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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2589 journals)

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Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.073, h-index: 57)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.124, h-index: 56)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.519, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.063, h-index: 45)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.551, h-index: 29)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.834, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.727, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.311, h-index: 112)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.675, h-index: 75)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.869, h-index: 39)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.99, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.962, h-index: 72)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.323, h-index: 53)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.579, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.446, h-index: 59)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.48, h-index: 88)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.609, h-index: 48)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.772, h-index: 82)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.667, h-index: 21)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 19)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 22)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 51)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.222, h-index: 14)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 3)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 27)
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.843, h-index: 54)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.194, h-index: 14)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 25)
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.065, h-index: 36)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.28, h-index: 15)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 6)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.161, h-index: 22)
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Réadaptation Médicale : Pratique et Formation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 5)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 4)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.185, h-index: 17)
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.655, h-index: 21)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 21)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 819, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 31)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 5.228, h-index: 78)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.737, h-index: 32)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 16)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 11)
J. of Acute Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 0)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.101, h-index: 60)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.244, h-index: 86)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 6)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.107, h-index: 66)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.53, h-index: 106)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 39)
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 28)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.84, h-index: 30)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.129, h-index: 41)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.911, h-index: 182)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 99)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 38)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 64)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 31)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.555, h-index: 60)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 12)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.203, h-index: 40)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 7)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.864, h-index: 41)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.079, h-index: 17)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.298, h-index: 11)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0, h-index: 4)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 31)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198, SJR: 1.373, h-index: 57)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, h-index: 58)
J. of Arrhythmia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0, h-index: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 14)

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Journal Cover   Appetite
  [SJR: 1.065]   [H-I: 63]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2589 journals]
  • Mindfulness and eating behaviour styles in morbidly obese males and
           females
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): M.A. Ouwens , A.A. Schiffer , L.I. Visser , N.J.C. Raeijmaekers , I. Nyklíček
      Background: Morbid obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with a high risk of various diseases and high health care costs. Understanding determinants of eating behaviours that are characteristic of many morbidly obese persons is important for the development of new interventions aimed at changing eating behaviour after bariatric surgery. Dispositional mindfulness seems promising as one such potential determinant. Therefore, the association between mindfulness and eating behaviour was examined in females and males with morbid obesity. Methods: Outpatients with morbid obesity who were candidates for bariatric surgery (N = 335; 78.8% female) completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in addition to the collection of relevant demographic and medical data. Results: Three separate multiple regression analyses with three eating behaviour styles (restrained, emotional, external) as dependent variables showed that mindfulness was positively associated with restrained eating behaviour (Beta = .28, p ≤ .001), and negatively associated with emotional (Beta = −.22, p ≤ .001) and external (Beta = −.32, p ≤ .001) eating behaviours, independent of sex, age, educational level, Body Mass Index and affective symptoms. Conclusion: Dispositional mindfulness was associated with more restrained, and less emotional and external eating behaviour in morbidly obese outpatients, above and beyond affective symptoms. Future studies, establishing the causal direction of the associations, are needed.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Pavlovian conditioning to hedonic food cues in overweight and lean
           individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Monica D. Meyer , Victoria B. Risbrough , June Liang , Kerri N. Boutelle
      Obese individuals develop heightened reactivity to environmental cues associated with hedonic foods through Pavlovian conditioning. This study examined differences between overweight (n = 16) and lean (n = 17) 18–26 year-olds in their acquisition of a swallowing response to visual cues paired with chocolate milk, tasteless water and no taste stimulus. We hypothesized that, compared to lean participants, overweight participants would demonstrate a heightened conditioned swallowing response to the visual cue paired with chocolate milk as well as a resistance to extinction of this response. Results showed that overweight participants swallowed more in response to the visual cue previously paired with chocolate than the cue previously paired with tasteless water (t(15) = −3.057, p = .008) while lean participants showed no cue discrimination (t(16) = −1.027, p = .320). The results evaluating the extinction hypothesis could not be evaluated, as the lean participants did not acquire a conditioned response. In evaluating the conditioned swallow response of overweight participants only, results indicated that there was not a significant decrease in swallowing to cues paired with chocolate milk or water, but overall, overweight participants swallowed more to cues paired with chocolate than cues paired with water. These are the first results to show differential acquisition of Pavlovian conditioned responding in overweight individuals compared to lean individuals, as well as differential conditioning to cues paired with hedonic food stimuli compared to cues paired with neutral stimuli.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers'
           perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Meghan Lynch
