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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3039 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3039 Journals sorted alphabetically
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 4)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.317, h-index: 89)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 19, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.789, h-index: 43)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 8)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 10)
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 1)
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.127, h-index: 4)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Intermittent feeding alters sensitivity to changes in reward value
    • Authors: Shauna L. Parkes; Teri M. Furlong; Alanna D. Black; Bernard W. Balleine
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 113
      Author(s): Shauna L. Parkes, Teri M. Furlong, Alanna D. Black, Bernard W. Balleine
      The influence of binge-like feeding schedules on subsequent food-related behavior is not well understood. We investigated the effect of repeated cycles of restriction and refeeding on two food-related behaviors; goal-directed responding for a palatable food reward and sensory-specific satiety. Hungry rats were trained to perform two instrumental actions for two distinct food outcomes and were then subjected to repeated cycles of restricted and unrestricted access to their maintenance chow for 30-days or were maintained on food restriction. Goal-directed control was then assessed using specific satiety-induced outcome devaluation. Rats were given 1 h access to one of theoutcomes and were then immediately given a choice between the two actions. Rats maintained on restriction responded more for the valued than the devalued reward but rats with a history of restriction and refeeding failed to show this effect. Importantly, all rats showed sensory-specific satiety when offered a choice between the two foods, indicating that pre-feeding selectively reduced the value of the pre-fed food. By contrast, sensory-specific satiety was not observed in rats with a history of intermittent feeding when the foods were offered sequentially. These results indicate that, similar to calorically dense diets, intermittent feeding patterns can impair the performance of goal-directed actions as well as the ability to reject a pre-fed food when it is offered alone.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
  • Impulsivity and test meal intake among women with bulimia nervosa
    • Authors: Robyn Sysko; Rachel Ojserkis; Janet Schebendach; Suzette M. Evans; Tom Hildebrandt; B. Timothy Walsh
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Robyn Sysko, Rachel Ojserkis, Janet Schebendach, Suzette M. Evans, Tom Hildebrandt, B. Timothy Walsh
      Many patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) also meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). In order to understand possible mechanisms contributing to the co-occurrence and perpetuation of these disorders, this study investigated the importance of impulsivity and test meal intake among patients with BN by comparing women with BN only (n = 18), BN and current/past AUDs (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 12). All participants completed assessments of eating disorder symptoms, frequency of alcohol use, binge eating, and purging via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews over two sessions. Measures of impulsivity consisted of computerized and self-report measures, and laboratory test meals. Significant differences between individuals with BN with/without comorbid AUDs were not found for test meal intake, impulsivity measures, or self-reported psychological symptoms. As hypothesized, compared to healthy controls, individuals with BN had significantly higher scores on two subscales and the total score of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a trait measure of impulsivity, and consumed significantly more calories in the binge instruction meal. Total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores were also significantly related to kcal consumed during the laboratory test meal when individuals were instructed to binge eat (BN groups). Data from this study add to the existing literature implicating impulsivity in the psychopathology of disorders of binge eating, including BN, and also support the use of laboratory meals as a symptom-specific measure of this trait in eating disorder populations.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T21:10:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Trends in wild food plants uses in Gorbeialdea (Basque Country)
    • Authors: Gorka Menendez-Baceta; Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana; Laura Aceituno-Mata; Javier Tardío; Victoria Reyes-García
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Gorka Menendez-Baceta, Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana, Laura Aceituno-Mata, Javier Tardío, Victoria Reyes-García
      Despite wild food plants' potential nutritional and economic value, their knowledge and consumption is quickly decreasing throughout the world. We examine how the consideration that a wild plant use is within the cultural tradition of a given area relates to its consumption by analysing 1) current perception and 2) past and present use of six wild plants’ food-uses, of which only three are locally perceived as being part of the local tradition. Research was conducted in Gorbeialdea, an area in the Basque Country with a clearly marked Basque identity opposed to the Spanish identity. Overall, there is a clear decrease in the knowledge and consumption of the selected uses and especially of the three uses acquired from local sources (i.e., the consumption of the raw leaves of Fagus sylvatica and Rumex acetosa and of the fruits of Pyrus cordata). The trend is likely driven by the disappearance of the traditional agrarian lifestyle. Among the uses not acquired from local sources, the use recently adopted from another Basque-speaking area (i.e., macerating the fruits of Prunus spinosa to elaborate a liqueur) is now considered part of the local tradition by young generations, whereas the use acquired from southern Spanish migrants (i.e., using Laurus nobilis leaves as condiments) is not. While lifestyle changes largely explain overall trends in wild edibles consumption, other cultural aspects –in our case study the stigmatization of a given source of information associated to cultural identity– might help shape which new uses of wild plants become embedded in local traditions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T21:10:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Food portion size area mediates energy effects on expected anxiety in
           anorexia nervosa
    • Authors: Musya Herzog; Christopher R. Douglas; Harry R. Kissileff; Jeffrey M. Brunstrom; Katherine Ann Halmi
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Musya Herzog, Christopher R. Douglas, Harry R. Kissileff, Jeffrey M. Brunstrom, Katherine Ann Halmi
      A study in which adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa (n = 24) rated their expected food-anxiety in response to images of portions of food (potatoes, rice pizza, and M&Ms) showed that lower energy-dense foods elicited higher expected anxiety per kilocalorie than higher energy-dense foods. However, the area of the portion sizes could be an unmeasured variable driving the anxiety response. To test the hypothesis that area mediates the effects of energy content on expected anxiety, the same images of portions were measured in area (cm2), and standardized values of expected anxiety were regressed from standardized values of energy and area of portions. With regression of expected anxiety from portion size in area, M&Ms, which had the highest energy density of the four foods, elicited the highest expected anxiety slope (β = 1.75), which was significantly different from the expected anxiety slopes of the other three foods (β range = 0.67 – 0.96). Area was confirmed as a mediator of energy effects from loss of significance of the slopes when area was added to the regression of expected anxiety from energy x food. When expected anxiety was regressed from food, area, energy and area by energy interaction, area accounted for 5.7 times more variance than energy, and β for area (0.7) was significantly larger (by 0.52, SE = 0.15, t = 3.4, p = 0.0007) than β for energy (0.19). Area could be a learned cue for the energy content of food portions, and thus, for weight gain potential, which triggers anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Multicontextual correlates of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack food
           consumption by adolescents
    • Authors: Nicole Larson; Jonathan M. Miller; Marla E. Eisenberg; Allison W. Watts; Mary Story; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
      Pages: 23 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Nicole Larson, Jonathan M. Miller, Marla E. Eisenberg, Allison W. Watts, Mary Story, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
      Frequent consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods is an eating behavior of public health concern. This study was designed to inform strategies for reducing adolescent intake of energy-dense snack foods by identifying individual and environmental influences. Surveys were completed in 2009–2010 by 2540 adolescents (54% females, mean age = 14.5 ± 2.0, 80% nonwhite) in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Daily servings of energy-dense snack food was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire that asked about consumption of 21 common snack food items, such as potato chips, cookies, and candy. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, Geographic Information System sources, and a content analysis of favorite television shows. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between each individual or environmental characteristic and snack food consumption in separate models and also to examine relationships in a model including all of the characteristics simultaneously. The factors found to be significantly associated with higher energy-dense snack food intake represented individual attitudes/behaviors (e.g., snacking while watching television) and characteristics of home/family (e.g., home unhealthy food availability), peer (friends' energy-dense snack food consumption), and school (e.g., student snack consumption norms) environments. In total, 25.5% of the variance in adolescents' energy-dense snack food consumption was explained when factors from within each context were examined together. The results suggest that the design of interventions targeting improvement in the dietary quality of adolescents' snack food choices should address relevant individual factors (e.g., eating while watching television) along with characteristics of their home/family (e.g., limiting the availability of unhealthy foods), peer (e.g., guiding the efforts of a peer leader in making healthy choices), and school environments (e.g., establishing student norms for selecting nutrient-dense snack foods).

