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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
Polish Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.928, h-index: 68)
Polski Przegląd Otorynolaryngologiczny : Polish J. of Otorhinolaryngology Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 78)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 197)
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.241, h-index: 112)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.947, h-index: 69)
Porto Biomedical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 22, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [19 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Mothers' loss of control over eating during pregnancy in relation to their
           infants' appetitive traits
    • Authors: Rachel P. Kolko; Rachel H. Salk; Gina M. Sweeny; Marsha D. Marcus; Michele D. Levine
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Rachel P. Kolko, Rachel H. Salk, Gina M. Sweeny, Marsha D. Marcus, Michele D. Levine


      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • The Self-Efficacy Scale for Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (SESAMeD):
           A scale construction and validation
    • Authors: Esther Cuadrado; Tamara Gutiérrez-Domingo; Rosario Castillo-Mayen; Bárbara Luque; Alicia Arenas; Carmen Taberneroa
      Pages: 6 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Esther Cuadrado, Tamara Gutiérrez-Domingo, Rosario Castillo-Mayen, Bárbara Luque, Alicia Arenas, Carmen Taberneroa
      The Mediterranean diet has several beneficial impacts on health. Self-efficacy may be crucial for adhering to the diet. This study set out to develop a reliable and valid instrument that would enable measurement of the extent to which people are confident about their ability to adhere to the Mediterranean diet: the Self-Efficacy Scale for Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (SESAMeD). The study was carried out in two stages. In Stage 1, a pilot questionnaire was administrated to 170 students to reduce and refine items. In Stage 2, the validity and reliability of the scale were evaluated among a sample of 348 patients who have suffered from cardiovascular disease. After items reduction, the scale consisted of 22 items. The factor structure of SESAMeD was tested across exploratory factorial analysis and confirmatory factorial analysis, with both analyses confirming a robust adjustment for the bi-factorial structure. The two factors identified were (a) self-efficacy for the avoidance of determined unhealthy foods not recommended in the Mediterranean diet and (b) self-efficacy for the consumption of determined healthy foods recommended in this diet. The pattern of relations between the SESAMeD and the SESAMeD subscales and other different psychological variables (outcome expectancies, motivation, affective balance, and life satisfaction) supported the validity of the bi-factorial structure and provided strong evidence of construct validity. The instrument can help health professionals and researchers to assess patients’ confidence of their ability to adhere to the Mediterranean diet, a psychological variable that may affect adherence to this healthy food consumption pattern.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Food addiction among sexual minorities
    • Authors: Jacob C. Rainey; Celina R. Furman; Ashley N. Gearhardt
      Pages: 16 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Jacob C. Rainey, Celina R. Furman, Ashley N. Gearhardt
      Although sexual minorities represent a small proportion of the general population, this group has been observed to be at an increased risk of developing various pathologies, including substance use and eating disorders. Research suggests that foods high in added fat and refined carbohydrates may trigger an addictive response, especially in at-risk individuals. Consequently, food addiction is associated with elevated risk for obesity, diet-related disease, and psychological distress. However, there is limited research on whether food addiction, like substance use, may be elevated among sexual minorities, and whether self-compassion may be a protective factor. Thus, the current study aims to test whether food addiction is elevated in sexual minorities (relative to heterosexuals) and if discrimination and self-compassion may be related to food addiction among sexual minorities. In a community sample of 356 participants (43.3% sexual minority), sexual minorities had almost twice the prevalence of food addiction (16.9%) as heterosexuals (8.9%). Also, sexual minorities on average experienced more food addiction symptoms (M = 2.73, SD = 1.76) than heterosexuals (M = 1.95, SD = 1.59). For sexual minorities, heterosexist harassment was associated with increased food addiction, while self-compassion appeared to be a protective factor. Further research needs to examine between-group differences among sexual minorities for better treatment and interventions for food addiction.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • An experiment assessing effects of personalized feedback about genetic
           susceptibility to obesity on attitudes towards diet and exercise
    • Authors: Woo-kyoung Ahn; Matthew S. Lebowitz
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Woo-kyoung Ahn, Matthew S. Lebowitz
      As increasing attention is paid to possible genetic influences on susceptibility to obesity, recent studies have examined how genetic attributions can impact laypeople's weight-related attitudes and eating behavior. Little consideration, however, has been devoted to understanding the potential effects of learning that one does not have a genetic predisposition to obesity. The present study investigated the possibility that such feedback might bring about negative consequences by making people feel invulnerable to weight gain, which is termed a genetic invincibility effect. After conducting a saliva test disguised as genetic screening, participants were randomly assigned to be told that there was either a very high or very low chance that they carried genes known to increase one's risk of developing obesity. Participants who were told that they were not genetically predisposed to obesity judged the efficacy of healthy diet and exercise habits to be significantly lower than did those who were told that they were genetically predisposed and those who did not receive any genetic feedback. When prompted to select a meal from a menu of options, participants who were told that they were not genetically predisposed to obesity were also more likely than others to select unhealthy foods. These findings demonstrate the existence of a genetic invincibility effect, suggesting that personalized feedback indicating the absence of a genetic liability could have negative psychological consequences with substantial health-related implications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Visual exposure and categorization performance positively influence 3- to
           6-year-old children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables
    • Authors: Camille Rioux; Jérémie Lafraire; Delphine Picard
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Camille Rioux, Jérémie Lafraire, Delphine Picard
      The present research focuses on the effectiveness of visual exposure to vegetables in reducing food neophobia and pickiness among young children. We tested the hypotheses that (1) simple visual exposure to vegetables leads to an increase in the consumption of this food category, (2) diverse visual exposure to vegetables (i.e., vegetables varying in color are shown to children) leads to a greater increase in the consumption of this food category than classical exposure paradigms (i.e. the same mode of presentation of a given food across exposure sessions) and (3) visual exposure to vegetables leads to an increase in the consumption of this food category through a mediating effect of an increase in ease of categorization. We recruited 70 children aged 3–6 years who performed a 4-week study consisting of three phases: a 2-week visual exposure phase where place mats with pictures of vegetables were set on tables in school cafeterias, and pre and post intervention phases where willingness to try vegetables as well as cognitive performances were assessed for each child. Results indicated that visual exposure led to an increased consumption of exposed and non-exposed vegetables after the intervention period. Nevertheless, the exposure intervention where vegetables varying in color were shown to children was no more effective. Finally, results showed that an ease of categorization led to a larger impact after the exposure manipulation. The findings suggest that vegetable pictures might help parents to deal with some of the difficulties associated with the introduction of novel vegetables and furthermore that focusing on conceptual development could be an efficient way to tackle food neophobia and pickiness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Australian children's perceptions of discretionary foods
    • Authors: Stefania Velardo; Murray Drummond
      Pages: 43 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Stefania Velardo, Murray Drummond
      Energy-dense nutrient poor foods and drinks, often referred to as discretionary choices, can contribute a significant amount of energy, fat, sodium and sugar to the diet if consumed in large quantities. Currently many Australian children are consuming a diet that is characterised by large quantities of discretionary items. We undertook a qualitative study to gain a descriptive account of preadolescent children's attitudes and perceptions towards health and nutrition. A series of 6 focus groups and 14 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty-eight children aged 11–12 years, across three state government schools in a socially disadvantaged region of metropolitan South Australia. The naturalistic manner of qualitative inquiry led to several unintended yet highly pertinent emergent themes, including children's perceptions and practices surrounding discretionary food consumption. Our results indicate that while Australian guidelines recommend that discretionary foods are consumed ‘only sometimes and in small amounts’, children generally held a different belief with respect to what constituted ‘sometimes’. Many children identified that discretionary foods should be consumed in moderation to maintain a balanced diet, yet reported consuming these foods frequently. Self-reported discretionary food consumption was grounded in socially constructed experiences valued by the children, who made situational attributions to foods and legitimised discretionary food consumption in certain contexts, for example during the weekend. Overall, there is variability between children's opinions about the acceptable frequency of consumption of discretionary foods compared with national guidelines.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Unsold is unseen … or is it' Examining the role of peripheral vision
           in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology
    • Authors: Erik Wästlund; Poja Shams; Tobias Otterbring
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Erik Wästlund, Poja Shams, Tobias Otterbring
