 behavioural strategies in weight management were explored using a pretest post-test study (study 2: n =52). Additionally, two cross-sectional questionnaire studies (study 3a: n =120 and study 3b: n =278) were conducted to evaluate the association between the 32 behavioural strategies and BMI. The strategies were subjectively reported as feasible and useful in weight management. Frequent use of strategies discriminated non-overweight from overweight individuals, but did not discriminate overweight from obese individuals. In conclusion, the findings provided preliminary evidence for the acceptability and validity of the strategies. The effectiveness of the strategies for controlling the amount consumed should be further investigated, especially in overweight and obese participants.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Barriers for progress in salt reduction in the general population. An
           international study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 71
      Author(s): R.S. Newson , I. Elmadfa , Gy. Biro , Y. Cheng , V. Prakash , P. Rust , M. Barna , R. Lion , G.W. Meijer , N. Neufingerl , I. Szabolcs , R. van Zweden , Y. Yang , G.I.J. Feunekes
      Salt reduction is important for reducing hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular events, nevertheless worldwide salt intakes are above recommendations. Consequently strategies to reduce intake are required, however these require an understanding of salt intake behaviours to be effective. As limited information is available on this, an international study was conducted to derive knowledge on salt intake and associated behaviours in the general population. An online cohort was recruited consisting of a representative sample from Germany, Austria, United States of America, Hungary, India, China, South Africa, and Brazil (n =6987; aged 18–65years; age and gender stratified). Participants completed a comprehensive web-based questionnaire on salt intake and associated behaviours. While salt reduction was seen to be healthy and important, over one third of participants were not interested in salt reduction and the majority were unaware of recommendations. Salt intake was largely underestimated and people were unaware of the main dietary sources of salt. Participants saw themselves as mainly responsible for their salt intake, but also acknowledged the roles of others. Additionally, they wanted to learn more about why salt was bad for health and what the main sources in the diet were. As such, strategies to reduce salt intake must raise interest in engaging in salt reduction through improving understanding of intake levels and dietary sources of salt. Moreover, while some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction. These findings provide unique insights into issues surrounding salt reduction and should be used to develop effective salt reduction strategies and/or policies.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Psychological benefits of weight loss following behavioural and/or dietary
           weight loss interventions. A systematic research review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 72
      Author(s): N. Lasikiewicz , K. Myrissa , A. Hoyland , C.L. Lawton
      It is generally accepted that weight loss has significant physiological benefits, such as reduced risk of diabetes, lowered blood pressure and blood lipid levels. However, few behavioural and dietary interventions have investigated psychological benefit as the primary outcome. Hence, systematic review methodology was adopted to evaluate the psychological outcomes of weight loss following participation in a behavioural and/or dietary weight loss intervention in overweight/obese populations. 36 Studies were selected for inclusion and were reviewed. Changes in self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image and health related quality of life (HRQoL) were evaluated and discussed. Where possible, effect sizes to indicate the magnitude of change pre- to post- intervention were calculated using Hedges’ g standardised mean difference. The results demonstrated consistent improvements in psychological outcomes concurrent with and sometimes without weight loss. Improvements in body image and HRQoL (especially vitality) were closely related to changes in weight. Calculated effect sizes varied considerably and reflected the heterogeneous nature of the studies included in the review. Although the quality of the studies reviewed was generally acceptable, only 9 out of 36 studies included a suitable control/comparison group and the content, duration of intervention and measures used to assess psychological outcomes varied considerably. Further research is required to improve the quality of studies assessing the benefits of weight loss to fully elucidate the relationship between weight loss and psychological outcomes.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Nutrition practices of nurseries in England. Comparison with national
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 85
      Author(s): Sara E. Benjamin Neelon , Thomas Burgoine , Kathryn R. Hesketh , Pablo Monsivais
      Recent national guidelines call for improved nutrition within early years settings. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe foods and beverages served in nurseries, assess provider behaviors related to feeding, and compare these practices to national guidelines. We administered a mailed survey to a random sample of nurseries across England, stratifying by tertile of deprivation. A total of 851 nurseries returned the survey (54.3% response rate). We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of deprivation with each of the 13 food and beverage guidelines and the seven provider behavior guidelines. We also conducted a joint F-test for any deprivation effect, to evaluate the effect of the guidelines combined. After adjusting for confounders, we observed differences in the frequency of nurseries that reported serving healthier foods across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.02 for joint F test). These adjusted results were driven mainly by nurseries in more deprived areas serving more whole grains (OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.46)) and legumes, pulses, and lentils (1.40 (1.01, 2.14)). We also observed differences in the frequency of nurseries reporting more provider behaviors consistent with national guidelines across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.01 for joint F test). Nurseries in more deprived areas were more likely to dilute juice with water (2.35 (1.48, 3.73)), allow children to select their own portions (1.09 (1.06, 1.58)), and sit with children during meals (1.84 (1.07, 3.15)). While nurseries in the most deprived areas reported serving more healthy foods, a large percentage were still not meeting national guidelines. Policy and intervention efforts may increase compliance with national guidelines in nurseries in more deprived areas, and across England.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in