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with
           eating behaviours in young adolescents
    • Authors: Natalie Pearson; Paula Griffiths; Stuart J.H. Biddle; Julie P. Johnston; Emma Haycraft
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Natalie Pearson, Paula Griffiths, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Julie P. Johnston, Emma Haycraft
      This study aimed to examine individual, behavioural and home environmental factors associated with frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables and energy-dense snacks among adolescents. Adolescents aged 11–12 years (n = 521, 48% boys) completed a paper-based questionnaire during class-time which included a Food Frequency Questionnaire assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, and energy-dense (ED) snacks, and items assessing habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV), eating with parents, parenting practices, and home availability and accessibility of foods. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that eating fruit and vegetables while watching TV and home availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables were positively associated with frequency of fruit consumption and vegetable consumption, while home accessibility of ED snack foods was negatively associated with frequency of fruit consumption. Habit for eating ED snack foods in front the TV, eating ED snack foods while watching TV, and home availability of ED snacks were positively associated with frequency of ED snack consumption. This study has highlighted the importance of a healthy home environment for promoting fruit and vegetable intake in early adolescents and also suggests that, if snacking while TV viewing occurs, this could be a good opportunity for promoting fruit and vegetable intake. These findings are likely to be useful for supporting the development of multi-faceted interventions and aid us in knowing what advice to give to parents to help them to help their young adolescents to develop and maintain healthy eating habits.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • A randomized controlled trial to study the effects of breakfast on energy
           intake, physical activity, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual
           breakfast eaters
    • Authors: Gabrielle Marie LeCheminant; James D. LeCheminant; Larry A. Tucker; Bruce W. Bailey
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Gabrielle Marie LeCheminant, James D. LeCheminant, Larry A. Tucker, Bruce W. Bailey
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of eating breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, body weight, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters over a four-week period. Methods Forty-nine women who were nonhabitual breakfast-eaters were randomized to one of two conditions: breakfast or no breakfast. Breakfast eaters were required to eat at least 15% of their daily energy requirement before 8:30 a.m. Non-breakfast eaters did not consume any energy until after 11:30 a.m. Weight and body fat were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of intervention. Body fat was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Participants completed seven 24-hour recalls to assess dietary intake during the intervention. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry for 32 consecutive days. RESULTS: On average, the participants randomized to eat breakfast consumed 266 ± 496 (F = 12.81; P < 0.01) more calories per day over the course of the study and weighed 0.7 ± 0.8 kg (F = 7.81; p < 0.01) more at the end of the intervention. There was no observed caloric compensation at subsequent meals and no change in self-reported hunger or satiety. There was also no physical activity compensation with the addition of breakfast. Conclusion The findings of our study showed that requiring non-breakfast eaters to eat breakfast resulted in higher caloric intake and weight gain. Future research should evaluate this relationship for a longer period of time to see if adding breakfast to the diet of women who generally do not eat breakfast results in adaptive behavior change over time.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.041
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • The influence of calorie and physical activity labelling on snack and
           beverage choices
    • Authors: U. Masic; P. Christiansen; E.J. Boyland
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): U. Masic, P. Christiansen, E.J. Boyland
      Background Much research suggests nutrition labelling does not influence lower energy food choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical activity based and kilocalorie (Kcal) based labels on the energy content of snack food and beverage choices made. Methods An independent-groups design, utilizing an online questionnaire platform tested 458 UK adults (87 men), aged 18–64 years (mean: 30 years) whose BMI ranged from 16 to 41 kg/m2 (mean: 24 kg/m2). Participants were randomized to one of four label information conditions (no label, Kcal label, physical activity label [duration of walking required to burn the Kcal in the product], Kcal and physical activity label) and were asked to choose from higher and lower energy options for a series of items. Results Label condition significantly affected low vs. high-energy product selection of snack foods (p < 0.001) and beverages (p < 0.001). The physical activity label condition resulted in significantly lower energy snack and beverage choices than the Kcal label condition (p < 0.001). This effect was found across the full sample and persisted even when participants’ dietary restraint, BMI, gender, socioeconomic status, habitual physical activity, calorie and numerical literacy were controlled. Conclusion The provision of physical activity information appeared most effective in influencing the selection of lower Kcal snack food and beverage items, when compared with no information or Kcal information. These findings could inform the debate around potential legislative policies to facilitate healthier nutritional choices at a population level.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Multidimensional assessment of impulsivity in relation to obesity and food
    • Authors: Lauren VanderBroek-Stice; Monika K. Stojek; Steven R.H. Beach; Michelle R. vanDellen; James MacKillop
      Pages: 59 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Lauren VanderBroek-Stice, Monika K. Stojek, Steven R.H. Beach, Michelle R. vanDellen, James MacKillop
      Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in “food addiction,” a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction. Based on the association between impulsivity and compulsive drug use, the general hypothesis was that the impulsivity-food addiction relation would be stronger than and responsible for the impulsivity-obesity relation. Using a cross-sectional dimensional design, participants (N = 181; 32% obese) completed a biometric assessment, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scales, a Go/NoGo task, and measures of monetary delay discounting. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of food addiction among obese participants and stronger zero-order associations between impulsivity indices and YFAS compared to obesity. Two aspects of impulsivity were independently significantly associated with food addiction: (a) a composite of Positive and Negative Urgency, reflecting proneness to act impulsively during intense mood states, and (b) steep discounting of delayed rewards. Furthermore, the results supported food addiction as a mediator connecting both urgency and delay discounting with obesity. These findings provide further evidence linking impulsivity to food addiction and obesity, and suggest that food addiction may be a candidate etiological pathway to obesity for individuals exhibiting elevations in these domains.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces
    • Authors: Charlotte Lilleby Kildal; Karen Lykke Syse
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Charlotte Lilleby Kildal, Karen Lykke Syse
      In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military’s Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.032
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • The unified model of vegetarian identity: A conceptual framework for
           understanding plant-based food choices
    • Authors: Daniel L. Rosenfeld; Anthony L. Burrow
      Pages: 78 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Daniel L. Rosenfeld, Anthony L. Burrow
      By departing from social norms regarding food behaviors, vegetarians acquire membership in a distinct social group and can develop a salient vegetarian identity. However, vegetarian identities are diverse, multidimensional, and unique to each individual. Much research has identified fundamental psychological aspects of vegetarianism, and an identity framework that unifies these findings into common constructs and conceptually defines variables is needed. Integrating psychological theories of identity with research on food choices and vegetarianism, this paper proposes a conceptual model for studying vegetarianism: The Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI). The UMVI encompasses ten dimensions—organized into three levels (contextual, internalized, and externalized)—that capture the role of vegetarianism in an individual's self-concept. Contextual dimensions situate vegetarianism within contexts; internalized dimensions outline self-evaluations; and externalized dimensions describe enactments of identity through behavior. Together, these dimensions form a coherent vegetarian identity, characterizing one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding being vegetarian. By unifying dimensions that capture psychological constructs universally, the UMVI can prevent discrepancies in operationalization, capture the inherent diversity of vegetarian identities, and enable future research to generate greater insight into how people understand themselves and their food choices.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:23:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Portion size tells who I am, food type tells who you are: Specific
           functions of amount and type of food in same- and opposite-sex dyadic
           eating contexts
    • Authors: Nicoletta Cavazza; Margherita Guidetti; Fabrizio Butera
      Pages: 96 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Nicoletta Cavazza, Margherita Guidetti, Fabrizio Butera