      In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.024
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • “Doing our best to keep a routine:” How low-income mothers manage
           child feeding with unpredictable work and family schedules
    • Authors: Tara Agrawal; Tracy Jean Farrell; Elaine Wethington; Carol M. Devine
      Pages: 57 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Tara Agrawal, Tracy Jean Farrell, Elaine Wethington, Carol M. Devine
      Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3–4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies – planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Binary components of food reinforcement: Amplitude and persistence
    • Authors: Leonard H. Epstein; Jeffrey S. Stein; Rocco A. Paluch; James MacKillop; Warren K. Bickel
      Pages: 67 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Leonard H. Epstein, Jeffrey S. Stein, Rocco A. Paluch, James MacKillop, Warren K. Bickel
      Background Demand curves provide an index of how reinforcing a food is. Research examining the latent structure of alcohol and tobacco reinforcement identified two underlying components of reinforcement, amplitude and persistence. No research has assessed latent structure of food reinforcement and how these factors are related to BMI. Subjects and methods Participants were 297 adults from two studies that completed food purchasing tasks to assess the following measures of relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of food: intensity (Q0): purchases made when the food was free or of very minimal price, Omax: maximum expenditure (purchases*price), Pmax: price point where maximum expenditure was observed, breakpoint: first price where 0 purchases are made, and demand elasticity (α): quantitative non-linear relationship between purchasing and price. Principal components analysis was used to examine the factor structure of RRE for food across samples and types of food. Results Both studies revealed two factor solutions, with Pmax, Omax, breakpoint and α loading on factor 1 (persistence) and intensity (Q0) loading on factor 2 (amplitude) across both high and low energy dense foods. Persistence reflects an aggregate measure of price sensitivity and amplitude reflects the preferred volume of consumption (how long vs. how much). The two factors accounted for between 91.7 and 95.4% of the variance in food reinforcement. Intensity for high energy dense foods predicted BMI for both studies (r = 0.18 and r = 0.22, p's < 0.05). Conclusions The latent factor structure was similar across two significantly different independent samples and across low and high energy dense snack foods. In addition, the amplitude of the demand curve, but not persistence, was related to BMI. These results suggest specific aspects of food reinforcement that can be targeted to alter food intake.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.023
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • What determines the fruit and vegetables intake of primary school
           children' - An analysis of personal and social determinants
    • Authors: Julia Haß; Monika Hartmann
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Julia Haß, Monika Hartmann
      The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a major concern in developed and developing countries. An increase in fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is perceived as one of the numerous strategies to prevent and reduce the risk of adiposity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of personal and social determinants in explaining children's F&V intake. Written questionnaire data were collected from 702 parent-child pairs that included 3rd and 4th graders (aged 7 to 10) and their parents. Children's F&V intake was recorded over three food records. Hierarchical linear regression models were applied to assess the impact of personal and social determinants on children's F&V intake. Regression models focusing on personal and social determinants revealed that the most promising personal determinants pertained to the knowledge of different types of F&V and preferences for F&V. Moreover, an exclusive focus on social determinants indicated that parental modeling and peer influence had significant and positive relationships with children's F&V intake, whereas verbal directives to eat F&V exhibited a significant and negative relationship. In combination, the following four personal and social determinants were demonstrated to be significant: knowledge of different types of F&V, preferences for F&V and parental modeling, all of which had positive relationships, and verbal directives to eat F&V, which had a negative impact. The results identify important associative determinants of children's F&V intake. These are in part personal and in part social and are shown by our analysis to be of equal and perhaps mutual importance. Therefore, we suggest that interventions aimed at improving children's F&V intake should address children's preferences for F&V, impart knowledge concerning the variety of F&V and encourage parents to act as role models.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Acute effects of monosodium glutamate addition to whey protein on
           appetite, food intake, blood glucose, insulin and gut hormones in healthy
           young men
    • Authors: G. Harvey Anderson; Hrvoje Fabek; Rajadurai Akilen; Diptendu Chatterjee; Ruslan Kubant
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): G. Harvey Anderson, Hrvoje Fabek, Rajadurai Akilen, Diptendu Chatterjee, Ruslan Kubant
      Aims This study investigated the effects of adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to carrot soup with or without whey protein, on subjective appetite, food intake (FI) and satiety hormones in healthy young men. Methods Two experiments were conducted using a repeated-measures, within-subject, crossover design. In exp-1 healthy young men (n = 28) consumed water alone (500 mL), or carrot soup (500 g) with or without MSG (5 g, 1% w/w) or whey protein enriched (36 g) carrot soup with or without MSG (5 g, 1% w/w). Subjective appetite was measured post-treatment and FI measured at a meal at 120 min. In exp-2 (n = 15) the same treatments except for water were used. In addition to subjective appetite and FI, blood glucose, insulin, glucose like peptide 1 (GLP-1), C-peptide and ghrelin were measured. Results Adding MSG to carrot soup or whey protein enriched carrot soup did not affect FI. However, in exp-1 the addition of both MSG and protein increased fullness, and when MSG was added to carrot soup reduced desire to eat. In exp-2, average post-treatment appetite (5–120 min) was lower after carrot soup with MSG and protein than all other treatments (P < 0.05). In exp-2, carrot soup with MSG and protein, but not with protein alone, increased post-treatment insulin and C-peptide, and lowered blood glucose in comparison to carrot soup with no additions (P < 0.05). Conclusion Adding MSG alone, or in combination with whey protein, to carrot soups did not affect FI. However, MSG increased fullness and reduced desire to eat, as well as subjective appetite, and when added to protein decreased blood glucose and increased insulin and C-peptide, offering some support for the hypothesis that MSG in the gut signals protein consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Acute effects of video-game playing versus television viewing on stress
           markers and food intake in overweight and obese young men: A randomised
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Mario Siervo; Jason Gan; Mary S. Fewtrell; Mario Cortina-Borja; Jonathan C.K. Wells
      Pages: 100 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Mario Siervo, Jason Gan, Mary S. Fewtrell, Mario Cortina-Borja, Jonathan C.K. Wells
      Background Sedentary or near-sedentary activities are associated with overweight/obesity in epidemiological studies. This has traditionally been attributed to physical activity displacement. A little-explored area is whether behavioural stresses alter sensations of appetite and eating behaviour. We examined whether behaviours conducted seated (television viewing, video gaming) induce different eating patterns, associated with differential levels of stress response. Methods and findings We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 72 overweight/obese adult males, assigned to three groups (24 per group): (i) non-violent television (control group); (ii) non-violent game (FIFA); (iii) violent game (Call of Duty). Following a standardized breakfast, the 1-h intervention was followed by 25-min rest, with sweet and savoury snacks and drinks available ad libitum. Stress markers (heart rate, blood pressure, visual analogue scale (VAS)) were measured throughout. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and stress by VAS were significantly higher (p < 0.05) playing video games than watching non-violent television, though the two game groups did not differ. Considered separately, only the violent video game group consumed more energy (Δ = 208.3 kcal, 95%CI 16, 400), sweet foods (Δ = 25.9 g, 95%CI 9.9, 41.9) and saturated fat (Δ = 4.36 g, 95%CI 0.76, 7.96) than controls. Conclusion Playing video games in overweight/obese adult males is associated with an acute stress response relative to watching non-violent television, associated with greater subsequent food intake. These findings highlight the need to focus on the metabolic effects, as well as the energy costs, of activities involving sitting in relation to obesity risk.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T21:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Emotion suppression and food intake in the context of a couple discussion:
           A dyadic analysis
    • Authors: Marilou Côté; Marie-Pierre Gagnon-Girouard; Stéphane Sabourin; Catherine Bégin
      Pages: 109 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Marilou Côté, Marie-Pierre Gagnon-Girouard, Stéphane Sabourin, Catherine Bégin
      Using dyadic analysis, this study examined whether emotion suppression is a valid mediator in the relationship between mood change following a stressful couple discussion and subsequent food intake among cohabiting couples. In a laboratory setting, 80 heterosexual couples were presented with a bogus taste test immediately after discussing aspects that they would like each other to change. Mood change, emotion suppression and appetite perceptions were self-reported using visual analogue scales, and BMI was calculated based on objective measures. The moderated-mediation Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed a significant indirect conditional effect, showing that mood worsening was significantly associated with higher emotion suppression and that emotion suppression was significantly associated with more food intake among spouses with a high BMI. For spouses with a low BMI, the reverse effect was found, i.e., mood worsening was significantly associated with less food intake through the indirect effect of emotion suppression. Furthermore, an indirect partner effect was observed regardless of BMI, i.e., mood worsening was related to more food intake, which was mediated by the partner's emotion suppression. These results highlight the key role of emotion suppression in the relationship between mood change and food intake in the context of a stressful couple discussion.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.029