           families with young children. A mixed methods study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 73
      Author(s): Rebecca Meysenburg , Julie A. Albrecht , Ruth Litchfield , Paula K. Ritter-Gooder
      Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Generation Y, wine and alcohol. A semantic differential approach to
           consumption analysis in Tuscany
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 75
      Author(s): Nicola Marinelli , Sara Fabbrizzi , Veronica Alampi Sottini , Sandro Sacchelli , Iacopo Bernetti , Silvio Menghini
      The aim of the study is the elicitation of the consumer’s semantic perception of different alcoholic beverages in order to provide information for the definition of communication strategies for both the private sector (and specifically the wine industry) and the public decision maker. Such information can be seen as the basis of a wider social marketing construct aimed at the promotion of responsible drinking among young consumers. The semantic differential approach was used in this study. The data collection was based on a survey to 430 consumers between 18 and 35years old in Tuscany, Italy. The database was organized in a three-way structure, indexing the data in a multiway matrix. The data were processed using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Moreover, homogeneous clusters of consumers were identified using a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) approach. The results of the study highlight that beer and spirits are mainly perceived as “Young”, “Social”, “Euphoric”, “Happy”, “Appealing” and “Trendy” beverages, while wine is associated mostly with terms such as “Pleasure”, “Quality” and “Comfortable”. Furthermore, the cluster analysis allowed for the identification of three groups of individuals with different approaches to alcohol drinking. The results of the study supply a useful information framework for the elaboration of specific communication strategies that, based on the drinking habits of young consumers and their perception of different beverages, can use a language that is very close to the consumer typologies. Such information can be helpful for both private and public communication strategies.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Large, binge-type meals of high fat diet change feeding behaviour and
           entrain food anticipatory activity in mice☆
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): T. Bake , M. Murphy , D.G.A. Morgan , J.G. Mercer
      Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum on control diet but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) for 2 h a day during the mid-dark phase rapidly adapt their feeding behaviour and can consume nearly 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h-scheduled feed. We assessed food intake microstructure and meal pattern, and locomotor activity and rearing as markers of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Schedule fed mice reduced their caloric intake from control diet during the first hours of the dark phase but not during the 3-h period immediately preceding the scheduled feed. Large meal/binge-like eating behaviour during the 2-h scheduled feed was characterised by increases in both meal number and meal size. Rearing was increased during the 2-h period running up to scheduled feeding while locomotor activity started to increase 1 h before, indicating that schedule-fed mice display FAA. Meal number and physical activity changes were sustained when HFD was withheld during the anticipated scheduled feeding period, and mice immediately binged when HFD was represented after a week of this “withdrawal” period. These findings provide important context to our previous studies suggesting that energy balance systems in the hypothalamus are not responsible for driving these large, binge-type meals. Evidence of FAA in HFD dark phase schedule-fed mice implicates anticipatory processes in binge eating that do not involve immediately preceding hypophagia or regulatory homeostatic signalling.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Dose–response effect of a novel functional fibre,
           PolyGlycopleX®, PGX®, on satiety
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 77
      Author(s): Vicky A. Solah , Jennie C. Brand-Miller , Fiona S. Atkinson , Roland J. Gahler , Veronica Kacinik , Michael R. Lyon , Simon Wood
      The objective of this research was to determine the dose–response effects of a palatable, viscous and gel forming fibre, PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), [(α-D-glucurono-α–manno-β-D-manno-β-D-gluco), (α-Lgulurono-β-D mannurono), (β-D-gluco-β-D-mannan)] on satiety, and to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms that lead to appetite inhibition. Healthy subjects (n = 10), aged between 20.3 and 29.2 years, consumed PGX®, in granular form at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g, and a 5g inulin control, with a standard breakfast. The PGX® doses of 2.5 and 7.5 g mixed with water at the start of breakfast increased satiety (iAUC of 140.0 and 157.7, P = 0.025 and 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. The most effective dose (7.5g) was palatable and corresponded to a 34% increase in fullness, measured using a visual analogue scale and incremental area under the curve, and resulted in a delayed postprandial glycaemic response when compared with the control.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 79
      Author(s): John C. Peters , Sarit Polsky , Rebecca Stark , Pan Zhaoxing , James O. Hill
      Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18–65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P < 0.0001; 6.29 RF vs. 6.98 RFS, P ≤ 0.0001). The RFS overall meal was liked as well as the FF condition. FF and RFS conditions were liked significantly more than RF conditions for each meal item. Liking of FF and RFS meatloaf and vegetables were not significantly different from one another. Pasta FF and RFS conditions were rated significantly differently from each other (7.33 FF vs. 6.61 RFS, P < 0.0001). Adding herbs and spices to reduced fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of
           GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three
           months in overweight women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Caroline Montelius , Daniel Erlandsson , Egzona Vitija , Eva-Lena Stenblom , Emil Egecioglu , Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
      The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40–65 years of age, body mass index 25–33 kg/m2) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Parental feeding practices and associations with child weight status.