      Previous research has shown that women eating small portions of food (vs. eating big portions) are perceived as more feminine, whereas men eating large portions are perceived as more masculine. The specific type of food items have also been shown to carry connotations for gender stereotyping. In addition, matching the co-eater's food quantity is also a means to ingratiate him or her. Thus, a potential motivational conflict between gender identity expression and ingratiation arises when people eat in opposite-sex dyads. Scholars have, thus far, focused their attention on one of these two dimensions at a time, and rarely in relation to the co-eaters’ sex. The present study investigated, through a restaurant scenario, the way in which women and men, when asked to imagine having lunch in dyads, combine food choice and quantity regulation as a function of the co-eater's sex. Results showed that participants use the quantity dimension to communicate gender identity, and the food type dimension to ingratiate the co-eater's preferences by matching her/his presumed choice, following gender-based stereotypes about food. In opposite-sex dyads, dishes that incorporate the two dimensions were chosen above the expected frequency.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment
           assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating
    • Authors: Terence M. Dovey; Tina Torab; Dorothy Yen; E.J. Boyland; Jason C.G. Halford
      Pages: 102 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Terence M. Dovey, Tina Torab, Dorothy Yen, E.J. Boyland, Jason C.G. Halford
      The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18–24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Exploring the efficacy of an acceptance, mindfulness &
           compassionate-based group intervention for women struggling with their
           weight (Kg-Free): A randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Lara Palmeira; José Pinto-Gouveia; Marina Cunha
      Pages: 107 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Lara Palmeira, José Pinto-Gouveia, Marina Cunha
      This randomized-controlled trial aims to test the efficacy of a group intervention (Kg-Free) for women with overweight or obesity based on mindfulness, ACT and compassion approaches. The intervention aimed to reduce weight self-stigma and unhealthy eating patterns and increase quality-of-life (QoL). Seventy-three women, aged between 18 and 55 years old, with BMI ≥25 without binge-eating seeking weight loss treatment were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Kg-Free comprises 10 weekly group sessions plus 2 booster fortnightly sessions, of 2h30 h each. The control group maintained Treatment as Usual (TAU). Data was collected at baseline and at the end of the Kg-Free intervention. Overall, participants enrolled in Kg-Free found the intervention to be very important and helpful when dealing with their weight-related unwanted internal experiences. Moreover, when compared with TAU, the Kg-Free group revealed a significant increased health-related QoL and physical exercise and a reduction of weight self-stigma, unhealthy eating behaviors, BMI, self-criticism, weight-related experiential avoidance and psychopathological symptoms at post-treatment. Results for self-compassion showed a trend towards significance, whereas no significant between-groups differences were found for mindfulness. Taken together, evidence was found for Kg-Free efficacy in reducing weight-related negative experiences and promoting healthy behaviors, psychological functioning, and QoL.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Does a ‘protective’ message reduce the impact of an advergame
           promoting unhealthy foods to children? An experimental study in Spain and
           The Netherlands
    • Authors: Frans Folkvord; Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva; Cristiano Codagnone; Francesco Bogliacino; Giuseppe Veltri; George Gaskell
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Frans Folkvord, Francisco Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Cristiano Codagnone, Francesco Bogliacino, Giuseppe Veltri, George Gaskell
      The weight of evidence points to the advertising of food affecting food consumption, especially among children. Such advertising often promotes unhealthy foods. Current policy deliberations focus on developing effective ‘protective’ messages to increase advertising literacy and consequent scepticism about advertising targeting children. This study examined whether incorporating a ‘protective’ message in an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks would reduce children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted in the Netherlands (N = 215) and Spain (N = 382) with an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. The results showed that playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks increased caloric intake in both countries, irrespective of whether the ‘protective’ message was present or not. These results point to the limitations of ‘protective’ messages and advertising literacy and provide policy makers with a rationale for extending the current prohibition of food advertising to young children in the terrestrial media to online environments.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.026
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Eating moderates the link between body mass index and perceived social
    • Authors: Lisa M. Jaremka; Naoyuki Sunami; Megan A. Nadzan
      Pages: 124 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Lisa M. Jaremka, Naoyuki Sunami, Megan A. Nadzan
      Some studies have demonstrated that heavier people perceive themselves as lacking social connections, whereas others have not. The current study investigated whether eating alters the link between body mass index (BMI) and perceived social connection, providing one explanation for inconsistencies across previous studies. Participants were instructed to refrain from eating or drinking anything except water after 9 p.m. the prior night. Upon arrival at the lab, participants were assigned to the food (n = 63) or no food (n = 110) condition. They also provided a saliva sample that was assayed for ghrelin (an appetite-relevant hormone), and completed a series of questionnaires about their relationships. Participants with a higher BMI felt more socially disconnected than people with a lower BMI, but only among those who had not recently eaten. BMI and perceived social disconnection were unrelated among people who had recently eaten. These results were consistent across multiple measures of perceived social disconnection, and also across the experimental manipulation and continuously measured ghrelin.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Water, juice, or soda? Mothers and grandmothers of preschoolers discuss
           the acceptability and accessibility of beverages
    • Authors: Karin Eli; Agneta Hörnell; Mahnoush Etminan Malek; Paulina Nowicka
      Pages: 133 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Karin Eli, Agneta Hörnell, Mahnoush Etminan Malek, Paulina Nowicka
      Intake of sugary beverages is strongly associated with weight gain and obesity among children; however, differences between mothers' and grandmothers' attitudes and practices concerning young children's beverage consumption remain unclear. This is notable since about a quarter of families in the US and the UK rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare. The aim of this study is to examine mothers' and maternal grandmothers' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding preschool aged children's beverage consumption. The analysis focuses on identifying intergenerational similarities and differences, given the potential impact that such differences might have on young children's beverage consumption habits. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews, representing eleven families, were analyzed using thematic analysis. The sample included all mother – maternal grandmother dyads from The Grandparents Study, which took place in Eugene, Oregon, USA. More than half of mothers and grandmothers met overweight/obesity criteria. Among the children (mean age 4.7 years; five girls and six boys), seven met overweight/obesity criteria. Most mothers and grandmothers were unemployed, and most reported an annual household income below 30,000 USD. The analysis identified three thematic categories: 1) mothers and grandmothers agree about the hierarchy of healthiness between and within beverages, though juice occupies an ambivalent position; 2) mothers and grandmothers cite role modeling and the home environment as important in regulating preschoolers' beverage intake; 3) mothers and grandmothers balance between restricting sugary beverages and using these beverages as treats. The results suggest that when mothers and grandmothers use soda, juice, and juice-drinks as treats, they do so within a wider dynamic of balancing practices, and within two intersecting domains: the hierarchy of beverages, including the still ambivalent status of juice as healthy or unhealthy, and the definition of ‘special occasion’.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after
           consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages
    • Authors: Shanon L. Casperson; LuAnn Johnson; James N. Roemmich
      Pages: 143 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Shanon L. Casperson, LuAnn Johnson, James N. Roemmich
      The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p < 0.05) reinforcing relative to salty/savory snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.028
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Reward sensitivity and body weight: the intervening role of food
           responsive behavior and external eating
    • Authors: Laura Vandeweghe; Sandra Verbeken; Leentje Vervoort; Ellen Moens; Caroline Braet
      Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Laura Vandeweghe, Sandra Verbeken, Leentje Vervoort, Ellen Moens, Caroline Braet
      Background During the last three decades, the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased worldwide. It is well established that different child-related factors such as food approach behaviors (i.e. eating behaviors that imply movements towards food) contribute to the development of overweight. However, research is lacking on the underlying mechanisms leading to food approach behaviors, which in turn lead to overweight. Subject/Methods Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigated the relation between the personality trait reward sensitivity and body weight in a convenience sample of 211 children aged 2.5–9 years. We further investigated the intervening role of food approach behaviors in the association between reward sensitivity and body weight. Results Unexpectedly, there was no direct association between reward sensitivity and body weight. Despite the absence of a direct effect, a significant indirect association was found between reward sensitivity and body weight through the intervening food approach variables (i.e. food responsive behavior and external eating). Conclusions These results highlight the importance of the focus on eating behaviors as well as trait characteristics in prevention programs for overweight.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Overweight in adolescent, psychiatric inpatients: A problem of general or
           food-specific impulsivity?