      This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either “overt”: (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or “covert” (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Ignorance is bliss. How parents of preschool children make sense of
           front-of-package visuals and claims on food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Katie M. Abrams , Caitlin Evans , Brittany R.L. Duff
      With growing scrutiny over how the food industry advertises products aimed toward children and fewer consumers using nutrition facts panels and ingredient lists, the fronts of food packages have become an increasingly important marketing tool to understand. Front-of-package (FOP) visual and verbal claims play a critical role in capturing consumers' attention and helping them choose foods that fit their goals. Due to only possessing emergent literacy skills, preschool children are attuned to FOP visuals while parents are able to use the visuals in combination with verbal claims to make food choices for their children. The purpose of this focus group study was to explore how parents of preschool children make sense of FOP visual and verbal claims on packaged food products that are intended for their children. Thematic analysis revealed that parents associated aspects that most appeal to their preschool children – the characters and other playful visuals – with higher sugar content and artificial ingredients. However, parents were also easily led to believe the product was healthier based on visuals of fruit, more realistic pictures, health claims, cross-branding with healthier foods, and visuals suggesting the product is more natural. While parents recognized that the health claims and some visuals may not truly mean the food is healthier, they agreed that they rarely think beyond their initial impression. The food industry needs better regulatory guidance on how to communicate flavors and ingredients on package fronts in a way that helps consumers – particularly parents wanting to encourage healthy eating habits for their young children – better match their nutrition goals.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Relation of the multilocus genetic composite reflecting high dopamine
           signaling capacity to future increases in BMI
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Sonja Yokum , C. Nathan Marti , Andrew Smolen , Eric Stice
      Because food intake exerts its rewarding effect by increasing dopamine (DA) signaling in reward circuitry, it theoretically follows that individuals with a greater number of genotypes putatively associated with high DA signaling capacity are at increased risk for overeating and subsequent weight gain. We tested the association between the multilocus genetic composite risk score, defined by the total number of genotypes putatively associated with greater DA signaling capacity (i.e. TaqIA A2 allele, DRD2-141C Ins/Del and Del/Del genotypes, DRD4-S allele, DAT1-S allele, and COMT Val/Val genotype), and future increases in Body Mass Index (BMI) in three prospective studies. Participants in Study 1 (N = 30; M age = 15.2; M baseline BMI = 26.9), Study 2 (N = 34; M age = 20.9; M baseline BMI = 28.2), and Study 3 (N = 162; M age = 15.3, M baseline BMI = 20.8) provided saliva samples from which epithelial cells were collected, permitting DNA extraction. The multilocus genetic composite risk score was associated with future increases in BMI in all three studies (Study 1, r = 0.37; Study 2, r = 0.22; Study 3, r = 0.14) and the overall sample (r = 0.19). DRD4-S was associated with increases in BMI in Study 1 (r = 0.42), Study 2 (r = 0.27), and in the overall sample (r = 0.17). DAT1-S was associated with increases in BMI in Study 3 (r = 0.17) and in the overall sample (r = 0.12). There were no associations between the other genotypes (TaqIA, COMT, and DRD2-141C) and change in BMI over 2-year follow-up. Data suggest that individuals with a genetic propensity for greater DA signaling capacity are at risk for future weight gain and that combining alleles that theoretically have a similar function may provide a more reliable method of modeling genetic risk associated with future weight gain than individual genotypes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Rural Latino caregivers' beliefs and behaviors around their children's
           salt consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Kristin S. Hoeft , Claudia Guerra , M. Judy Gonzalez-Vargas , Judith C. Barker
      Background: Prevalence of high blood pressure has been increasing in U.S. children, with implications for long term health consequences. Sodium consumption, a modifiable risk factor for high blood pressure, is above recommended limits and increasing. Very little is known about Latino caregiver beliefs and behaviors around their children's salt consumption. Methods: In California's Central Valley, qualitative interviews in Spanish investigated low-income caregivers' views and understandings of their children's dietary salt consumption. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups were conducted (N=61). Interview transcripts were translated and transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed. Results: Seven primary topic areas around children's salt intake and its impact on health were identified: children's favorite foods, children's dietary salt sources, superiority of home-cooked foods, salty and sweet foods, managing salt for health, developing children's tastes, and adding salt added at the table. Parents recognize common sources of sodium such as “junk food” and processed food and made efforts to limit their children's consumption of these foods, but may overlook other significant sodium sources, particularly bread, cheese, prepared soups and sports drinks. Caregivers recognize excess salt as unhealthy for children, but don't believe health problems (like high blood pressure) can occur in young children. Nevertheless, they made efforts to limit how much salt their children consumed through a variety of strategies; school meals were a source of high sodium that they felt were outside of their control. Conclusion: Latino caregivers are concerned about their children's salt intake and attempt to limit consumption, but some common sources of sodium are under-recognized.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related
           behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the
           American Time Use Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Sarah A. Sliwa , Aviva Must , Flavia Peréa , Christina D. Economos
      Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18–65) with at least one child <13 years old participating in the 2003–2011 American Time Use Survey (n = 3622) to estimate the relationship between employment, acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (−38.0 ± SE 4.8, p < 001). Although being US-born was associated with spending fewer minutes in food preparation, this relationship varied by origin group. Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (−9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler
           obesity? A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Pree M. Benton , Helen Skouteris , Melissa Hayden
      The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Taste perception in normal and overweight Mexican adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Erika Martinez-Cordero , Juan Manuel Malacara-Hernandez , Claudia Martinez-Cordero
      The prevalence of obesity in Mexico is the highest in the world, with almost 70% of adults being classified as overweight or obese. The increased prevalence of obesity in Mexico, and globally, may be related to the changing food environment, providing increased access to highly palatable, but obesogenic, food products. One potential mechanism for this association is changing food perceptions, an area poorly studied in transitional countries. Thus, we conducted a study to determine the degree to which perception thresholds for four basic tastes are associated with anthropometric variables, hormone levels, and energy intake. Bitter and sweet taste had the lowest and highest thresholds, respectively, and women reported a greater sensitivity to these flavors compared to men. Overall, the perception thresholds to each flavor were not associated with energy intake or body mass index (BMI), while the perception threshold of aspartame was negatively associated with energy intake. Based on the results of our study, in a sample of Mexican adults, sensory taste response to basic flavors is not associated with energy intake or BMI.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent
           three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive
           pre-menopausal women taking oral contraceptives
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Joel Rocha , Jenny Paxman , Caroline Dalton , Edward Winter , David Broom
      This study examined the effects of an acute bout of exercise of low-intensity on food intake and energy expenditure over four days in women taking oral contraceptives. Twenty healthy, active (n = 10) and inactive (n = 10) pre-menopausal women taking oral contraceptives completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised, crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary to measure food intake and wore an Actiheart to measure energy expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. There was a condition effect for absolute energy intake (exercise vs. control: 3363 ± 668 kJ vs. 3035 ± 752 kJ; p = 0.033, d = 0.49) and relative energy intake (exercise vs. control: 2019 ± 746 kJ vs. 2710 ± 712 kJ; p < 0.001, d = −1.00) at the ad libitum lunch. There were no significant differences in energy intake over the four days in active participants and there was a suppression of energy intake on the first day after the exercise experimental day compared with the same day of the control condition in inactive participants (mean difference = −1974 kJ; 95% CI −1048 to −2900 kJ, p = 0.002, d = −0.89). There was a group effect (p = 0.001, d = 1.63) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive participants during this period. However, there were no compensatory changes in daily physical activity energy expenditure. These results support the use of low-intensity aerobic exercise as a method to induce a short-term negative energy balance in inactive women taking oral contraceptives.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Investigating key beliefs guiding mothers' dietary decisions for their
           2–3 year old
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Teagan Spinks , Kyra Hamilton
      Currently, there is no research in Australia that systematically investigates the underlying beliefs for mothers' decisions regarding their young child's nutritional needs based on current guidelines. We aimed to determine, using a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) belief-based approach, key beliefs that guide mothers' decisions with regards to: (a) providing their child with a wide range of foods from the five food groups (‘healthy eating’); and (b) limiting their child's intake of ‘discretionary choices’ (e.g. lollies). Mothers (N = 197, M age = 34.39, SD = 5.65) completed a main questionnaire either online or on hard copy (paper-based), with a 1-week phone follow-up of the target behaviours (N = 161). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted, and a number of key behavioural, normative, and control beliefs emerged for both healthy eating and discretionary choice behaviours. For healthy eating, mothers identified behavioural beliefs ‘improving my child's health’ and ‘resistance from my child’; normative beliefs ‘other family members’ and ‘spouse/partner’; and control beliefs ‘child's food preferences’. For discretionary choices, behavioural beliefs ‘maintain consistent energy levels in my child’ for intentions, and ‘give my child their required nutritional intake’; normative beliefs ‘spouse/partner’, ‘healthcare professionals’ and ‘friends’; and control beliefs ‘child's food preferences’ were identified. These findings can inform the development of future intervention programmes aimed at modifying mothers' child feeding practices to encourage healthy eating and limit discretionary choice intake and, ultimately, increase the life expectancy of the current generation of children.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • The perception of food quality. Profiling Italian consumers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Giulia Mascarello , Anna Pinto , Nicoletta Parise , Stefania Crovato , Licia Ravarotto
      This study aims to analyse the elements which, according to Italian consumers, contribute most to defining the quality of a food product. A sample of 1000 consumers, in charge of purchases for the household, was interviewed by telephone. The data analysis has made it possible to categorise Italian consumers into two main groups: on the one hand those who mainly use criteria associated with organoleptic elements, and, on the other, those who make their choice based on place and methods of production. Both categories were studied with a view to identifying their distinctive socio-demographic and behavioural features. Geographical provenance, age, propensity to read the label on products, scientific knowledge and self-assessment of knowledge on food safety-related issues emerged as the main differences between the two groups. The perception of quality appears to affect purchase decisions and dietary patterns. The description of the consumer groups who use the same elements to define quality provided a useful insight into consumer choices and potential risk-exposure behaviours. The study of these aspects is therefore relevant for the purpose of designing effective and targeted communication actions, not only for companies but also for public institutions in charge of safeguarding public health.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Family meal frequency, weight status and healthy management in children,
           young adults and seniors. A study in Sardinia, Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Gianfranco Nuvoli
      Objective: To examine family meal frequency, and weight management as a protective factor throughout life. Participants: Selected by city and by town in Sardinia (Italy), the 522 participants were divided into 162 children (7–11 years), 187 young adults (19–30 years), and 173 seniors (65–90 years). Method: Chi-square analyses were used to compare the frequency of family meals, weight (self-reported and perceived) and healthy management (physical activity, dieting, perceived appetite) between age groups. In addition, multinomial regression analyses were carried out to find associations, with age group as the dependent variable and frequency of family meal, weight status, and healthy management categories as independent variables, adjusted for moderating effects. Results: Significant associations with age variables were observed in mealtime frequency (skipping breakfast and mid-morning snack in adults and lunch in children and seniors), in decreasing self-reported normal weight with age and increasing perceived overweight with age, and in physical activity, dieting and perceived appetite. Conclusions and Implications: The results suggest the protective nature of family meals for adults and seniors, and identify significant associations (and some differences) between age groups. Discrepancies suggest the importance of education about body weight awareness throughout life.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • The time-varying association between perceived stress and hunger within
           and between days
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jimi Huh , Mariya Shiyko , Stefan Keller , Genevieve Dunton , Susan M. Schembre
      Objective: Examine the association between perceived stress and hunger continuously over a week in free-living individuals. Methods: Forty five young adults (70% women, 30% overweight/obese) ages 18 to 24 years (Mean = 20.7, SD = 1.5), with BMI between 17.4 and 36.3 kg/m2 (Mean = 23.6, SD = 4.0) provided between 513 and 577 concurrent ratings of perceived stress and hunger for 7 days via hourly, text messaging assessments and real-time eating records. Time-varying effect modeling was used to explore whether the within-day fluctuations in stress are related to perceived hunger assessed on a momentary basis. Results: A generally positive stress–hunger relationship was confirmed, but we found that the strength of the relationship was not linear. Rather, the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and hunger changed throughout the day such that only during specific time intervals were stress and hunger significantly related. Specifically, the strength of the positive association peaked during late afternoon hours on weekdays (β = 0.31, p < .05) and it peaked during evening hours on weekend days (β = 0.56, p < .05). Conclusion: This is the first empirical study to demonstrate potentially maladaptive, nonlinear stress–hunger associations that peak in the afternoon or evening hours. While we are unable to infer causality from these analyses, our findings provide empirical evidence for a potentially high-risk time of day for stress-induced eating. Replication of these findings in larger, more diverse samples will aid with the design and implementation of real-time intervention studies aimed at reducing stress-eating.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Meat and masculinity among young Chinese, Turkish and Dutch adults in the
           Netherlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Hanna Schösler , Joop de Boer , Jan J. Boersema , Harry Aiking
      The achievement of sustainability and health objectives in Western countries requires a transition to a less meat-based diet. This article investigates whether the alleged link between meat consumption and particular framings of masculinity, which emphasize that ‘real men’ eat meat, may stand in the way of achieving these objectives. From a theoretical perspective, it was assumed that the meat–masculinity link is not invariant but dependent on the cultural context, including ethnicity. In order to examine the link in different contexts, we analyzed whether meat-related gender differences varied across ethnic groups, using samples of young second generation Chinese Dutch, Turkish Dutch and native Dutch adults (aged 18–35) in the Netherlands. The Turkish group was the most traditional; it showed the largest gender differences and the strongest meat–masculinity link. In contrast, the native group showed the smallest gender differences and the weakest meat–masculinity link. The findings suggest that the combination of traditional framings of masculinity and the Western type of food environment where meat is abundant and cheap is bound to seriously hamper a transition to a less meat-based diet. In contrast, less traditional framings of masculinity seem to contribute to more healthy food preferences with respect to meat. It was concluded that cultural factors related to gender and ethnic diversity can play harmful and beneficial roles for achieving sustainability and health objectives.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Education, progressive muscle relaxation therapy, and exercise for the
           treatment of night eating syndrome. A pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jillon S. Vander Wal , Toni M. Maraldo , Allison C. Vercellone , Danielle A. Gagne
      Night eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian rhythm disorder in which food intake is shifted toward the end of the day, interfering with sleep. According to the biobehavioral model of NES, the disorder is the result of a genetic predisposition that, coupled with stress, leads to enhanced reuptake of serotonin, thereby dysregulating circadian rhythms and decreasing satiety. Using the biobehavioral model as a guide, we developed a brief behavioral intervention using education, relaxation strategies, and exercise to address the core symptoms of NES. In this pilot randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 participants with NES were randomly assigned to an educational group (E; n = 14), E plus progressive muscle relaxation therapy (PMR; n = 15); or PMR plus exercise (PMR Plus, n = 15). Participants received a baseline intervention with 1- and 3-week follow-up sessions. Effectiveness analyses showed that participants in all three groups evidenced significant reductions on measures of NES symptoms (p < .001), depression (p < .05), anxiety (p < .01), and perceived stress (p < .05). However, the only significant between group change was for the percent of food eaten after the evening meal, with the PMR group showing the greatest reduction (−30.54%), followed by the PMR Plus group (−20.42%) and the E group (−9.5%); only the difference between the PMR and E groups was statistically significant (p = .012). Reductions in NES scores were significantly associated with reductions on measures of depression (r = .47; p < .01) and perceived stress (r = .37; p < .05), but not anxiety (r = .26, p = ns). Results support the role of education and relaxation in the behavioral treatment of NES.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • What menu changes do restaurants make after joining a voluntary restaurant
           recognition program?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Lauren N. Gase , Mandip Kaur , Lauren Dunning , Christine Montes , Tony Kuo
      Programs that recognize restaurants for offering healthful options have emerged as a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic; however, program fidelity and business responses to such programs are rarely assessed. This study sought to examine how retail restaurants in Los Angeles County chose to comply with participation criteria required by the Choose Health LA Restaurants initiative in the region; the program recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size portions and healthy children's meals. Menus of all restaurants that joined within 1 year of program launch (n = 17 restaurant brands) were assessed for changes. Nine of the 17 brands made changes to their menus to meet participation criteria for reduced-size portions while 8 of the 10 restaurant brands that offered children's menus made changes to improve the healthfulness of children's meals. Results of this comparative assessment lend support to restaurant compliance with program criteria and menu improvements, even though they are voluntary, representing an important step toward implementing this strategy in the retail environment.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in
           children's food preferences
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Siril Alm , Svein Ottar Olsen , Pirjo Honkanen
      This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating
           practices among Dutch adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Emily Swan , Laura Bouwman , Gerrit Jan Hiddink , Noelle Aarts , Maria Koelen
      Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's salutogenic framework for health development to examine a set of factors that predict healthy eating in a cross-sectional study of Dutch adults. Data were analyzed from participants (n = 703) who completed the study's survey in January 2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association of survey factors on the outcome variable high dietary score. In the multivariate logistic regression model, five factors contributed significantly (p < .05) to the predictive ability of the overall model: being female; living with a partner; a strong sense of coherence (construct from the salutogenic framework), flexible restraint of eating, and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Findings complement what is already known of the factors that relate to poor eating practices. This can provide nutrition promotion with a more comprehensive picture of the factors that both support and hinder healthy eating practices. Future research should explore these factors to better understand their origins and mechanisms in relation to healthy eating practices.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals
           away from home
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jonas Nordström , Linda Thunström
      Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French
           family dinners
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Tamar Kremer-Sadlik , Aliyah Morgenstern , Chloe Peters , Pauline Beaupoil , Stéphanie Caët , Camille Debras , Marine le Mené
      The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner – what, when and how food is served – and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding
           practices to body esteem in 1st grade children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Lenka H. Shriver , Laura Hubbs-Tait , Amanda W. Harrist , Glade Topham , Melanie Page
      Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls – 29%; boys – 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = −.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = −1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of
           savoury foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Ilse C. Schrieks , Annette Stafleu , Sanne Griffioen-Roose , Cees de Graaf , Renger F. Witkamp , Rianne Boerrigter-Rijneveld , Henk F.J. Hendriks
      The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P < 0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Examining evidence for behavioural mimicry of parental eating by
           adolescent females. An observational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Maxine Sharps , Suzanne Higgs , Jackie Blissett , Arie Nouwen , Magdalena Chechlacz , Harriet A. Allen , Eric Robinson