           Swedish validation of the Child Feeding Questionnaire finds parents of
           4-year-olds less restrictive
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Paulina Nowicka , Kimmo Sorjonen , Angelo Pietrobelli , Carl-Erik Flodmark , Myles S. Faith
      The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure
           by herb and spice seasonings
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 81
      Author(s): Sameer Khalil Ghawi , Ian Rowland , Lisa Methven
      There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Variety more than quantity of fruit and vegetable intake varies by
           socioeconomic status and financial hardship. Findings from older adults in
           the EPIC cohort
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Annalijn I. Conklin , Nita G. Forouhi , Marc Suhrcke , Paul Surtees , Nicholas J. Wareham , Pablo Monsivais
      Background: Beyond quantity, variety of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake prevents chronic conditions and is widely recommended as critical to healthful eating. FV consumption is socially patterned, especially for women, but little is known about multiple economic determinants of variety or whether they differ from those of quantity. Objective: To examine socioeconomic status and financial hardships in relation to variety and quantity of FV intakes among older British women and men. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 9580 adults (50–79 years) in the nationally representative EPIC cohort who responded to a postal Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire (1996–2000) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (1998–2002). Variety counted unique items consumed (items/month) and quantity measured total intake (g/day). Results: No consistent differences by any economic factor were observed for quantity of fruits or vegetables, except education in men. Lower education, lower social class and renting were independently associated with lower fruit variety and vegetable variety (p-trend < 0.001), with differences stronger in men. Mean vegetable variety differed between top and bottom social classes by 2.9 items/month for men and 2.5 for women. Greater financial hardships were also independently associated with lower variety, with differences stronger in women for fruits and in men for vegetables. Conclusions: British older adults reporting greater economic disadvantage consistently consumed fewer different fruits or vegetables, but not lower amounts. Further nutrition studies of the protective effects, and underlying mechanisms, of FV variety are warranted for addressing social inequalities in older adults' diet quality. Dietary guidance should separately emphasise variety, and interventions should aim to address financial barriers to older adults' consumption of diverse FV.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in
           Hispanic families with young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kristen M. Stenger , Paula K. Ritter-Gooder , Christina Perry , Julie A. Albrecht
      Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2014
      Source:Appetite, Volume 83
      Author(s): Katrina Heredia-Blonval , Adriana Blanco-Metzler , Marielos Montero-Campos , Elizabeth K. Dunford
      Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey–Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake. A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Alvin Ibarra , Nerys M. Astbury , Kaisa Olli , Esa Alhoniemi , Kirsti Tiihonen
      Introduction: Dietary fibers help to control energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. Recent studies show that the consumption of polydextrose reduces energy intake at a subsequent meal. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we examine the subsequent effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake (EI). Method: The review followed the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). A linear regression approach was used to model the relationship between the polydextrose dose and the different levels of EI expressed as a relative change (%). Results: All the studies included in this review administered polydextrose as part of a mid-morning snack. Six studies were included in the analysis of EI at an ad libitum lunch; and three were included in the analysis of EI during the rest of the day, as well as total daily EI. The meta-analysis showed that the consumption of polydextrose is associated with a reduction in EI at lunch time (SMD = 0.35; P < 0.01; I2 = 0). The dose of polydextrose consumed correlated significantly with this reduction in EI, EILunch (%) = −0.67 Polydextrose (g/day) (R2 = 0.80; P < 0.01). The meta-analysis of EI during the rest of the day and daily EI did not show any difference. Nevertheless, the regression equation indicates that there is a dose-dependent effect on the reduction of daily EI, EIDaily (%) = −0.35 × Polydextrose (g/day) (R2 = 0.68; P < 0.05). Sex-specific results are consistent with results for the whole group. Conclusion: The studies included in this meta-analysis support the notion that the consumption of polydextrose reduces voluntary energy intake at a subsequent meal. Furthermore, this reduction in energy intake occurs in a dose-dependent manner.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • A step-by-step introduction to vegetables at the beginning of