    • Authors: Natalie Deux; Angelika A. Schlarb; Franziska Martin; Martin Holtmann; Johannes Hebebrand; Tanja Legenbauer
      Pages: 157 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Natalie Deux, Angelika A. Schlarb, Franziska Martin, Martin Holtmann, Johannes Hebebrand, Tanja Legenbauer
      Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12–20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T10:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A
           literature review
    • Authors: Navdeep Kaur; Devinder Pal Singh
      Pages: 167 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Navdeep Kaur, Devinder Pal Singh
      This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating various facets of consumer behaviour towards functional foods. It focuses on published international research on functional food attitude and behaviour from across the world. Research papers (n = 112) that were identified were coded in terms of study type, variables studied, product type, participant profile, research methodology and analysis details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which behaviour towards functional foods have been examined in the past and provide a synthesis of findings in four categories of determinants, namely (1) Personal Factors, (2) Psychological Factors, (3) Cultural & Social Factors, and (4) Factors relating to the functional food product. A reference model for the relationships between these factors and behaviour of consumers is derived.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T10:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.033
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Volitional regulation of brain responses to food stimuli in overweight and
           obese subjects: A real-time fMRI feedback study
    • Authors: Maartje S. Spetter; Rahim Malekshahi; Niels Birbaumer; Michael Lührs; Albert H. van der Veer; Klaus Scheffler; Sophia Spuckti; Hubert Preissl; Ralf Veit; Manfred Hallschmid
      Pages: 188 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Maartje S. Spetter, Rahim Malekshahi, Niels Birbaumer, Michael Lührs, Albert H. van der Veer, Klaus Scheffler, Sophia Spuckti, Hubert Preissl, Ralf Veit, Manfred Hallschmid
      Obese subjects who achieve weight loss show increased functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), key areas of executive control and reward processing. We investigated the potential of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback training to achieve healthier food choices by enhancing self-control of the interplay between these brain areas. We trained eight male individuals with overweight or obesity (age: 31.8 ± 4.4 years, BMI: 29.4 ± 1.4 kg/m2) to up-regulate functional connectivity between the dlPFC and the vmPFC by means of a four-day rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol including, on each day, three training runs comprised of six up-regulation and six passive viewing trials. During the up-regulation runs of the four training days, participants successfully learned to increase functional connectivity between dlPFC and vmPFC. In addition, a trend towards less high-calorie food choices emerged from before to after training, which however was associated with a trend towards increased covertly assessed snack intake. Findings of this proof-of-concept study indicate that overweight and obese participants can increase functional connectivity between brain areas that orchestrate the top-down control of appetite for high-calorie foods. Neurofeedback training might therefore be a useful tool in achieving and maintaining weight loss.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T10:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.032
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Sensory-specific satiety is intact in rats made obese on a high-fat
           high-sugar choice diet
    • Authors: Kevin P. Myers
      Pages: 196 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Kevin P. Myers
      Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods. Rats were tested for short-term SSS (2 h pre-feeding immediately followed by 2 h choice) and long-term SSS (3 day pre-feeding prior to choice on day 4). In both short- and long-term tests rats exhibited SSS by shifting preference towards the food not recently eaten. SSS was not impaired in obese rats. On the contrary, in the long-term tests they showed stronger SSS than controls. This demonstrates that neither the obese state nor a history of excess energy consumption fundamentally causes impaired SSS in rats. The putative impaired SSS in obese people may instead reflect a specific predisposition, properties of the obesogenic diet, or history of restrictive dieting and bingeing.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Validation of the intuitive Eating Scale for pregnant women
    • Authors: Sajeevika Saumali Daundasekara; Anitra Danielle Beasley; Daniel Patrick O'Connor; McClain Sampson; Daphne Hernandez; Tracey Ledoux
      Pages: 201 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Sajeevika Saumali Daundasekara, Anitra Danielle Beasley, Daniel Patrick O'Connor, McClain Sampson, Daphne Hernandez, Tracey Ledoux
      Pre-pregnancy maladaptive eating behaviors have predicted inadequate or excess gestational weight gain and poor dietary intake during pregnancy, but little is known about effects of pre-pregnancy adaptive eating behaviors on pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to produce a valid and reliable measure of adaptive pre-pregnancy eating behaviors for pregnant women using the Intuitive Eating Scale. Data were collected from 266 pregnant women, aged 18 and older who were attending a private prenatal clinic at Texas Children's Hospital Pavilion for Women in Houston, TX using self-administered questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the factor structure of the Intuitive Easting Scale (IES). Concurrent validity was determined using correlations between the three subscale scores [unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical not emotional reasons (EPR), and relying on hunger/satiety cues (RIH)], perinatal depression status (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported height and weight. After discarding 6 items, the second order model did not fit the data, however, the first order model with three latent factors had reasonable fit (RMSEA = 0.097, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.951 and WRMR = 1.21). The internal consistency of the scale was confirmed by Cronbach's alphas (UPE = 0.781, EPR = 0.878 and RIH = 0.786). All subscale scores were inversely related to perinatal depression status. EPR and RIH subscale scores were inversely related to pre-pregnancy BMI, supporting the measure's validity. Among pregnant women, the revised 15 item pre-pregnancy IES (IES-PreP) should be used to evaluate pre-pregnancy adaptive eating behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Young adults' use of emotional food memories to build resilience
    • Authors: Elisabeth von Essen; Fredrika Mårtensson
      Pages: 210 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Elisabeth von Essen, Fredrika Mårtensson
      The overall aim of this study is to specifically investigate how young adults make use of emotional-relational food memories related to “significant others” during childhood when trying to build resilience and solve developmental tasks in this period of life. A theoretical sample of three semi-structured interviews drawn from a larger sample of 30 interviews with young adults in Sweden formed the basis for analysis, guided by the steps of a phenomenologically oriented critical narrative analysis. The results illustrate three different overall directions in how the relationship to food can evolve throughout life among young adults: a relationship dominated by 1) positive emotional food memories associated with the use of food as a secure base and 2) negative emotional food memories associated with either a) being emotionally preoccupied with food or b) dismissing food. The results suggest that internalised memories related to food associated with positive emotions can be used to build resilience, by helping young people to adapt and better manage developmental stress. Internalised food memories related to negative emotions can cause vulnerability, but also become the object of a person's reconstruction. The implications and potential risks of using food practice for developing resilience and a healthy lifestyle are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.036
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Observed infant food cue responsivity: Associations with maternal report
           of infant eating behavior, breastfeeding, and infant weight gain
    • Authors: Elizabeth Buvinger; Katherine Rosenblum; Alison L. Miller; Niko A. Kaciroti; Julie C. Lumeng
      Pages: 219 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Elizabeth Buvinger, Katherine Rosenblum, Alison L. Miller, Niko A. Kaciroti, Julie C. Lumeng
      Infant obesity and the rate of weight gain during infancy are significant public health concerns, but few studies have examined eating behaviors in infancy. Food cue responsivity has been described as a key contributor to obesity risk in school age children and adults, but has been rarely examined during infancy. The purpose of the current study was to test among 30 infants aged 6–12 months the hypotheses that infants would show greater interest in food versus non-food stimuli, and that greater birth weight, greater rate of weight gain during infancy, greater mother-reported food responsiveness, being formula versus breastmilk fed, and higher maternal body mass index, would each be associated with greater interest in the food versus non-food stimulus. Results showed that overall infants showed a preference for the food versus non-food stimulus. Preference for the food versus non-food stimulus was predicted by greater infant rate of weight gain since birth, greater maternal-reported infant food responsiveness, and having been exclusively formula-fed, but not by any other factor tested. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical implications for the study of infant obesity and applied prevention implications.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Understanding maternal dietary choices during pregnancy: The role of
           social norms and mindful eating
    • Authors: A.D. Hutchinson; M. Charters; I. Prichard; C. Fletcher; C. Wilson
      Pages: 227 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): A.D. Hutchinson, M. Charters, I. Prichard, C. Fletcher, C. Wilson
      Introduction Serious health complications associated with excessive weight have been documented for pregnant women and their babies during pregnancy, birth and beyond. Whilst research has focused on identifying particular foods that can be either detrimental or essential for the developing baby, pregnant women's food choices are likely determined by broader considerations. This study examined social influences as represented in reports of descriptive and injunctive social norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy, and individual differences in mindfulness while eating, as important potential correlates of pregnant women's self-reported diet. Methods Pregnant women (N = 139) completed a questionnaire that measured self-reported consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, descriptive and injunctive norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to assess the extent to which norms and mindful eating accounted for variance in consumption of both foods. Results No significant associations were observed between perceived social norms related to diet during pregnancy and self-reported dietary behaviour. Mindful eating was found to play a role in pregnant women's eating behaviour, with the awareness subscale of the MEQ significantly associated with healthy eating and the emotional subscale associated with unhealthy eating. Age was also associated with consumption of unhealthy foods; younger pregnant women reported consuming more unhealthy snacks and fast food meals. Conclusions The associations between mindful eating and dietary behaviour suggests that improving mindfulness related to food consumption before and during pregnancy may provide a strategy to address excessive gestational weight gain.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Predicting organic food consumption: A meta-analytic structural equation
           model based on the theory of planned behavior
    • Authors: Andrea Scalco; Stefano Noventa; Riccardo Sartori; Andrea Ceschi
      Pages: 235 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Andrea Scalco, Stefano Noventa, Riccardo Sartori, Andrea Ceschi