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Measurement invariance of the feeding practices and Structure
           Questionnaire-28 among a community of socioeconomically disadvantaged
           mothers and fathers
    • Authors: Elena Jansen; Holly A. Harris; Kimberley M. Mallan; Lynne Daniels; Karen Thorpe
      Pages: 115 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Elena Jansen, Holly A. Harris, Kimberley M. Mallan, Lynne Daniels, Karen Thorpe
      Objective Determine whether feeding practices across mothers and fathers are interpreted and measured with equivalent accuracy (measurement invariance) using the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire-28 (FPSQ-28). Design Cross-sectional hard-copy and online survey design; Setting: Socioeconomically disadvantaged community in Queensland, Australia. Participants Mothers (n = 279) and fathers (n = 225) of 2- to 5-year old children. Variables measured Parental feeding practices were measured using the 7 multi-item factors from the FPSQ-28. Analysis Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to evaluate the factor structure of the FPSQ-28 among mothers and fathers from a socioeconomically disadvantaged community. Measurement invariance between mothers and fathers was examined using hierarchical multi-group CFAs. Results The 7-factor FPSQ-28 model showed good fit and was invariant across parent gender. Conclusions and implications The FPSQ-28 subscales appear to be interpreted equivalently, and thus to measure the same constructs, irrespective of the gender of the parents. The questionnaire can be used to measure or compare mothers' and fathers' self-reported feeding practices and examine influence on child health outcomes. In the current sample of mothers and fathers recruited from a socioeconomically disadvantaged community, mothers used more ‘covert restriction’ than fathers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.030
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Repeatability of the infant food reinforcement paradigm: Implications of
           individual and developmental differences
    • Authors: Kai Ling Kong; Rina D. Eiden; Stephanie Anzman-Frasca; Corrin L. Stier; Rocco A. Paluch; Jessica Mendez; Emily Slominski; Gowthami Gengatharan; Leonard H. Epstein
      Pages: 123 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Kai Ling Kong, Rina D. Eiden, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Corrin L. Stier, Rocco A. Paluch, Jessica Mendez, Emily Slominski, Gowthami Gengatharan, Leonard H. Epstein
      The relative reinforcing value of food versus engagement in other behaviors may be related to the development of obesity, and interventions to reduce FRR may prevent the development of obesity. Our laboratory recently developed a paradigm to measure the reinforcing value of food versus an alternative behavior (i.e., playing with bubbles) in infants using a computerized laboratory task, during which infants press a button to earn reinforcers following a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the short-term (within 2 weeks) repeatability of this measure, specifically the outcome of infant food reinforcing ratio (FRR), or how hard infants will work for food relative to the alternative. The secondary aim was to examine whether infant age and temperament dimensions related to novelty responsiveness (high intensity pleasure and approach) moderated the repeatability of FRR. Thirty-seven infants aged 9–18 months completed this study. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no differences between time 1 and time 2 in responding for food (F = 0.463, p = 0.501), bubbles (F = 1.793, p = 0.189), or overall FRR (F = 0.797, p = 0.378). Regression models showed the association between BUB Pmax at time 1 and time 2 were moderated by infant age (p = 0.04), with greater repeatability in older infants. Linear regression models also demonstrated that the infant temperamental dimension of high intensity pleasure significantly predicted BUB Pmax at time 1 (β = 2.89, p = 0.01), but not at time 2. Overall, our findings support the repeatability of this measure for food portion of the reinforcement task, but demonstrated that the measure of non-food portion of the task required modification, in particular among children younger than 13 months old.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • What does a person's eating identity add to environmental influences on
           fruit and vegetable intake'
    • Authors: Xiaonan Ma; Christine E. Blake; Timothy L. Barnes; Bethany A. Bell; Angela D. Liese
      Pages: 130 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Xiaonan Ma, Christine E. Blake, Timothy L. Barnes, Bethany A. Bell, Angela D. Liese
      Objective To evaluate whether knowledge of a person's eating identity (EI) can explain any additional variation in fruit and vegetable intake above and beyond that explained by food environment characteristics, perceptions of the food environment, and shopping behaviors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 968 adults were recruited for a telephone survey by the Survey Research Laboratory in an eight-county region in South Carolina. Subjects The survey queried information on shopping behaviors, perceptions of the food environment, demographic and address information, fruit and vegetable intake, and EI. EI was assessed using the Eating Identity Type Inventory, a 12-item instrument that differentiates four eating identity types: healthy, emotional, meat, and picky. Statistical analyses were restricted to 819 participants with complete data. Results Healthy EI and picky EI were significantly and directly related to fruit and vegetable intake, with coefficients of 0.31 (p-value<0.001) for healthy EI and −0.16 (p-value<0.001) for picky EI, whereas emotional EI (β = 0.00, p-value = 0.905) and meat EI (β = −0.04, p-value = 0.258) showed no association. Shopping frequency also directly and significantly influenced fruit and vegetable intake (β = 0.13, p-value = 0.033). With the inclusion of EI, 16.3% of the variation in fruit and vegetable intake was explained. Conclusions Perceptions and GIS-based measures of environmental factors alone do not explain a substantial amount of variation in fruit and vegetable intake. EI, especially healthy EI and picky EI, is an important, independent predictor of fruit and vegetable intake and contributes significantly to explaining the variation in fruit and vegetable intake.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.025
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Salad bar selection patterns of elementary school children
    • Authors: Geraldine Moreno-Black; Jean Stockard
      Pages: 136 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Geraldine Moreno-Black, Jean Stockard
      From the perspective of child-focused nutrition research, the analysis of the school cafeteria culture and environment is critical. Most children eat at least one meal at school per school day, thus elementary schools are a good setting for influencing the early development of healthy eating habits. The salad bar in particular has gained attention as a means of increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of the present study was to provide insight about the types of items children choose or do not choose from the salad bar. Our aims were to document elementary school children's food selection patterns by examining photographs of 2903 cafeteria trays. Our results show students in this study took very few items – and a substantial number did not take any at all. We examined three factors, gender, grade, and item placement, in relation to food selection. Gender was the most significant factor, with girls being more likely to choose both fruits and vegetables. Students in lower grades were more likely to select vegetables and to choose more of them. Finally, item placement did not affect choice. Our findings lead us to suggest the importance of integrating information about fruits and vegetables into the school curriculum and that schools strongly consider which items to offer because our results indicate children consistently do not choose certain items and probably do not conceive of them in the context of the adult concept of a salad. Finally, because a child's choice of food is not always a simple act we suggest ethnographic research on how children perceive and use salad bars would provide important insight into the value of retaining or expanding salad bars in elementary schools.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.034
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Consumer lay theories on healthy nutrition: A Q methodology application in
           Germany
    • Authors: Nadine Yarar; Ulrich R. Orth
      Pages: 145 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Nadine Yarar, Ulrich R. Orth
      Food is an important driver of individual health, and an important subject in public policy and health intervention research. Viewpoints on what constitutes healthy nutrition, however, are manifold and highly subjective in nature, suggesting there is no one-size-fits-all behavioral change intervention. This research explores fundamental lay theories regarding healthy nutrition with consumers in Germany. The study aimed at identifying and characterizing distinct groups of consumers based on similarities and differences in the lay theories individuals hold by means of Q methodology. Thirty German consumers ranked a Q set of 63 statements representing a vast spectrum of individual opinions and beliefs on healthy nutrition into a quasi-normal distribution. Factor analysis identified four major lay theories on healthy nutrition: (1) “Healthy is what tastes good, in moderation”, (2) “Healthy nutrition is expensive and inconvenient”, (3) “Healthy is everything that makes me slim and pretty”, and (4) “Only home-made, organic, and vegetarian food is healthy”. Consensus existed among the theories about the question of whom to trust regarding nutritional information and the low relevance of information from official sources. Disagreement existed concerning the overall importance of healthy nutrition in day-to-day lives and whether food healthiness is related to organic or conventional production methods. The findings underscore that specific consumer groups should be engaged separately when intervening in healthy nutrition issues. Implications for public policies and intervention strategies are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.026
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Similarities in smell and taste preferences in couples increase with
           relationship duration
    • Authors: Agata Groyecka; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Anna Oleszkiewicz; Thomas Hummel; Krystyna Łysenko; Piotr Sorokowski
      Pages: 158 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Agata Groyecka, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Thomas Hummel, Krystyna Łysenko, Piotr Sorokowski