           complementary feeding. The effects of early and repeated exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Marion M. Hetherington , C. Schwartz , J. Madrelle , F. Croden , C. Nekitsing , C.M.J.L. Vereijken , H. Weenen
      Breastfeeding (BF) is associated with willingness to accept vegetables. This may be due to the variety of flavours delivered via breast milk. Some mothers add vegetables to milk during complementary feeding (CF) to enhance acceptance. The present study tested a step-by-step exposure to vegetables in milk then rice during CF, on intake and liking of vegetables. Just before CF, enrolled mothers were randomised to an intervention (IG, n = 18; 6 BF) or control group (CG, n = 18; 6 BF). IG infants received 12 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to milk (days 1–12), then 12 × 2 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to rice at home (days 13–24). Plain milk and rice were given to CG. Then both received 11 daily exposures to vegetable puree. Intake was weighed and liking rated on days 25–26 and 33–35 after the start of CF in the laboratory, supplemented by the same data recorded at home. Vegetables were rotated daily (carrots, green beans, spinach, broccoli). Intake, liking and pace of eating were greater for IG than CG infants. Intake and liking of carrots were greater than green beans. However, at 6m then 18m follow up, vegetable (carrot > green beans) but not group differences were observed. Mothers reported appreciation of the structure and guidance of this systematic approach. Early exposure to vegetables in a step-by-step method could be included in CF guidelines and longer term benefits assessed by extending the exposure period.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Exposure to foods' non-taste sensory properties. A nursery intervention to
           increase children's willingness to try fruit and vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Paul Dazeley , Carmel Houston-Price
      Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Why don't poor men eat fruit? Socioeconomic differences in motivations
           for fruit consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 84
      Author(s): Rachel Pechey , Pablo Monsivais , Yin-Lam Ng , Theresa M. Marteau
      Background: Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have less healthy diets than those of higher SES. This study aimed to assess whether differences in motivations for particular foods might contribute to socioeconomic differences in consumption. Methods: Participants (n = 732) rated their frequency of consumption and explicit liking of fruit, cake and cheese. They reported eating motivations (e.g., health, hunger, price) and related attributes of the investigated foods (healthiness, expected satiety, value for money). Participants were randomly assigned to an implicit liking task (Single Category Implicit Association Task) for one food category. Analyses were conducted separately for different SES measures (income, education, occupational group). Results: Lower SES and male participants reported eating less fruit, but no SES differences were found for cheese or cake. Analyses therefore focused on fruit. In implicit liking analyses, results (for income and education) reflected patterning in consumption, with lower SES and male participants liking fruit less. In explicit liking analyses, no differences were found by SES. Higher SES participants (all indicators) were more likely to report health and weight control and less likely report price as motivators of food choices. For perceptions of fruit, no SES-based differences were found in healthiness whilst significant interactions (but not main effects) were found (for income and education) for expected satiety and value for money. Neither liking nor perceptions of fruit were found to mediate the relationship between SES and frequency of fruit consumption. Conclusions: There is evidence for social patterning in food motivation, but differences are modified by the choice of implicit or explicit measures. Further work should clarify the extent to which these motivations may be contributing to the social and gender patterning in diet.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • ‘I don’t think I ever had food poisoning’. A
           practice-based approach to understanding foodborne disease that originates
           in the home
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 85
      Author(s): Wendy J. Wills , Angela Meah , Angela M. Dickinson , Frances Short