      During the last decade, the purchase of organic food within a sustainable consumption context has gained momentum. Consequently, the amount of research in the field has increased, leading in some cases to discrepancies regarding both methods and results. The present review examines those works that applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework in order to understand and predict consumers’ motivation to buy organic food. A meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the strength of the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention, as well as between intention and behavior. Results confirm the major role played by individual attitude in shaping buying intention, followed by subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Intention-behavior shows a large effect size, few studies however explicitly reported such an association. Furthermore, starting from a pooled correlation matrix, a meta-analytic structural equation model has been applied to jointly evaluate the strength of the relationships among the factors of the original model. Results suggest the robustness of the TPB model. In addition, mediation analysis indicates a potential direct effect from subjective norms to individual attitude in the present context. Finally, some issues regarding methodological aspects of the application of the TPB within the context of organic food are discussed for further research developments.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Diet and public health campaigns: Implementation and appropriation of
           nutritional recommendations in France and Luxembourg
    • Authors: Rachel Reckinger; Faustine Régnier
      Pages: 249 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 112
      Author(s): Rachel Reckinger, Faustine Régnier
      Based on two surveys – a French and a Luxembourgish one – with in-depth-interviews, this article examines the implementation of nutritional recommendations in two European countries. Each of them has promoted at governmental level a public health campaign regarding food consumption and daily diet. In which way – and by which social categories – are the recommendations taken in and put into practice, and if so, which appropriation processes and interpretations occur? Do the social, societal and cultural differences between Luxembourg and France (as well as within them), in terms of standard of living and dissemination of norms account for differentiated appropriations of dietary incentives? We will first compare the overarching goals as well as the dietary norms these two programs promote, in terms of similarities versus particularities both of the recommendations' content and of the way they are communicated. We will then examine the perception of these norms. The comparison France / Luxembourg shows that socio-cultural logics override national ones: the way in which individuals perceive the recommendations and appropriate them reflect more the social affiliation than the national one; gender and the events of the life cycle, particularly parentality, are also relevant to the reception of dietary recommendations. Transversal to all social milieus and in both national contexts, interviewees operate a selective internalisation of the perceived recommendations in a proactive yet pragmatic posture of personal responsibility. Ultimately, public dietary recommendations are only appropriated if they match people's daily priorities and constraints, as well as the general cultural values of their social milieu. This allows us to conclude to transnational, transversal, plural and distinctive everyday-cultural models of food consumption and differing notions of a “proper” diet.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.01.034
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
  • Behavioral evidence of emotion dysregulation in binge eaters
    • Authors: Dawn M. Eichen; Eunice Chen; Kerri N. Boutelle; Michael S. McCloskey
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Dawn M. Eichen, Eunice Chen, Kerri N. Boutelle, Michael S. McCloskey
      Binge eating is the most common disordered eating symptom and can lead to the development of obesity. Previous self-report research has supported the hypothesis that individuals who binge eat report greater levels of general emotion dysregulation, which may facilitate binge-eating behavior. However, to date, no study has experimentally tested the relation between binge eating history and in-vivo emotion dysregulation. To do this, a sample of female college students who either endorsed binge eating (n = 40) or denied the presence of any eating pathology (n = 47) completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and a behavioral distress tolerance task (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computer: PASAT-C) known to induce negative affect and distress. The binge eating group was 2.96 times more likely to quit the PASAT-C early (χ2 = 5.04, p = 0.025) and reported greater irritability (F(1,84) = 7.09 p = 0.009) and frustration (F(1,84) = 5.00, p = 0.028) after completing the PASAT-C than controls, controlling for initial levels of these emotions. Furthermore, across the entire sample, quitting early was associated with greater emotion dysregulation on the DERS (rpb = 0.342, p < 0.01). This study is the first to demonstrate that individuals who binge eat show in-vivo emotional dysregulation on a laboratory task. Future studies should examine the PASAT-C to determine its potential clinical utility for individuals with or at risk of developing binge eating.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Appetite loss as a potential predictor of suicidal ideation and self-harm
           in adolescents: A school-based study
    • Authors: Yuko Kitagawa; Shuntaro Ando; Syudo Yamasaki; Jerome Clifford Foo; Yuji Okazaki; Shinji Shimodera; Atsushi Nishida; Fumiharu Togo; Tsukasa Sasaki
      Pages: 7 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Yuko Kitagawa, Shuntaro Ando, Syudo Yamasaki, Jerome Clifford Foo, Yuji Okazaki, Shinji Shimodera, Atsushi Nishida, Fumiharu Togo, Tsukasa Sasaki
      Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescents, but detection of its risk is often challenging. Many mental illnesses share the common symptom of appetite loss and it is also known that people who suffer from these illnesses are at greater risk of suicide. However, the relationship between appetite loss and suicide risk has yet to be examined. For adolescents in particular, questions about appetite loss may be easier to answer than sensitive questions regarding mental health. The present study aims to investigate the association of appetite loss with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents. Rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm associated with appetite-loss were examined in 18,250 Japanese junior and senior high school students (aged 12–18) using a self-report questionnaire. Insomnia, a physical symptom which has previously been associated with suicide risk, was also controlled for in the analysis. Results showed that rates of adolescents with suicidal ideation or self-harm significantly increased according to the degree of self-reported appetite loss. Similar results were observed for insomnia. Odds ratios (ORs) for suicidal ideation and self-harm were 5.5 and 4.1 for adolescents with appetite loss compared to those without it, and the ORs were 5.5 and 3.5 for those with insomnia compared to those without it, respectively, adjusting for sex and age (p < 0.001). ORs remained statistically significant after adjusting for depression/anxiety (General Health Questionnaire-12 score). In conclusion, self-reported appetite loss was highly associated with suicidal ideation and self-harm in adolescents; adolescents reporting physical symptoms such as loss of appetite or insomnia should be given careful attention.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.026
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Proposal for a breakfast quality index for brazilian population: Rationale
           and application in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey
    • Authors: Jaqueline Lopes Pereira; Michelle Alessandra de Castro; Sinead Hopkins; Carolyn Gugger; Regina Mara Fisberg; Mauro Fisberg
      Pages: 12 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Jaqueline Lopes Pereira, Michelle Alessandra de Castro, Sinead Hopkins, Carolyn Gugger, Regina Mara Fisberg, Mauro Fisberg
      Breakfast has been related to positive nutrition and health outcomes, but criteria for an optimal composition of this meal are not well established. The aim of this study was to propose a breakfast quality index (BQI) for the Brazilian population, and to describe the relationship between breakfast quality, socio-demographic factors, dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day. BQI was constructed based on individual dietary data of 22,279 breakfast consumers, aged 20+ years from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study. The BQI was comprised of food components (cereals, fruit/vegetables, dairy products), and nutrient criteria (energy, fiber, free sugar, saturated fat, calcium and sodium). Mean, percentage and 95% CIs were estimated for variables according to BQI categories. The mean BQI was 4.2, with 71% of individuals falling into medium BQI category and 6% in high category. Individuals in urban areas, in higher categories of income and education and women had higher BQI means. Consumers with high BQI had higher intake of fruits/vegetables and higher breakfast and total daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fiber, total sugar, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate and vitamins B6, A, C, and D, and lower trans fatty acids compared to those in low and medium BQI groups. Promoting a high-quality breakfast may contribute to a better nutrient intake and achievement of daily requirements.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Tracking food intake as bites: Effects on cognitive resources, eating
           enjoyment, and self-control
    • Authors: Danny Weathers; Jennifer Christie Siemens; Steven W. Kopp
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Danny Weathers, Jennifer Christie Siemens, Steven W. Kopp
      While monitoring food intake is critical for controlling eating, traditional tools designed for this purpose can be impractical when one desires real-time feedback. Further, the act of monitoring can deplete valuable cognitive resources. In response to these concerns, technologies have been developed to aid those wanting to control their food intake. Of note, devices can now track eating in number of bites taken as opposed to more traditional units such as pieces or volume. Through two studies, the current research investigates the effects of tracking food portions at the bite level on cognitive resources, enjoyment of the eating experience, and objective and subjective self-control. Results indicate that using wearable technology to track bite portions, as compared to doing so mentally, (1) reduces cognitive resource depletion, (2) is equally as effective for allowing users to successfully achieve eating goals, and (3) does not reduce enjoyment of the eating experience. These results support the viability of tracking food intake at the bite level, which holds a number of potential implications for eating and weight management.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Pre-meal screen-time activities increase subjective emotions, but not food
           intake in young girls
    • Authors: Julia O. Totosy de Zepetnek; Damion Pollard; Jo M. Welch; Melissa Rossiter; Shiva Faghih; Nick Bellissimo
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Julia O. Totosy de Zepetnek, Damion Pollard, Jo M. Welch, Melissa Rossiter, Shiva Faghih, Nick Bellissimo
      Purpose To determine the effect of pre-meal screen-time activities on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and food intake (FI) in 9–14 year-old girls. Methods In this clinical study, 31 girls completed four 45-min treatment conditions of television viewing (TVV), video game playing (VGP), a challenging computer task (CT), and sitting without screen exposure (control) in a randomized order. Each treatment condition was followed immediately by an ad libitum pizza lunch, and FI was calculated from the weight of the consumed pizza. Subjective appetite was assessed at baseline, 15, 30, and 45 min during the treatment condition, and upon trial completion at 75 min. Subjective emotions were assessed at baseline and at 45 min. Results FI was not affected by screen type, but was positively correlated with body composition (fat mass [FM, kg], fat free mass [FFM, kg]) in all treatment conditions. Subjective appetite was not affected by screen type, but increased with time in all treatment conditions (p < 0.0001). Subjective emotions were affected by VGP only. Anger, excitement, frustration, and upset feelings were increased at 45 min following VGP. VGP led to increased frustration compared to control (p = 0.0003), CT (p = 0.007) and TVV (p = 0.0002). Conclusion Exposure to TVV or CT before eating did not affect subjective emotions, subjective appetite, or FI, and no difference was found between screen activities and the control condition for average appetite or FI. Despite a change in subjective emotions during the VGP condition, there was no increase in subjective appetite or subsequent FI. These findings suggest that physiologic signals of satiation and satiety are not overridden by environmental stimuli of pre-meal screen-time exposure among young girls. (Clinical trial number NCT01750177).

