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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3039 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3039 Journals sorted alphabetically
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access  
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.317, h-index: 89)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access  
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 18, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.789, h-index: 43)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 10)
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • The problematic messages of nutritional discourse: A case-based critical
           media analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Antonia Dodds, Kerry Chamberlain
      Nutritional science has assumed a fundamental importance in shaping food meanings and practices in the developed world. This study critically analysed the content of one weekly nutrition column written by a nutritional expert in a popular New Zealand magazine, from a social constructionist perspective, to investigate how nutritional advice constructs food, food practices and eaters. The analysis identified a range of ways in which the nutrition information communicated in the articles was potentially problematic for readers. The articles advocated eating for health with recommendations based on nutritional science, but depicted nutritional information as inconclusive, changeable and open to interpretation. Fear-based messages were used to motivate making 'healthy' food choices, through linking 'unhealthy' food choices with fatness and chronic ill health. Unhealthy foods were portrayed as more enjoyable than healthy foods, social occasions involving food were constructed as problematic, and exercise was defined only as a way to negate food consumption. Healthy eating was portrayed as a matter of personal choice, obscuring the situational factors that impact on food choice and health. We conclude that the nutritional advice analysed in this study constructs a way of understanding food that, if internalised by eaters, may evoke anxiety, confusion and dissatisfaction around food and eating.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
  • Salt appetite is not increased in summer heat
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Micah Leshem
      We tested the hypothesis that salt appetite increases in summer heat due to increased sodium loss due to increased drinking and perspiration. A test battery in the same sample of healthy young people tested in summer and winter revealed no seasonal differences in salt appetite (or fluid intake) despite a 10 °C rise in mean environmental temperature. Unexpectedly, sweet preference is reduced in summer.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
  • The development and effectiveness of an ecological momentary intervention
           to increase daily fruit and vegetable consumption in low-consuming young
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Kate L. Brookie, Louise A. Mainvil, Anitra C. Carr, Margreet C.M. Vissers, Tamlin S. Conner
      Objectives To develop and test the effectiveness of a mobile-phone based ecological momentary intervention (EMI) to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in low-consuming young adults. Methods A two-week randomised controlled trial of low-FV consuming young adults ages 18–25 years (n = 171) compared three conditions: ecological momentary intervention (EMI), fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI), and a diet-as-usual control (ANZCTRN12615000183583). Participants in the EMI condition were sent two targeted text messages a day for 13 days and were asked to increase daily FV consumption to at least five servings. These messages were designed, using the Health Action Process Approach, to address salient beliefs identified as effective in a preliminary focus group investigation. Participants in the FVI condition were provided two servings of FV a day (carrots, kiwifruit or oranges, and apples) to eat in addition to their current diet. Control participants ate their normal diet. Participants reported their daily servings of FV each evening during the study using a smartphone-delivered survey. Blood samples testing plasma vitamin C and total carotenoids were taken pre- and post-intervention as an objective biomarker of FV intake. Results Participants in the EMI and FVI conditions reported higher daily servings of FV – approximately +1 serving per day more compared to control (EMI = 3.7 servings/day; FVI = 3.7 servings/day; Control = 2.8 servings/day) and approximately +1.2 servings compared to baseline. Increases in objective biomarkers for the experimental conditions supported the validity of self-reported FV consumption. Conclusions Our results provide initial proof of concept that EMI strategies (with minor financial assistance) are as effective as giving FV in increasing FV consumption in educated, low-consuming young adults.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
  • Efficacy of the attention control trining program on reducing attentional
           bias in obese and overweight dieters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Masoud Moghaddaszadeh Bazzaz, Javad Salehi Fadardi, John Parkinson
      Evidence indicates that attentional bias and dieter's eating styles (i.e., external, emotional, restraint) play important roles in the success or failure of dieters. First, we studied food-related attentional bias (FAB; based on interference scores on a modified Stroop test), eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and increases in body mass index (BMI) in overweight or obese dieters (n = 34) and nondieters (n = 35). Compared with nondieters, dieters showed higher FAB, which was positively associated with BMI. In addition, the majority of overweight and obese participants had higher scores on emotional and restrained eating styles. Second, we investigated the effect of a Food Attention Control Training Program (Food-ACTP) on reducing FAB and dieting success. Dieters (n = 49) were divided into three groups: intervention (training), no-intervention (control), and sham-intervention, all of whom were measured at pretest, posttest, and follow up. Only the intervention group showed reductions in their FAB, diet failure rate, and BMI at follow up. For the intervention group, there was a significant interaction between changes in FAB and eating styles in predicting decreases in BMI. Overall, this work shows that attentional bias plays an important role in eating behavior, and dieters can benefit from practicing with Food-ACTP as a complimentary intervention. The exact mechanism through which Food-ACTP improves dieting success awaits further investigation.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
  • The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Brian P. Meier, Sabrina W. Noll, Oluwatobi J. Molokwu
      Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
  • Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year
           longitudinal cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 January 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 108
      Author(s): Elizabeth H. Evans, Ashley J. Adamson, Laura Basterfield, Ann Le Couteur, Jessica K. Reilly, John J. Reilly, Kathryn N. Parkinson
      Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls’ dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T13:43:52Z
  • Children's knowledge of eating: An integrative review of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Celeste M. Schultz, Cynthia M. Danford
      Behaviors associated with eating are often cited as one of many factors contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Behavior is thought to be guided, in part, by personal beliefs and tacit knowledge, which arise from the interpretation of sensory-motor experiences. Tacit knowledge, however, differs from declarative knowledge or the acquisition of factual information attained during formal education. Yet, there are no known publications that review children's and adolescent's tacit and declarative knowledge of eating. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine the evidence regarding children's and adolescents' knowledge of eating. Literature searches were conducted in CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Selected publications included in the integrative review were empirical studies written in English that described children's and adolescent's knowledge of eating. A total of 548 publications resulted from the searches. Thirty met the inclusion criteria. Preschool-age children understood concepts related to edibleness, nutrition, and digestion as a result of their experiences with food and eating. School-age children and adolescents correctly identified not only facts about food, nutrition, and health, but also factors that influenced their decisions about eating. School-age children and adolescents also expressed concern about their diet, barriers to being healthy, and their appearance. Evidence presented in this integrative review revealed that children, including those of preschool-age, know a great deal about eating. Moreover, the evidence suggests that beliefs and tacit knowledge are more influential in directing eating behaviors than declarative knowledge or knowing facts about food, nutrition, the body, or health. Understanding what children believe and tacitly know about eating will be useful in tailoring interventions to prevent the development of childhood obesity.

      PubDate: 2016-09-13T12:06:48Z
  • The link between hypothalamic epigenetic modifications and long-term
           feeding control
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro, David Alan Putt, Marlos Cruzeiro Soares-Filho, Júlia Matzenbacher Santos
      The incidence of obesity, one of the main risks for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has been rising, and changes in eating behavior are associated with this increasing rate. Body weight is maintained via a complex integration of endocrine and neuronal inputs that regulate the control of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Overfeeding may disrupt the mechanisms of feeding control, increasing orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), and/or decreasing the anorexigenic peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) leading to a change in energy balance and body-weight index. Despite of the great interest in this field, the mechanism by which expression of POMC and NPY is modified is not entirely clear. Over the past decades, studies have demonstrated that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification and changes in miRNA dynamics, could be modulated by external stimuli and these could affect protein expression in different cells. Therefore, this review discusses the recent reports that link epigenetic modifications in the hypothalamus to changes on long-term feeding control and its role in the onset of obesity.

