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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
Polar Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 13)
Polish Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.928, h-index: 68)
Polski Przegląd Otorynolaryngologiczny : Polish J. of Otorhinolaryngology Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 78)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 197)
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.241, h-index: 112)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.947, h-index: 69)
Porto Biomedical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie     Full-text available via subscription  
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.278, h-index: 75)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.235, h-index: 102)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.681, h-index: 88)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.253, h-index: 22)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.178, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.78, h-index: 35)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.303, h-index: 51)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.468, h-index: 16)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.74, h-index: 127)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.805, h-index: 80)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.758, h-index: 56)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.799, h-index: 47)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 57)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.931, h-index: 43)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.123, h-index: 74)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.928, h-index: 137)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 72)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.54, h-index: 60)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.163, h-index: 10)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, h-index: 20)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.189, h-index: 8)
Radiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.782, h-index: 70)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.654, h-index: 121)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
REACH - Reviews in Human Space Exploration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 72)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.382, h-index: 24)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.328, h-index: 52)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 86)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 72)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 6)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.164, h-index: 13)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 93)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79, SJR: 3.369, h-index: 180)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 3.12, h-index: 140)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.961, h-index: 113)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.126, h-index: 14)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.398, h-index: 12)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.469, h-index: 27)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, h-index: 2)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.263, h-index: 82)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 9)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.992, h-index: 42)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 67)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.275, h-index: 18)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.43, h-index: 21)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.07, h-index: 79)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.806, h-index: 39)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.62, h-index: 25)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.126, h-index: 18)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.768, h-index: 8)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.623, h-index: 19)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 55)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 3.536, h-index: 160)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.159, h-index: 49)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.083, h-index: 37)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.36, h-index: 75)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.722, h-index: 14)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.396, h-index: 89)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.923, h-index: 76)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.58, h-index: 6)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.404, h-index: 7)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.336, h-index: 8)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 3.231, h-index: 102)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, h-index: 14)
Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 6)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.554, h-index: 46)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.605, h-index: 26)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.007, h-index: 54)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.146, h-index: 3)
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, h-index: 18)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.146, h-index: 7)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 22)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 0)
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (SJR: 0.284, h-index: 24)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.183, h-index: 13)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access   (SJR: 0.237, h-index: 5)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 14)
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 11)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled
    • Authors: Kathleen J. Melanson; Daniel L. Kresge
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 118
      Author(s): Kathleen J. Melanson, Daniel L. Kresge
      The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of 1 h on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch. Subjects rated their appetite and mood on visual analog scales. After completing the fasting measures, subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured resting energy expenditure. Three hours later they consumed an ad libitum lunch with water. Fasting ratings of hunger were lower in GC than NG (t = 2.66, p = 0.01). Subjects consumed significantly less pasta (41 g, 68 kcals, t = 2.32, p = 0.03) during GC than NG. In conclusion, gum chewing decreased fasting hunger ratings and lunch energy consumed. Chewing gum may be a useful tool impacting energy balance in this population. Longer studies, especially in other populations, will be required.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Effects of single genetic variants and polygenic obesity risk scores on
           disordered eating in adolescents – The HUNT study
    • Authors: Farzaneh Saeedzadeh Sardahaee; Turid Lingaas Holmen; Nadia Micali; Kirsti Kvaløy
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 118
      Author(s): Farzaneh Saeedzadeh Sardahaee, Turid Lingaas Holmen, Nadia Micali, Kirsti Kvaløy
      Purpose Improving the understanding of the role of genetic risk on disordered eating (DE). Methods A case-control study including 1757 (F: 979, M: 778) adolescents (aged 13–19 years) from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), an ethnically homogenous Norwegian population based study. Cases and controls were defined using a shortened version of the Eating Attitude Test. Logistic regression was employed to test for associations between DE phenotypes and 24 obesity and eating disorder susceptibility SNPs, and the joint effect of a subset of these in a genetic risk score (GRS). Results COMT was shown to be associated with poor appetite/undereating (OR: 0.6, CI 95%: 0.43–0.83, p = 0.002). Independent of obesity associations, the weighted GRS was associated to overeating in 13–15 year old females (OR: 2.07, CI 95%: 1.14–3.76, p = 0.017). Additionally, a significant association was observed between the GRS and loss of control over eating in the total sample (OR: 1.62, CI 95%: 1.01–2.61, p = 0.046). Conclusions The COMT variant (rs4680) was associated with poor appetite/undereating. Our study further confirms prior findings that obesity risk also confers risk for loss of control over eating; and overeating amongst girls.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • The effect of sequential information on consumers' willingness to pay for
           credence food attributes
    • Authors: A. Botelho; I. Dinis; L. Lourenço-Gomes; J. Moreira; L. Costa Pinto; O. Simões
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 118
      Author(s): A. Botelho, I. Dinis, L. Lourenço-Gomes, J. Moreira, L. Costa Pinto, O. Simões
      The use of experimental methods to determine consumers' willingness to pay for “quality” food has been gaining importance in scientific research. In most of the empirical literature on this issue the experimental design starts with blind tasting, after which information is introduced. It is assumed that this approach allows consumers to elicit the real value that they attach to each of the features added through specific information. In this paper, the starting hypothesis is that this technique overestimates the weight of the features introduced by information in consumers' willingness to pay when compared to a real market situation, in which consumers are confronted with all the information at once. The data obtained through contingent valuation in an in-store setting was used to estimate a hedonic model aiming at assessing consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the feature “geographical origin of the variety” of pears and apples in different information scenarios: i) blind tasting followed by extrinsic information and ii) full information provided at once. The results show that, in fact, features are more valued when gradually added to background information than when consumers receive all the information from the beginning.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Family food and shape messages: Capturing the experiences of
           African-American women
    • Authors: Evelyn A. Hunter; Annette S. Kluck; Megan D. Cobb-Sheehan; Erin M. English; Erica Ray
      Pages: 26 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 118
      Author(s): Evelyn A. Hunter, Annette S. Kluck, Megan D. Cobb-Sheehan, Erin M. English, Erica Ray