      Numerous studies point to partners’ congruence in various domains and note an increase in their compatibility over time. However, none have explored a shift in chemosensory perception related to relationship duration. Here, we examined the relationship between the time heterosexual couples have spent together and the degree to which they share their gustatory and olfactory preferences. Additionally, we investigated whether these preferences are associated with relationship satisfaction. One-hundred couples aged from 18 to 68 years being together for a period between 3 and 540 months rated the pleasantness of a wide variety of olfactory and gustatory stimuli. We showed that both taste and smell preferences are more similar the longer couples have been in a relationship. We also observed a very interesting trend in terms of smell preferences, with relationship satisfaction being negatively related to congruence in smell preferences between partners. We discuss these results from the perspective of evolutionary psychology.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.035
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Pica is prevalent and strongly associated with iron deficiency among
           Hispanic pregnant women living in the United States
    • Authors: Aditi Roy; Elena Fuentes-Afflick; Lia C.H. Fernald; Sera L. Young
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Aditi Roy, Elena Fuentes-Afflick, Lia C.H. Fernald, Sera L. Young
      Introduction Anecdotal evidence suggests that pica occurs among Hispanic women in the United States, especially during pregnancy. However, the prevalence and socio-demographic and biological factors associated with pica in this population have not been adequately identified. Methods Trained, bilingual study personnel conducted structured interviews at public health clinics in Salinas Valley, California with 187 pregnant Hispanic women in their 2nd or 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. Hemoglobin was measured using Hemocue; concentrations of transferrin receptor (TfR) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured in dried blood spots. Multivariable stepwise regression analyses were conducted with pica during pregnancy as the dependent variable and individual- and family-level factors as independent variables to identify significant associations. Additionally, multivariable models were built to explore the associations between pica and iron status (iron deficiency and anemia). Results Half of all participants (51.3%) had ever engaged in pica, and 37.6% had done so during the current pregnancy. Pica substances included large quantities of ice, frost, raw starches, and various earthen items. Pica during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with higher TfR concentrations [OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.51] indicative of low iron stores and greater food insecurity [OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.40]. Women who engaged in pica during the current pregnancy were more likely to be iron deficient [adjusted OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.60], but not anemic [adjusted OR: 1.40; 0.60, 3.23]. Conclusions Among pregnant Hispanic women, pica was prevalent and strongly associated with iron deficiency and food insecurity. Clinicians should screen for pica during pregnancy in Hispanic populations, and future studies should elucidate the underlying etiology and consequences of engaging in pica during pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T21:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.033
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Perceived impact of smaller compared with larger-sized bottles of
           sugar-sweetened beverages on consumption: A qualitative analysis
    • Authors: Eleni Mantzari; Gareth J. Hollands; Rachel Pechey; Susan Jebb; Theresa M. Marteau
      Pages: 171 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Eleni Mantzari, Gareth J. Hollands, Rachel Pechey, Susan Jebb, Theresa M. Marteau
      Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption increases obesity risk and is linked to adverse health consequences. Large packages increase food consumption, but most evidence comes from studies comparing larger with standard packages, resulting in uncertainty regarding the impact of smaller packages. There is also little research on beverages. This qualitative study explores the experiences of consuming cola from smaller compared with larger bottles, to inform intervention strategies. Sixteen households in Cambridge, England, participating in a feasibility study assessing the impact of bottle size on in-home SSB consumption, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks in one of four bottle sizes: 1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml, in random order. At the study end, household representatives were interviewed about their experiences of using each bottle, including perceptions of i) consumption level; ii) consumption-related behaviours; and iii) factors affecting consumption. Interviews were semi-structured and data analysed using the Framework approach. The present analysis focuses specifically on experiences relating to use of the smaller bottles. The smallest bottles were described as increasing drinking occasion frequency and encouraging consumption of numerous bottles in succession. Factors described as facilitating their consumption were: i) convenience and portability; ii) greater numbers of bottles available, which hindered consumption monitoring and control; iii) perceived insufficient quantity per bottle; and iv) positive attitudes. In a minority of cases the smallest bottles were perceived to have reduced consumption, but this was related to practical issues with the bottles that resulted in dislike. The perception of greater consumption and qualitative reports of drinking habits associated with the smallest bottles raise the possibility that the ‘portion size effect’ has a lower threshold, beyond which smaller portions and packages may increase consumption. This reinforces the need for empirical evidence to assess the in-home impact of smaller bottles on SSB consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.031
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Too sweet to eat: Exploring the effects of cuteness on meat consumption
    • Authors: Janis H. Zickfeld; Jonas R. Kunst; Sigrid M. Hohle
      Pages: 181 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Janis H. Zickfeld, Jonas R. Kunst, Sigrid M. Hohle
      Although daily meat consumption is a widespread habit, many individuals at the same time put a high value on the welfare of animals. While different psychological mechanisms have been identified to resolve this cognitive tension, such as dissociating the animal from the consumed meat or denying the animal's moral status, few studies have investigated the effects of the animal's appearance on the willingness to consume its meat. The present article explored how the perception of cuteness influences hypothetical meat consumption. We hypothesized that cuter animals would reduce the willingness to consume meat, and that this relationship would be mediated by empathy felt towards the animal. Across four pre-registered studies sampling 1074 US and Norwegian participants, we obtained some support for this prediction in the US but to a lesser degree in Norway. However, in all studies an indirect mediation effect of cuteness on meat consumption going through empathy towards the animal was observed. We also explored possible moderating and additional mediating mechanisms of trait pro-social orientation, caretaking intentions and sex effects for which we found mixed evidence. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T21:37:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.038
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Feasibility and reliability of digital imaging for estimating food
           selection and consumption from students’ packed lunches
    • Authors: Jennifer C. Taylor; Carolyn Sutter; Lenna L. Ontai; Adrienne Nishina; Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr
      Pages: 196 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Jennifer C. Taylor, Carolyn Sutter, Lenna L. Ontai, Adrienne Nishina, Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr
      Although increasing attention is placed on the quality of foods in children's packed lunches, few studies have examined the capacity of observational methods to reliably determine both what is selected and consumed from these lunches. The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility and inter-rater reliability of digital imaging for determining selection and consumption from students' packed lunches, by adapting approaches previously applied to school lunches. Study 1 assessed feasibility and reliability of data collection among a sample of packed lunches (n = 155), while Study 2 further examined reliability in a larger sample of packed (n = 386) as well as school (n = 583) lunches. Based on the results from Study 1, it was feasible to collect and code most items in packed lunch images; missing data were most commonly attributed to packaging that limited visibility of contents. Across both studies, there was satisfactory reliability for determining food types selected, quantities selected, and quantities consumed in the eight food categories examined (weighted kappa coefficients 0.68–0.97 for packed lunches, 0.74–0.97 for school lunches), with lowest reliability for estimating condiments and meats/meat alternatives in packed lunches. In extending methods predominately applied to school lunches, these findings demonstrate the capacity of digital imaging for the objective estimation of selection and consumption from both school and packed lunches.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T21:37:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.037
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Parental feeding behavior in relation to children's tasting behavior: An
           observational study
    • Authors: Ellen Moens; Lien Goossens; Sandra Verbeken; Laura Vandeweghe; Caroline Braet
      Pages: 205 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Ellen Moens, Lien Goossens, Sandra Verbeken, Laura Vandeweghe, Caroline Braet