      Food stored, prepared, cooked and eaten at home contributes to foodborne disease which, globally, presents a significant public health burden. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate, analyse and interpret domestic kitchen practices in order to provide fresh insight about how the domestic setting might influence food safety. Using current theories of practice meant the research, which drew on qualitative and ethnographic methods, could investigate people and material things in the domestic kitchen setting whilst taking account of people's actions, values, experiences and beliefs. Data from 20 UK households revealed the extent to which kitchens are used for a range of non-food related activities and the ways that foodwork extends beyond the boundaries of the kitchen. The youngest children, the oldest adults and the family pets all had agency in the kitchen, which has implications for preventing foodborne disease. What was observed, filmed and photographed was not a single practice but a series of entangled encounters and actions embedded and repeated, often inconsistently, by the individuals involved. Households derived logics and principles about foodwork that represented rules of thumb about ‘how things are done’ that included using the senses and experiential knowledge when judging whether food is safe to eat. Overall, food safety was subsumed within the practice of ‘being’ a household and living everyday life in the kitchen. Current theories of practice are an effective way of understanding foodborne disease and offer a novel approach to exploring food safety in the home.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Stopping to food can reduce intake. Effects of stimulus-specificity and
           individual differences in dietary restraint
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 85
      Author(s): Natalia S. Lawrence , Frederick Verbruggen , Sinead Morrison , Rachel C. Adams , Christopher D. Chambers
      Overeating in our food-rich environment is a key contributor to obesity. Computerised response-inhibition training could improve self-control in individuals who overeat. Evidence suggests that training people to inhibit motor responses to specific food pictures can reduce the subsequent choice and consumption of those foods. Here we undertook three experiments using the stop-signal task to examine the effects of food and non-food related stop-training on immediate snack food consumption. The experiments examined whether training effects were stimulus-specific, whether they were influenced by the comparator (control) group, and whether they were moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. Experiment 1 revealed lower intake of one food following stop- vs. double- (two key-presses) response training to food pictures. Experiment 2 offered two foods, one of which was not associated with stopping, to enable within- and between-subjects comparisons of intake. A second control condition required participants to ignore signals and respond with one key-press to all pictures. There was no overall effect of training on intake in Experiment 2, but there was a marginally significant moderation by dietary restraint: Restrained eaters ate significantly less signal-food following stop- relative to double-response training. Experiment 3 revealed that stop- vs. double-response training to non-food pictures had no effect on food intake. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest some stimulus-specific effects of stop-training on food intake that may be moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Policies to promote healthy portion sizes for children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 88
      Author(s): Jennifer L. Pomeranz , Daniel P. Miller
      People of all ages are increasingly consuming larger portions of food. Governments worldwide are involved in the regulation of many aspects of the food supply; however, policies and programs related to serving sizes for children vary or are not clearly communicated. This paper reviews U.S. federal and state government recommendations, policies, and laws related to serving size for children and suggests directions for future policy objectives and outstanding research needed to support the enactment of laws based on the best science. Specifically, this paper reviews federal dietary recommendations and requirements for nutrition programs, packaged food labels and restaurant menus; state regulation of retail environments and child care settings; food companies' self-regulatory options; and directions for future research and policy initiatives. The paper concludes that there are many opportunities for government to revise its policies and programs to better support healthy portion sizes for children and create a more transparent information environment to assist caretakers to do the same.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Nutrition knowledge, and use and understanding of nutrition information on
           food labels among consumers in the UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2010
      Source:Appetite, Volume 55, Issue 2
      Author(s): Klaus G. Grunert , Josephine M. Wills , Laura Fernández-Celemín
      Based on in-store observations in three major UK retailers, in-store interviews (2019) and questionnaires filled out at home and returned (921), use of nutrition information on food labels and its understanding were investigated. Respondents’ nutrition knowledge was also measured, using a comprehensive instrument covering knowledge of expert recommendations, nutrient content in different food products, and calorie content in different food products. Across six product categories, 27% of shoppers were found to have looked at nutrition information on the label, with guideline daily amount (GDA) labels and the nutrition grid/table as the main sources consulted. Respondents’ understanding of major front-of-pack nutrition labels was measured using a variety of tasks dealing with conceptual understanding, substantial understanding and health inferences. Understanding was high, with up to 87.5% of respondents being able to identify the healthiest product in a set of three. Differences between level of understanding and level of usage are explained by different causal mechanisms. Regression analysis showed that usage is mainly related to interest in healthy eating, whereas understanding of nutrition information on food labels is mainly related to nutrition knowledge. Both are in turn affected by demographic variables, but in different ways.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2011