      PubDate: 2016-09-08T10:05:12Z
  • Sensory determinants of stated liking for vegetable names and actual
           liking for canned vegetables: A cross-country study among European
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Caterina Dinnella, David Morizet, Camilla Masi, Danny Cliceri, Laurence Depezay, Katherine M. Appleton, Agnés Giboreau, Federico J.A. Perez-Cueto, Heather Hartwell, Erminio Monteleone
      Sensory properties are reported as one of the main factors hindering an appropriate vegetable intake by the young. In the present work the sensory determinants of likings for vegetables were explored in adolescents of four European countries (Denmark, n = 88; France, n = 206; Italy, n = 110 and United Kingdom, n = 93). A questionnaire was designed to study cross country differences in stated liking for and familiarity with a list of vegetables popular among European markets (between-vegetable approach). A within-vegetable comparison approach with actual tasting was used to analyze differences and similarities in liking for canned pea and sweet corn samples across the countries. A close positive relationship between stated liking and familiarity was found. Irrespective of the country, one group of highly liked vegetables (carrots, tomatoes, green salad) was identified, characterized by innately liked tastes (sweet, umami), delicate flavour and bright appealing colour. A second group of highly disliked vegetables consists of cauliflowers and broccoli, characterized by disliked sensations such as bitter taste and objectionable flavour. Internal Preference Maps from actual liking scores indicate that the generally disliked tastes (bitter, sour), are clearly correlated with a negative hedonic response for both peas and sweet corn. The hedonic valence of a generally well accepted taste such as salty and texture descriptors depends on the type of vegetable. Internal preference maps from actual liking data indicate that flavour and appearance descriptors of the distinct sensory properties of each type of vegetable positively affect liking, while the intensity of unusual flavours is related to sample disliking.

      PubDate: 2016-09-02T09:55:14Z
  • Brain regions involved in ingestive behavior and related psychological
           constructs in people undergoing calorie restriction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Chanaka N. Kahathuduwa, Lori A. Boyd, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Martin Binks
      Human food intake is regulated by physiological energy homeostatic mechanisms and hedonic mechanisms. These are affected by both very short-term and longer-term calorie restriction (CR). To date, there are parallel discussions in the literature that fail to integrate across these disciplines and topics. First, much of the available neuroimaging research focusses on specific functional paradigms (e.g. reward, energy homeostasis). These paradigms often fail to consider more complex and inclusive models that examine how potential brain regions of interest interact to influence ingestion. Second, the paradigms used focus primarily on short-term CR (fasting) which has limited generalizability to clinical application. Finally, the behavioral literature, while frequently examining longer-term CR and related psychological constructs in the context of weight management (e.g. hedonic restraint, ‘liking’, ‘wanting’ and food craving), fails to adequately tie these phenomena to underlying neural mechanisms. The result is a less than complete picture of the brain's role in the complexity of the human experience of ingestion. This disconnect highlights a major limitation in the CR literature, where attempts are persistently made to exert behavioral control over ingestion, without fully understanding the complex bio behavioral systems involved. In this review we attempt to summarize all potential brain regions important for human ingestion, present a broad conceptual overview of the brain's multifaceted role in ingestive behavior, the human (psychological) experiences related to ingestion and to examine how these factors differ according to three forms of CR. These include short-term fasting, extended CR, and restrained eating. We aim to bring together the neuroimaging literature with the behavioral literature within a conceptual framework that may inform future translational research.

      PubDate: 2016-09-02T09:55:14Z
  • Consumers' environmental and ethical consciousness and the use of the
           related food products information: The role of perceived consumer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sophie Ghvanidze, Natalia Velikova, Tim H. Dodd, Wilna Oldewage-Theron
      Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting food choices that are both healthy and produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. The current study investigates five consumer behavioural factors – namely, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE); environmental conscious behaviour; concerns for ethical food production; health conscious lifestyle; and healthy dietary patterns. The key interest of the study lies in exploring the moderating role of PCE - the extent to which the consumer believes that his/her own efforts can make a difference - in these interrelationships. The empirical analysis was conducted through an online survey of food consumers implemented in three markets - the US, the UK and Germany. Findings indicate that for individuals with higher levels of PCE, who are environmental conscious and ethically concerned, information on food labels relating to environmental and social issues represents value by itself. Interestingly, health and nutrition information on food labels was not perceived valuable by consumers with high PCE. The predictive effects of various socio-demographic variables on PCE, consumer environmental and health consciousness are discussed. Cross-cultural differences are also outlined. The results of this research may contribute to the development of environmental policies and communication strategies of the food industry to enhance perceived consumer effectiveness among consumers. Improved PCE, in turn, may catalyze consumers’ environmental behaviour and ethical concerns in relation to consumption of food products with environmental and social information.

      PubDate: 2016-09-02T09:55:14Z
  • Developmental trajectories of compensatory exercise and fasting behavior
           across the middle school years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Heather A. Davis, Leila Guller, Gregory T. Smith
      Compensatory exercise and fasting behavior, in the absence of binge eating and purging, appear to be important eating disorder behaviors that are associated with dysfunction, but little is known about these behaviors in youth. We studied the trajectories of their development in non-binge eating and non-purging girls during early adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, we assessed 564 girls six times over the three years of middle school (grades 6 through 8) and developed trajectories specifying different developmental patterns in relation to the behaviors. Prior to this period, when the girls were in 5th grade (elementary school), we assessed risk factors to predict girls' subsequent trajectory group membership. Compensatory exercise trajectory groups included a non-engagement group, a group that increased in the behavior, and a group that decreased in the behavior. There were two fasting trajectory groups, one consistently engaging in the behavior and the other consistently not. Elementary school levels of depression, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies predicted subsequent trajectory group membership. Risk for compensatory exercise and fasting should be evaluated as early as in 5th grade. Targeted interventions should focus on girls in late elementary school or middle school, as this appears to be a critical developmental and maintenance period for compensatory exercise and fasting behavior.

      PubDate: 2016-09-02T09:55:14Z
  • Licence to eat: Information on energy expended during exercise affects
           subsequent energy intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Duncan C. McCaig, Lydia A. Hawkins, Peter J. Rogers
      An acute bout of exercise, compared with no exercise, appears to have little influence on subsequent energy intake (EI), resulting in short-term negative energy balance. Whereas the labelling of food is evidenced to influence EI, little research has focused on how EI is affected by framing acute exercise in different ways. To explore this, 70 healthy, mostly lean, male and female participants in the current study completed a set amount of exercise (estimated energy expenditure (EE) 120 kcal), but were informed on three occasions before and after the exercise that they had expended either 50 kcal or 265 kcal. An ad libitum test meal, comprising orange juice, tortilla chips and chocolate chip cookies, was then presented after a 10-min break to assess subsequent EI. Measures of hunger and dietary restraint were also completed. Greater EI, primarily driven by chocolate chip cookie consumption (p = 0.015), was observed in participants receiving 265 kcal EE information. Hunger ratings were significantly lower in the 265 kcal EE information group than in the 50 kcal group following the test meal (p = 0.035), but not immediately after the exercise. These results support an interpretation that higher EE information (265 kcal) provides participants with a greater ‘licence to eat’ when palatable foods are accessible. Tentative evidence for a moderating effect of dietary restraint was observed, indicating a greater influence of EE information in participants with lower restraint. The findings of the current study suggest that the provision of EE information (e.g., through mobile device apps) could be counter-productive to healthy weight management.