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.025
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Effect of Ramadan fasting on fatigue, mood, sleepiness, and health-related
           quality of life of healthy young men in summer time in Germany: A
           prospective controlled study
    • Authors: Boya Nugraha; Samaneh Khoshandam Ghashang; Imad Hamdan; Christoph Gutenbrunner
      Pages: 38 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Boya Nugraha, Samaneh Khoshandam Ghashang, Imad Hamdan, Christoph Gutenbrunner
      Muslims around the world fast during the lunar month of Ramadan. The month consists of 29 or 30 days, which vary in length depending on geographic location and the time of year. During this month, Muslims abstain from food, drink, smoking, and sex from dawn until sunset. In 2015, Ramadan fell during the summer. As a result, Muslims in Germany fasted 19 h a day. Previous research has shown associations between fasting and mood enhancement. This study aimed to determine the effect of fasting on young, healthy males who fasted in Germany during Ramadan 2015. In particular, this study examined the impact of fasting on mood, fatigue, and health-related Quality of Life (QoL). This study had 2 groups: fasting group (FG; n = 25), and non-fasting group (NFG; n = 25). In FG, participants were assessed at four different points: one week before Ramadan (T1), mid Ramadan (T2), the last days of Ramadan (T3), and one week after Ramadan (T4). In NFG, participants were assessed only at T1 and T3. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the participants in the FG and the NFG at T1 or T3 for any of the outcomes. However, participants in the FG demonstrated significant improvement from T2 to T4 in fatigue (visual analogue scale p < 0.01; fatigue severity scale:p < 0.01), mood (Beck's Depression Index-II; ANOVA; p < 0.05), and sleepiness during day time (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: ANOVA; p < 0.01). Participants in the FG also experienced significant loss of body weight (ANOVA; p < 0.001), body mass index (ANOVA; p < 0.001), skeletal muscle mass (ANOVA; p < 0.01) and fat free mass (ANOVA; p < 0.01). Findings demonstrate that Ramadan fasting did not significantly influence mood, fatigue and QoL, when compared to NFG. Even, it gives benefit to fasting group with regard to these parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran
    • Authors: Hassan Rahnama; Shayan Rajabpour
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Hassan Rahnama, Shayan Rajabpour
      Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • To squeeze or not to squeeze: How squeeze tubes affect consumers' serving
    • Authors: Elke Huyghe; Maggie Geuens; Iris Vermeir
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Elke Huyghe, Maggie Geuens, Iris Vermeir
      Squeeze tubes increasingly complement traditional packaging. But, would squeeze tubes - besides offering ease of use - also affect consumers' serving sizes? And if so, in what way? To answer these questions, we contrast the motor fluency hypothesis (i.e., bodily movements affect judgments) with the consumption monitoring hypothesis (i.e., paying attention to quantities eaten affects consumption). Two studies reveal that consumers use less of a product when it comes in a squeeze tube versus a traditional container, providing initial evidence for the consumption monitoring hypothesis. A third study also provides evidence that the ease of consumption monitoring drives the squeeze tube effect, which is more prominent for unrestrained eaters. These findings have important implications for consumers, public policy makers, and product manufacturers.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.034
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Strategies used by overweight and obese low-income mothers to feed their
           families in urban Brazil
    • Authors: Priscila de Morais Sato; Ramiro Fernandes Unsain; Joel Gittelsohn; João Gabriel Sanches Tavares da Silva; Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Perez; Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Priscila de Morais Sato, Ramiro Fernandes Unsain, Joel Gittelsohn, João Gabriel Sanches Tavares da Silva, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Perez, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      Objective To describe and compare strategies adopted by overweight and obese low-income mothers living in different vulnerable contexts to deal with food constraints and feed their families. Design Qualitative in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed with exploratory content analysis and the number of segments per theme was used to compare neighborhoods. Setting Three low-income neighborhoods in Santos, Brazil. Participants A purposive sample of 21 overweight or obese mothers. Results We identified three main types of strategies, namely, food acquisition, cooking, and eating. Food acquisition included social support and food-sourcing strategies. Social support strategies ranged from macro (governmental programs) to micro (family) levels. Food-sourcing strategies involved price research and use of credit to buy foods. Cooking approaches included optimizing food (e.g., adding water to beans), avoiding wastefulness, and substitutions (e.g., using water instead of milk when making cakes). Eating themes ranged from lack of quantity to lack of quality. Strategies to deal with the lack of food were affected by family dynamics, such as prioritizing provision of fruits to children. Food choices (e.g., low consumption of fruits and high consumption of fatty meats) derived from strategies may help promote overweight and obesity. Furthermore, for participants, financial constraints were perceived as barriers to following nutritionists' recommendations and weight loss. Conclusions This study highlights the barriers that low-income women face in adopting a healthy diet and sheds light on the importance of the symbolic value of food, even in the context of food insecurity. Finally, it suggests that environmental aspects could increase the accessibility to fruits and vegetables. These findings could be used to inform the planning and implementation of interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.033
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • The role of food shopping in later life
    • Authors: Simone Pettigrew; Caitlin Worrall; Nicole Biagioni; Zenobia Talati; Michelle Jongenelis
      Pages: 71 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Simone Pettigrew, Caitlin Worrall, Nicole Biagioni, Zenobia Talati, Michelle Jongenelis
      By the time they reach retirement, individuals are typically highly experienced in sourcing food products and they have strong familiarity with food retailing environments. To investigate the ongoing role of food shopping in later life, the present study explored seniors' attitudes to food shopping and their food-selection behaviours through the lens of their broader lifestyles. The aim was to provide insights of relevance to the development of future efforts to optimise seniors' food shopping experiences and nutrition-related outcomes. Interviews were conducted with 75 Western Australians aged 60 + years to discuss food shopping in the context of their day-to-day lives. The sample was comprised mainly of women (n = 64) and the average age was 74 years. In general, food shopping was perceived to be a manageable but mundane part of life. The findings suggest that there has been an improvement in food retailing practices because many of the numerous areas of concern identified in previous research conducted in this geographical location a decade ago were not nominated as relevant by the interviewees. Instead, food-related issues reported to be most problematic included the difficulties associated with sourcing affordable food products that had been produced locally and that did not contain unacceptable food additives. Seniors' food shopping concerns thus appear to have changed from functional aspects of the physical store environment to product attributes that reflect the increasing industrialisation of the food industry.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.035
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Executive functioning and dietary intake: Neurocognitive correlates of
           fruit, vegetable, and saturated fat intake in adults with obesity
    • Authors: Emily P. Wyckoff; Brittney C. Evans; Stephanie M. Manasse; Meghan L. Butryn; Evan M. Forman
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Emily P. Wyckoff, Brittney C. Evans, Stephanie M. Manasse, Meghan L. Butryn, Evan M. Forman
      Obesity is a significant public health issue, and is associated with poor diet. Evidence suggests that eating behavior is related to individual differences in executive functioning. Poor executive functioning is associated with poorer diet (few fruits and vegetables and high saturated fat) in normal weight samples; however, the relationship between these specific dietary behaviors and executive functioning have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The current study examined the association between executive functioning and intake of saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables in an overweight/obese sample using behavioral measures of executive function and dietary recall. One-hundred-ninety overweight and obese adults completed neuropsychological assessments measuring intelligence, planning ability, and inhibitory control followed by three dietary recall assessments within a month prior to beginning a behavioral weight loss treatment program. Inhibitory control and two of the three indices of planning each independently significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption such that those with better inhibition and planning ability consumed more fruits and vegetables. No relationship was found between executive functioning and saturated fat intake. Results increase understanding of how executive functioning influences eating behavior in overweight and obese adults, and suggest the importance of including executive functioning training components in dietary interventions for those with obesity. Further research is needed to determine causality as diet and executive functioning may bidirectionally influence each other.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.039