      Children's eating habits are shaped in part by parental feeding practices. While maladaptive practices have already received a lot of research attention, the effects of adaptive strategies, especially in elementary school aged children of different weight status, are less examined. This study examines how parents (1) model and (2) encourage their child to taste an unknown food. Thereby, attention is paid to the distinction between encouraging what (i.e. adaptive type of encouragement) and the amount (i.e. maladaptive type of encouragement) children eat/drink. Twenty-five families with a child with overweight and 30 families with a child of healthy weight (7–13 years) participated in a taste task. Both the child's tasting behavior and the parents' modelling and encouragement behavior were observed and related to the child's age and weight status. As 94.3% of the children tasted the unknown food, weight status differences between tasters and non-tasters could not be investigated. Only 26.9% of the parents used modelling to enhance tasting behavior; this was unrelated to age and weight status. 77.4% of the parents encouraged their children to taste (encouragement of what children eat/drink), and this was significantly more prevalent in parents of younger children and of healthy-weight children. 21.1% of the parents also encouraged their children to finish the juice (encouragement of amount children eat/drink) and this was also more prevalent in parents of the healthy-weight group. These results evidenced that parental modelling is not often used to enhance tasting behavior in children. In contrast, parental encouragement was frequently observed, especially in parents of younger children and of healthy-weight children. Encouragement, however, seems difficult to measure and more research on adaptive parental encouragement is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.028
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Easy-going, rational, susceptible and struggling eaters: A segmentation
           study based on eating behaviour tendencies
    • Authors: Saara Pentikäinen; Anne Arvola; Leila Karhunen; Kyösti Pennanen
      Pages: 212 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Saara Pentikäinen, Anne Arvola, Leila Karhunen, Kyösti Pennanen
      Eating behaviour tendencies, emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint (CR), are associated with various indicators of physical and mental health. Therefore, it is important to understand these tendencies in order to design interventions to improve health. Previous research has mostly examined eating behaviour tendencies individually, without considering typical combinations of these tendencies or their manifestation in well-being and food choices. This study aimed to understand the interactive occurrence of EE, UE and CR in two independent populations. Finnish (n = 1060) and German (n = 1070) samples were segmented on the basis of their responses to a modified Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R15). Well-being, coping strategies and food consumption habits of the segments were studied. Segmentation revealed four segments: “Susceptible”, “Easy-going”, “Rational” and “Struggling”. These segments were similar in both countries with regard to well-being, coping strategies and food choices. EE and UE co-occurred, and these tendencies were mainly responsible for differentiating the segments. Members of the “Rational” and “Easy-going” segments, who had low scores for EE and UE, tended to experience vitality and positive emotions in life, and contentment with their eating. By contrast, the “Susceptible” and “Struggling” segments, with more pronounced tendencies towards EE and UE, experienced lower levels of vitality and less frequently positive emotions, applied less adaptive coping strategies and experienced more discontent with eating. The results of the current study suggest that it is possible to identify segments, with differing eating habits, coping strategies and well-being on the basis of the eating behaviour tendencies EE, UE and CR. We discuss possible viewpoints for the design of interventions and food products to help people towards psychologically and physiologically healthier eating styles.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Can attentional bias modification inoculate people to withstand exposure
           to real-world food cues'
    • Authors: Eva Kemps; Marika Tiggemann; Ebony Stewart-Davis
      Pages: 222 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann, Ebony Stewart-Davis
      Two experiments investigated whether attentional bias modification can inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world appetitive food cues, namely television advertisements for chocolate products. Using a modified dot probe task, undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward (attend) or away from (avoid) chocolate pictures. Experiment 1 (N = 178) consisted of one training session; Experiment 2 (N = 161) included 5 weekly sessions. Following training, participants viewed television advertisements of chocolate or control products. They then took part in a so-called taste test as a measure of chocolate consumption. Attentional bias for chocolate was measured before training and after viewing the advertisements, and in Experiment 2 also at 24-h and 1-week follow-up. In Experiment 2, but not Experiment 1, participants in the avoid condition showed a significant reduction in attentional bias for chocolate, regardless of whether they had been exposed to advertisements for chocolate or control products. However, this inoculation effect on attentional bias did not generalise to chocolate intake. Future research involving more extensive attentional re-training may be needed to ascertain whether the inoculation effect on attentional bias can extend to consumption, and thus help people withstand exposure to real-world palatable food cues.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • DNA methylation patterns at sweet taste transducing genes are associated
           with BMI and carbohydrate intake in an adult population
    • Authors: O. Ramos-Lopez; A. Arpón; J.I. Riezu-Boj; F.I. Milagro; M.L. Mansego; J.A. Martinez; I. Abete; A.B. Crujeiras; M. Cuervo; L. Goni; A. Marti; M.A. Martinez-Gonzalez; M.J. Moreno-Aliaga; S. Navas-Carretero; R. San Cristobal; J.L. Santos; M.A. Zulet
      Pages: 230 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): O. Ramos-Lopez, A. Arpón, J.I. Riezu-Boj, F.I. Milagro, M.L. Mansego, J.A. Martinez
      Individual differences in taste perception may influence appetite, dietary intakes, and subsequently, disease risk. Correlations of DNA methylation patterns at taste transducing genes with BMI and dietary intakes were studied. A nutriepigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in 474 adults. DNA methylation in peripheral white blood cells was analyzed by a microarray approach. KEGG pathway analyses were performed concerning the characterization and discrimination of genes involved in the taste transduction pathway. Adjusted FDR values (p < 0.0001) were used to select those CpGs that showed best correlation with BMI. A total of 29 CpGs at taste transducing genes met the FDR criteria. However, only 12 CpGs remained statistically significant after linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. These included cg15743657 (TAS1R2), cg02743674 (TRPM5), cg01790523 (SCN9A), cg15947487 (CALHM1), cg11658986 (ADCY6), cg04149773 (ADCY6), cg02841941 (P2RY1), cg02315111 (P2RX2), cg08273233 (HTR1E), cg14523238 (GABBR2), cg12315353 (GABBR1) and cg05579652 (CACNA1C). Interestingly, most of them were implicated in the sweet taste signaling pathway, except CACNA1C (sour taste). In addition, TAS1R2 methylation at cg15743657 was strongly correlated with total energy (p < 0.0001) and carbohydrate intakes (p < 0.0001). This study suggests that methylation in genes related to sweet taste could be an epigenetic mechanism associated with obesity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Is higher formula intake and limited dietary diversity in Australian
           children at 14 months of age associated with dietary quality at 24
           months'
    • Authors: Rebecca Byrne; Mei En Joy Yeo; Kimberley Mallan; Anthea Magarey; Lynne Daniels
      Pages: 240 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Rebecca Byrne, Mei En Joy Yeo, Kimberley Mallan, Anthea Magarey, Lynne Daniels
      A varied and diverse diet in childhood supports optimum long-term preferences and growth. Previous analysis from 14-month-old Australian children in the NOURISH and South Australian Infants Dietary Intake (SAIDI) studies found higher formula intake was associated with lower dietary diversity. This analysis investigated whether formula intake and dietary diversity at 14 months of age is associated with dietary quality at 24 months. This is a secondary analysis of intake data from NOURISH and SAIDI cohorts. Scores for dietary diversity, fruit variety, vegetable variety and meat/alternative variety were combined using structural equation modelling to form the latent variable ‘Dietary quality’ (DQ) at age 24 months. A longitudinal model examined influence of formula (grams), cow's milk (grams) and dietary diversity at 14 months and covariates, on DQ. At age 24 months (n = 337) 27% of children obtained a maximum dietary diversity score (5/5). Variety scores were relatively low – with mean variety scores (and possible range) being four for fruit (0–30); five for vegetables (0–36); and three for meat/alternatives (0–8). Dietary diversity at 14 months (β = 0.19, p = 0.001), maternal age (β = 0.24, p < 0.001) and education (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) predicted DQ at 24 months while Child Food Neophobia Score was negatively associated with DQ (β = −0.30, p < 0.001). Formula intake was negatively associated with diversity at 14 months, but not DQ at 24. Diversity and variety were limited despite sociodemographic advantage of the sample. Diversity at 14 months, degree of neophobia and sociodemographic factors predicted DQ at 24 months. There is an ongoing need to emphasise the importance of repeated early exposure to healthy foods, such that children have the opportunity to learn to like a range of tastes and texture, thereby maximising dietary diversity and quality in infancy and early toddlerhood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Emotional eating is related with temperament but not with stress
           biomarkers in preschool children
    • Authors: Nadine Messerli-Bürgy; Kerstin Stülb; Tanja H. Kakebeeke; Amar Arhab; Annina E. Zysset; Claudia S. Leeger-Aschmann; Einat A. Schmutz; Andrea H. Meyer; Ulrike Ehlert; David Garcia-Burgos; Susi Kriemler; Oskar G. Jenni; Jardena J. Puder; Simone Munsch
      Pages: 256 - 264
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stülb, Tanja H. Kakebeeke, Amar Arhab, Annina E. Zysset, Claudia S. Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A. Schmutz, Andrea H. Meyer, Ulrike Ehlert, David Garcia-Burgos, Susi Kriemler, Oskar G. Jenni, Jardena J. Puder, Simone Munsch
      Emotional eating (EE) corresponds to a change in eating behavior in response to distress and results in an increase of food intake (overeating (EOE)) or in food avoidance (undereating (EUE)). EE has been related to temperament (i.e. negative emotionality) and dysregulated stress biomarkers in school-aged children; parenting has been understood to influence this relationship in older children. The aim of the study was to investigate to which extent stress biomarkers and negative emotionality are related to EE and to understand the role of parenting in this relationship. The sample consisted of 271 children aged 2–6 years of the Swiss cohort study SPLASHY. We assessed the child's EE, negative emotionality and parenting by parent based reports. Salivary samples were collected over two days to analyze cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels. From the whole sample of children, 1.1% showed EOE and 32.9% EUE. Negative emotionality was related to EOE and EUE (0.13 (CI 0.06, 021), p < 0.001; 0.25 (CI 0.14, 0.35), p < 0.001). There was no relationship between stress biomarkers and EE and parenting had any moderating role (all p > 0.05). Similar to a Danish study, parents reported more often EUE than EOE of their child. Both are related to the temperament. Even though the course of EE has not yet been well documented, we conclude that a certain subgroup of children with difficult temperament could be at-risk for eat and weight regulation problems in later childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.08.032