      PubDate: 2016-09-02T09:55:14Z
  • Time to address continued poor vegetable intake in Australia for
           prevention of chronic disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Kathryn Chapman, Michelle Havill, Wendy L. Watson, Lyndal Wellard, Clare Hughes, Adrian Bauman, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
      Background Australian and most international Dietary Guidelines recommend people consume more fruits and vegetables (F&V) to maintain a healthy weight and reduce chronic disease risk. Previous Australian and international surveys have shown sub-optimal consumption of F&V. Objectives This study aimed to assess adults' F&V consumption, knowledge of recommended servings, readiness to change, barriers/enabling factors, so that this knowledge might be used for campaigns that support improved consumption. Material and methods An online survey of a representative sample of adults living in New South Wales, Australia (n = 2474) measuring self-reported F&V consumption; attitudes towards F&V consumption; stage of change for increasing F&V; barriers to consumption; and knowledge of cancer-health benefits. Results F&V consumption was below recommendations, with vegetable consumption notably low. Only 10% of participants ate at least five servings of vegetables/day (median intake was two daily servings), and 57% consumed two servings fruit/day. There was poor recognition that intake of vegetables was inadequate and this was a barrier to improving vegetable consumption; with preferences for other foods, habit and cost also important barriers. Key barriers to increasing fruit intake were habit, preferences for other foods, perishability, and cost. For vegetable consumption, 49% of participants were in the pre-contemplation stage of change, whereas for fruits 56% were in the action/maintenance stage. Sixty-four percent of respondents believed that eating F&V would protect against cancer, with 56% reporting they thought not eating enough F&V would cause cancer. Implications Understanding what motivates and prevents people from consuming F&V is important for developing effective health promotion programs. Similar to previous surveys, there has been little shift in F&V consumption. Social marketing campaigns have been shown to improve health-related behaviours, and this study may assist in identifying audience segmentation for better targeted campaigns.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Whey protein stories – An experiment in writing a multidisciplinary
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tenna Jensen, Rasmus L. Bechshoeft, Davide Giacalone, Marie Haulund Otto, Josue Castro-Mejía, Hajar Fauzan Bin Ahmad, Søren Reitelseder, Astrid Pernille Jespersen
      This is an experimental, dual-purpose article about whey protein and how to conduct interdisciplinary analyses and writings. On the one hand, this article is a multidisciplinary commodity biography, which consists of five descriptions of whey protein written by the five different research groups involved in the interdisciplinary research project CALM(Counteracting Age-related loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass). On the other hand, it is a meta-analysis, which aims to uncover and highlight examples of how the five descriptions contribute to each other with insights into the contextualisation of knowledge, contrasts between the descriptions and the new dimensions they bring to established fields of interest. The meta-analysis also contains a discussion of interdisciplinary study objects and the usefulness of the multidisciplinary commodity biography as a format for interdisciplinary publications. The article contributes to the field of food studies with a multidisciplinary biography of whey protein – including its sensory qualities and challenges, insights into its cultural history, its nutritional value and effects on the human body and an analysis of how it is perceived by people who consume it. The biography thereby expands upon existing understandings of whey protein while discussing the usefulness of employing the commodity biography format in interdisciplinary writing. Moreover, the article contributes to the field of interdisciplinary research by providing a practical example of a joint publication and reflections upon the existence, interaction and possibilities of monodisciplinary knowledge structures within interdisciplinary studies and publications.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Tempting foods and the affordability axiom: Food cues change beliefs about
           the costs of healthy eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sarah E. Hill, Kaily Baskett, Hannah K. Bradshaw, Marjorie L. Prokosch, Danielle J. DelPriore, Christopher D. Rodeheffer
      Many consumers report that healthy eating is more expensive than unhealthy eating (the affordability axiom). We hypothesize that endorsement of this belief may be driven by the motivation to eat unhealthy foods. We tested this hypothesis in three studies. Study 1 revealed that the affordability axiom is associated with poorer eating habits and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Study 2 found that the presence of a tasty food cue in the environment increased endorsement of affordability axiom. Study 3 found that these effects were moderated by one's food intake goals. Food cues led non-dieters to increase endorsement of the affordability axiom, but had the opposite effect among those seeking to restrict their calorie intake. The affordability axiom might persist as a means of validating unhealthy food choices.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Regulating food consumption: Action messages can help or hurt
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Christina Nisson, Allison Earl
      Objective Previous research suggests that messages promoting active behavior change may inadvertently increase food consumption by promoting a general goal to act. We suggest that this is only the case for active-approach behaviors and that messages promoting active-avoidance behaviors may be used to effectively decrease food consumption. Methods Participants were presented with healthy eating messages pretested to vary on the dimensions of direction (approach vs. avoid) and amount (action vs. inaction) of behavior. After viewing the messages, participants selected and consumed a healthy or unhealthy snack during a taste test. Results There were no differences in snack selection (healthy vs. unhealthy) across message conditions. For messages promoting more active behavior, however, there was a significant difference in snack consumption such that participants viewing active-approach messages consumed significantly more food than participants viewing active-avoidance messages. This happened regardless of whether participants selected a healthy or unhealthy snack. For messages promoting less active behavior there was no difference in consumption between approach and avoidance based messages. Conclusions These findings suggest that when viewing health messages that promote active behavior change, individuals are sensitive to the direction of action advocated by the message (approach vs. avoidance) and modulate consumption accordingly.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • The prevalence and predictors of disordered eating in women with coeliac
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Rose-Marie Satherley, Ruth Howard, Suzanne Higgs
      Purpose The need for dietary management in coeliac disease may lead to the development of disordered eating. This study examined the prevalence of disordered eating and factors predicting disordered eating in women with coeliac disease, compared with other dietary-controlled conditions. Methods A cross-sectional, online survey assessing psychological well-being, disordered eating behaviours (Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26); Binge Eating Scale (BES)) was distributed using online forums, to those with coeliac disease (N = 157), inflammatory bowel disease (N = 116), type two diabetes (N = 88) and healthy controls (N = 142). Hierarchical regressions were conducted to explore and compare the predictors of EAT-26 and BES scores across all groups. Within the coeliac disease group, a cluster analysis was conducted to examine types of disordered eating. Results Higher EAT-26 scores were found in those with coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease compared with healthy controls and type two diabetes; participants with a chronic health condition had higher BES than healthy control participants. The factors associated with EAT-26 scores differed across the dietary-controlled health conditions, with dietary management being important for those with coeliac disease. Psychological distress was associated with binge-eating behaviour across all groups. Cluster analyses found two types of disordered eating in coeliac disease; a binge eating type and a restrictive type. Conclusions Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are more prevalent in participants with chronic health conditions relative to healthy controls. The presence of binge eating behaviours in coeliac disease may be related to non-coeliac disease specific factors such as the distress associated with dietary-controlled illness. EAT-26 scores in coeliac disease are associated with disease specific factors, unique to following the gluten-free diet. These factors are important for identifying and supporting those with coeliac disease and disordered eating.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • The effect of two weeks ingestion of a bitter tastant mixture on energy
           intake in overweight females
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Harry P.F. Peters, Wieneke Koppenol, Ewoud A.H. Schuring, Robin Gouka, David J. Mela, Wendy A.M. Blom