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Validation of the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and its
           relationship with depression, sleep quality, “food addiction”, and
           body mass index
    • Authors: Laurence J. Nolan; Allan Geliebter
      Pages: 86 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Laurence J. Nolan, Allan Geliebter
      Night eating syndrome (NES) is commonly assessed using the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), a validated scale of symptom severity, which does not assess all diagnostic criteria. The Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) assesses all diagnostic criteria, but has not been fully validated. The study purpose was to establish convergent validity for the NEDQ with the NEQ. It was also expected that higher NEDQ scores would be associated with elevated depression, poorer sleep quality, “food addiction,” and BMI as in other studies of NES. Students (n = 254) and community members (n = 468) were administered the NEQ, NEDQ, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Zung Self-report Depression Scale (SDS), and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). Convergent validity between the NEDQ and the NEQ was demonstrated; the scores were significantly positively correlated. There was good agreement between the NEDQ and the NEQ in diagnosis of NES; 56% of those diagnosed by the NEDQ met the threshold score on the NEQ, while the other 44% did not. Only 5 participants out of 33 who met the NEQ threshold score for NES did not meet the NEDQ diagnostic criteria. MANOVA revealed that higher NEDQ was associated with higher SDS and YFAS scores and poorer sleep quality. Full-syndrome NES by the NEDQ was associated with higher BMI in the community group unlike the student group. Scores on all the other questionnaires were higher in the community group. The discrepancies between NEDQ and NEQ diagnosis may be due to differences in construction of the questionnaires and specifically due to the NEDQ being designed for diagnosis. The NEQ provides a convenient global score for NES severity, whereas the NEDQ, which shows convergent validity with the NEQ, provides clinically useful diagnostic categories.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T11:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • The photo-elicitation of food worlds: A study on the eating behaviors of
           low socioeconomic Chilean women
    • Authors: Galvez E. Patricia; Marcela Vizcarra; Ana María Palomino; Alejandra Valencia; Lorena Iglesias; Andiara Schwingel
      Pages: 96 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Galvez E. Patricia, Marcela Vizcarra, Ana María Palomino, Alejandra Valencia, Lorena Iglesias, Andiara Schwingel
      Traditional methods for studying eating behaviors include quantitative methods such as 24-h dietary recalls or food frequency questionnaires. Recently, visual methods such as photo-elicitation (PE) have been recognized as useful for studying and understanding eating behaviors. PE has been defined as the use of images during an interview. The goals of this study are to demonstrate the potential of PE for exploring the eating behaviors of Chilean women of low socioeconomic status and to show the advantages and disadvantages of PE from the participants’ points of view. The study included 31 participants who were asked to take pictures that represented what they considered important to them in their “food world”. The pictures were developed and participants were invited to participate in an individual interview. Participants were able to talk about their eating behaviors and those of their families, the factors influencing those behaviors, their dietary knowledge and skills, and their reflections on their diet using the photographs. PE proved to be a feasible research technique for the studied population, and was well received and enjoyed by the participants. The participants perceived a few barriers with PE, such as forgetting to take pictures or not having ideas for new pictures. Nevertheless, PE allowed researchers to obtain rich information about eating behaviors, and can therefore be a useful method for working with populations of underserved areas. The PE data that this study collected could be used to create or improve interventions promoting healthy eating within the studied population.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.040
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Consumers' perceptions of food risks: A snapshot of the Italian Triveneto
    • Authors: Barbara Tiozzo; Silvia Mari; Mirko Ruzza; Stefania Crovato; Licia Ravarotto
      Pages: 105 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Barbara Tiozzo, Silvia Mari, Mirko Ruzza, Stefania Crovato, Licia Ravarotto
      This study investigated the food risk perceptions of people living in the Triveneto area (Northeast Italy), a territory characterized by a particular interest in the production of quality foodstuffs, to determine what aspects people associate with food risk and to understand what beliefs underlie these perceptions. Four focus groups were conducted in the major towns of the target area (N = 45). A semi-structured interview was used that focused on beliefs about food risks, the use of information and media sources in relation to food risk, and the behaviours adopted when eating outside the home. A homogeneous view of food risk emerged among the respondents, and a common definition of risky food was identified. The concept of risk was in opposition to the quality and controllability of food, which emerged as major strategies to cope with food risks. Quality was linked to freshness and local origin, whereas controllability reflected a direct (e.g., checking labels, having a relationship with the vendor, cultivating one's own vegetable garden) or indirect (e.g., control guarantees provided by suppliers and the government) means to check the safety and quality of food. Although people seemed quite informed about food risks, a common sense of impotence with regard to one's own protection prevailed, together with a fatalistic sense of incomplete control over risk. The results identified food concerns for consumers living in this specific territory and might represent a starting point for public health authorities to increase compliance with responsible behaviours for risk mitigation and to define successful food policies for this area.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking: A systematic
           review of observational studies
    • Authors: Susanna Mills; Martin White; Heather Brown; Wendy Wrieden; Dominika Kwasnicka; Joel Halligan; Shannon Robalino; Jean Adams
      Pages: 116 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Susanna Mills, Martin White, Heather Brown, Wendy Wrieden, Dominika Kwasnicka, Joel Halligan, Shannon Robalino, Jean Adams
      Many dietary interventions assume a positive influence of home cooking on diet, health and social outcomes, but evidence remains inconsistent. We aimed to systematically review health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking. Given the absence of a widely accepted, established definition, we defined home cooking as the actions required for preparing hot or cold foods at home, including combining, mixing and often heating ingredients. Nineteen electronic databases were searched for relevant literature. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if they focussed mainly on home cooking, and presented post 19th century observational or qualitative data on participants from high/very high human development index countries. Interventional study designs, which have previously been reviewed, were excluded. Themes were summarised using narrative synthesis. From 13,341 unique records, 38 studies – primarily cross-sectional in design – met the inclusion criteria. A conceptual model was developed, mapping determinants of home cooking to layers of influence including non-modifiable, individual, community and cultural factors. Key determinants included female gender, greater time availability and employment, close personal relationships, and culture and ethnic background. Putative outcomes were mostly at an individual level and focused on potential dietary benefits. Findings show that determinants of home cooking are more complex than simply possessing cooking skills, and that potential positive associations between cooking, diet and health require further confirmation. Current evidence is limited by reliance on cross-sectional studies and authors’ conceptualisation of determinants and outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Exposure to food cues moderates the indirect effect of reward sensitivity
           and external eating via implicit eating expectancies
    • Authors: Aimee L. Maxwell; Natalie J. Loxton; Julie M. Hennegan
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Aimee L. Maxwell, Natalie J. Loxton, Julie M. Hennegan