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in
           children'
    • Authors: Lucile Marty; Stéphanie Chambaron; Sophie Nicklaus; Sandrine Monnery-Patris
      Pages: 265 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Lucile Marty, Stéphanie Chambaron, Sophie Nicklaus, Sandrine Monnery-Patris
      Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are “good” or “bad” for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Predicting preschool children's eating in the absence of hunger from
           maternal pressure to eat: A longitudinal study of low-income, Latina
           mothers
    • Authors: Lionor Galindo; Thomas G. Power; Ashley D. Beck; Jennifer Orlet Fisher; Teresia M. O'Connor; Sheryl O. Hughes
      Pages: 281 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Lionor Galindo, Thomas G. Power, Ashley D. Beck, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M. O'Connor, Sheryl O. Hughes
      Early work by Klesges et al. (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues, increasing the risk of overeating and obesity (e.g., Johnson & Birch, 1994). Subsequent cross-sectional research on pressure to eat, however, has been inconsistent. Most studies have shown that maternal self-reports of pressure to eat are negatively associated with childhood obesity, and observational studies showed inconsistent relationships with child weight status. In the present study we examined the association between low-income, Latina mothers' pressure to eat and their preschool children's eating in the absence of hunger using both self-report and observational measures of feeding practices. A longitudinal design examined eating in the absence of hunger over 18 months; children's BMI at the initial timepoint was statistically controlled to address the tendency of mothers of underweight children to pressure their children to eat. At each timepoint, mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (Birch et al., 2001) and were observed feeding their child a meal in a laboratory setting. Eating in the absence of hunger (Fisher & Birch, 1999) was assessed at both timepoints as well. A cross-lagged panel model showed that observed maternal prompts to eat a different food at time one predicted kcal consumed in the absence of hunger at time two (controlling for kcal consumed in the absence of hunger at first timepoint: beta = 0.20, p < 0.05). Results suggest that pressure to eat alone may not be what contributes to eating in the absence of hunger, but that the nature of that pressure may be more important.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Shopping for food with children: A strategy for directing their choices
           toward novel foods containing vegetables
    • Authors: Xavier Allirot; Edurne Maiz; Elena Urdaneta
      Pages: 287 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Xavier Allirot, Edurne Maiz, Elena Urdaneta
      Involving children in the different steps of meal preparation has been suggested as a strategy for enhancing dietary habits in childhood. It has previously been shown that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct their food choices towards foods containing vegetables. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in food purchasing on food choices, intake, liking and appetite. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 86 children (from 8 to 10 years old). Forty-three children (PURCHASE group) participated in a workshop dedicated to purchasing the necessary ingredients online for the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple and beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. Forty-three children (CONTROL group) participated instead in a creativity workshop. Afterwards, all the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple and beetroot juice, potatoes vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the PURCHASE (0.70 ± 0.14) vs. CONTROL (0.19 ± 0.07) group (P = 0.003). The liking for 1 of the 3 unfamiliar foods was higher in the PURCHASE group (P < 0.05). We did not find any difference between the two groups in food intake estimation and in the levels of subjective appetite. This study demonstrates that involving children in purchasing food can help in directing their food choices towards unfamiliar foods containing vegetables. It highlights the importance of involving children in the different steps of meal preparation for decreasing food neophobia.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T00:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Taste the feeling or feel the tasting: Tactile exposure to food texture
           promotes food acceptance
    • Authors: Chantal Nederkoorn; Julia Theiβen; Michelle Tummers; Anne Roefs
      Pages: 297 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Chantal Nederkoorn, Julia Theiβen, Michelle Tummers, Anne Roefs
      The texture of food can be a reason why children reject it: It matters if food is crispy, slimy, smooth or has pips and bits in it. In general, mere exposure is the best method to increase acceptance of food: becoming more familiar with a food by repeated exposure increases liking for it. However, exposure to texture can be difficult, as children can be reluctant to try tasting it. In the current study, it is tested if acceptance of a food with a specific texture is improved after exposure to the feel of it, with hands only. Sixty-six children (between 3 and 10 years old) were randomly assigned to either the exposure or control condition. In the exposure condition, children played with an colourless and odourless jelly with their hands and in the control group, children played a board game. Afterwards, children were asked to taste 3 desserts (in balanced order): smooth strawberry yoghurt, strawberry yoghurt with pieces and strawberry jelly. Results showed that the children in the exposure condition ate specifically more of the jelly dessert - the texture of which they had been pre-exposed to - compared to the children in control condition. No group differences were found for the other two desserts. The results imply that feeling the texture of a food with hands increases the acceptance of food with the same texture. Playing with food with hands seems therefore be a first step in getting familiar with food and might help to increase variety of food intake.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T00:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Self-reported and observed feeding practices of Rhode Island Head Start
           teachers: Knowing what not to do
    • Authors: Megan Fallon; Katherine Halloran; Kathleen Gorman; Dianne Ward; Geoffrey Greene; Alison Tovar
      Pages: 310 - 317
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Megan Fallon, Katherine Halloran, Kathleen Gorman, Dianne Ward, Geoffrey Greene, Alison Tovar
      Purpose Through their feeding practices, adult caregivers play an important role in shaping children's eating behaviors. However, the feeding practices of child care teachers have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to compare child care teachers' self-reported feeding practices and observed feeding practices during a preschool meal. Methods Rhode Island Head Start teachers (n = 85) were observed during breakfast and lunch where feeding practices were coded using a tool adapted from the Environmental Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool. Teachers completed a questionnaire adapted from the EPAO Self-Report to capture self-reported feeding practices. Agreement between reported and observed was compared by percent agreement. Results Teachers were predominantly White (89%) and female (98%). There was a higher level of agreement among self-reported and observed controlling feeding practices (78.8–97.6% agreement) compared to healthful feeding practices (11.8–20.0% agreement). Conclusions Although self-report measures are typically used to capture feeding practices, there are inconsistencies between self-report and observation measures. The inconsistencies found among healthful self-reported and observed feeding practices have implications for future research protocols, measurement refinement, and training of child care teachers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T18:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Augmenting fruit and vegetable consumption by an online intervention:
           Psychological mechanisms
    • Authors: Jan Keller; Susannah Motter; Mirjam Motter; Ralf Schwarzer
      Pages: 348 - 355
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Jan Keller, Susannah Motter, Mirjam Motter, Ralf Schwarzer
      Objective Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was examined among men and women who participated in an online intervention. The psychological constructs involved were outcome expectancies, behavioral intention, planning, and self-efficacy. One purpose of the analyses was the evaluation of a self-efficacy treatment component. The other purpose of the analyses regarded the role of psychological mechanisms that might be responsible for individual differences in the process of behavior change. Design A two-arm online intervention with a standard and an enhanced intervention group focusing on FV planning was conducted to improve FV intake, followed up at two and four weeks. The intervention groups differed by the additional inclusion of a self-efficacy ingredient in the enhanced intervention. Linear mixed models examined the intervention effects, and a longitudinal structural equation model explored which psychological constructs were associated with changes in FV intake. Participants were N = 275 adults of whom n = 148 completed the four-week follow-up. Their age range was 18–81 years (M age = 32.50, SD age = 14.00). Results Analyses yielded an overall increase in self-reported FV intake. Moreover, a triple interaction between time, sex, and experimental groups on self-efficacy emerged, indicating that men, independent of treatment conditions, reported an increase in their confidence to improve FV intake, whereas women developed higher FV self-efficacy when being in the enhanced group instead of the standard group. Planning, self-efficacy, and intention mediated between outcome expectancies, and follow-up FV intake. Conclusion Both intervention arms produced overall improvements in FV intake. The enhanced intervention resulted in a steeper increase in self-efficacy in women compared to men, and compared to the standard intervention. A psychological mechanism transpired that included a sequence leading from initial outcome expectancies via planning, self-efficacy, and intention towards FV intake.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T18:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • The effects of dissociation on willingness to eat meat are moderated by