      Four studies explored the family food experiences (FFEs) of African-American (AA) in relation to disordered eating and body image concerns. Focus groups of AA women expressed FFEs that shaped their relationships with food (Study 1). We used the resulting framework to create a measure assessing FFEs related to disordered eating (Family Food Experiences-Black Questionnaire; FFBQ). Measure items were subjected to a content analysis (Study 2). Subject matter experts rated ten items essential (CVR ≥ 0.62, p < 0.05). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the 10-item FFBQ in a sample of AA (N = 66) women (Study 3). The two-factor model explained 41.14% of the variance in the items (Χ2 = 25.04, df = 26, p = 0.52. Finally, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the FFBQ in a new sample of AA women (N = 167) to confirm the factor structure. The EFA yielded two subscales: a Traditional Thin-Ideal (TTI) and a Curvy Ideal (CI) subscale (reflecting messages that emphasize valuation of curves). These subscales were confirmed by CFA in a second sample of AA women with modifications to two items (Χ2 = 32.63, Χ2/df = 2.04). Disordered eating was positively correlated with messages reflecting both ideals while only messages reflecting the Curvy Ideal was related to body image disturbance. Implications include a need for further study of the duality of body ideal messages and the impact on body image/disordered eating disturbance in AA women.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Dispositional mindfulness and reward motivated eating: The role of emotion
           regulation and mental habit
    • Authors: Naomi R. Fisher; Bethan R. Mead; Paul Lattimore; Peter Malinowski
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 118
      Author(s): Naomi R. Fisher, Bethan R. Mead, Paul Lattimore, Peter Malinowski
      Evidence regarding the effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) for eating disorders, weight management and food craving is emerging and further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of MBIs in these domains. The current study was designed to establish the role of specific mechanisms underlying the putative relationship between mindfulness and reward motivated eating. We predicted that mindfulness would be negatively related to features of reward motivated eating and that this association would be mediated by emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking. A cross-sectional survey measuring uncontrolled and emotional eating, mindfulness, emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking was completed by female and male meditators and non-meditators (N = 632). Lower levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with difficulties in emotion regulation, habitual negative self-thinking and both emotional and uncontrolled eating. Difficulties in emotion regulation significantly mediated the mindfulness-uncontrolled eating relationship. Habitual negative self-thinking significantly mediated the mindfulness-emotional eating relationship. Participants with meditation experience reported greater levels of dispositional mindfulness, fewer difficulties with emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking and reduced uncontrolled eating tendencies, compared to non-meditators. The findings suggest that MBIs designed to change reward motivated eating and weight control should focus on emotion regulation and mental habits as underlying mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.019
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on brain PER2 and BMAL1
           protein expression in mice
    • Authors: Aurea Blancas-Velazquez; Susanne E. la Fleur; Jorge Mendoza
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Aurea Blancas-Velazquez, Susanne E. la Fleur, Jorge Mendoza
      The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) times the daily rhythms of behavioral processes including feeding. Beyond the SCN, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), involved in feeding regulation and metabolism, and the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb), implicated in reward processing, show circadian rhythmic activity. These brain oscillators are functionally coupled to coordinate the daily rhythm of food intake. In rats, a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet leads to a rapid increase of calorie intake and body weight gain. Interestingly, under a fcHFHS condition, rats ingest a similar amount of sugar during day time (rest phase) as during night time (active phase), but keep the rhythmic intake of regular chow-food. The out of phase between feeding patterns of regular (chow) and highly rewarding food (sugar) may involve alterations of brain circadian oscillators regulating feeding. Here, we report that the fcHFHS diet is a successful model to induce calorie intake, body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation in mice, extending its effectiveness as previously reported in rats. Moreover, we observed that whereas in the SCN the day-night difference in the PER2 clock protein expression was similar between chow-fed and fcHFHS-fed animals, in the LHb, this day-night difference was altered in fcHFHS-exposed animals compared to control chow mice. These findings confirm previous observations in rats showing disrupted daily patterns of feeding behavior under a fcHFHS diet exposure, and extend our insights on the effects of the diet on circadian gene expression in brain clocks.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • An investigation of two dimensions of impulsivity as predictors of
           loss-of-control eating severity and frequency
    • Authors: Hallie M. Espel; Alexandra F. Muratore; Michael R. Lowe
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Hallie M. Espel, Alexandra F. Muratore, Michael R. Lowe
      Loss-of-control (LOC) eating episodes represent one form of dysregulated eating common to full- and sub-threshold eating disorders. Extensive evidence suggests that impulsivity, particularly in the context of negative affect and/or depression, may play an important etiological role in the development and maintenance of LOC eating. However, most prior studies have considered LOC eating as a dichotomous rather than dimensional construct, and few studies have considered the interaction of multiple dimensions of impulsivity while also accounting for the role of depressive symptoms. The present study examined the independent and interacting effects of two facets of impulsivity—response inhibition and negative urgency—on LOC eating episode severity and frequency among college women (N = 102). Depressive symptom severity was included as a covariate. Results indicated that greater negative urgency was associated with greater LOC severity; this effect was moderated by response inhibition, such that the effect of urgency was particularly pronounced for individuals with higher response inhibition capacity. Negative urgency was the only significant predictor of LOC frequency. Depression had no significant effect on either LOC severity or frequency (ps ≥ 0.16). Results support the importance of considering multiple facets of impulsivity in predicting LOC eating behavior, and further indicate that factors influencing subjective severity and frequency of LOC may be distinct.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T10:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Organic consumption and diet choice: An analysis based on food purchase
           data in France
    • Authors: Christine Boizot-Szantai; Oualid Hamza; Louis-Georges Soler
      Pages: 17 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Christine Boizot-Szantai, Oualid Hamza, Louis-Georges Soler

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • The rural school meal as a site for learning about food
    • Authors: Irene Torres; Jette Benn
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Irene Torres, Jette Benn
      The aim of the article is to contribute to the understanding of the school meal as a site for learning about food, nutrition and the wider determinants of health in three small rural schools of Ecuador. Based on a year-long qualitative fieldwork, the multiple case study associates Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning with Noddings' theory of care to analyze the findings. In the study, elements of care in the relationships between children and adults seemed to promote dialogue and, in this way, adults were able to model what is required to care for others and oneself. This entails that a focus solely on food or limitations on social interaction during the school meal may reduce its learning opportunities. The study concurs with the research that the food is better received when it is more aligned with the students' expectations. In addition, the findings support the view that rural school meal programs should address the views of parents and teachers because of their influence on how the meal is prepared and provided. The article proposes that schools work within a flexible framework emphasizing attention to the caring aspects of the meal, as a means to develop this dimension of the school meal. The study also contends that a collaborative reshaping of conditions formally set by school food policy is consistent with a critical approach to food and nutrition. In connection with this, the study concludes by highlighting the value of revisiting Noddings' perspective of care as deriving from the practice of opening up and meeting the other.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T10:26:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.055
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Family food talk, child eating behavior, and maternal feeding practices
    • Authors: Elizabeth Roach; Gail B. Viechnicki; Lauren B. Retzloff; Pamela Davis-Kean; Julie C. Lumeng; Alison L. Miller
      Pages: 40 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Elizabeth Roach, Gail B. Viechnicki, Lauren B. Retzloff, Pamela Davis-Kean, Julie C. Lumeng, Alison L. Miller
      Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • A walnut-containing meal had similar effects on early satiety, CCK, and
           PYY, but attenuated the postprandial GLP-1 and insulin response compared
           to a nut-free control meal
    • Authors: Cheryl L. Rock; Shirley W. Flatt; Hava-Shoshana Barkai; Bilge Pakiz; Dennis D. Heath
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Cheryl L. Rock, Shirley W. Flatt, Hava-Shoshana Barkai, Bilge Pakiz, Dennis D. Heath