      Triggering of gastro-intestinal bitter taste receptors might have implications for appetite and food intake, but the evidence in humans is mixed and limited to acute studies. We previously reported that 15-days consumption of drinks with purified Hoodia gordonii extract and its taste-matched control both produced similar, significant energy intake (EI) reductions in females in an in-patient setting, with no significant differences between treatments. In that study the control was matched to Hoodia flavour and bitterness using Raisin Flavour (RF), Sucrose Octa Acetate (SOA) and Quassia Extract (QE). As triggering of gastrointestinal bitter receptors might have produced shared effects on EI, our objective here was to assess the effects of sustained exposure to capsules containing the same bitter RF + SOA + QE mix itself on EI, compared to a non-bitter placebo. In this randomized, double-blind study, sixty slightly overweight women in parallel groups consumed twice-daily capsules without (placebo) or with the tastant mixture (0.88 mg SOA, 0.088 mg QE, 0.22 mg RF) on days 1–14. On day 0 all subjects received placebo capsules at 0800 and 1600, ad libitum meals at 0900, 1300, 1700, and snacks after 1900. On day 14 these test procedures were repeated. Changes in EI on days 14 versus 0 between treatment groups were assessed using ANCOVA. Total EI differences on days 14 versus 0 were not significant (mean active-placebo treatment difference −109 kcal, SE 71, P = 0.13), nor was this significant when analyzed separately for each meal within the test day. Body weight changes were negligible. In conclusion, sustained exposure to these encapsulated bitter tastants did not significantly affect EI in overweight females.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Neural signature of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ)-Trait
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Martin Ulrich, Leon Steigleder, Georg Grön
      The Trait and State versions of the Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ) have been used in numerous behavioral and physiological eating studies. However, the neurobiological signature of the FCQ has not been reported yet. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants performed a food/non-food discrimination task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated where in the brain greater activation upon high-caloric minus low-caloric food cues correlated with participants' scores on the German version of the FCQ-Trait, with the FCQ-State total scores included as a covariate, and vice versa. It was also tested whether individual subscales would map onto distinguishable neural correlates. Significant positive correlations with total scores on the FCQ-Trait were evident in several bilateral loci of the striatum, and in the right middle/lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Correlations with scores on the FCQ-Trait subscales Reinforcement and Hunger were found for subsets of voxels within the ventral striatum, whereas the FCQ-Trait subscales Intentions/Lack of control and Thoughts/Guilt mapped onto right OFC. There were no significant correlations between calorie-sensitive brain activation and scores on the FCQ-State when including the total scores on the FCQ-Trait as a covariate. Present findings show that the trait version of the FCQ associates with neural correlates known to be involved in coding motivational salience, detecting and estimating reward value, and representing information of expected outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-28T09:39:20Z
  • Perceived reasons for changes in the use of wild food plants in Saaremaa,
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Renata Sõukand
      Recent studies on the use of wild food plants have identified various reasons for their use and underlined their importance as an emergency food supply. This work analysed the content of narratives obtained as comments regarding the reasons for using or not using wild food plants mentioned during 48 semi-structured recorded interviews. The results show that past demand for the diversification of food experiences and taste was essential for the consumption of wild plants, while the present concern for the disappearance of wild food taxa familiar from childhood is one of the main reasons for decrease in their consumption. This indicates that people do not really feel that they need to use wild food plants anymore (except for the health benefits), and that they are concerned that their favourite plants are no longer available. The erosion of the practical use of wild food plants is also supported by the very small frequency in which the influence of teachings coming from outside the community was mentioned in discussions of both the past and present, and thus the loss of traditional uses is not really substituted by new uses acquired from elsewhere. Further research is needed to understand lay perceptions of the changes that have occurred in nature, society and the economy, in the context of their influence on the everyday use of wild food plants to appreciate the ways in which knowledge erosion takes place and to find means of retaining this basic knowledge within the society.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Managing uncertainty about food risks – Consumer use of food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Emma Tonkin, John Coveney, Samantha B. Meyer, Annabelle M. Wilson, Trevor Webb
      General consumer knowledge of and engagement with the production of food has declined resulting in increasing consumer uncertainty about, and sensitivity to, food risks. Emphasis is therefore placed on providing information for consumers to reduce information asymmetry regarding food risks, particularly through food labelling. This study examines the role of food labelling in influencing consumer perceptions of food risks. In-depth, 1-h interviews were conducted with 24 Australian consumers. Participants were recruited based on an a priori defined food safety risk scale, and to achieve a diversity of demographic characteristics. The methodological approach used, adaptive theory, was chosen to enable a constant interweaving of theoretical understandings and empirical data throughout the study. Participants discussed perceiving both traditional (food spoilage/microbial contamination) and modern (social issues, pesticide and ‘chemical’ contamination) risks as present in the food system. Food labelling was a symbol of the food system having managed traditional risks, and a tool for consumers to personally manage perceived modern risks. However, labelling also raised awareness of modern risks not previously considered. The consumer framing of risk presented demonstrates the need for more meaningful consumer engagement in policy decision making to ensure risk communication and management meet public expectations. This research innovatively identifies food labelling as both a symbol of, and a tool for, the management of perceived risks for consumers. Therefore it is imperative that food system actors ensure the authenticity and trustworthiness of all aspects of food labelling, not only those related to food safety.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Not merely a question of self-control: The longitudinal effects of
           overeating behaviors, diet quality and physical activity on dieters'
           perceived diet success
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Carmen Keller, Christina Hartmann
      This longitudinal study was conducted between 2010 (T1) and 2014 (T2) on a random sample from the general Swiss population (N = 2781, 46% male). Results showed that dieters (restrained eaters) who reported lack of success in T2 were overweight in T1, had higher levels of emotional and external eating, overeating, and ambivalence toward eating palatable food in T1, and a significantly increased body mass index (BMI) in the period between T1 and T2. Dieters who reported success in T2 had maintained a normal BMI between T1 and T2, had a higher diet quality in T1 and had maintained regular physical activity for at least one year before T2. The logistic regression revealed that high levels of dispositional self-control provided the most important predictor of being a successful dieter. When controlling for dispositional self-control, high levels of emotional eating, overeating, and ambivalence in T1, together with increases in these levels between T1 and T2, were associated with a decreased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. High levels of diet quality in T1 and the maintenance of regular physical activity were associated with an increased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. Results suggest that diet success and failure is a long-term phenomenon, partly but not fully explained by dispositional self-control. Independent of self-control persistent patterns of overeating due to emotional eating and ambivalent feelings toward eating palatable food, also explain long-term diet failure. A high diet quality and maintenance of regular physical activity accounted for dieters' long-term success. This is the first study that examined the long-term psychological and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese
           healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Kara L. Breymeyer, Johanna W. Lampe, Bonnie A. McGregor, Marian L. Neuhouser
      Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at NCT00622661.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • Testing the role of glucose in self-control: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Junhua Dang
      The glucose view of self-control posited glucose as the physiological substrate of self-control “resource”, which results in three direct corollaries: 1) engaging in a specific self-control activity would result in reduced glucose level; 2) the remaining glucose level after initial exertion of self-control would be positively correlated with following self-control performance; 3) restoring glucose by ingestion would help to improve the impaired self-control performance. The current research conducted a meta-analysis to test how well each of the three corollaries of the glucose view would be empirically supported. We also tested the restoring effect of glucose rinsing on subsequent self-control performance after initial exertion. The results provided clear and consistent evidence against the glucose view of self-control such that none of the three corollaries was supported. In contrast, the effect of glucose rinsing turned out to be significant, but with alarming signs of publication bias. The implications and future directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-24T12:24:15Z
  • The effect of parental monitoring on trajectories of disordered eating
           attitudes and behaviors among adolescents: An individual growth curve
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Laura E. Martinson, Christianne Esposito-Smythers, Dan V. Blalock