           exposure to unprocessed meat: A cross-cultural demonstration
    • Authors: Jonas R. Kunst; Christian Andrés Palacios Haugestad
      Pages: 356 - 366
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Jonas R. Kunst, Christian Andrés Palacios Haugestad
      Dissociating meat from its animal origins helps consumers deal with the cognitive dissonance resulting from liking meat but disliking causing pain to animals. Extending previous research, we tested whether dissociation would play less of a role for meat consumption in a country where average consumers are more frequently exposed to unprocessed meat (i.e., Ecuador) than where such exposure is rare (i.e., the US). Specifically, we randomly showed Ecuadorians and US Americans a pork roast with the head present or removed. Showing the head led to less dissociation, and subsequently more disgust and empathy for the killed animal in both countries, but to significantly larger degrees in the US. Follow-up analyses with participants' self-reported exposure to unprocessed meat supported the notion that these cross-cultural variations indeed reflected differences in unprocessed meat exposure. In contrast, disgust and empathy, in turn, predicted a lower willingness to eat meat and a higher willingness to choose a vegetarian alternative dish equally in both countries. Because the dissociation part of our model was substantially stronger in the US, it explained about double as much variance in willingness to eat meat and vegetarian choice in the US (63–72%) as compared to Ecuador (30–32%). In sum, the potency of the dissociation mechanism seems to depend on how used consumers in a country are to seeing unprocessed meat, whereas the subsequent affective mechanisms universally influence meat consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T18:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Food addiction and substance addiction in women: Common clinical
           characteristics
    • Authors: Raven Hardy; Negar Fani; Tanja Jovanovic; Vasiliki Michopoulos
      Pages: 367 - 373
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Raven Hardy, Negar Fani, Tanja Jovanovic, Vasiliki Michopoulos
      Food addiction is characterized by poorly controlled intake of highly-palatable, calorically-dense, foods. While previous studies indicate that risk factors for food addiction are similar to substance use disorders (SUD), these studies have looked at food addiction and SUD in independent samples, limiting the ability to directly compare food addiction to SUD. The present study was conducted to assess rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, childhood and adult trauma exposure, as well as presence and severity of emotion dysregulation, in a sample of women (N = 229) who either meet criteria for no addiction, food addiction only or SUD only. The prevalence of food addiction was 18.3% and the prevalence of SUD was 30.6% in this sample. Women with food addiction and women with SUD endorsed more depression and PTSD symptoms when compared with individuals with no addiction. Individuals with food addiction and SUD had higher total emotion dysregulation scores, specifically with difficulties in goal directed behaviors, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity, when compared to individuals with no addiction (all p's < 0.05). There were no differences in PTSD and depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation scores between food addiction and SUD groups (all p > 0.05). However, women with SUD endorsed higher levels of total childhood (p < 0.01) and adulthood trauma (p < 0.01) as compared with women with no addiction or food addiction. These results suggest that women with food addiction and those with SUD share similar psychological characteristics and risk factors, with the exception of trauma histories. These findings have implications for the detection of risk for and treatment of these disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T18:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.026
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • At-home and away-from-home dietary patterns and BMI z-scores in Brazilian
           adolescents
    • Authors: Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ilana Nogueira Bezerra; Rosangela Alves Pereira; Rosely Sichieri
      Pages: 374 - 380
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Diana Barbosa Cunha, Ilana Nogueira Bezerra, Rosangela Alves Pereira, Rosely Sichieri
      Background Away-from-home food intake has been associated with high rates of overweight among children and adolescents. However, there are no studies comparing at-home and away-from-home eating patterns among adolescents. Objectives The objective of this paper was to identify at-home and away-from-home dietary patterns among adolescents in Brazil, and to evaluate the relationship between these patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Design Data from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008–2009 were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was assessed by completion of written food records on two non-consecutive days. Participants/setting Five thousand two hundred sixty-six adolescents 10–19 years of age living in urban areas of Brazil were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis Thirty-two food groups were examined by factor analysis, stratified by at-home and away-from-home eating. The associations between the food patterns and BMI z-scores were ascertained using linear regression analysis. Results In general, mean at-home food intake was greater than away-from-home food intake, but the ratio of away-from-home/at-home was greater than 30% for baked and deep-fried snacks, soft drinks, sandwiches, pizza, and desserts, and was lower than 10% for rice and beans. Three main similar dietary patterns were identified both at-home and away-from-home: the “Traditional pattern”, the “Bread and Butter pattern” and the “Western pattern”; however, away-from-home patterns encompassed more overall food items. Only the at-home “Western pattern” was positively associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.0006; p < 0.001). Conclusion Our results indicate that unhealthy dietary pattern consumed at home is associated to BMI z-score, while away-from-home food consumption is not associated.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.028
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Eating out and getting fat' A comparative study between urban and
           rural China
    • Authors: Qiyan Zeng; Yinchu Zeng
      Pages: 409 - 415
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Qiyan Zeng, Yinchu Zeng
      In parallel with the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, the rate of food away from home (FAFH) consumption in China has increased notably in recent years. Under the long-term urban–rural dual structure in China, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of FAFH consumption on body mass index (BMI) by a comparative study between rural and urban areas, using 26,244 subjects from the 2004–2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. The results indicated that urban residents have a higher rate of FAFH consumption than rural residents with the difference narrowing over time. The empirical results illustrated that the frequency of meals consumed away from home had a significantly positive effect on BMI in urban China, whereas no significant association was observed in rural China. The urban–rural difference resulted from different levels of surplus energy, which was mainly due to the different labor intensity among rural and urban residents.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.027
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Optimal timing of exercise for influencing energy intake in children
           during school lunch
    • Authors: M.-E. Mathieu; A. Lebkowski; E. Laplante; V. Drapeau; D. Thivel
      Pages: 416 - 422
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): M.-E. Mathieu, A. Lebkowski, E. Laplante, V. Drapeau, D. Thivel
      Introduction Laboratory studies have shown that exercise can reduce energy intake, with a benefit to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in individuals. The aim of the current study was to identify the impact of MVPA before lunch on ad libitum energy intake in very young children in a natural setting. Methods Three conditions were tested on three occasions, each using a counterbalance testing sequence as follows: A) Meal_MVPA: Meal at the beginning of the lunch period followed by a 40-min MVPA (reference condition); B) LPA_meal: 40 min of light intensity exercise session followed by lunch; C) MVPA_meal: MVPA followed by lunch. Children were instructed to eat their ad libitum lunch box (7–9 items) to reach 4/5 on the satiety visual analogue scale. Results 21 participants [8 boys and 13 girls; 80% normal weight; mean age: 5.6 (standard deviation: 0.5) years] participated in the study. Energy intake was significantly greater in the LPA_Meal condition [509 kcal (95% confidence interval: 448–570)] than in Meal_MVPA [442 kcal (380–504)] (p = 0.011) and MVPA_Meal [432 kcal (371–494)] (p < 0.001) conditions (p < 0.05). The energy from lipids was significantly greater in the LPA_Meal [154 kcal (130–177)] than in Meal_MVPA conditions [120 kcal (97–144)] (p = 0.016). Conclusion The current study may indicate that it is possible for young school children to benefit from anorexigenic exercise in real-life settings. In addition, it was possible to delay mealtime without increasing energy intake when MVPA was provided during the delay period. Finally, the introduction of MVPA prevented an increase in lipid consumption observed for LPA.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Experiential avoidance, eating expectancies, and binge eating: A
           preliminary test of an adaption of the Acquired Preparedness model of
           eating disorder risk
    • Authors: Nicole M. Della Longa; Kyle P. De Young
      Pages: 423 - 430
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Nicole M. Della Longa, Kyle P. De Young
      This study investigated learned expectancies of eating outcomes as a mechanism through which maladaptive avoidant strategies relate to eating psychopathology. Participants included 244 undergraduate students at a Midwestern university. The participants completed a battery of measures online. Preacher and Hayes's (2008) bootstrapping method of mediation and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the relationships among experiential avoidance, eating expectancies, and binge eating and to test how experiential avoidance fits within the Acquired Preparedness model of eating disorder risk that highlights the role of negative urgency. Results revealed that experiential avoidance was positively related to negative affect eating expectancies and to binge eating. Negative affect eating expectancies mediated the relationship between experiential avoidance and binge eating. Further, experiential avoidance more adequately explained binge eating in the Acquired Preparedness model of eating disorder risk than did negative urgency. The findings from this study suggest an alternative understanding of the pathways through which dispositional and psychosocial characteristics of undergraduate students may impact eating disorder symptomatology.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Effects of 3-week total meal replacement vs. typical food-based diet on