      Regular nut consumption is associated with lower adiposity and reduced weight gain in adulthood. Walnut feeding studies have observed minimal effect on body weight despite potential additional energy intake. Several mechanisms may explain why consuming nuts promotes weight control, including increased early phase satiety, possibly reflected in postprandial response of gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides hypothesized to affect appetite. The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial insulin, glucagon and gastrointestinal peptide response and satiety following a meal with ∼54% of energy from walnuts or cream cheese, using a within-subject crossover study design in overweight/obese adults (N = 28). Sixty minutes after the walnut-containing meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 was lower than after the reference meal (p=0.0433), and peptide YY, cholecystokinin and ghrelin did not differ after the two meals. Sixty and 120 min after the walnut-containing meal, pancreatic polypeptide (p = 0.0014 and p = 0.0002) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0079) were lower than after the reference meal, and 120 min after the walnut-containing meal, glucagon was higher (p=0.0069). Insulin and C-peptide increased at 60 min in response to both meals but were lower at 120 min after the walnut-containing meal (p=0.0349 and 0.0237, respectively). Satiety measures were similar after both meals. These findings fail to support the hypothesis that acute postprandial gastrointestinal peptide response to a walnut-containing meal contributes to increased satiety. However, inclusion of walnuts attenuated the postprandial insulin response, which may contribute to the more favorable lipid profile observed in association with regular walnut consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Incentivizing healthy eating in children: An investigation of the
           “ripple” and “temporal” effects of a reward-based intervention
    • Authors: Saied Toossi
      Pages: 58 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Saied Toossi
      Although previous studies have established the effectiveness of using small reward-based incentives in inducing the choice and consumption of healthier foods among children, little is known about their impact outside of experimental settings or their effectiveness over time when administered daily. This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted to provide insight on these matters. The study employs a removed treatment within-subject design and was conducted at a summer program catering to low-income children between the ages of 5 and 12. The month long experiment—wherein participants were offered a small prize for choosing a fruit cup for dessert after lunch in lieu of cookies—involved 23 children between the ages of 5 and 8. Corroborating existing studies, the introduction of small reward-based incentives in this context was found to induce large increases in the number of children choosing the healthy dessert options after lunch, but disaggregating the results by week and day suggests that their impact diminished over time. Attempts to ascertain their effect outside of experimental settings did not indicate that the introduction of rewards had any adverse effects, but also did not provide definitive conclusions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and
           influences snack preferences in adult men and women
    • Authors: Jamie I. Baum; Brianna L. Gaines; Gabrielle C. Kubas; Charlayne F. Mitchell; Sarah L. Russell
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Jamie I. Baum, Brianna L. Gaines, Gabrielle C. Kubas, Charlayne F. Mitchell, Sarah L. Russell
      Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P < 0.0001), resulting in lower calorie intake. Taken together these data suggest that protein source, as part of a higher protein breakfast, does not affect appetite response or snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Participants with pharmacologically impaired taste function seek out more
           intense, higher calorie stimuli
    • Authors: Corinna A. Noel; Meaghan Sugrue; Robin Dando
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Corinna A. Noel, Meaghan Sugrue, Robin Dando
      Objective Research suggests a weaker sense of taste in people with obesity, with the assumption that a debilitated taste response increases the desire for more intensely tasting stimuli to compensate for decreased taste input. However, empirical testing of this supposition remains largely absent. Method In a randomized, repeated measures design, 51 healthy subjects were treated with varying concentrations of a tea containing Gymnema sylvestre (GS), to temporarily and selectively diminish sweet taste perception, or a control tea. Following treatment in the four testing sessions, taste intensity ratings for various sweet stimuli were captured on the generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS), liking for real foods assessed on the hedonic gLMS, and optimal level of sweetness quantified via an ad-libitum mixing task. Data were analyzed with mixed models assessing both treatment condition and each subject's resultant sweet response with various taste-related outcomes, controlling for covariates. Results GS treatment diminished sweet intensity perception (p < 0.001), reduced liking for sweet foods (p < 0.001), and increased the desired sucrose content of these foods (p < 0.001). Regression modeling revealed a 1% reduction in sweet taste response was associated with a 0.40 g/L increase in optimal concentration of sucrose (p < 0.001). Discussion Our results show that an attenuation in the perceived taste intensity of sweeteners correlates with shifted preference and altered hedonic response to select sweet foods. This suggests that those with a diminished sense of taste may desire more intense stimuli to attain a satisfactory level of reward, potentially influencing eating habits to compensate for a lower gustatory input.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • The association of addictive-like eating with food intake in children
    • Authors: Rebekah L. Richmond; Christina A. Roberto; Ashley N. Gearhardt
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rebekah L. Richmond, Christina A. Roberto, Ashley N. Gearhardt
      Objectives The potential role of an addictive process in problematic eating is a growing area of interest and debate. Children are more vulnerable to the negative effects of addictive substances than adults and may be at increased risk for addictive-like eating behavior. No prior study has evaluated the association of addictive-like eating with objectively measured eating behavior in adults or children. We examined the association between “food addiction” and observed food consumption among children and whether age moderated this association. Method Seventy children participated in an observed dinner meal, completed a dietary recall interview, and answered the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children (YFAS-C), a questionnaire assessing symptoms of “food addiction”. Children's total calories ordered, calories consumed at dinner, calories consumed post-dinner, and a total of calories consumed at dinner and post-dinner were calculated along with their BMI percentile. We used generalized estimated equation models to investigate the relationship between the YFAS-C and food consumption. Results Elevated “food addiction” symptoms, but not BMI percentile, were positively associated with an increased amount of calories consumed at dinner and post-dinner. Age significantly moderated the relationship between YFAS-C and caloric intake, with only younger children exhibiting this association. Conclusions As the first study of objectively measured eating behavior, we found addictive-like eating scores in children were positively associated with the total amount of calories consumed. Among younger children, “food addiction” was more strongly associated with the total calories consumed than BMI percentile, highlighting the importance of assessing behavioral phenotypes when evaluating caloric intake. This association between addictive-like eating and caloric intake among younger, but not older children may be due to differences in inhibitory control and dietary restraint.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Promoting healthier children's meals at quick-service and full-service
           restaurants: Results from a pilot and feasibility study
    • Authors: Nanette V. Lopez; Sara C. Folta; Meaghan E. Glenn; Vanessa M. Lynskey; Anjali A. Patel; Stephanie Anzman-Frasca
      Pages: 91 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Nanette V. Lopez, Sara C. Folta, Meaghan E. Glenn, Vanessa M. Lynskey, Anjali A. Patel, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca
      High-calorie restaurant foods contribute to childhood overweight. Increased consumer demand for healthier kids' meals may motivate the restaurant industry to provide additional healthy options. This study pilot-tested a combination of four strategies (toy incentive, placemats, server prompts, signage) designed to increase demand for healthier kids' meals, which were defined as those eligible for the National Restaurant Association's Kids LiveWell program. Relative sales of healthier kids' meals were examined before (n = 3473 total kids' meal orders) and during Month 1 (n = 3546 total kids' meal orders) and Month 2 of implementation (n = 3645 total kids' meal orders) of an 8-week intervention in two locations each of a quick-service (QSR) and full-service (FSR) restaurant chain. Convenience samples of children (n = 27) and their parents (n = 28) were surveyed regarding parent and child perceptions of intervention components. Findings regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the intervention were mixed. At the FSRs, the relative percentage of monthly sales from healthier kids' meals increased from 5.0% of kids' meal orders at baseline to 8.3% during Month 1, ending at 6.4% during Month 2. At the QSRs, the relative percentage of monthly sales from healthier kids' entrees decreased from 27.5% at baseline to 25.2% during Month 1, ending at 25.9% during Month 2. Implementation quality tracking showed that consistent implementation of intervention components was a challenge; parent- and child-reported awareness of intervention components supported this finding. Future directions are discussed, aiming to build upon these findings and maximize the feasibility, effectiveness, and sustainability of efforts to promote healthier eating in restaurants.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Dining with dad: Fathers' influences on family food practices
    • Authors: Priya Fielding-Singh
      Pages: 98 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Priya Fielding-Singh
      Scholars have documented multiple influences on family food practices. This article examines an overlooked contributor to family diet: fathers. Using 109 in-depth interviews with middle and upper-middle class mothers, adolescents, and fathers in the United States, I show how fathers can undermine mothers' efforts to provision a healthy diet. While family members perceive mothers as committed to provisioning a healthy diet, many fathers are seen as, at best, detached and, at worst, a threat to mothers' dietary aspirations. Fathers not only do little foodwork; they are also viewed as less concerned about their own and other family members' dietary health. When tasked with feeding, many fathers often turn to quick, unhealthy options explicitly avoided by mothers. Mothers report efforts to limit fathers' involvement in foodwork to ensure the healthiness of adolescents' diets, with variation across families by mothers' employment status. Fathers' dietary approaches reflect and reinforce traditional gender norms and expectations within families. In highlighting how and why fathers can undermine mothers’ efforts to provision a healthy diet, this study deepens our understanding of the myriad dynamics shaping family food practices.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status in Mexican