      Behavioural mimicry is a potential mechanism explaining why adolescents appear to be influenced by their parents' eating behaviour. In the current study we examined whether there is evidence that adolescent females mimic their parents when eating. Videos of thirty-eight parent and female adolescent dyads eating a lunchtime meal together were examined. We tested whether a parent placing a food item into their mouth was associated with an increased likelihood that their adolescent child would place any food item (non-specific mimicry) or the same item (specific mimicry) in their mouth at three different time frames, namely, during the same second or within the next fifteen seconds (+15), five seconds (+5) or two second (+2) period. Parents and adolescents' overall food intake was positively correlated, whereby a parent eating a larger amount of food was associated with the adolescent eating a larger meal. Across all of the three time frames adolescents were more likely to place a food item in their mouth if their parent had recently placed that same food item in their mouth (specific food item mimicry); however, there was no evidence of non-specific mimicry. This observational study suggests that when eating in a social context there is evidence that adolescent females may mimic their parental eating behaviour, selecting and eating more of a food item if their parent has just started to eat that food.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Development and validation of a measure of food choice values
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Jordan E. Lyerly , Charlie L. Reeve
      Food choice values (FCVs) are factors that individuals consider when deciding which foods to purchase and/or consume. Given the potentially important implications for health, it is critical for researchers to have access to a validated measure of FCV. Though there is an existing measure of FCV, this measure was developed 20 years ago and recent research suggests additional FCVs exist that are not included in this measure. A series of four studies was conducted to develop a new expanded measure of FCV. An eight-factor model of FCV was supported and confirmed. In aggregate, results from the four studies indicate that the measure is content valid, and has internally consistent scales that also demonstrated acceptable temporal stability and convergent validity. In addition, the eight scales of the measures were independent of social desirability, met criteria for measurement invariance across income groups, and predicted dietary intake. The development of this new measure of FCV may be useful for researchers examining FCVs (FCVs) in the future, as well as for use in intervention and prevention efforts targeting dietary choices.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and
           breakfast skipping among boys and girls
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga , Jacqueline Willmore
      The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose–response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose–response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Perceived recollection of frequent exposure to foods in childhood is
           associated with adulthood liking
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Devina Wadhera , Elizabeth D. Capaldi Phillips , Lynn M. Wilkie , May M. Boggess
      Food preferences and habits learned at a young age can influence adulthood dietary patterns and weight, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of perceived recollections of early food experiences on current liking for those foods by 670 college students. We showed that the perceived recollection of frequent consumption of foods in childhood was significantly related to current liking for the vast majority of the foods, including nutritious foods such as vegetables. Similarly, parental encouragement and modeling was positively related with current liking, even for foods that were disliked in childhood. Additionally, perceived recollections of parental restriction or forced consumption were significantly negatively related with current liking. Lastly, we demonstrated that perceived recollections by college students of childhood eating practices were in moderate agreement with those of their parents, lending credibility to the retrospective survey methodology in determining long-term effects of exposure on current food habits. These findings show that the perceived recalled frequency of consumption of foods is one determinant of the food preferences of adults, demonstrating a long-term effect of frequency of exposure, a finding consistent with experimentally controlled short-term studies. Frequent exposure to foods in childhood could be a simple and effective way for parents and caregivers to instill healthy eating habits in children.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • That's why I take my ONS. Means-end chain as a novel approach to elucidate
           the personally relevant factors driving ONS consumption in nutritionally
           frail elderly users
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Louise C. den Uijl , Stefanie Kremer , Gerry Jager , Annelies J. van der Stelt , Cees de Graaf , Peter Gibson , James Godfrey , J. Ben. Lawlor
      Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are a recommended form of nutritional intervention for older malnourished persons when a ‘food first’ approach and/or food fortification prove ineffective. The efficacy of ONS will depend on, amongst other factors, whether persons do, or do not, consume their prescribed amount. Factors influencing ONS consumption can be product, context, or person related. Whereas product and context have received some attention, little is known about the person factors driving ONS consumption. In addition, the relative importance of the product, context, and person factors to ONS consumption is not known. Using the means-end chain (MEC) method, the current study elucidated personally relevant factors (product, context, and person factors) related to ONS consumption in two groups of older nutritionally frail ONS users: community-dwelling persons and care home residents with mainly somatic disorders. To our knowledge, the current work is the first to apply the MEC method to study older nutritionally frail ONS users. Forty ONS users (n = 20 per group) were recruited via healthcare professionals. The level of frailty was assessed using the FRAIL scale. Both groups were interviewed for 30 to 45 minutes using the soft laddering technique. The laddering data were analysed using LadderUX software™. The MEC method appeared to work well in both groups. The majority of the participants took ONS on their doctor's or dietician's prescription as they trusted their advice. The community-dwelling group took ONS to prolong their independence, whereas the care home group reported values that related more to small improvements in quality of life. In addition, care home residents perceived themselves as dependent on their caregiver for their ONS arrangements, whereas this dependence was not reported by community-dwelling persons. Key insights from this work will enable doctors and dieticians to customize their nutritional interventions to ONS users' personal needs and thus positively impact health outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive
           function on binge eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Stephanie M. Manasse , Hallie M. Espel , Evan M. Forman , Anthony C. Ruocco , Adrienne S. Juarascio , Meghan L. Butryn , Fengqing Zhang , Michael R. Lowe
      Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex modulates
           implicit attitudes towards food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Giulia Mattavelli , Pablo Zuglian , Elisa Dabroi , Guia Gaslini , Massimo Clerici , Costanza Papagno
      The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to be associated with food representation and monitoring of eating behaviour, but the neural mechanisms underlying attitudes towards food are still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used in combination with the implicit association test (IAT) to investigate the causal role of mPFC in controlling implicit food evaluation in healthy volunteers. Participants performed an IAT on tasty and tasteless food to test TMS interaction with food evaluation. Moreover, IATs assessing self-related concepts and attitude towards flowers and insects were carried out to control whether TMS could also affect self-representation or, more in general, the cognitive mechanisms required by the IAT. TMS was applied over mPFC; the left parietal cortex (lPA) was also stimulated as control site. Results revealed that mPFC-TMS selectively affected IAT on food, increasing implicit preference for tasty than tasteless food, only in a subgroup of participants who did not show extreme explicit evaluation for tasty and tasteless food. This demonstrates that mPFC has a critical causal role in monitoring food preference and highlights the relevance of considering individual differences in studying food representation and neural mechanisms associated with eating behaviour.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and