      Source:Appetite, Volume 56, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mirre Viskaal-van Dongen , Frans J. Kok , Cees de Graaf
      We investigated the eating rate of commonly consumed foods and the associations with food intake and macronutrient composition. Ingestion time (s) of 50g of 45 foods was measured to assess eating rate (g/min), after which ad libitum food intake (g) was measured. Thirteen men and 24 women (aged 23.3 (SD 3.4)y, BMI 21.7 (SD 1.7)kg/m2) participated, each testing 7 foods in separate sessions. We observed large differences in eating rate between foods, ranging from 4.2 (SD 3.7) to 631 (SD 507)g/min. Eating rate was positively associated with food intake (β =0.55) and energy intake (β =0.001). Eating rate was inversely associated with energy density (β =−0.00047) and positively with water content (β =0.011). Carbohydrate (β =−0.012), protein (β =−0.021) and fiber content (β =−0.087) were inversely associated with eating rate, whereas fat was not. This study showed that when foods can be ingested rapidly, food and energy intake is high. People may therefore be at risk of overconsumption, when consuming foods with a high eating rate. Considering the current food supply, where many foods have a high eating rate, long-term effects of eating rate on energy balance should be investigated.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Do implementation intentions help to eat a healthy diet? A systematic
           review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2011
      Source:Appetite, Volume 56, Issue 1
      Author(s): Marieke A. Adriaanse , Charlotte D.W. Vinkers , Denise T.D. De Ridder , Joop J. Hox , John B.F. De Wit
      Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether implementation intentions are an effective tool to help people put their intentions to eat a healthy diet into practice. Additionally, it was investigated whether the quality of the outcome measures and the quality of the control conditions that are used in these studies influence implementation intentions’ effectiveness. Methods: Twenty three empirical studies investigating the effect of implementation intentions on eating behavior were included. In assessing the empirical evidence, a distinction was made between studies that aim to increase healthy eating (i.e., eating more fruits) and studies that aim to diminish unhealthy eating (i.e., eating fewer unhealthy snacks). Results: Implementation intentions are an effective tool for promoting the inclusion of healthy food items in one's diet (Cohen's d =.51), but results for diminishing unhealthy eating patterns are less strong (Cohen's d =.29). For studies aiming to increase healthy eating, it was found that higher quality outcome measures and lower quality control conditions tended to yield stronger effects. Conclusion: Implementation intentions are somewhat more effective in promoting healthy eating than in diminishing unhealthy eating, although for some studies promoting healthy eating effect sizes may have been inflated due to less than optimal control conditions.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Healthy and unhealthy social norms and food selection. Findings from a
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 65
      Author(s): Saar Mollen , Rajiv N. Rimal , Robert A.C. Ruiter , Gerjo Kok
      The behavior of others in people’s social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as their opinions regarding appropriate actions (i.e., injunctive norms) strongly influence people’s decisions and actions. The goal of this study was to extend prior laboratory research on the influence of social norms on food choices, by conducting a field-experiment in an on-campus food court. One of three different messages was posted on a given day: a healthy descriptive norm, healthy injunctive norm, or an unhealthy descriptive norm. Effects of these social norms messages on food choice were compared against each other and a no-message control condition. In total, 687 students reported their food choice through a questionnaire provided to them. Food choices were analyzed for participants who reported being exposed to one of the social norms signs and those in the control condition (N =220). Findings showed that the healthy descriptive norm resulted in more healthy food choices, compared to an unhealthy descriptive norm, as well as the control condition. The difference between the injunctive healthy norm and the control condition was not significant, though those in the injunctive norm condition did make more healthy decisions, than those in the unhealthy descriptive norm condition. Implications with regard to theory and practice are discussed.