           American families
    • Authors: Carlos Penilla; Jeanne M. Tschann; Julianna Deardorff; Elena Flores; Lauri A. Pasch; Nancy F. Butte; Steven E. Gregorich; Louise C. Greenspan; Suzanna M. Martinez; Emily Ozer
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Carlos Penilla, Jeanne M. Tschann, Julianna Deardorff, Elena Flores, Lauri A. Pasch, Nancy F. Butte, Steven E. Gregorich, Louise C. Greenspan, Suzanna M. Martinez, Emily Ozer
      Mothers' feeding practices are associated with their children's weight status, but little is known about the associations between fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status. Moreover, there is a dearth of research on Latino fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status, even though Latino children suffer some of the highest obesity rates in the U.S. We examined the associations between fathers' feeding practices and child weight status, conditional on mothers' feeding practices, within 174 Mexican American families with children aged 8–10 years. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. To assess child weight status, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted to age- and gender-specific percentile scores (BMI z-score). We fit four sets of regression models, one set for each of the four parental feeding practices subscales, with child BMI z-score as the outcome variable. Fathers' pressure to eat (b = −0.20, p = 0.04; 95% CI: −0.39, −0.01) and use of food to control behavior (b = −0.36, p = 0.02; 95% CI: −0.65, −0.07) were associated with lower child BMI z-score, and restriction of amount of food (b = 0.56, p < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.84) was associated with higher child BMI z-score, after accounting for mothers' feeding practices. Fathers' positive involvement in child eating was not associated with child BMI z-score. These findings provide empirical evidence that fathers' feeding practices are independently associated with children's weight status, even when mothers' feeding practices are taken into account, and suggest that fathers' feeding practices also matter in regard to children's weight status.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Impulsivity moderates the effect of approach bias modification on healthy
           food consumption
    • Authors: Naomi Kakoschke; Eva Kemps; Marika Tiggemann
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
      The study aimed to modify approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and to determine its effect on subsequent food consumption. In addition, we investigated the potential moderating role of impulsivity in the effect of approach bias re-training on food consumption. Participants were 200 undergraduate women (17–26 years) who were randomly allocated to one of five conditions of an approach-avoidance task varying in the training of an approach bias for healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food cues in a single session of 10 min. Outcome variables were approach bias for healthy and unhealthy food and the proportion of healthy relative to unhealthy snack food consumed. As predicted, approach bias for healthy food significantly increased in the ‘avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food’ condition. Importantly, the effect of training on snack consumption was moderated by trait impulsivity. Participants high in impulsivity consumed a greater proportion of healthy snack food following the ‘avoid unhealthy food/approach healthy food’ training. This finding supports the suggestion that automatic processing of appetitive cues has a greater influence on consumption behaviour in individuals with poor self-regulatory control.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.019
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Body talk, weight status, and pathological eating behavior in romantic
    • Authors: Ellen Hart; Chong Man Chow; Cin Cin Tan
      Pages: 135 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Ellen Hart, Chong Man Chow, Cin Cin Tan
      This study examined whether engagement in body talk would interact with weight status (body mass index; BMI) to predict pathological eating behaviors among romantically involved adults. Adults (N = 137, females = 86.86%, average age = 23.50) involved in a romantic relationship were recruited to complete an online survey about their body image, dietary behaviors, and engagement in body talk. Results indicated that engagement in negative body talk was directly related to higher pathological eating (i.e., drive for thinness, dieting, and bulimia symptoms). Positive body talk, on the other hand, had a significant interaction effect with BMI to predict pathological eating. For individuals with a high BMI, high engagement in positive body talk was associated with increased drive for thinness, dieting, and bulimia symptoms. However, for those with a low BMI, high engagement in positive body talk was protective against pathological eating. These findings suggest that while negative body talk is harmful in general, positive body talk is uniquely problematic for individuals of a higher weight status.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • ‘My lips are sealed’ - The impact of package resealability on the
           consumption of tempting foods
    • Authors: Caroline De Bondt; Anneleen Van Kerckhove; Maggie Geuens
      Pages: 143 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Caroline De Bondt, Anneleen Van Kerckhove, Maggie Geuens
      Resealable packages are nowadays omnipresent on store shelves. While the main advantage of the resealability feature is its ability to reclose the package in order to extend the shelf life of the food product inside, the present research's aim is to assess whether this advantage also has implications for palatable, energy-dense food consumption. Two studies provide intentional as well as behavioral evidence for the claim that consumers are better able to self-regulate their consumption and thus eat less in one occasion when a palatable, energy-dense food product is offered in a resealable (vs. unresealable) package. A third study investigates the effect of package resealability across multiple consumption occasions and reveals that the resealability feature limits the volume consumed on each occasion (conditional on consumption incidence) while it does not accelerate consumption frequency, resulting in a lower total consumed volume of palatable, energy-dense snacks over a six-day period. This research offers actionable insights for consumer welfare and public health care and aids manufacturers in delineating optimal food packaging strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.024
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Randomised controlled trial of a text messaging intervention for reducing
           processed meat consumption: The mediating roles of anticipated regret and
    • Authors: V. Carfora; D. Caso; M. Conner
      Pages: 152 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): V. Carfora, D. Caso, M. Conner
      The present study aimed to extend the literature on text messaging interventions involved in promoting healthy eating behaviours. The theoretical framework was the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A randomized controlled trial was used to test the impact of daily text messages compared to no message (groups) for reducing processed meat consumption (PMC) over a 2 week period, testing the sequential mediation role of anticipated regret and intention on the relationship between groups and PMC reduction. PMC and TPB variables were assessed both at Time 1 and Time 2. Participants were Italian undergraduates (at Time 1 N = 124) randomly allocated to control and message condition groups. Undergraduates in the message condition group received a daily SMS, which focused on anticipated regret and urged them to self-monitor PMC. Participants in the control group did not receive any message. Those who completed all measures at both time points were included in the analyses (N = 112). Findings showed that a daily messaging intervention, controlling for participants’ past behaviour, reduced self-reported consumption of PMC. Mediation analyses indicated partial serial mediation via anticipated regret and intentions. The current study provided support for the efficacy of a daily messaging intervention targeting anticipated regret and encouraging self-monitoring in decreasing PMC. Outcomes showed the important mediating role of anticipated regret and intentions for reducing PMC.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.025
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Consumption of key food groups during the postpartum period in low-income,
           non-Hispanic black mothers
    • Authors: Melissa C. Kay; Heather Wasser; Linda S. Adair; Amanda L. Thompson; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Chirayath M. Suchindran; Margaret E. Bentley
      Pages: 161 - 167
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Melissa C. Kay, Heather Wasser, Linda S. Adair, Amanda L. Thompson, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Chirayath M. Suchindran, Margaret E. Bentley
      The postpartum period can impact diet quality and subsequently place women at greater risk for overweight or obesity. This study examined consumption of key food groups during the first 2 years postpartum among low income, non-Hispanic black, first-time mothers. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 mother–infant dyads, followed from 3 to 18 months postpartum, collected from 2003 to 2007. At each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months) 24-h dietary recalls were collected. Consumption levels were compared to those recommended from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) for each of the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, whole grains, protein foods and dairy, as well as an estimated upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. At each time point, mothers met recommended intake levels for grains and protein foods only. In random-intercept logistic regression models, no demographic or household characteristics were associated with a likelihood of consuming recommended levels for any of the food groups according to the DGAs. Given the low intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein foods and high intake of SSBs and refined grains, interventions targeting women's diet during the postpartum period are warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T14:34:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.023