      The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether parental monitoring, as reported by adolescents and their parents, predicts more or less favorable trajectories of disordered eating behavior and attitudes over the course of one year in a sample of adolescent males and females. An additional aim was to explore whether these trajectories vary when study analyses are limited to females. Participants included 87 adolescents (mean age = 15.5 ± 1.4) in mental health treatment and their parents. Self-report measures included the Parental Monitoring Questionnaire, completed at baseline, and the Eating Attitudes Test-Dieting Subscale, completed at baseline as well as 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. Individual growth curve (IGC) analyses were used to examine change in disordered eating behavior and attitudes. Adolescents who reported lower parental monitoring showed trajectories characterized by increases in disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The same pattern emerged when using parent report of monitoring, though only a trend was evident. When analyses were restricted to females, the main effect of parental and adolescent report of monitoring on disordered eating were equally strong. Results may suggest that parents who are less knowledgeable about their adolescents’ daily lives, may be less aware of potential disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and thus less likely to intervene. Findings could be used to inform family-based interventions for this population.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Examining the relationship between selective attentional bias for food-
           and body-related stimuli and purging behaviour in bulimia nervosa
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ian P. Albery, Thomas Wilcockson, Daniel Frings, Antony C. Moss, Gabriele Caselli, Marcantonio M. Spada
      Previous research exploring cognitive biases in bulimia nervosa suggests that attentional biases occur for both food-related and body-related cues. Individuals with bulimia were compared to non-bulimic controls on an emotional-Stroop task which contained both food-related and body-related cues. Results indicated that bulimics (but not controls) demonstrated a cognitive bias for both food-related and body-related cues. However, a discrepancy between the two cue-types was observed with body-related cognitive biases showing the most robust effects and food-related cognitive biases being the most strongly associated with the severity of the disorder. The results may have implications for clinical practice as bulimics with an increased cognitive bias for food-related cues indicated increased bulimic disorder severity.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Can a virtual supermarket bring realism into the lab? Comparing shopping
           behavior using virtual and pictorial store representations to behavior in
           a physical store
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Erica van Herpen, Eva van den Broek, Hans C.M. van Trijp, Tian Yu
      Immersive virtual reality techniques present new opportunities for research into consumer behavior. The current study examines whether the increased realism of a virtual store compared to pictorial (2D) stimuli elicits consumer behavior that is more in line with behavior in a physical store. We examine the number, variety, and type of products selected, amount of money spent, and responses to price promotions and shelf display, in three product categories (fruit & vegetables, milk, and biscuits). We find that virtual reality elicits behavior that is more similar to behavior in the physical store compared to the picture condition for the number of products selected (Milk: M store  = 1.19, M virtual  = 1.53, M pictures  = 2.58) and amount of money spent (Milk: M store  = 1.27, M virtual  = 1.53, M pictures  = 2.60 Euro), and for the selection of products from different areas of the shelf, both vertically (purchases from top shelves, milk and biscuits: P store  = 21.6%, P virtual  = 33.4%, P pictures  = 50.0%) and horizontally (purchase from left shelf, biscuits: P store  = 35.5%, P virtual  = 53.3%, P pictures  = 66.7%). This indicates that virtual reality can improve realism in responses to shelf allocation. Virtual reality was not able to diminish other differences between lab and physical store: participants bought more products and spent more money (for biscuits and fruit & vegetables), bought more national brands, and responded more strongly to price promotions in both virtual reality and pictorial representations than in the physical store. Implications for the use of virtual reality in studies of consumer food choice behavior as well as for future improvement of virtual reality techniques are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Directive and non-directive food-related parenting practices: Associations
           between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices
           and child dietary intake and weight outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): K.A. Loth, S. Friend, M.L. Horning, D. Neumark-Sztainer, J.A. Fulkerson
      This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8–12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education. Overall variance explained by directive and non-directive control constructs was also calculated. Markers of directive control included pressure-to-eat and food restriction, assessed using subscales from the Child Feeding Questionnaire; markers of non-directive control were assessed with a parental role modeling scale and a home food availability inventory in which an obesogenic home food environment score was assigned based on the types and number of unhealthful foods available within the child's home food environment. Directive control Food restriction and pressure-to-eat were positively and negatively associated with BMI z-scores, respectively, but not with dietary outcomes. Non-directive control An obesogenic home food environment was inversely associated with both dietary outcomes; parental role modeling of healthful eating was positively associated with both dietary outcomes. Neither non-directive behavioral construct was significantly associated with BMI z-scores. Total variance Greater total variance in BMI-z was explained by directive control; greater total variance in dietary outcomes was explained by non-directive control. Including a construct of food-related parenting practices with separate markers for directive and non-directive control should be considered for future research. These concepts address different forms of parental control and, in the present study, yielded unique associations with child dietary and weight outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T08:18:08Z
  • Explicit and implicit approach vs. avoidance tendencies towards high vs.
           low calorie food cues in patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Georgios Paslakis, Simone Kühn, Anke Schaubschläger, Katharina Schieber, Kathrin Röder, Elisabeth Rauh, Yesim Erim
      Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a strong ability to limit food intake. Thus, dysfunctional approach vs. avoidance behaviors towards food are evident in AN. We applied an approach-avoidance task (AAT), in which n = 41 AN patients and n = 42 controls either approached (“pull”) or avoided (“push”) high (HC) vs. low calorie (LC) food pictures based solely on the presented picture format (landscape vs. portrait). We tested the hypothesis that -in opposition to controls displaying an approach bias towards HC food cues- AN patients would show an avoidance bias (measured as different response times) towards HC food. Explicit ratings of food cues were also performed. We found a significant interaction “group” x “direction” (p = 0.03). rm-ANOVAs performed for each of the two groups separately showed a main effect for “direction” of motion in controls (p = 0.02), but not in AN patients (p = 0.40). The two groups did not differ in their reaction times (RTs) with regard to “push” (p = 0.27). However, RTs with regard to “pull” were significantly different between the groups (p = 0.04). Controls show a clear approach bias, expressed by significantly faster RTs for “pull” compared to “push”, independent of “calorie” content of the food stimuli. This approach bias is absent in the group of AN patients. This is indicative of a global loss of incentive value of food in AN. Implicit trainings as add-on to psychotherapy in AN patients are asked for.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • Regulation of plasma agouti-related protein and its relationship with
           hunger in lean and obese men
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tom J. Hazell, Laura Sawula, Brittany A. Edgett, Jeremy J. Walsh, Brendon J. Gurd
      Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic (appetite stimulating) neuropeptide suggested to exert tonic control over long-term energy balance. While some have speculated AgRP is not involved in the episodic (i.e. meal to meal energy intake) control, acute decreases in plasma agouti-related protein (AgRP) following a meal have been observed in humans in a role consistent with episodic control for AgRP. Whether changes in plasma AgRP are associated with episodic, and/or tonic changes in appetite has yet to be directly examined. The present study examined the relationship between agouti-related protein (AgRP), leptin and the regulation of appetite following a 48-h fast and an acute meal challenge. Blood samples were obtained from young lean and obese men before and after a 48 h fast (lean n = 10; obese n = 7). Fasting resulted in an increase in AgRP and a decrease in leptin with these changes being greater in lean than obese. In addition, blood samples were obtained from lean men before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after a meal (n = 8). Following a meal, AgRP was reduced from 2 to 4 h, a change that was dissociated from both leptin and subjective measures of hunger and satiety. These results demonstrate that AgRP is not associated with changes in hunger or satiety, and can change without corresponding changes in leptin. This suggests that AgRP may not be involved in the episodic control of appetite and the release of AgRP may involve signals other than leptin.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • Alterations in taste perception as a result of hyperbaric oxygen therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Magdalena Hartman-Petrycka, Grzegorz Knefel, Agata Lebiedowska, Joanna Kosmala, Ewa Klimacka-Nawrot, Marek Kawecki, Mariusz Nowak, Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska
      The present study evaluates the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on taste sensitivity, hedonic perception of taste, and food preferences. The studied groups included 197 people in total (79 in the study group; 118 in the control group). All patients from the study group were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy due to chronic non-healing wounds. The control group consisted of healthy people, who did not receive hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The taste intensity, recognition thresholds, and hedonic perception were examined using gustatory tests. The aqueous solutions of sucrose for sweet, sodium chloride for salty, citric acid for sour, quinine hydrochloride for bitter, and monosodium glutamate for umami taste were used. The participants fulfilled the questionnaire to examine pleasure derived from eating certain types of dishes. Gustatory tests and analyses of the pleasure derived from eating in the study group were carried out before the first exposure to hyperbaric oxygen and then at the end of therapy, after at least 25 sessions of treatment. In the control group, examination of perception of taste sensations was conducted only once. The results of comparing patients with non-healing wounds with healthy people are characterized by reduced taste sensitivity. After participation in hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the improvement in perception of taste sensations and changes in hedonic evaluation have occurred among patients with non-healing wounds. In terms of food preference, a decreased desire for eating sweet desserts, chocolate, and crisps was observed in those patients who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • Effects on satiation, satiety and food intake of wholegrain and refined
           grain pasta
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Iolanda Cioffi, Sabine Ibrugger, Jessica Bache, Mette Torp Thomassen, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi, Mette Kristensen
      Wholegrains have received much attention in recent years due to their role in prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. Many studies about energy regulation are focused on the effect between meals (satiety), but the effect within meal (satiation) for wholegrain foods has not been extensively studied. The objective was to investigate the effect of WG pasta (WGP) compared to refined grain pasta (RGP), on ad libitum energy intake (EI) within and at the subsequent meal as well as appetite. Two different ad libitum lunch meals (study A) and two different iso-caloric lunch meals (study B) were administered in sixteen overweight/obese subjects in a crossover design. The test meals consisted of RGP and WGP served with tomato sauce. Study A: the ad libitum lunch meal was consumed then EI registered. Study B: the iso-caloric lunch meal was served, then subjective appetite sensation and breath hydrogen excretion were assessed for 240 min followed by an ad libitum meal where EI was calculated. Overall, WGP did not significantly differ in the effect on ad libitum EI within meal (p = 0.23) in study A. In study B, WGP resulted in an increased sensation of satiety (p < 0.001) and lower ratings of hunger (p < 0.001) without increased in breath hydrogen excretion (p = 0.11). Again, no overall effect on EI at the subsequent meal was seen (p = 0.12). In conclusion, WGP increased satiety, diminished hunger without modifying energy intake at the subsequent meals.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T19:17:30Z
  • “I feel good and I am not overweight” – A qualitative study of
           considerations underlying lay people's self-assessments of unhealthy diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Mette Rosenlund Sørensen, Lotte Holm
      It has been suggested that optimistic self-assessments of unhealthy diets constitute a barrier to the promotion of healthier eating practices. In order to discuss possible reasons for such optimistic assessments, knowledge about the considerations underlying self-assessments of unhealthy diets is needed. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore this issue by comparing considerations underlying the assessments of people who overestimate the healthiness of their unhealthy diets with those of people who express more realistic assessments. Interviewees were recruited among those respondents to the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011–2013, who had been accorded a low diet index score. A thematic analysis of qualitative interviews is undertaken (N = 16). When interviewees are asked to assess the healthiness of their diets, they draw upon their nutritional knowledge and their perceptions of healthy eating practices. However, these considerations tend to be overruled by more decisive criteria. Thus, diets are assessed as being not exactly healthy, but nevertheless healthy enough – so long as interviewees feel good. Moreover, a personal history of weight status and weight concerns emerge as decisive criteria in self-assessments. Those who experience problems in these areas tend to be realistic about the unhealthy character of their diets, while optimistic assessments appear to be linked to tendencies to perceive oneself as not being overweight, not having experienced weight gain or loss, or not being concerned about weight. This study concludes that decisive criteria in lay people's self-assessments of unhealthy diets – with regard to feeling and looking good – differ markedly from the criteria employed in food-based dietary guidelines. These broader criteria of assessment should be recognized by professionals engaged in planning health promotion strategies with reference to dietary health.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
  • Snacking now or later? Individual differences in following intentions or
           habits explained by time perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): M.C. Onwezen, J. Van 't Riet, H. Dagevos, S.J. Sijtsema, H.M. Snoek
      Even when individuals are aware of long-term health effects of their diet, and form healthy intentions, they often engage in relatively unhealthy snacking habits. Some individuals fall back on unhealthy habits more easily than others. We aim to explore whether time perspective can explain why some individuals are more prone to rely on habits and others on intentions. Study 1 (N = 1503) provides a first exploration of the role of time perspective by exploring individual differences in perception of long-term and short-term consequences. In accordance with our hypotheses, Study 1 shows that habits are associated with short-term consequences and intentions with long-term consequences. Study 2 (N = 1497) shows that the effects of habits on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a present time perspective, whereas the effects of intentions on snacking behaviour are strengthened by a future time perspective. These findings imply that there is a fundamental difference in the guiding function of intentions and habits which might explain individual differences in following intentions versus habits. Individuals with a long-term perspective are more inclined to follow intentions and individuals with a short-term perspective are more inclined to follow habits.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
  • Association of TAS2R38 variants with sweet food intake in children aged
           1–6 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ingrid Pawellek, Veit Grote, Peter Rzehak, Annick Xhonneux, Elvira Verduci, Anna Stolarczyk, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Eva Reischl, Berthold Koletzko
      We aimed at studying whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 gene are associated with energy intake from sweet tasting foods, total energy and macronutrient intake and body weight in children. Children (n = 691) from five European countries were genotyped for the first variant site rs713598 of the TAS2R38 bitter receptor gene. Three-day dietary records were obtained yearly from one to six years of age. Foods were categorized in sweet and non-sweet-tasting. Mixed models were used to describe group differences in food and nutrient intake and BMI z-score over time. TAS2R38 genotype was related to energy intake from sweet tasting foods: Children with PP and PA genotype consumed an average 83 kJ/d (95% CI 21 to 146; p = 0.009) more sweet tasting foods than children with AA genotype and a mean 56 kJ/d (95% CI 15 to 98; p = 0.007) more energy from energy dense sweet products. Intake of sweet tasting foods was lower in girls than boys and differed between countries. TAS2R38 genotype was not associated with the intake of energy, macronutrients, sugar, single food groups and BMI z-score. Despite many other factors influencing food preference and intake in children, actual intake of sweet food items is associated with TAS2R38 genotype. Children with PP or PA genotype consume more (energy dense) sweet tasting foods.

      PubDate: 2016-08-08T13:49:47Z
  • Characterizing and improving the sensory and hedonic responses to
           polyphenol-rich aronia berry juice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Valerie B. Duffy, Shristi Rawal, Jeeha Park, Mark H. Brand, Mastaneh Sharafi, Bradley W. Bolling
      Interest in nutrient-rich berry juices is growing, but their high polyphenol levels render them sensorily unappealing. Fifty adults, who were assessed for sensory phenotype and dietary behaviors, provided sensory and palatability ratings of juices from ‘Viking’ aronia berries for each of seven harvest weeks. By peak harvest, juice preference increased two-fold, averaging neither like/dislike. This hedonic shift was associated with: increases in juice sugars paralleling increases in perceived sweetness (maximum = weak); reductions in percent acidity paralleling reductions in sourness (minimum = moderate), astringency (minimum = to just above weak) and bitterness (minimum = just below weak). About 25% of adults liked the aronia juice, including adults who also liked an aqueous citric acid solution (average rating = moderately sour) or those who reported adventurous eating behaviors. Bitter taste phenotype, measured by propylthiouracil or quinine bitterness, failed to explain significant variation in juice sensation or preference. We also collected sensory and preference ratings from juice collected at peak harvest blended with sugar and/or sweet olfactory flavoring (10 ppm ethyl butyrate). Increasing juice sweetness by adding 5% sucrose decreased sourness and improved preference from weak dislike to weak like. Adding sweet olfactory flavoring decreased juice sourness without changing preference. Adding sweet flavoring and 3% sucrose resulted in reduction of sourness and improvements in preference ratings comparable to 5% added sucrose. Neither added sugar nor flavoring blocked juice astringency. In summary, these findings suggest that aronia juice, even from berries picked at peak harvest, appealed to only a few adults (sour likers or adventurous eaters). Although enhanced sweetness, with added sugar and sweet olfactory flavoring, improved aronia juice preference, broader sensory approaches are required to blunt astringency for greater consumer appeal.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Changes in PYY and gastric emptying across the phases of the menstrual