           human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity and
           functional connectivity in people with obesity
    • Authors: Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa; Tyler Davis; Michael O'Boyle; Lori Ann Boyd; Shao-Hua Chin; Dmitrii Paniukov; Martin Binks
      Pages: 431 - 441
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Lori Ann Boyd, Shao-Hua Chin, Dmitrii Paniukov, Martin Binks
      Objectives Calorie restriction via total meal replacement (TMR) results in greater reduction of food cravings compared to reduced-calorie typical diet (TD). Direct evidence of the impact of these interventions on human brain fMRI food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) and functional connectivity is absent. We examined the effects of a 3-week 1120 kcal/d TMR intervention as compared to an iso-caloric TD intervention using an fMRI-FCR paradigm. Methods Thirty-two male and female subjects with obesity (19–60 years; 30–39.9 kg/m2) participated in a randomized two-group repeated measures dietary intervention study consisting of 1120 kcal/d from either 1) TMR (shakes), 2) TD (portion control). Pre-intervention and following the 3-week diet fMRI-FCR, functional connectivity, food cravings (Food Craving Inventory) and weight were considered. Results Compared to TD, TMR showed increased fMRI-FCR of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, primary motor and left insular cortices and bilateral nucleus accumbens regions in the post-intervention state relative to the pre-intervention state. Compared to TD, TMR was also associated with negative modulation of fMRI-FCR of the nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala by dlPFC. Reduced body weight (4.87 kg, P < 0.001), body fat (2.19 kg, P = 0.004) and overall food cravings (0.41, P = 0.047) were seen in the TMR group. In the TD group reduced body weight (2.37 kg, P = 0.004) and body fat (1.64 kg, P = 0.002) were noted. Weight loss was significantly greater in TMR versus TD (2.50 kg, P = 0.007). Conclusions Greater weight loss and reduced cravings, coupled with stronger activations and potential negative modulation of the food reward related regions by the dlPFC during exposure to visual food cues is consistent with increased executive control in TMR vs. TD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Development and preliminary validation of the Salzburg Stress Eating Scale
    • Authors: Adrian Meule; Julia Reichenberger; Jens Blechert
      Pages: 442 - 448
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Adrian Meule, Julia Reichenberger, Jens Blechert
      Stress-related eating has long been a focus of study in several disciplines. Currently available psychometric scales conflate stress-related eating with emotional eating despite that not all stress states can be subsumed under some form of specific emotion. Moreover, existing measures primarily assess increased food intake in response to emotions and stress, thus ignoring evidence of decreased food intake in response to stress. Therefore, we drew from established stress concepts to develop the first genuine stress-related eating scale (Salzburg Stress Eating Scale [SSES]) in both German and English versions. In the SSES higher scores indicate eating more when stressed and lower scores indicate eating less when stressed. In study 1 (n = 340), the German SSES was found to have a one-factor structure (α = 0.89). SSES scores were weakly or moderately correlated with other eating-related constructs (e.g., emotional eating, body mass index [BMI]), and weakly correlated or uncorrelated with non-eating-related constructs (e.g., impulsivity, perceived stress); in addition, women had higher scores than men. Perceived stress moderated the association between stress eating and BMI, such that higher SSES scores were significantly related to higher BMI in individuals with high perceived stress, but not in individuals with low perceived stress. In studies 2 (n = 790) and 3 (n = 331), factor structure, internal consistency, and associations with sex and BMI were replicated for both German and English versions of the SSES. Hence, the SSES represents a psychometrically sound tool for the measurement of stress-related eating.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • When does behavior follow intent' Relationships between trait level
           dietary restraint and daily eating behaviors
    • Authors: Rachel F. Rodgers; Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; Millicent Holmes; Helen Skouteris; Jaclyn Broadbent
      Pages: 449 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Rachel F. Rodgers, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Millicent Holmes, Helen Skouteris, Jaclyn Broadbent
      Background The relationship between self-report trait level restriction and daily engagement in restriction behaviors is not well understood, and as a result the usefulness of such trait level measures is unclear. The present study aimed both to examine the validity of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors, and to examine the respective relationships among self-reported trait dietary restraint intentions and behaviors and both restrained and disinhibited eating at the daily level. Methods A sample of 109 women (M age = 24.72, SD = 4.15) completed a self-report trait level measure of dietary restraint before providing EMA data on their daily engagement in dietary restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors, as well as mood, over a period of 7 days. Multilevel hurdle models were used to test the relationship between trait levels of dietary restraint, and daily level reports of restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors. Results Trait restraint behavior was a consistent predictor of daily presence and frequency of restraint behaviors. In contrast, trait restraint intentions was not a predictor of daily restraint behaviors, however it did predict daily frequency of overeating. In addition, daily negative affect emerged as a predictor of comfort eating, but was not predictive of restraint behaviors. Conclusions Findings confirm the usefulness of assessments of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors as a method of capturing dieting behaviors. In contrast, trait level dietary restraint intentions was a poor predictor of eating outcomes and more research on the way that restraint intentions affect eating behaviors is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.09.030
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
       
  • Comparing parents' and overweight adolescents' reports on parent mealtime
           actions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Carolina Bertagnoli Volpe, Maria Luiza Blanques Petty, Altay Alves Lino de Souza, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith Escrivão
      This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated. First, parents were interviewed and instructed to answer how often they perform each behavior measured by the PMAS (never, sometimes or always). Next, the same questions were answered by the adolescents. The general linear model (GLM) showed the effects of the interviewees and of the interaction between interviewees and sex. We also observed a triple interaction effect (sex x interviewees x categorized age). The internal reliability of the PMAS was higher for parental answers than for those given by the children. This finding is probably observed because the scale has been developed and validated to evaluate the pattern of parental responses concerning their eating practices during their children's meals. In addition, although parents believe they are engaging in certain behaviors, the effectiveness of these strategies may not be recognized by their children. Very low intraclass correlation coefficients were observed between parents' and children's answers to the original domains of the PMAS (ICC: 0.130–0.578), suggesting that the factorial structure of the PMAS may only be used to assess parental behavior, as it is not sufficiently accurate to assess the children's understanding of parent mealtime actions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:08:26Z
       
  • Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and
           perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Claudia Symmank, Susann Zahn, Harald Rohm
      One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:08:26Z
       
  • Food stories: Unraveling the mechanisms underlying healthful eating
    • Authors: Emily Swan; Laura Bouwman Noelle Aarts Leah Rosen Gerrit Jan
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 120
      Author(s): Emily Swan, Laura Bouwman, Noelle Aarts, Leah Rosen, Gerrit Jan Hiddink, Maria Koelen
      The biomedical model of health (BMH) studies the causes and origins of disease. When applied to nutrition research, eating is studied as a behavior that supports physical health. However, the lack of attention the BMH pays to social and historical circumstances in which health behaviors are constructed has been widely addressed in literature. When people are studied without considering contextual influences, the relevance to everyday life is limited. As a result, how individuals actively deal with their context to manage healthful eating is poorly understood. This research applies a complementary model, salutogenic model of health (SMH), and uses life course research methodology to study a group of healthy eaters. The purpose of this research is to unravel how healthful eating develops in everyday life. Healthy eaters (n = 17) were identified and recruited from the NQplus research panel at Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Life course experiences were examined through narrative inquiry. Participants recalled and visually explored life experiences with food and health using timelines. Results indicate that healthful eating results from exposure to individual- and context-bounded factors during childhood and adulthood and involves specific mental and social capacities relevant to coping including amongst others, critical self-awareness; flexibility, craftiness, and fortitude. Through life-course learning moments, participants were able to develop proactive coping strategies which strengthened their sense of agency and helped them in overcoming stressors and challenges. Findings show that nutrition strategies should not only focus on strengthening food-specific factors like cooking skills and nutrition knowledge, but other factors like stress management, empowerment, and participation. Such factors support the development of adaptive skills and behaviors, enable individuals to deal with the demands of everyday life, and are building blocks for health promotion.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:07:37Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 119


      PubDate: 2017-10-04T18:01:21Z
       
 
 
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