for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2812 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Information Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 51)
Information Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 2.606, h-index: 91)
Information Security Technical Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 15)
Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.529, h-index: 53)
Infosecurity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 3)
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.545, h-index: 37)
Injury     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Injury Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 72)
InmunologĂ­a     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 7)
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 56)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.577, h-index: 51)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 75)
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.703, h-index: 75)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription  
Insulin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.175, h-index: 45)
Integration, the VLSI J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 24)
Integrative Medicine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.025, h-index: 54)
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.912, h-index: 33)
Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.696, h-index: 70)
Internet Interventions : The application of information technology in mental and behavioural health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.162, h-index: 2)
Intl. Biodeterioration & Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 57)
Intl. Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.936, h-index: 48)
Intl. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.353, h-index: 48)
Intl. Dairy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 87)
Intl. Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Emergency Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 23)
Intl. Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 12)
Intl. Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.97, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. for Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.76, h-index: 100)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Drugs and Drug Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 30)
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 78)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 36)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.492, h-index: 55)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.861, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.93, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.234, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.752, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.522, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.721, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Epilepsy     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.916, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.614, h-index: 121)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Gynecology & Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 65)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 116)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 76)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.338, h-index: 122)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.29, h-index: 66)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.913, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.801, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.017, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 1.295, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.363, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.886, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.387, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.507, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.947, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.173, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.435, h-index: 74)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.979, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.143, h-index: 52)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.934, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.316, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.249, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.887, h-index: 51)

  First | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | Last

Journal Cover   Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Effect of meal portion size choice on plate waste generation among
           patients with different nutritional status. An investigation using Dietary
           Intake Monitoring System (DIMS)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): K.T. Ofei , M. Holst , H.H. Rasmussen , B.E. Mikkelsen
      Background: The trolley meal system allows hospital patients to select food items and portion sizes directly from the food trolley. The nutritional status of the patient may be compromised if portions selected do not meet recommended intakes for energy, protein and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate: (1) the portion size served, consumed and plate waste generated, (2) the extent to which the size of meal portions served contributes to daily recommended intakes for energy and protein, (3) the predictive effect of the served portion sizes on plate waste in patients screened for nutritional risk by NRS-2002, and (4) to establish the applicability of the dietary intake monitoring system (DIMS) as a technique to monitor plate waste. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in two hospital wards over five weekdays. The DIMS was used to collect paired before- and after-meal consumption photos and measure the weight of plate content. Results: The proportion of energy and protein consumed by both groups at each meal session could contribute up to 15% of the total daily recommended intake. Linear mixed model identified a positive relationship between meal portion size and plate waste (P = 0.002) and increased food waste in patients at nutritional risk during supper (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meal portion size was associated with the level of plate waste produced. Being at nutritional risk further increased the extent of waste, regardless of the portion size served at supper. The use of DIMS as an innovative technique might be a promising way to monitor plate waste for optimizing meal portion size servings and minimizing food waste.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Nutritional advice from George Orwell. Exploring the social mechanisms
           behind the overconsumption of unhealthy foods by people with low
           socio-economic status
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Morten H. Larsen
      Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the “social gradient” on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought – the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book “The Road to Wigan Pier” on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general “de-socialization” of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as “food” sociologist (Smith & Holm, 2010).