           cycle and the influence of the ovarian hormones
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Marta Campolier, Sangeetha Pariyarath Thondre, Miriam Clegg, Amir Shafat, Ali Mcintosh, Helen Lightowler
      Nutrition-related studies avoid the participation of pre-menopausal women due to the potential effect of the menstrual cycle (MC) on their appetite regulation. It is generally accepted that women increase their energy intake during the luteal phase (LPh) compared to the follicular (FPh), however what happens in the menstrual phase (MPh) and how this might be regulated remains uncertain. Although some research indicates changes in the gastric emptying (GE) velocity, whether PYY is affected by the MC phase, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether eating the same breakfast in each of the three MC phases would change the GE time, the PYY response and post-prandial satiety such that they might affect subsequent food intake. Furthermore, the aim was to associate any potential differences to the fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) within a MC. Nine naturally cycling women attended to the laboratory to consume a standardised breakfast on three occasions, each of them representing one of the MC phases. Breath samples to measure GE time, plasma samples to quantify PYY levels and hunger scores were collected for a total of 4 h after which food intake was assessed by an ad-libitum buffet lunch. GE and PYY levels changed significantly across the phases of the MC (p < 0.05). GE was correlated to P4 and E2-P4 ratio (r = −0.5 and 0.4, respectively). To conclude, the appetite regulators PYY and GE time change depending upon the MC phases with GE time associated with the ovarian hormone levels which suggests the necessity of controlling the MC phase in studies looking at the appetite response.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • The impact of caffeine use across the lifespan on cognitive performance in
           elderly women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Clinton S. Perry, Ayanna K. Thomas, Holly A. Taylor, Paul F. Jacques, Robin B. Kanarek
      Habitual caffeine consumption has often been associated with decreasing age-related cognitive decline. However, whether habitual caffeine use preferentially spares different cognitive processes is unclear. Furthermore, whether basing habitual caffeine consumption patterns on current consumption or on a lifetime measure better represents an individual's use remains unclear. In the present study, we collected information from women, aged 56–83, about their current caffeine consumption patterns and history of use, including age they began consuming caffeine. Regression models assessed the relationship between caffeine consumption and performance on batteries designed to probe speed of processing, inhibition, memory, and executive function. While we found no direct associations between caffeine exposure and cognitive performance, we found that caffeine consumption and participant BMI interacted for inhibitory function and speed of processing performance. We discuss possible protective effects of long term caffeine use as well as the possibility of dose dependent effects.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Reported appetite, taste and smell changes following Roux-en-Y gastric
           bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: Effect of gender, type 2 diabetes and
           relationship to post-operative weight loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Janine M. Makaronidis, Sabrina Neilson, Wui-Hang Cheung, Urszula Tymoszuk, Andrea Pucci, Nicholas Finer, Jacqueline Doyle, Majid Hashemi, Mohamed Elkalaawy, Marco Adamo, Andrew Jenkinson, Rachel L. Batterham
      Reduced energy intake drives weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) procedures. Post-operative changes in subjective appetite, taste, and smell and food preferences are reported and suggested to contribute to reduced energy intake. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these changes following RYGB and SG and to evaluate their relationship with weight loss. 98 patients post-RYGB and 155 post-SG from a single bariatric centre were recruited to a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a questionnaire, previously utilised in post-operative bariatric patients, to assess the prevalence of post-operative food aversions and subjective changes in appetite, taste and smell. Anthropometric data were collected and percentage weight loss (%WL) was calculated. The relationship between food aversions, changes in appetite, taste and smell and %WL was assessed. The influence of time post-surgery, gender and type 2 diabetes (T2D) were evaluated. Following RYGB and SG the majority of patients reported food aversions (RYGB = 62%, SG = 59%), appetite changes (RYGB = 91%, SG = 91%) and taste changes (RYGB = 64%, SG = 59%). Smell changes were more common post-RYGB than post-SG (RYGB = 41%, SG = 28%, p = 0.039). No temporal effect was observed post-RYGB. In contrast, the prevalence of appetite changes decreased significantly with time following SG. Post-operative appetite changes associated with and predicted higher %WL post-SG but not post-RYGB. Taste changes associated with and predicted higher %WL following RYGB but not post-SG. There was no gender effect post-RYGB. Post-SG taste changes were less common in males (female = 65%, males = 40%, p = 0.008). T2D status in females did not influence post-operative subjective changes. However, in males with T2D, taste changes were less common post-SG than post-RYGB together with lower %WL (RYGB = 27.5 ± 2.7, SG = 14.6 ± 2.1, p = 0.003). Further research is warranted to define the biology underlying these differences and to individualise treatments.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Short-term cross-sensitizion of need-free sugar intake by combining sodium
           depletion and hypertonic NaCl intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Bruna M. Santos, Carina A.F. de Andrade, José V. Menani, Laurival A. De Luca
      History of sodium depletion cross-sensitizes the effects of drugs of abuse. The objective of the present study was to find out if history of sodium depletion also cross-sensitizes a natural reward such as sugar intake in the rat. Sodium depletion was induced by furosemide combined with removal of ambient sodium for 24 h; it was repeated seven days later. The depletion was immediately followed by 0.3 M NaCl intake in a sodium appetite test (active sodium repletion). Seven days after the last depletion, hydrated and fed (need-free) sucrose-naïve animals were offered 10% sucrose in a first 2-h sucrose test. The sucrose test was repeated once a day in a series of five consecutive days. History of sodium depletion enhanced sucrose intake in the first and second tests; it had no effect from the third to fifth sucrose test. The effect on the initial sucrose intake tests disappeared if the rats did not ingest 0.3 M NaCl in the sodium appetite test. Prior experience with sucrose intake in need-free conditions had no effect on sodium appetite. History of intracellular dehydration transiently influenced sucrose intake in the first sucrose test. We found no evidence for thirst sensitization. We conclude that history of dehydration, particularly that resulting from sodium depletion, combined to active sodium repletion, produced short-term cross-sensitization of sucrose intake in sucrose-naïve rats. The results suggest that the cross-sensitization of sucrose intake related with acquisition of sugar as a novel nutrient rather than production of lasting effects on sugar rewarding properties.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • “Happy goat says”: The effect of a food selection inhibitory control
           training game of children's response inhibition on eating behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Qianxia Jiang, Dexian He, Wanyi Guan, Xianyou He
      Recent studies suggest that when inhibitory control is lacking, people are more inclined to indulge in high-calorie food, but inhibitory control can be trained. In this study, a daily-life training game was used to train children and investigate whether strengthening or weakening inhibitory control influences food intake in opposite directions. The baseline of response inhibition was measured by the go/no-go task, and the baseline of food intake was measured by a bogus food taste task. Then, participants performed a food selection training game named “Happy goat says” with three within-subject conditions: the first type of instruction was always paired without a go signal (inhibition manipulation); the second type of instruction was always presented with a go signal (impulsivity manipulation); and the third type of instruction was presented either with a go or no-go signal, both in 50% of the time (control manipulation). Following these manipulations, they went through the go/no-go task and bogus food taste task. In the pre-training food taste task, commission errors were positively correlated with body mass index. Relative to a control group playing Lego blocks (n = 20), the trained group showed a performance improvement on the go/no-go task. The intake of food in the inhibition manipulation was significantly less in the post-training food taste task. These findings demonstrate that children can gain control over the consumption of high-calorie food after a daily-life response inhibition training game.