           weight status in low-income preschool children: How do they relate?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Sheryl O. Hughes , Thomas G. Power , Teresia M. O'Connor , Jennifer Orlet Fisher
      The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety responsiveness and food responsiveness were used to assess child eating self-regulation. Two laboratory tasks assessing executive functioning, a parent questionnaire assessing child effortful control (a temperament dimension related to executive functioning), and the delay of gratification and gift delay tasks assessing child emotion regulation were used to assess child non-eating self-regulation. Bivariate correlations were run among all variables in the study. Hierarchical linear regression analyses assessed: (1) child eating self-regulation associations with the demographic, executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation measures; and (2) child BMI z-score associations with executive functioning, effortful control, emotion regulation measures, and eating self-regulation measures. Within child eating self-regulation, only the two parent-report measures were related. Low to moderate positive correlations were found between measures of executive functioning, effortful control, and emotion regulation. Only three relationships were found between child eating self-regulation and other forms of child self-regulation: eating in the absence of hunger was positively associated with delay of gratification, and poor regulation on the gift delay task was associated positively with maternal reports of food responsiveness and negatively with parent-reports of satiety responsiveness. Regression analyses showed that child eating self-regulation was associated with child BMIz but other forms of child self-regulation were not. Implications for understanding the role of self-regulation in the development of child obesity are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Attentional bias to food cues in youth with loss of control eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Lisa M. Shank , Marian Tanofsky-Kraff , Eric E. Nelson , Lauren B. Shomaker , Lisa M. Ranzenhofer , Louise M. Hannallah , Sara E. Field , Anna Vannucci , Diana M. Bongiorno , Sheila M. Brady , Tania Condarco , Andrew Demidowich , Nichole R. Kelly , Omni Cassidy , W. Kyle Simmons , Scott G. Engel , Daniel S. Pine , Jack A. Yanovski
      Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5 ± 2.3 years; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7 ± .73) with (n = 47) and without (n = 29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • The development of the predisposition to dehydration questionnaire
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): David Benton , Hayley Young , Kimberley Jenkins
      The role played by hydration in general health and well-being is an emerging public health issue, yet there are few tools available to monitor its status in large populations. The aim was therefore to develop a questionnaire that assesses individual differences in the tendency to lose body fluid in a warm environment and hence become dehydrated. Fifty-three subjects sat in a room at 30 °C for four hours and changes in mood and measures of hydration were monitored. There were marked individual differences in the loss of body mass that differed from 0.24% to 2.39%. Females who reported habitually drinking a lot had more water in their diet and at baseline the osmolality of urine was lower. After being subject to heat, those who reported habitually drinking more produced more urine, had a lower urine osmolality at the end of the study, and overall more body mass was lost. Females who reported that they responded badly to heat were more confused, unsure and depressed after four hours at 30 °C. In males those reporting that they habitually drank to a greater extent had more water in the diet, and also those who dealt badly with heat habitually drank more. It was concluded that particularly in females, questionnaire measures were able to predict changes in hydration that result from a warm environment.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Identifying specific cues and contexts related to bingeing behavior for
           the development of effective virtual environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Joana Pla-Sanjuanelo , Marta Ferrer-García , José Gutiérrez-Maldonado , Giuseppe Riva , Alexis Andreu-Gracia , Antonios Dakanalis , Fernando Fernandez-Aranda , Laura Forcano , Joan Ribas-Sabaté , Nadine Riesco , Mar Rus-Calafell , Isabel Sánchez , Luís Sanchez-Planell
      Background: Binge eating behavior constitutes a central feature of both bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Cue exposure therapy (CET) has been proposed as an effective intervention. Objective: To determine which situations and specific cues trigger higher levels of binge craving and to use the results in the development of virtual reality scenarios in which CET could be applied with BN and BED patients. Method: Participants were 101 outpatients, 50 with BED and 51 with BN, according to DSM-5 criteria, and 63 healthy undergraduate students who completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess binge craving. Results: The likelihood of binge craving in the clinical group was greater when alone at home, during the afternoon/early evening and in the late evening/at night, at weekends, and at dinner time or between meals. Higher levels of craving were produced in the kitchen, bedroom, dining room, and bakery situations. With regard to the specific cues reported, the presence of and access to high calorie food and snacks was the most commonly reported cue. Although some gender differences regarding triggering factors were obtained, no statistical differences were observed between ED subtypes. BN and BED patients showed significantly higher levels of binge craving than controls in all the contexts except when feeling positive affect; in this situation, levels of craving were low in both groups. Conclusions: This information regarding trigger contexts and specific cues can be used to create valid and reliable virtual environments for CET. Indeed, the data from this study may serve to develop a wide range of situations with different levels of binge craving, in which the therapeutic aim is to extinguish conditioned responses and facilitate the generalization of craving extinction.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including
           sustainable concerns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Valérie Sautron , Sandrine Péneau , Géraldine M. Camilleri , Laurent Muller , Bernard Ruffieux , Serge Hercberg , Caroline Méjean
      Since the 1990s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties. The questionnaire included 104 items divided into four predefined dimensions (environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous). It was administered to 1000 randomly selected subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Among 637 responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test–retest repeatability. After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. The model demonstrated excellent internal validity (adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residuals = 0.07) and satisfactory reliability (internal consistency = 0.96, test–retest repeatability coefficient ranged between 0.31 and 0.68 over a mean 4-week period). This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Astrid Frankort , Anne Roefs , Nicolette Siep , Alard Roebroeck , Remco Havermans , Anita Jansen
      Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Well, that's what came with it. A qualitative study of U.S. mothers'
           perceptions of healthier default options for children's meals at fast-food
           restaurants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Holly K.M. Henry , Dina L.G. Borzekowski