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Reducing consumption of confectionery foods: A post-hoc segmentation
           analysis using a social cognition approach
    • Authors: Paul Naughton; Mary McCarthy; Sinéad McCarthy
      Pages: 168 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Paul Naughton, Mary McCarthy, Sinéad McCarthy
      Considering confectionary consumption behaviour this cross-sectional study used social cognition variables to identify distinct segments in terms of their motivation and efforts to decrease their consumption of such foods with the aim of informing targeted social marketing campaigns. Using Latent Class analysis on a sample of 500 adults four segments were identified: unmotivated, triers, successful actors, and thrivers. The unmotivated and triers segments reported low levels of perceived need and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in addition to high levels of habit and hedonic hunger with regards their consumption of confectionery foods. Being a younger adult was associated with higher odds of being in the unmotivated and triers segments and being female was associated with higher odds of being in the triers and successful actors segments. The findings indicate that in the absence of strong commitment to eating low amounts of confectionery foods (i.e. perceived need) people will continue to overconsume free sugars regardless of motivation to change. It is therefore necessary to identify relevant messages or ‘triggers’ related to sugar consumption that resonate with young adults in particular. For those motivated to change, counteracting unhealthy eating habits and the effects of hedonic hunger may necessitate changes to food environments in order to make the healthy choice more appealing and accessible.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.027
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Impact of Agaricus bisporus mushroom consumption on satiety and food
    • Authors: Julie M. Hess; Qi Wang; Clarissa Kraft; Joanne L. Slavin
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Julie M. Hess, Qi Wang, Clarissa Kraft, Joanne L. Slavin
      Previous studies on mushrooms suggest that they can be more satiating than meat, but this effect has not been studied with protein-matched amounts. The objective of this study was to assess the differences with satiety and ten-day food intake between A. bisporus mushrooms (226 g) and meat (28 g) in a randomized open-label crossover study. Thirty-two healthy participants (17 women, 15 men) consumed two servings of mushrooms or meat for ten days. On the first day, fasted participants consumed protein-matched breakfasts. Participants rated their satiety using visual analogue scales (VAS) at baseline and at regular intervals after the meal. Three hours later, participants were served an ad libitum lunch. Participants were given mushrooms or meat to consume at home for the following nine days. Energy intake was assessed at the ad libitum lunch, and participants also completed diet diaries on the day of the study, day 2, and day 10. Participants reported less hunger (p = 0.045), greater fullness (p = 0.05), and decreased prospective consumption (p = 0.03) after the mushroom breakfast. There were no significant differences in participant ratings of satisfaction (p = 0.10). There were also no statistically significant differences in energy intake at the ad libitum lunch or with the diet diaries from days 1 (p = 0.61), 2 (p = 0.77), or 10 (p = 0.69). Mushroom consumption did increase fiber intake on days 1, 2, and 10 but the difference in fiber consumption was only statistically significant on day 2 (p = 0.0001). The mushroom intervention also did not affect energy intake over the ten day feeding period.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.021
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Sensory properties of chile pepper heat – and its importance to food
           quality and cultural preference
    • Authors: Ivette Guzmán; Paul W. Bosland
      Pages: 186 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Ivette Guzmán, Paul W. Bosland
      Chile peppers are one of the most important vegetable and spice crops in the world. They contain capsaicinoids that are responsible for the characteristic burning (pungency) sensation. Currently, there are 22 known naturally occurring capsaicinoids that can cause the heat sensation when consumed. Each produces a different heat sensation effect in the mouth. A need exists for a standard and new terminology to describe the complex heat sensation one feels when eating a chile pepper. A comprehensive set of descriptors to describe the sensory characteristics of chile pepper heat was developed. It was validated with trained panelists tasting samples representing the five domesticated species and 14 pod-types within these species. Five key attributes that define and reference a lexicon for describing the heat sensation of chile peppers were determined to describe the heat sensation in any product, and importantly, can be used in the food industry worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.026
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • The effect of television watching and portion size on intake during a meal
    • Authors: Rachel Rosenthal; Hollie Raynor
      Pages: 191 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rachel Rosenthal, Hollie Raynor
      Watching television while eating and eating from larger portion sizes of food are factors that have been found to independently increase food intake. When combined, these factors may further enhance consumption. This investigation, using a 4 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial design, with a between-subjects factor of order of conditions and within-subjects factors of television watching (NO TV and TV) and portion size (SMALL and LARGE), tested the independent effects and interaction of these factors in seventeen women and three men (21.6 ± 2.3 kg/m2, 22.3 ± 3.7 years, 80% white and 95% non-Hispanic). In each condition, participants had 30 min to eat a meal containing macaroni and cheese and salad with dressing. For NO TV, participants sat for 30 min while eating, while for TV, participants viewed a 30-min show containing no food cues while eating. In SMALL the meal provided 1083 kcal, while in LARGE the meal provided 200% of SMALL. Mixed factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of portion size on grams and energy consumed of the total meal. Participants consumed more grams (577.9 ± 150.5 g vs. 453.1 ± 96.6 g; p < 0.001) and energy (903.9 ± 270.4 kcal vs. 734.6 ± 187.1 kcal; p < 0.001) in LARGE as compared to SMALL. No significant effect of television watching or interaction of television watching and portion size was found. Results of this study suggest that to assist with reducing intake, smaller portion sizes should be implemented in all types of eating situations.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.030
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • See food diet' Cultural differences in estimating fullness and intake
           as a function of plate size
    • Authors: Mei Peng; Sarah Adam; Michael J. Hautus; Myoungju Shin; Lisa M. Duizer; Huiquan Yan
      Pages: 197 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Mei Peng, Sarah Adam, Michael J. Hautus, Myoungju Shin, Lisa M. Duizer, Huiquan Yan
      Previous research has suggested that manipulations of plate size can have a direct impact on perception of food intake, measured by estimated fullness and intake. The present study, involving 570 individuals across Canada, China, Korea, and New Zealand, is the first empirical study to investigate cultural influences on perception of food portion as a function of plate size. The respondents viewed photographs of ten culturally diverse dishes presented on large (27 cm) and small (23 cm) plates, and then rated their estimated usual intake and expected fullness after consuming the dish, using 100-point visual analog scales. The data were analysed with a mixed-model ANCOVA controlling for individual BMI, liking and familiarity of the presented food. The results showed clear cultural differences: (1) manipulations of the plate size had no effect on the expected fullness or the estimated intake of the Chinese and Korean respondents, as opposed to significant effects in Canadians and New Zealanders (p < 0.05); (2) Canadian (88.91 ± 0.42) and New Zealanders (90.37 ± 0.41) reported significantly higher estimated intake ratings than Chinese (80.80 ± 0.38) or Korean (81.69 ± 0.44; p < 0.05), notwithstanding the estimated fullness ratings from the Western respondents were comparable or even higher than those from the Asian respondents. Overall, these findings, from a cultural perspective, support the notion that estimation of fullness and intake are learned through dining experiences, and highlight the importance of considering eating environments and contexts when assessing individual behaviours relating to food intake.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.032
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Study on the change and acculturation of dietary pattern of Southeast
           Asian workers living in South Korea
    • Authors: Eun Jung Lee; Kyung-Ran Lee; Seung-Joo Lee
      Pages: 203 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Eun Jung Lee, Kyung-Ran Lee, Seung-Joo Lee
      This study analyzed the dietary pattern of Southeast Asian workers (Vietnamese, Thais, Cambodians and Myanmar) living in South Korea in order to recognize the dietary changes after they moved to South Korea. Questionnaires were completed by 251 Southeast Asian workers living in South Korea. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we assessed the diets before and after living in the hometown and in South Korea. Significant changes observed in the Southeast Asian workers were decreased in consumption frequency of fresh fruits, cooked vegetables, rice noodles, green tea and glutinous rice, and increase in consumption of Kimchi, seaweed, milk, coffee and pizza. These changes were attributed to rapid dietary acculturation. The frequencies of eating homemade food were significantly decreased after they came to Korea except for Thais. Thais showed the highest frequencies of eating homemade food daily among others. 28.2% of respondents said their health condition had deteriorated after living in South Korea due to difficulties to adapt Korean food, increased frequencies of eating instant food, and lacking exercises. By providing understanding of the dietary patterns of Southeast Asian workers, these results can be used for preliminary data to develop a program for their Korean food adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.022