      Previous research has suggested that the expectancy “eating is rewarding” is one pathway driving the relationship between trait reward sensitivity and externally-driven eating. The aim of the current study was to extend previous research by examining the conditions under which the indirect effect of reward sensitivity and external eating via this eating expectancy occurs. Using a conditional indirect effects approach we tested the moderating effect of exposure to food cues (e.g., images) relative to non-food cues on the association between reward sensitivity and external eating, via eating expectancies. Participants (N = 119, M = 18.67 years of age, SD = 2.40) were university women who completed a computerised food expectancies task (E-TASK) in which they were randomly assigned to either an appetitive food cue condition or non-food cue condition and then responded to a series of eating expectancy statements or self-description personality statements. Participants also completed self-report trait measures of reward sensitivity in addition to measures of eating expectancies (i.e., endorsement of the belief that eating is a rewarding experience). Results revealed higher reward sensitivity was associated with faster reaction times to the eating expectancies statement. This was moderated by cue-condition such that the association between reward sensitivity and faster reaction time was only found in the food cue condition. Faster endorsement of this belief (i.e., reaction time) was also associated with greater external eating. These results provide additional support for the proposal that individuals high in reward sensitivity form implicit associations with positive beliefs about eating when exposed to food cues.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.037
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Identifying eating behavior phenotypes and their correlates: A novel
           direction toward improving weight management interventions
    • Authors: Sofia Bouhlal; Colleen M. McBride; Niraj S. Trivedi; Tanya Agurs-Collins; Susan Persky
      Pages: 142 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Sofia Bouhlal, Colleen M. McBride, Niraj S. Trivedi, Tanya Agurs-Collins, Susan Persky
      Common reports of over-response to food cues, difficulties with calorie restriction, and difficulty adhering to dietary guidelines suggest that eating behaviors could be interrelated in ways that influence weight management efforts. The feasibility of identifying robust eating phenotypes (showing face, content, and criterion validity) was explored based on well-validated individual eating behavior assessments. Adults (n = 260; mean age 34 years) completed online questionnaires with measurements of nine eating behaviors including: appetite for palatable foods, binge eating, bitter taste sensitivity, disinhibition, food neophobia, pickiness and satiety responsiveness. Discovery-based visualization procedures that have the combined strengths of heatmaps and hierarchical clustering were used to investigate: 1) how eating behaviors cluster, 2) how participants can be grouped within eating behavior clusters, and 3) whether group clustering is associated with body mass index (BMI) and dietary self-efficacy levels. Two distinct eating behavior clusters and participant groups that aligned within these clusters were identified: one with higher drive to eat and another with food avoidance behaviors. Participants’ BMI (p = 0.0002) and dietary self-efficacy (p < 0.0001) were associated with cluster membership. Eating behavior clusters showed content and criterion validity based on their association with BMI (associated, but not entirely overlapping) and dietary self-efficacy. Identifying eating behavior phenotypes appears viable. These efforts could be expanded and ultimately inform tailored weight management interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Main meal quality in Brazil and United Kingdom: Similarities and
    • Authors: Bartira Mendes Gorgulho; Gerda Karolien Pot; Flavia Mori Sarti; Dirce Maria Marchioni
      Pages: 151 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Bartira Mendes Gorgulho, Gerda Karolien Pot, Flavia Mori Sarti, Dirce Maria Marchioni
      Consumption of fast food and ready-to-eat meals has been positively associated with obesity. In the UK, ready-made meals are more often consumed than in Brazil, a country in which nutrition transition is relatively low. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of the main meal consumed by adults in Brazil and UK. Food record data was obtained from representative samples from UK and Brazil databases. The Main Meal Quality Index (MMQI) was applied to estimate the quality of the main meal consumed in Brazil and UK. Differences in food groups consumed in the main meal in Brazil and UK were observed using classification decision tree. Meals with higher average energy content were lunch for Brazil, and dinner for the UK. On average, the Brazilian main meal had better nutritional quality (4.42 times higher), independently of sex, age, family income, nutritional status and energy consumed, with higher scores of fiber, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat and energy density. However, UK's main meal included more fruits and vegetables. Food preparations combined with rice and beans were classified as Brazilian main meal, while combinations with fast food items, as fried potatoes, sandwiches and sugary beverages, were classified as UK main meals. In Brazil, the main meal quality was lower among women and obese individuals, presenting significant positive association with age, and negative association with energy intake and family income; while in UK, only age was positively associated with MMQI. Although main meals in Brazil had higher nutritional quality compared to the UK, main meals consumed in both countries need nutritional improvement.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.038
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Higher sensitivity to sweet and salty taste in obese compared to lean
    • Authors: Samyogita Hardikar; Richard Höchenberger; Arno Villringer; Kathrin Ohla
      Pages: 158 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Samyogita Hardikar, Richard Höchenberger, Arno Villringer, Kathrin Ohla
      Although putatively taste has been associated with obesity as one of the factors governing food intake, previous studies have failed to find a consistent link between taste perception and Body Mass Index (BMI). A comprehensive comparison of both thresholds and hedonics for four basic taste modalities (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) has only been carried out with a very small sample size in adults. In the present exploratory study, we compared 23 obese (OB; BMI > 30), and 31 lean (LN; BMI < 25) individuals on three dimensions of taste perception – recognition thresholds, intensity, and pleasantness – using different concentrations of sucrose (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl; salty), citric acid (sour), and quinine hydrochloride (bitter) dissolved in water. Recognition thresholds were estimated with an adaptive Bayesian staircase procedure (QUEST). Intensity and pleasantness ratings were acquired using visual analogue scales (VAS). It was found that OB had lower thresholds than LN for sucrose and NaCl, indicating a higher sensitivity to sweet and salty tastes. This effect was also reflected in ratings of intensity, which were significantly higher in the OB group for the lower concentrations of sweet, salty, and sour. Calculation of Bayes factors further corroborated the differences observed with null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST). Overall, the results suggest that OB are more sensitive to sweet and salty, and perceive sweet, salty, and sour more intensely than LN.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Nutrition knowledge and Mediterranean diet adherence in the southeast
           United States: Validation of a field-based survey instrument
    • Authors: Mary Rose Bottcher; Patricia Z. Marincic; Katie L. Nahay; Brittany E. Baerlocher; Amy W. Willis; Jieun Park; Philippe Gaillard; Michael W. Greene
      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mary Rose Bottcher, Patricia Z. Marincic, Katie L. Nahay, Brittany E. Baerlocher, Amy W. Willis, Jieun Park, Philippe Gaillard, Michael W. Greene
      The Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce chronic disease risk and is a recommended diet for prevention and management of diabetes. Adherence to the MD in the southeast United States where obesity and diabetes are highly prevalent is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) construct a survey instrument relevant to the general population integrating both MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence questions from previously validated instruments, and 2) assess MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence in a sample population in the southest United States. Adherance was assessed using the validated short MD Adherence Screener (MEDAS). A MD nutrition knowledge (MDNK) questionnaire was developed from previously validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaires and was validated using 127 university students enrolled in three courses with varying levels of nutrition education. Cronbach's α for internal validity of MDNK was acceptable for a short questionnaire (0.653). Test-retest reliability was established (r = 0.853). Field validation of the three-part survey instrument (MEDAS, MDNK and demographic questions) was subsequently performed in 230 adults shopping at supermarkets and farmers markets in eastern Alabama. Total MDNK and MEDAS scores were significantly higher in students with formal nutrition education and in patrons of farmers markets. Greater MD adherence, assessed by dividing MEDAS scores into thirds, was found with increasing formal nutrition education in university students (p = 0.002) and in farmers market participants (p < 0.001). There was a weak but significant association between MDNK and MEDAS scores within university students and participants in the field. Together, the MDNK-MEDAS survey instrument is an effective tool for assessing baseline knowledge and adherence and can be used to target nutritional interventions to improve MD adherence for prevention and management of diabetes and other chronic disease.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.029
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 111

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T10:31:53Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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