      Highlights ► We studied the effects of healthy and unhealthy social norms on food choice. ► This was done in a field-experiment. ► Healthy descriptive and injunctive norms produce more healthy choices than unhealthy descriptive norms.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases
           feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial
           hypoglycaemia in overweight women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 68
      Author(s): Eva-Lena Stenblom , Caroline Montelius , Karolina Östbring , Maria Håkansson , Sofia Nilsson , Jens F. Rehfeld , Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
      Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180min, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90min following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests that the dietary addition of thylakoids could aid efforts to reduce food intake and prevent compensational eating later in the day, which may help to reduce body weight over time.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Timing of serving dessert but not portion size affects young
           children’s intake at lunchtime
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 68
      Author(s): Lyndsey R. Huss , Sara Laurentz , Jennifer Orlet Fisher , George P. McCabe , Sibylle Kranz
      The purpose of this repeated exposure, randomized, cross-over quasi-experimental study was to determine the individual and combined impact of (a) the timing of serving dessert and (b) portion size of main course in 2–5year old children (n =23) on energy intake at lunch in a childcare setting. Children were served two study lunches (fish or pasta, each with dessert) twice a week for 12weeks that differed in the timing of dessert (served with or after the main course) and portion size of the main course (reference portion or 50% larger portion). Analyses of variance revealed that serving dessert after the meal resulted in higher energy intakes from both the main course and from dessert, and therefore greater total intake at the meal. Portion size of the main course did not influence total energy intake at the meal. Results indicate that the timing of serving dessert affects children’s energy intake regardless of the portion size of the main course. Specifically, serving dessert with the meal reduces total energy intake regardless of the main course portion size. This suggests that offering dessert with the main course may be an effective strategy for decreasing total energy intake at meals in preschool-aged children.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Slimming starters. Intake of a diet-congruent food reduces meal intake in
           active dieters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 71
      Author(s): Nicola J. Buckland , Graham Finlayson , Marion M. Hetherington
      Dietary restraint is known to break down in the face of tempting foods. Previous research suggests exposure to cues associated with slimming such as images or odours act as prompts to restrict intake of a tempting snack in dieters. The effects of consuming diet-congruent foods on subsequent intake of a meal have not yet been investigated. Thus, using a repeated measures design 26 female participants (dieters or non-dieters) consumed a diet-congruent (100kcal salad), hedonic (100kcal garlic bread) or neutral (0kcal water) preload. A lexical decision task measured the salience of diet and hedonic thoughts and participants were then offered pizza as a main meal. Appetite sensations were measured throughout the study. Compared to the hedonic and neutral preload, a diet-congruent preload reduced dieters’ entire meal intake by 21%. In contrast, non-dieters consumed 9% more in the hedonic preload condition compared to the neutral preload, yet showed no differences between the diet-congruent and other conditions. Salad lowered participants desire to eat and increased fullness compared to garlic bread and water preloads. Dieters were also less hungry after the salad compared to the garlic bread and water preloads. Consuming a diet-congruent first course may prompt lower intake at a meal, in part due to facilitating resolve to refrain from overeating a tempting second course.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • ‘Food hates’ over the life course: an analysis of food
           narratives from the UK Mass Observation Archive
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2013
      Source:Appetite, Volume 71
      Author(s): Emma Uprichard , Sarah Nettleton , Paul Chappell
      This article presents data from the UK Mass Observation Archive drawn from the 1982 Winter Food Directive, which focuses on memories of childhood food ‘hates’. Through our analysis of these data, we identify three main findings: (a) there is a discrepancy between individual-level and collective aggregate level food hates, which problematises the notion of commensality; (b) a small but powerful ‘outlier’ group of respondents, which we refer to as ‘visceral repulsors’, show relatively extreme reactions to certain foods throughout their lives; and (c) the duration and temporalities of food hates can be used to sketch a rough model of change and continuity of food hates over the life course. Finally, the discussion focuses on the food hate trajectories through the life course, situated in a social context, to explore the implications the findings may have for food and health policy more generally.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T08:43:26Z
  • Food reward. What it is and how to measure it
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 90
      Author(s): Peter J. Rogers , Charlotte A. Hardman