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Attribute importance segmentation of Norwegian seafood consumers: The
           inclusion of salient packaging attributes
    • Authors: Svein Ottar Olsen; Ho Huu Tuu; Klaus G. Grunert
      Pages: 214 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Svein Ottar Olsen, Ho Huu Tuu, Klaus G. Grunert
      The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.028
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • How important are the influencing factors to the decision on whether to
           provide seafood in infant and young child feeding'
    • Authors: Sharon A. Carstairs; Debbi Marais; Leone C.A. Craig; Kirsty Kiezebrink
      Pages: 224 - 233
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Sharon A. Carstairs, Debbi Marais, Leone C.A. Craig, Kirsty Kiezebrink
      Seafood is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced introductory diet however, consumption rates are low in young children. Research has previously investigated the influences to seafood consumption in consumers and non-consumers however the importance of these factors in mothers' decisions on whether to provide seafood for their child during the early years is unknown. This study aimed to measure the importance of factors that influence mothers' decisions on providing seafood for their child during infant and young child feeding (six months to four years). A mixed method Q methodology and cognitive interview approach was used with 32 mothers in Scotland. Despite a large consensus of opinion between mothers (n = 20) on the importance of factors on their decision-making, two viewpoints emerged highlighting an importance placed on food attributes and the infant, and convenience and family-centred. This study is the first to quantify the influences on the decision to provide seafood during early years’ feeding and could be used to inform and tailor seafood-based dietary promotions and interventions for parents.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.034
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Body weight loss, effective satiation and absence of homeostatic
           neuropeptide compensation in male Sprague Dawley rats schedule fed a
           protein crosslinked diet
    • Authors: Nikki Cassie; Richard L. Anderson; Dana Wilson; Anne Pawsey; Julian G. Mercer; Perry Barrett
      Pages: 234 - 246
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Nikki Cassie, Richard L. Anderson, Dana Wilson, Anne Pawsey, Julian G. Mercer, Perry Barrett
      Food structure contributes to the induction of satiation and the maintenance of satiety following intake of a meal. There is evidence from human studies that protein-crosslinking of a milk-protein based meal may enhance satiety, but the mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. We investigated whether a rat model would respond in a similar manner and might provide mechanistic insight into enhanced satiety by structural modification of a food source. Rats were schedule fed a modified AIN-93M based diet in a liquid form or protein-crosslinked to produce a soft-solid form. This was compared to a modified AIN-93M solid diet. Average daily caloric intake was in the order solid > liquid > crosslinked. Body composition was unaltered in the solid group, but there was a loss of fat in the liquid group and a loss of lean and fat tissue in the crosslinked group. Compared to rats fed a solid diet, acute responses in circulating GLP-1, leptin and insulin were eliminated or attenuated in rats fed a liquid or crosslinked diet. Quantification of homeostatic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus showed elevated levels of Npy and Agrp in rats fed the liquid diet. Measurement of food intake after a scheduled meal indicated that reduced energy intake of liquid and crosslinked diets is not due to enhancement of satiety. When continuously available ad-libitum, rats fed a liquid diet showed reduced weight gain despite greater 24 h caloric intake. During the dark phase, caloric intake was reduced, but compensated for during the light phase. We conclude that structural modification from a liquid to a solidified state is beneficial for satiation, with less of a detrimental effect on metabolic parameters and homeostatic neuropeptides.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.029
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Children's purchase behavior in the snack market: Can branding or lower
           prices motivate healthier choices'
    • Authors: Monika Hartmann; Sean B. Cash; Ching-Hua Yeh; Stefanie C. Landwehr; Anna R. McAlister
      Pages: 247 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Monika Hartmann, Sean B. Cash, Ching-Hua Yeh, Stefanie C. Landwehr, Anna R. McAlister
      Background Children's dietary-related diseases and their associated costs have expanded dramatically in many countries, making children's food choice a policy issue of increasing relevance. As children spend a considerable amount of money on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) products, a better understanding of the main drivers of children's independent food purchase decisions is crucial to move this behavior toward healthier options. Objective The objective of the study is to investigate the role of branding and price in motivating children to choose healthier snack options. Methods The study investigates snack choices of children ages 8 to 11, using a survey and a purchase experiment. The research took place in after-school programs of selected schools in the Boston area. Participants included 116 children. Products in the choice experiment differed on three factors: product type, brand, and price. Data were analyzed using aggregated and mixed logit models. Results Children's purchase decisions are primarily determined by product type (Importance Value (IV) 56.6%), while brand (IV 22.8%) and price (IV 20.6%) prove to be of less relevance. Only those children who state that they like the familiar brand reveal a preference for the branded product in their purchase decision. Price is a significant predictor of choice when controlling for whether or not children obtain an allowance. Conclusion It is not simple brand awareness but a child's liking of the brand that determines whether a brand is successful in motivating a child to choose a product. The extent of children's experience with money influences their price responsiveness. To the extent that children who receive an allowance are primarily the ones buying food snacks, higher prices for EDNP snacks could be successful in motivating children to choose a healthier option.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and
           obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters
    • Authors: Swantje Brede; Annika Sputh; Ann-Christin Hartmann; Manfred Hallschmid; Hendrik Lehnert; Johanna Klement
      Pages: 255 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Swantje Brede, Annika Sputh, Ann-Christin Hartmann, Manfred Hallschmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johanna Klement
      The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T14:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Hunger and disinhibition but not cognitive restraint are associated with
           central norepinephrine transporter availability
    • Authors: A. Bresch; M. Rullmann; J. Luthardt; G.A. Becker; M. Patt; Y.-S. Ding; A. Hilbert; O. Sabri; S. Hesse
      Pages: 270 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): A. Bresch, M. Rullmann, J. Luthardt, G.A. Becker, M. Patt, Y.-S. Ding, A. Hilbert, O. Sabri, S. Hesse
      The relationship between food-intake related behaviours measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and in vivo norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability has not been explored yet. We investigated ten obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2) and ten normal-weight healthy controls (HC, BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m2) with (S,S)-[11C]-O-methylreboxetine ([11C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET). All participants completed the TFEQ, which measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Image analysis required magnetic resonance imaging data sets onto which volumes-of-interests were drawn. Tissue time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET data followed by kinetic modeling of these regional brain TACs applying the multilinear reference tissue model (2 parameters) with the occipital cortex as reference region. Obese individuals scored significantly higher on the hunger subscale of the TFEQ. Correlative data analysis showed that a higher degree of hunger correlated negatively with the NET availability of the insular cortex in both obese individuals and HC; however, this finding was more pronounced in obesity. Further, for obese individuals, a negative correlation between disinhibition and NET BPND of the locus coeruleus was detected. In conclusion, these initial data provide in vivo imaging support for the involvement of the central NE system in maladaptive eating behaviors such as susceptibility to hunger.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.020
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • “It's not as easy as saying, ‘just get them to eat more veggies’”:
           Exploring healthy eating in residential care in Australia
    • Authors: Rachael Cox; Ruth Emond; Samantha Punch; Ian McIntosh; Kate Hall; Angela Simpson; Helen Skouteris
      Pages: 275 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rachael Cox, Ruth Emond, Samantha Punch, Ian McIntosh, Kate Hall, Angela Simpson, Helen Skouteris
      Young people living in residential out-of-home care (henceforth OoHC) are at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. Currently, recognition of the everyday mechanisms that might be contributing to excess weight for children and young people in this setting is limited. The aim of this study was to better understand the barriers and complexities involved in the provision of a ‘healthy’ food environment in residential OoHC. Heightening awareness of these factors and how they might compromise a young person's physical health, will inform the development, refinement and evaluation of more sensitive and tailored weight-related interventions for this population. The paper presents a nuanced picture of the complexity of everyday food routines in residential care, and illustrates the ways in which food is ‘done’ in care; how food can be both symbolic of care but also used to exercise control; the way in which food can be used to create a ‘family-like’ environment; and the impact of traumatic experiences in childhood on subsequent behaviours and overall functioning in relation to food. It is argued that a health agenda designed for a mainstream population ignores the very complex relationship that children in residential OoHC may have with food. It is recommended that future intervention approaches account for personal food biographies, trauma and children's social backgrounds and how these are implicated in everyday practices and interactions around food.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Eating behavior style predicts craving and anxiety experienced in