      Introduction: Using a qualitative design, this study investigated mothers' perceptions of food choices and default options, for children, at fast-food restaurants. Study Design: Mothers of 3- to 8-year-old children (n = 40) participated in phone interviews. Results: Mothers praised fast-food restaurants for offering healthier choices, but voiced concerns about quality of the food. Half worried about meat products and several were distressed by the processing involved with food and beverages. Many said that their children wanted to visit fast-food restaurants because of advertised toys and not food offerings. Half liked bundled meals, as long as they could choose the specific items that were included. Having healthier defaults might eliminate battles, reduce forgetfulness and facilitate ordering. Most mothers favored healthier defaults because it would help “other parents.” Conclusion: This small study provides strong support for offering healthier options at fast-food restaurants. Restaurants, schools and other food venues should design children's meals that make the healthy choice the easy choice.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Preventing the pack size effect: Exploring the effectiveness of pictorial
           and non-pictorial serving size recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Iris Versluis , Esther K. Papies , David Marchiori
      People eat more from large than from small packs, which is known as the pack size effect. We hypothesized that providing a serving size recommendation would reduce the influence of the pack size on consumption and would thus diminish the pack size effect. Moreover, we hypothesized that a pictorial serving size recommendation, displaying food amounts visually, would be more effective than a non-pictorial recommendation that communicates the recommended amount in grams only. We tested these hypotheses in two online experiments (N = 317 and N = 324) and in one lab experiment (N = 89). In the online experiments, participants were shown a small or a large pack of unhealthy snacks, with or without a serving size recommendation. The main outcome measure was expected consumption. Replicating the pack size effect in an online setting, we found that participants expected to consume more food from large than from small packs. Furthermore, the pack size effect was considerably stronger for men than for women. Importantly, when including portion size preferences as a covariate, the pictorial serving size recommendation significantly reduced expected consumption, especially when placed on a large pack, as hypothesized. The non-pictorial serving size recommendation had no effect. In the lab experiment, students received a large bag of M&M's which did or did not contain the pictorial serving size recommendation. We again included general portion size preferences as a covariate. The serving size recommendation significantly lowered the amount of M&M's that participants served themselves, but only when participants reported to have noticed the serving size recommendation. We conclude that providing a pictorial serving size recommendation can be an effective intervention strategy to reduce the pack size effect, if it attracts sufficient attention.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • The influence of hot and cool executive function on the development of
           eating styles related to overweight in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Karoline Groppe , Birgit Elsner
      Studies linking executive function (EF) and overweight suggest that a broad range of executive functions might influence weight via obesity-related behaviors, such as particular eating styles. Currently, however, longitudinal studies investigating this assumption in children are rare. We hypothesized that lower hot and cool EF predicts a stronger increase in eating styles related to greater weight gain (food approach) and a weaker increase in eating styles related to less weight gain (food avoidance) over a 1-year period. Hot (delay of gratification, affective decision-making) and cool (attention shifting, inhibition, working memory updating) EF was assessed experimentally in a sample of 1657 elementary-school children (German school classes 1–3) at two time points, approximately one year apart. The children's food-approach and food-avoidance behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires at both time points. As expected, lower levels of hot and cool EF predicted a stronger increase in several food-approach eating styles across a 1-year period, mainly in girls. Unexpectedly, poorer performance on the affective decision-making task also predicted an increase in certain food-avoidance styles, namely, slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness, in girls. Results implicate that lower EF is not only seen in eating-disordered or obese individuals but also acts as a risk factor for an increase in particular eating styles that play a role in the development of weight problems in children.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Stuck in a vicious circle of stress. Parental concerns and barriers to
           changing children's dietary and physical activity habits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Åsa Norman , Anita Berlin , Elinor Sundblom , Liselotte Schäfer Elinder , Gisela Nyberg
      Introduction: Dietary habits and physical activity are often the focus of obesity prevention programmes and involving parents in such programmes has proven to be effective. The aims of this study were to describe parents' concerns about their children's diet and physical activity habits and to describe barriers to change. Results: The study used archival data gathered unobtrusively in the form of memos taken after sessions of Motivational Interviewing as part of the parental support programme, A Healthy School Start. The 74 MI-sessions were conducted from October 2010 to April 2011 with either a mother or father or both, all with children in pre-school class. Thematic analysis was applied. Three themes were identified regarding children's dietary habits: amount of food consumed influenced by behaviour in the family, eating situations influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay, and food choices influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. One theme appeared regarding physical activity: physical activity influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. Conclusion: Family interplay appears to be an important link between the work–life stress perceived by parents and less healthy food and physical activity habits in the home. Both lack of parental cooperation and negative parent–child interactions may act as barriers to healthy eating and physical activity and should be addressed in future intervention studies on health-related behaviours of children.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in
           mainland China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Ou Wang , Hans De Steur , Xavier Gellynck , Wim Verbeke
      The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Eating in moderation and the essential role of awareness. A Dutch
           longitudinal study identifying psychosocial predictors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Michel Jean Louis Walthouwer , Anke Oenema , Math Candel , Lilian Lechner , Hein de Vries
      Background: Eating in moderation, i.e. the attempt to monitor and limit the intake of energy-dense foods, is a promising strategy in the prevention of weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine which psychosocial factors derived from the I-Change Model (ICM) were associated with eating in moderation, and whether these factors differed between adults with a correct (aware) or incorrect (unaware) perception of their dietary behaviour. Methods: This study used a longitudinal design with measurements at baseline (N = 483) and six-month follow-up (N = 379). Eating in moderation was defined as the average daily energy intake from energy-dense food products and was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the associations between the ICM factors and eating in moderation. The moderating role of awareness was examined by including interactions between awareness and the ICM factors in the regression analyses using the pick-a-point approach to further examine the associations for aware and unaware participants. Results: Participants who were aware of their dietary behaviour had a significantly lower average daily energy intake compared to those who were unaware. Eating in moderation was predicted by awareness, risk perception, social influence and intention. Among the aware participants, eating in moderation was predicted by risk perception, attitude, social influence and intention. Among the unaware participants, only risk perception and self-efficacy were significantly associated with eating in moderation. Conclusions: Our findings show that psychosocial factors may only predict eating in moderation when people are aware of their risk behaviour. Therefore, interventions aimed at promoting complex behaviours, such as eating in moderation, should first focus on improving individuals' awareness of their risk behaviour before targeting motivational factors.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices.