      We investigated the contribution of hunger and food liking to food reward, and the relationship between food reward and food intake. We defined liking as the pleasantness of taste of food in the mouth, and food reward as the momentary value of a food to the individual at the time of ingestion. Liking and food reward were measured, respectively, by ratings of the pleasantness of the taste of a mouthful, and ratings of desire to eat a portion, of the food in question. Hunger, which we view as primarily the absence of fullness, was rated without food being present. Study 1 provided evidence that hunger and liking contribute independently to food reward, with little effect of hunger on liking. Food intake reduced liking and reward value more for the eaten food than uneaten foods. The results were ambiguous as to whether this food-specific decline in reward value (‘sensory-specific satiety’) involved a decrease in ‘wanting’ in addition to the decrease in liking. Studies 2 and 3 compared desire to eat ratings with work-for-food and pay-for-food measures of food reward, and found desire to eat to be equal or superior in respect of effects of hunger and liking, and superior in predicting ad libitum food intake. A further general observation was that in making ratings of food liking participants may confuse the pleasantness of the taste of food with the pleasantness of eating it. The latter, which some call ‘palatability,’ decreases more with eating because it is significantly affected by hunger/fullness. Together, our results demonstrate the validity of ratings of desire to eat a portion of a tasted food as a measure of food reward and as a predictor of food intake.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-20T13:57:21Z
  • What information do consumers consider, and how do they look for it, when
           shopping for groceries online?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
      Author(s): Yael Benn , Thomas L. Webb , Betty P.I. Chang , John Reidy
      Previous research investigating what information shoppers seek when purchasing groceries has used either lab-experiments or observed shoppers in supermarkets. The present research investigates this question in a relatively naturalistic online-grocery environment. Forty participants completed their weekly shopping online while their eye-movements were recorded. Ten of the participants were subsequently interviewed to gain insight into their information seeking behaviour. We found that, when looking for products, 95% of participants navigated through the ‘virtual departments’, 80% used the ‘search’ facility, and 68% browsed the special offer pages. Once on the product pages, participants tended to look at the pictures of products, rather than examine detailed product information. To explain these findings, we suggest that online grocery sites simulate familiar supermarket environments, which may explain why consumers prefer to browse categories of products rather than use search terms. We also suggest that additional strategies are needed if consumers are to be encouraged to view detailed product information.

      PubDate: 2015-03-07T20:26:27Z
  • Priming healthy eating. You can't prime all the people all of the time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Author(s): Suzanna E. Forwood , Amy L. Ahern , Gareth J. Hollands , Yin-Lam Ng , Theresa M. Marteau
      Objective In the context of a food purchasing environment filled with advertising and promotions, and an increased desire from policy makers to guide individuals toward choosing healthier foods, this study tests whether priming methods that use healthy food adverts to increase preference for healthier food generalize to a representative population. Methods In two studies (Study 1 n = 143; Study 2 n = 764), participants were randomly allocated to a prime condition, where they viewed fruit and vegetable advertisements, or a control condition, with no advertisements. A subsequent forced choice task assessed preference between fruits and other sweet snacks. Additional measures included current hunger and thirst, dietary restraint, age, gender, education and self-reported weight and height. Results In Study 1, hunger reduced preferences for fruits (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.26–0.56), p < 0.0001), an effect countered by the prime (OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.33–3.96), p = 0.003). In Study 2, the effect of the prime did not generalize to a representative population. More educated participants, as used in Study 1, chose more fruit when hungry and primed (OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.13–1.79), p = 0.003), while less educated participants' fruit choice was unaffected by hunger or the prime. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that the effects of adverts on healthy eating choices depend on key individual traits (education level) and states (hunger), do not generalize to a broader population and have the potential to increase health inequalities arising from food choice.

      PubDate: 2015-02-14T07:21:33Z
  • Effects of meal variety on expected satiation: Evidence for a
           ‘perceived volume’ heuristic
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Gregory S. Keenan , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom , Danielle Ferriday
      Meal variety has been shown to increase energy intake in humans by an average of 29%. Historically, research exploring the mechanism underlying this effect has focused on physiological and psychological processes that terminate a meal (e.g., sensory-specific satiety). We sought to explore whether meal variety stimulates intake by influencing pre-meal planning. We know that individuals use prior experience with a food to estimate the extent to which it will deliver fullness. These ‘expected satiation’ judgments may be straightforward when only one meal component needs to be considered, but it remains unclear how prospective satiation is estimated when a meal comprises multiple items. We hypothesised that people simplify the task by using a heuristic, or ‘cognitive shortcut.’ Specifically, as within-meal variety increases, expected satiation tends to be based on the perceived volume of food(s) rather than on prior experience. In each trial, participants (N = 68) were shown a plate of food with six buffet food items. Across trials the number of different foods varied in the range one to six. In separate tasks, the participants provided an estimate of their combined expected satiation and volume. When meal variety was high, judgments of perceived volume and expected satiation ‘converged.’ This is consistent with a common underlying response strategy. By contrast, the low variety meals produced dissociable responses, suggesting that judgments of expected satiation were not governed solely by perceived volume. This evidence for a ‘volume heuristic’ was especially clear in people who were less familiar with the meal items. Together, these results are important because they expose a novel process by which meal variety might increase food intake in humans.

      PubDate: 2015-02-09T01:45:55Z
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