           food-related virtual environments by patients with eating disorders and
           healthy controls
    • Authors: Marta Ferrer-Garcia; Joana Pla-Sanjuanelo; Antonios Dakanalis; Ferran Vilalta-Abella; Giuseppe Riva; Fernando Fernandez-Aranda; Isabel Sánchez; Joan Ribas-Sabaté; Alexis Andreu-Gracia; Neli Escandón-Nagel; Osane Gomez-Tricio; Virginia Tena; José Gutiérrez-Maldonado
      Pages: 284 - 293
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Marta Ferrer-Garcia, Joana Pla-Sanjuanelo, Antonios Dakanalis, Ferran Vilalta-Abella, Giuseppe Riva, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Isabel Sánchez, Joan Ribas-Sabaté, Alexis Andreu-Gracia, Neli Escandón-Nagel, Osane Gomez-Tricio, Virginia Tena, José Gutiérrez-Maldonado
      Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weight-related (overweight/obesity) conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between eating behavior style and psychophysiological responses (self-reported food craving and anxiety) to food-related virtual reality (VR) environments in outpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and to compare them with healthy participants. Fifty-eight outpatients and 135 healthy participants were exposed to palatable foods in four experimental everyday real-life VR environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom and café). During exposure, cue-elicited food craving and anxiety were assessed. Participants also completed standardized instruments for the study purposes. ED patients reported significantly higher levels of craving and anxiety when exposed to the virtual food than healthy controls. Eating behavior styles showed strong associations with cue-elicited food craving and anxiety. In the healthy group, external eating was the only predictor of cue-elicited craving and anxiety. In participants with BN and BED, external and emotional eating were the best predictors of cue-elicited craving and anxiety, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • The relation between craving and binge eating: Integrating neuroimaging
           and ecological momentary assessment
    • Authors: Joseph A. Wonderlich; Lauren E. Breithaupt; Ross D. Crosby; James C. Thompson; Scott G. Engel; Sarah Fischer
      Pages: 294 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Joseph A. Wonderlich, Lauren E. Breithaupt, Ross D. Crosby, James C. Thompson, Scott G. Engel, Sarah Fischer
      The role of craving in binge eating characteristic of bulimia nervosa (BN) is inconclusive. A network of regions associated with cue reactivity to food and substances has been identified, comprised of the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and striatum. The goal of this study was to examine individual differences in BOLD response in this appetitive network as moderators of the relationship between craving and binging in the natural environment in women with BN. Women with BN (N = 16) completed a baseline measure of craving and a fMRI scan, where they viewed neutral cues and food cues. After each run, craving for food was assessed. Participants then completed an ecological momentary assessment six times a day via smart phone and recorded binge eating and craving. Participants exhibited significantly increased BOLD response in the left amygdala in response to food cues compared to neutral cues. However, individual differences in BOLD response were not correlated with self-report craving throughout the scan. The relationship between craving and binging in everyday life was moderated by individual differences in activation in the caudate, insula, and amygdala. Women with greater activation in these regions demonstrated significant increases in craving prior to binge eating. Those who did not exhibit increases in activation did not exhibit increases in craving prior to binge eating in the natural environment. Craving may not underlie binge eating for all individuals with BN. However, these results indicate that neural response to food cues may affect individual differences in the daily experience of craving and binge eating.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation and motives for eating
           palatable foods in African American adolescents
    • Authors: Catheryn A. Orihuela; Sylvie Mrug; Mary M. Boggiano
      Pages: 303 - 309
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Catheryn A. Orihuela, Sylvie Mrug, Mary M. Boggiano
      This study examines possible bidirectional relationships between emotion regulation and motives related to consuming palatable foods during adolescence. Participants included 79 adolescents (96% African American) who took part in Waves 2 and 3 of the Coping with Violence Study. The youth were recruited from four public middle schools serving low income, urban communities in Birmingham, AL. Participants completed self-report measures of emotion regulation and indicated different motives for consuming tasty foods and drinks at both waves. Results demonstrate that poorer emotion regulation at Wave 2 predicted more frequent endorsement of eating motives related to coping and conforming at Wave 3. Eating motives at Wave 2 were not associated with changes in emotion regulation at Wave 3. The results suggest that emotion regulation problems in adolescence may contribute to obesity and related negative outcomes through greater consumption of unhealthy food for coping and social conformity reasons.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Associations between sociocultural home environmental factors and
           vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3–5-year olds: BRA-study
    • Authors: Anne Lene Kristiansen; Mona Bjelland; Anne Himberg-Sundet; Nanna Lien; Lene Frost Andersen
      Pages: 310 - 320
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Anne Lene Kristiansen, Mona Bjelland, Anne Himberg-Sundet, Nanna Lien, Lene Frost Andersen
      The home environment is the first environment to shape childhood dietary habits and food preferences, hence greater understanding of home environmental factors associated with vegetable consumption among young children is needed. The objective has been to examine questionnaire items developed to measure the sociocultural home environment of children focusing on vegetables and to assess the psychometric properties of the resulting factors. Further, to explore associations between the environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3–5 year olds. Parents (n 633) were invited to participate and filled in a questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing this, along with a 24-h recall of their child's fruit and vegetable intake. Children's fruit and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten were observed by researchers. Principal components analysis was used to examine items assessing the sociocultural home environment. Encouragement items resulted in factors labelled “reactive encouragement”, “child involvement” and “reward”. Modelling items resulted in the factors labelled “active role model” and “practical role model”. Items assessing negative parental attitudes resulted in the factor labelled “negative parental attitudes” and items assessing family pressure/demand resulted in the factor labelled “family demand”. The psychometric properties of the factors were for most satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed, as expected, generally positive associations with “child involvement”, “practical role model” and “family demand”, and negative associations with “negative parental attitudes” and “reward”. Unexpectedly, “reactive encouragement” was negatively associated with vegetable consumption. In conclusion, associations between sociocultural home environmental factors and children's vegetable consumption showed both expected and unexpected associations some of which differed by maternal education – pointing to a need for further comparable studies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.06.031
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Night eating among veterans with obesity
    • Authors: Lindsey M. Dorflinger; Christopher B. Ruser; Robin M. Masheb
      Pages: 330 - 334
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Lindsey M. Dorflinger, Christopher B. Ruser, Robin M. Masheb
      The obesity rate is higher among veterans than the general population, yet few studies have examined their eating behaviors, and none have examined the presence of night eating and related comorbidities. This study examines night eating syndrome (NES) among veterans seeking weight management treatment, and relationships between NES and weight, insomnia, disordered eating, and psychological variables. The sample consisted of 110 veterans referred to a weight management program at VA Connecticut Healthcare System. More than one out of ten veterans screened positive for NES, and one-third screened positive for insomnia. Most individuals screening positive for NES also screened positive for insomnia. Night eating was associated with higher BMI, and with higher scores on measures of binge eating, emotional overeating, and eating disorder symptomatology. Veterans screening positive for NES were also significantly more likely to screen positive for depression and PTSD. When controlling for insomnia, only the relationships between night eating and binge and emotional eating remained significant. Those screening positive for PTSD were more likely to endorse needing to eat to return to sleep. Findings suggest that both NES and insomnia are common among veterans seeking weight management services, and that NES is a marker for additional disordered eating behavior, specifically binge eating and overeating in response to emotions. Additional studies are needed to further delineate the relationships among NES, insomnia, and psychological variables, as well as to examine whether specifically addressing NES within behavioral weight management interventions can improve weight outcomes and problematic eating behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Additive effects of sensory-enhanced satiety and memory for recent eating
           on appetite
    • Authors: Martin R. Yeomans; Millie Ruder Milton; Lucy Chambers
      Pages: 335 - 341
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Martin R. Yeomans, Millie Ruder Milton, Lucy Chambers