      PubDate: 2016-08-03T13:47:04Z
  • Consumer acceptance of insect-based foods in the Netherlands: Academic and
           commercial implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Jonas House
      Despite growing interest in the use of insects as food, uptake of insect-based foods in Europe is low. Existing research into Western consumer acceptance of insects as food tends to emphasise the role of individual cognition in food choice at the expense of social or contextual factors, and typically frames consumer acceptance as a general issue, rather than relevant only for relatively few early adopters. This paper outlines empirical work, theoretically and methodologically informed by a critical appraisal of previous research, with consumers of insect-based convenience foods in the Netherlands. Reported initial motivations for trying insect foods are shown to be substantially different from factors – such as price, taste, availability, and ‘fit’ with established eating practices – which affect repeat consumption. Such factors are congruent with those affecting routine consumption of more conventional foods, indicating that insect foods should be analysed according to similar criteria and should be designed with more practical considerations in mind. Further, a reorientation of consumer acceptance research is proposed. Research should shift from attempts to forecast acceptance and engage with ‘actual’ examples of insect consumption; social, practical and contextual factors affecting food consumption should be emphasised; and – following work on the establishment of other novel foods – early adopters, rather than general populations, should receive greater analytic attention.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Alterations in taste perception due to recreational drug use are due to
           smoking a substance rather than ingesting it
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Terence M. Dovey, Emma J. Boyland, Penelope Trayner, Jo Miller, Amin Rarmoul-Bouhadjar, Jon Cole, Jason C.G. Halford
      Two studies explored the differences in tastant (salt, sour, bitter, sweet and spicy) concentration preference between recreational drug users and abstainers. In study 1, 250 opportunistically recruited abstainers, cannabis only users and multiple-drug users completed psychometric questionnaires and a concentration preference tastant test. In study 2, 76 participants purposefully recruited abstainers, daily tobacco users, recreational cannabis users and daily cannabis users completed the same protocol as study 1. Study 1 demonstrated that both multiple drug users and cannabis users had a higher preference for salt and sour tastants than abstainers. Study 2 showed that daily cannabis and tobacco users had a higher preference for sweet and spicy tastants than recreational cannabis users and abstainers. As predicted, recreational drug users scored higher on both sensation-seeking and impulsivity compared to abstainers. Participants who habitually smoke tobacco or cannabis daily have different concentration preference for specific tastants. The aim of the current study was to provide an explanation for the inconsistency in published results on taste preferences in recreational drug users. The data offered in this paper indicate that variation in recruitment strategy, definition of ‘drug users’, and mode of drug delivery, as well as multiple drug use, may explain the preference for stronger tastants in habitual drug users. Future research exploring the psychobiological underpinnings of the impact of drug use on food preferences should carefully define recreational drug user groups.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Effects of development on indigenous dietary pattern: A Nigerian case
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Bookie Ezeomah, Karim Farag
      The traditional foods of indigenous people in Nigeria are known for their cultural symbolism and agricultural biodiversity which contributes to their daily healthy and rich diet. In the early 90s, rapid development of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) was noted and the resettlement of indigenes to other parts of the region was reported. These changes have facilitated the modification of indigenous diets, as indigenous groups rapidly embraced modern foods and also adopted the food culture of migrant ethnic groups. This has led to a gradual erosion of indigenous diets and traditional food systems in the FCT. This study explored the impact of development on traditional food systems and determined indigenes perception of the modification to their food culture as a result of the development of their land within the FCT. Field survey was carried out in four indigenous communities in the FCT (30 indigenes from each of the four areas) using structured questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews. Person Chi Square analysis of indigenes socio-economic characteristics revealed significant relationships between gender of indigenes and farm size, Age and farm size, Educational level and farm/herd size. Qualitative analysis of FGDs revealed indigenes opinion on the socio-cultural changes in behaviour and food systems as a result of development. The study also identified indigenous youths as being most influenced by development especially through education, white collar jobs and social interactions with migrant ethnic groups in the FCT. The study recommended that indigenes should be provided with more secure land tenure and “back-to-farm” initiatives should be put in place by the Nigerian government to encourage indigenous youth to engaged more in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Clarifying the prospective relationships between social anxiety and eating
           disorder symptoms and underlying vulnerabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Cheri A. Levinson, Thomas L. Rodebaugh
      Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Several explanations for these high levels of comorbidity have been theorized. First, social anxiety might be a vulnerability factor for eating disorders. Second, eating disorders might be a vulnerability factor for social anxiety. Third, the two kinds of disorders may have common, shared psychological vulnerabilities. The current study (N = 300 undergraduate women) investigates a model of social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms that examines each of these possibilities across two time points (Time 1 and six months later). We do not find support for either social anxiety or eating disorder symptoms per se predicting each other across time. Instead, we find that some underlying vulnerabilities prospectively predict symptoms of both disorders, whereas other vulnerabilities are specific to symptoms of one disorder. Specifically we find that maladaptive perfectionism is a shared prospective vulnerability for social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Alternatively, we find that social appearance anxiety is specific for eating disorder symptoms, whereas high standards is specific for social anxiety symptoms. These data help clarify our understanding of how and why social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms frequently co-occur.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Effects of prolonged hypoxia and bed rest on appetite and appetite-related
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Tadej Debevec, Elizabeth J. Simpson, Igor B. Mekjavic, Ola Eiken, Ian A. Macdonald
      Environmental hypoxia and inactivity have both been shown to modulate appetite. To elucidate the independent and combined effects of hypoxia and bed rest-induced inactivity on appetite-related hormones and subjective appetite, eleven healthy, non-obese males underwent three experimental interventions in a cross-over and randomized fashion: 1) Hypoxic confinement combined with daily moderate-intensity exercise (HAMB, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg) 2) Bed rest in normoxia (NBR, FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg) and 3) Bed rest in hypoxia (HBR, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). A mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), followed by an ad libitum meal were performed before (Pre) and after 16-days (Post) of each intervention. Composite satiety scores (CSS) during the MTT were calculated from visual analogue scores, while fasting and postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and leptin were quantified from arterialized-venous samples. Postprandial CSS were significantly lower at Post compared to Pre in NBR only (P < 0.05) with no differences observed in ad libitum meal intakes. Postprandial concentrations and incremental area under the curve (AUC) for total ghrelin and PYY were unchanged following all interventions. Postprandial GLP-1 concentrations were only reduced at Post following HBR (P < 0.05) with resulting AUC changes being significantly lower compared to HAMB (P < 0.01). Fasting leptin was reduced following HAMB (P < 0.05) with no changes observed following NBR and HBR. These findings suggest that independently, 16-day of simulated altitude exposure (∼4000 m) and bed rest-induced inactivity do not significantly alter subjective appetite or ad libitum intakes. The measured appetite-related hormones following both HAMB and HBR point to a situation of hypoxia-induced appetite stimulation, although this did not reflect in higher ad libitum intakes. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02293772.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and body mass
           in children and adolescents: A moderated mediation model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Adrian Meule, Johannes Hofmann, Daniel Weghuber, Jens Blechert
      Impulsivity has been suggested to contribute to overeating and obesity. However, findings are inconsistent and it appears that only specific facets of impulsivity are related to eating-related variables and to body mass. In the current study, relationships between self-reported impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and objectively measured body mass were examined in N = 122 children and adolescents. Scores on attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, but not body mass: Higher attentional impulsivity was associated with lower perceived self-regulatory success at high levels of motor impulsivity, but not at low levels of motor impulsivity. A moderated mediation model revealed an indirect effect of attentional and motor impulsivity on body mass, which was mediated by perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. Thus, results show that only specific facets of impulsivity are relevant in eating- and weight-regulation and interact with each other in the prediction of these variables. These facets of impulsivity, however, are not directly related to higher body mass, but indirectly via lower success in eating-related self-regulation in children and adolescents.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Influence of maternal feeding goals and practices on children's eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Debra A. Hoffmann, Jenna M. Marx, Allison Kiefner-Burmeister, Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      Parents are highly influential in shaping their children's dietary habits. This study examined whether negative feeding practices mediated the relationship between feeding goals (health and convenience) and children's eating behaviors. One hundred ninety-two mothers (mean age = 34.2; mean BMI = 27.0) of 7–11 year old children participated via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results showed that negative feeding practices fully mediated the relationship between convenience feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.08/.09, n.s.; goals to feeding practices: β = 0.27, p < 0.01; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.57/.48, p < 0.05). On the other hand, negative feeding practices did not fully mediate the relationship between health feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = 0.66/-0.29, p < 0.01; goals to feeding practices: β = −0.28, p < 0.001; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = −0.26/.44, p < 0.05). In other words, children whose mothers emphasized health goals consumed more healthy food and less unhealthy food, above and beyond the use of negative feeding practices. Because parents are on the front lines of shaping children's eating habits, understanding the best point of intervention for parents (e.g., shaping parents' goals, changing parents' feeding practices) might be especially fruitful, considering that childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis and energy intake is one of the key factors contributing to this problem.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
  • Validation of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) among
           Maltese women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 107
      Author(s): Elaine Dutton, Terence M. Dovey
      The main aim of this study was to assess the dimensional structure of the Maltese version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and evaluate the instrument's validity and reliability among Maltese women (N = 586). Exploratory factor analysis reflected the theoretical structure of three factors; emotional, restrained and external eating which was supported by a Confirmatory Factor analysis. Minor issues with specific items in the Emotional and External eating scale were identified and discussed. Criterion-related validity was ascertained through correlations with the EAT-26. The study also assessed the DEBQ's predictive value in differentiating between BMI groups and between dieters and weight maintainers. The results suggest that the Maltese DEBQ is a psychometrically valid and reliable instrument for assessing eating behaviours with women in the Maltese community. The study also highlights the critical role of Emotional and Restrained eating in dieting and overweight Maltese women.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T13:45:00Z
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