           A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Nan Zhou , Charissa S.L. Cheah , Jennifer Van Hook , Darcy A. Thompson , Shelby S. Jones
      Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent–child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent–child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure
           to aspartame
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): E. von Poser Toigo , A.P. Huffell , C.S. Mota , D. Bertolini , L.F. Pettenuzzo , C. Dalmaz
      The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Slave to habit? Obesity is associated with decreased behavioural
           sensitivity to reward devaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Annette Horstmann , Anja Dietrich , David Mathar , Maria Pössel , Arno Villringer , Jane Neumann
      The motivational value of food is lower during satiety compared to fasting. Dynamic changes in motivational value promote food seeking or meal cessation. In obesity this mechanism might be compromised since obese subjects ingest energy beyond homeostatic needs. Thus, lower adaptation of eating behaviour with respect to changes in motivational value might cause food overconsumption in obesity. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a selective satiation procedure to investigate the relationship between obesity and the size of the behavioural devaluation effect in humans. Lean to obese men (mean age 25.9, range 19–30 years; mean BMI 29.1, range 19.2–45.1 kg/m2) were trained on a free operant paradigm and learned to associate cues with the possibility to win different food rewards by pressing a button. After the initial training phase, one of the rewards was devalued by consumption. Response rates for and wanting of the different rewards were measured pre and post devaluation. Behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation, measured as the magnitude of difference between pre and post responses, was regressed against BMI. Results indicate that (1) higher BMI compared to lower BMI in men led to an attenuated behavioural adjustment to reward devaluation, and (2) the decrease in motivational value was associated with the decrease in response rate between pre and post. Change in explicitly reported motivational value, however, was not affected by BMI. Thus, we conclude that high BMI in men is associated with lower behavioural adaptation with respect to changes in motivational value of food, possibly resulting in automatic overeating patterns that are hard to control in daily life.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and
           adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and
           interparental congruence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 87
      Author(s): Dorus W.M. Gevers , Patricia van Assema , Ester F.C. Sleddens , Nanne K. de Vries , Stef P.J. Kremers
      Introduction: Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Methods: Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Results: Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Discussion: Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable.


      PubDate: 2015-03-03T21:04:56Z
       
  • Priming healthy eating. You can't prime all the people all of the time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Suzanna E. Forwood , Amy L. Ahern , Gareth J. Hollands , Yin-Lam Ng , Theresa M. Marteau
      Objective In the context of a food purchasing environment filled with advertising and promotions, and an increased desire from policy makers to guide individuals toward choosing healthier foods, this study tests whether priming methods that use healthy food adverts to increase preference for healthier food generalize to a representative population. Methods In two studies (Study 1 n = 143; Study 2 n = 764), participants were randomly allocated to a prime condition, where they viewed fruit and vegetable advertisements, or a control condition, with no advertisements. A subsequent forced choice task assessed preference between fruits and other sweet snacks. Additional measures included current hunger and thirst, dietary restraint, age, gender, education and self-reported weight and height. Results In Study 1, hunger reduced preferences for fruits (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.26–0.56), p < 0.0001), an effect countered by the prime (OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.33–3.96), p = 0.003). In Study 2, the effect of the prime did not generalize to a representative population. More educated participants, as used in Study 1, chose more fruit when hungry and primed (OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.13–1.79), p = 0.003), while less educated participants' fruit choice was unaffected by hunger or the prime. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that the effects of adverts on healthy eating choices depend on key individual traits (education level) and states (hunger), do not generalize to a broader population and have the potential to increase health inequalities arising from food choice.


      PubDate: 2015-02-14T07:21:33Z
       
  • Effects of meal variety on expected satiation: Evidence for a
           ‘perceived volume’ heuristic
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 89
      Author(s): Gregory S. Keenan , Jeffrey M. Brunstrom , Danielle Ferriday
      Meal variety has been shown to increase energy intake in humans by an average of 29%. Historically, research exploring the mechanism underlying this effect has focused on physiological and psychological processes that terminate a meal (e.g., sensory-specific satiety). We sought to explore whether meal variety stimulates intake by influencing pre-meal planning. We know that individuals use prior experience with a food to estimate the extent to which it will deliver fullness. These ‘expected satiation’ judgments may be straightforward when only one meal component needs to be considered, but it remains unclear how prospective satiation is estimated when a meal comprises multiple items. We hypothesised that people simplify the task by using a heuristic, or ‘cognitive shortcut.’ Specifically, as within-meal variety increases, expected satiation tends to be based on the perceived volume of food(s) rather than on prior experience. In each trial, participants (N = 68) were shown a plate of food with six buffet food items. Across trials the number of different foods varied in the range one to six. In separate tasks, the participants provided an estimate of their combined expected satiation and volume. When meal variety was high, judgments of perceived volume and expected satiation ‘converged.’ This is consistent with a common underlying response strategy. By contrast, the low variety meals produced dissociable responses, suggesting that judgments of expected satiation were not governed solely by perceived volume. This evidence for a ‘volume heuristic’ was especially clear in people who were less familiar with the meal items. Together, these results are important because they expose a novel process by which meal variety might increase food intake in humans.


      PubDate: 2015-02-09T01:45:55Z
       
  • Effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake. A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Alvin Ibarra , Nerys M. Astbury , Kaisa Olli , Esa Alhoniemi , Kirsti Tiihonen
      Introduction: Dietary fibers help to control energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. Recent studies show that the consumption of polydextrose, a dietary fiber, reduces energy intake at a subsequent meal. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we examine the subsequent effects of polydextrose on different levels of energy intake (EI). Method: The review followed the PRISMA methodology. A search for previous studies that investigated the effects of the consumption of polydextrose on different levels of EI at a subsequent meal was conducted. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). A linear regression approach was used to model the relationship between the polydextrose dose and the different levels of EI expressed as a relative change (%). Results: All the studies included in this review administered polydextrose as part of a mid-morning snack. Six studies were included in the analysis of EI at an ad libitum lunch; and three were included in the analysis of EI during the rest of the day, as well as total daily EI. The meta-analysis showed that the consumption of polydextrose is associated with a reduction in EI at lunch time (SMD = 0.35; P < 0.01; I2 = 0). The dose of polydextrose consumed correlated significantly with this reduction in EI, EILunch (%) = −0.67 Polydextrose (g/day) (R2 = 0.80; P < 0.01). The meta-analysis of EI during the rest of the day and daily EI did not show any difference. Nevertheless, the regression equation indicates that there is a dose-dependent effect on the reduction of daily EI, EIDaily (%) = −0.35 × Polydextrose (g/day) (R2 = 0.68; P < 0.05). Sex-specific results are consistent with results for the whole group. Conclusion: The studies included in this meta-analysis support the notion that the consumption of polydextrose reduces voluntary energy intake at a subsequent meal. Furthermore, this reduction in energy intake occurs in a dose-dependent manner.


      PubDate: 2014-12-28T09:58:09Z
       
 
 
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