      The sensory characteristics of a product have been shown to interact with actual nutrient content to generate satiety. Separately, cued recall of recent eating has also been shown to reduce food intake. Here we explore for the first time how these two effects interact, with the hypothesis that sensory enhancement of satiety might be mediated by more vivid memory of the earlier consumed item. On each of two test sessions, 119 women volunteers consumed a control drink (lemonade) on one morning and then one of two test drinks on the next day 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. The test drinks were equicaloric but one was noticeably thicker and creamier, and expected to generate stronger satiety. Just prior to the test lunch, participants were asked to recall either the test drink (test recall) or the drink from the previous day (control recall). Overall, lunch intake was significantly lower after the thicker and creamier (enhanced sensory ES) than thinner (low sensory: LS) test drink (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.11) regardless of recall condition (p = 0.65, η2 < 0.01), but was significantly lower after the test than control recall condition (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.14). Rated hunger was lower after consuming the ES than LS drink both immediately after consumption (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.11) and prior to the test lunch (p = 0.007, η2 = 0.06), while rated hunger just before lunch tended to be lower after recalling the test than control drink (p = 0.052, η2 = 0.03) regardless of the sensory characteristics (p = 0.27, η2 = 0.01). Overall these data further demonstrate the power of ‘sensory-enhanced satiety’ and cued recall of earlier eating as methods to reduce acute food intake, but suggest these effects operate independently.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Food marketing with movie character toys: Effects on young children's
           preferences for unhealthy and healthier fast food meals
    • Authors: Helen Dixon; Philippa Niven; Maree Scully; Melanie Wakefield
      Pages: 342 - 350
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Helen Dixon, Philippa Niven, Maree Scully, Melanie Wakefield
      This study aimed to test whether movie tie-in premiums (MTIPs) accompanying unhealthy and healthier fast food meals influenced children's meal preferences and their perceptions of these meals. Nine hundred and four Grade 1 and 2 students (aged 5–9 years) from Melbourne, Australia participated in a between-subjects online experiment comprising the following conditions: (A) unhealthy and healthier meals with no MTIP (control); (B) unhealthy and healthier meals with MTIP (current situation in Australia); (C) unhealthy meals with MTIP and healthier meals without MTIP; (D) unhealthy meals without MTIP and healthier meals with MTIP. The latter condition tested a potential regulatory model restricting premiums to healthier meals. Participants were shown a trailer for a current children's movie followed by an advertisement for an associated McDonald's Happy Meal® (conditions B-D) or an advertisement for a children's leisure activity (condition A). They were then shown four McDonald's Happy Meal® options on screen and asked to select their preferred meal before completing detailed meal ratings. Overall, children showed a preference for unhealthy meals over healthier ones. Children were significantly more likely to select a healthier meal over an unhealthy meal when only the healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP (condition D) compared to the other three conditions. When healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP, children reported the meal looked better, would taste better, they would be more likely to ask their parents for this meal, and they would feel happier if their parents bought them this meal, compared to when the healthier meal was not accompanied by a MTIP. Results suggest that modifying the food marketing environment to restrict MTIPs to healthier meals should encourage healthier fast food meal choices by children.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Repetitive eating questionnaire [Rep(eat)-Q]: Enlightening the concept of
           grazing and psychometric properties in a Portuguese sample.
    • Authors: Eva M. Conceição; James E. Mitchell; Paulo P.P. Machado; Ana R. Vaz; Ana Pinto-Bastos; Sofia Ramalho; Isabel Brandão; Joana Botelho Simões; Marta de Lourdes; Ana Catarina Freitas
      Pages: 351 - 358
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Eva M. Conceição, James E. Mitchell, Paulo P.P. Machado, Ana R. Vaz, Ana Pinto-Bastos, Sofia Ramalho, Isabel Brandão, Joana Botelho Simões, Marta de Lourdes, Ana Catarina Freitas
      Background/objective Grazing has been associated with poor weight loss or weight regain in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, but research remains scarce and complicated by the use of different non-validated measures. The aim of this paper is to describe the validation of the Rep(eat)-Q, a self-report measure developed to assess grazing, and investigates its relationship with BMI and psychopathology. Subjects/Methods 1223 university students and community participants (non-clinical; Study A) and 154 pre-bariatric and 84 post-bariatric patients (Study B) completed a set of self-report measures, including the Rep(eat)-Q (worded in Portuguese), to assess disordered eating, depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses tested the factor structure; internal consistency construct, convergent and divergent validity were also tested. Results The Rep(eat)-Q scales showed good internal consistency (α ≥ 0.849) and temporal stability (r sp  = 0.824, p < 0.000). Factor analyses generated two subscales: compulsive grazing and repetitive eating. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between the Rep(eat)-Q and BMI in the non-clinical population and weight loss and weight regain in the bariatric sample. Generally, the correlations with psychological distress were weak (r sp  < 0 .4). Strong and significant (r sp ≥0.4; p's < 0.05) correlations were found between compulsive grazing and eating disorder psychopathology. Repetitive eating subscale was inversely correlated with cognitive restraint (r sp  −0.321, p < 0.05) and directly correlated with uncontrolled eating and emotional eating (r sp  = 0.754; r sp  = 0.691; p < 0.05). Discussion/conclusion The Rep(eat)-Q is a valid measure to assess grazing in non-clinical and in bariatric surgery populations. Grazing can be conceptualized on the spectrum of disordered eating behavior, and appears associated with loss of control over eating. Considering the link between grazing and weight outcomes, the Rep(eat)-Q represents a necessary strategy for the systematic screening of grazing.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Assessing parents’ receptiveness to a vegetable-focussed in-school
           nutrition intervention
    • Authors: Michelle I. Jongenelis; Simone Pettigrew; Iain S. Pratt; Shannon Wright; Gael Myers
      Pages: 359 - 364
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Michelle I. Jongenelis, Simone Pettigrew, Iain S. Pratt, Shannon Wright, Gael Myers
      Objective Crunch&Sip is an Australian school-based initiative designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables, and water among primary school children. To address the significant deficiencies in children's vegetable intake, the present study aimed to examine the responsiveness of parents (the main providers of food for Crunch&Sip) to a modified version of the program that focuses primarily on vegetable consumption. Participants A total of 329 Western Australian parents completed an online questionnaire examining their support for a vegetable focus for Crunch&Sip and any perceived barriers, motivators, and facilitators. Results Most (80%) parents were supportive of a shift to a vegetable focus for Crunch&Sip. Belief in the effectiveness of Crunch&Sip at improving children's attitudes towards vegetables and increasing children's vegetable consumption was found to be significantly associated with levels of support. The most commonly nominated motivator was to improve their children's eating habits and the main facilitator was the perceived ability of teachers and peers to influence children's food consumption behaviours. Identified potential barriers included the difficulties associated with providing a variety of vegetables, maintaining freshness, and the preparation time required. The primary suggested strategy to overcome these barriers was for schools to conduct education sessions to provide information about vegetable provision options. Conclusions and implications The results suggest that parents can be supportive of school-based nutrition programs that specifically encourage the consumption of vegetables but they may require guidance to reduce the identified barriers related to vegetable provision.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T19:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Deal or no deal' The prevalence and nutritional quality of price
           promotions among U.S. food and beverage purchases
    • Authors: Lindsey Smith Taillie; Shu Wen Ng; Ya Xue; Matthew Harding
      Pages: 365 - 372
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117
      Author(s): Lindsey Smith Taillie, Shu Wen Ng, Ya Xue, Matthew Harding
      Objective This study examines trends in the prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases, differences in prevalence by household race/ethnicity or income, and the association between price promotions and the nutritional profile of purchases. Design This cross-sectional study utilizes a dataset of 90 million purchases from 38,744 (2008) to 45,042 (2012) US households in 2008–2012. Chi-square tests were used to examine whether the proportion of purchases with price promotions changed over time or differed by household race/ethnicity or income. T-tests were used to compare purchased products’ nutritional profiles. Results Prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases increased by 8% and 6%, respectively, from 2008 to 2012, with both reaching 34% by 2012. Higher-income households had greater proportions of purchases with price promotions than lower-income households. Asian households had the highest proportion of purchases with any price promotion, followed by non-Hispanic whites. While total price-promoted packaged food purchases had higher mean energy, total sugar, and saturated fat densities than purchases with no price promotions, absolute differences were small. Conclusions Prevalence of price promotions among US household purchases increased from 2008 to 2012 and was greater for higher-income households. No clear associations emerged between presence of price promotions and nutritional quality of purchases.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 October 2017
      Source:Appetite, Volume 117

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T08:43:11Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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