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and depression on the
           relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Vasiliki Michopoulos , Abigail Powers , Carla Moore , Stephanie Villarreal , Kerry J. Ressler , Bekh Bradley
      Exposure to childhood adversity is implicated in the etiology of adverse health outcomes, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obesity. The relationship between childhood trauma and obesity may be related to the association of childhood trauma and risk for emotional eating. One pathway between trauma exposure, psychopathology, and emotional eating may be through emotion dysregulation and depression. The current study was undertaken to characterize demographic, environmental, and psychological risk factors for emotional eating in a primarily African American, low socioeconomic status (SES), inner-city population (N = 1110). Emotional eating was measured using the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire and the Emotional Dysregulation Scale was used to assess emotion regulation. The Beck Depression Inventory and the modified PTSD Symptom Scale were used to assess depression and PTSD, respectively. Higher levels of emotional eating were associated with body mass index, income, childhood and adulthood trauma exposure, depressive and PTSD symptoms, negative affect and emotion dysregulation. Childhood emotional abuse was the most associated with emotional eating in adulthood. Hierarchical linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the association between childhood trauma exposure (and emotional abuse specifically) and emotional eating was fully mediated by depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation, with emotional dysregulation contributing more to the mediation effect. Together these findings support a model in which obesity and related adverse health outcomes in stress- and trauma-exposed populations may be directly related to self-regulatory coping strategies accompanying emotion dysregulation. Our data suggest that emotion dysregulation is a viable therapeutic target for emotional eating in at-risk populations.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Savouring morality. Moral satisfaction renders food of ethical origin
           subjectively tastier
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Boyka Bratanova , Christin-Melanie Vauclair , Nicolas Kervyn , Sandy Schumann , Robert Wood , Olivier Klein
      Past research has shown that the experience of taste can be influenced by a range of external cues, especially when they concern food's quality. The present research examined whether food's ethicality – a cue typically unrelated to quality – can also influence taste. We hypothesised that moral satisfaction with the consumption of ethical food would positively influence taste expectations, which in turn will enhance the actual taste experience. This enhanced taste experience was further hypothesised to act as a possible reward mechanism reinforcing the purchase of ethical food. The resulting ethical food → moral satisfaction  → enhanced taste expectations and experience → stronger intentions to buy/willingness to pay model was validated across four studies: one large scale international survey (Study 1) and three experimental studies involving actual food consumption of different type of ethical origin – organic (Study 2), fair trade (Study 3a) and locally produced (Study 3b). Furthermore, endorsement of values relevant to the food's ethical origin moderated the effect of food's origin on moral satisfaction, suggesting that the model is primarily supported for people who endorse these values.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Jared Piazza , Matthew B. Ruby , Steve Loughnan , Mischel Luong , Juliana Kulik , Hanne M. Watkins , Mirra Seigerman
      Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns – that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice – are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%–91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3–5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Confirmatory factor analysis of the Feeding Emotions Scale. A measure of
           parent emotions in the context of feeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Leslie Frankel , Jennifer O. Fisher , Thomas G. Power , Tzu-An Chen , Matthew B. Cross , Sheryl O. Hughes
      Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent–child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent–child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools that assess parent affect in the context of feeding. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure parent affect specific to the feeding context and determine its validity and reliability. A brief instrument consisting of 20 items was developed that specifically asks how parents feel during the feeding process. This brief instrument draws on the structure of a well-validated general affect measure. A total of 296 Hispanic and Black Head Start parents of preschoolers completed the Feeding Emotions Scale along with other parent-report measures as part of a larger study designed to better understand feeding interactions during the dinner meal. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model with independent subscales of positive affect and negative affect (Cronbach's alphas of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). Concurrent and convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the subscales of the Feeding Emotions Scale with positive emotionality and negative emotionality from the Differential Emotions Scale – a measure of general adult emotions. Concurrent and convergent criterion validity was evaluated by testing mean differences in affect across parent feeding styles using ANOVA. A significant difference was found across maternal weight status for positive feeding affect. The resulting validated measure can be used to assess parent affect in studies of feeding to better understand how interactions during feeding may impact the development of child eating behaviors and possibly weight status.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Parental perception of child weight in the first two years-of-life: a
           potential link between infant feeding and preschoolers' diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Salma M.A. Musaad , Sharon M. Donovan , Barbara H. Fiese
      Approximately 23% of preschoolers are overweight or obese. Establishing a healthy dietary lifestyle at an early age can improve later child diet and body weight. This study examined the determinants of past infant feeding practices that do not follow standard feeding recommendations (breastfeeding for less than 6 months duration, cow's milk prior to the first year of age and solid foods at or before 4 months of age). It also examined the role of parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life on past infant feeding practices as well as current child diet and body weight. Families of 497 preschoolers aged 22–63 months (39.0 ± 8.2) were recruited from 30 child care centers in East-Central Illinois. Main findings indicate that past infant feeding practices were common and varied by socio-demographic factors including race/ethnicity, parental education and child gender. Children perceived as overweight in the first 2 years-of-life tended to breastfeed for lesser duration. Additionally, the majority (79.8%) of preschoolers who were classified as overweight using BMI percentile were perceived as non-overweight by the parent in the first 2 years-of-life. Mean daily total fatty/sugary food intake was higher among those perceived to be non-overweight in the first 2 years-of-life. These findings have identified parental perception of child weight in the first 2 years-of-life as a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy child diet and obesity among preschoolers.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Crossmodal integration between visual linguistic information and flavour
           perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Eugenia Razumiejczyk , Guillermo Macbeth , Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos , Kimihiro Noguchi
      Many studies have found processing interference in working memory when complex information that enters the cognitive system from different modalities has to be integrated to understand the environment and promote adjustment. Here, we report on a Stroop study that provides evidence concerned with the crossmodal processing of flavour perception and visual language. We found a facilitation effect in the congruency condition. Acceleration was observed for incomplete words and anagrams compared to complete words. A crossmodal completion account is presented for such findings. It is concluded that the crossmodal integration between flavour and visual language perception requires the active participation of top-down and bottom-up processing.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption
           portion size effect in males?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Eric Robinson , Wesselien te Raa , Charlotte A. Hardman
      Larger portions increase energy intake (the ‘portion size effect’); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a ‘pre-consumption portion size effect’). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Binge eating in bariatric surgery candidates: The role of insecure
           attachment and emotion regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Sharry Shakory , Jessica Van Exan , Jennifer S. Mills , Sanjeev Sockalingam , Leah Keating , Marlene Taube-Schiff
      Binge eating has a high prevalence among bariatric patients and is associated with post-surgical weight gain. This study examined the potential mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the relation between attachment insecurity and binge eating among this population. Participants were 1388 adult pre-bariatric surgery candidates from an accredited bariatric surgery assessment centre in Toronto, Ontario. Participants completed measures of psychological functioning, including attachment style and emotion regulation. Mediation analyses revealed that difficulties with emotion regulation mediated a positive association between insecure-anxious attachment and binge eating. An insecure-avoidant attachment was found to have a non-significant association with binge eating when examining the total effect. However, when difficulties with emotion regulation were controlled for in the model to examine its role as a mediator, this association became significant, and emotion regulation difficulties also mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and binge eating. These findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation may be an important clinical issue to address in order to reduce binge eating in adult bariatric surgery candidates.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • The role of action control and action planning on fruit and vegetable
           consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Guangyu Zhou , Yiqun Gan , Miao Miao , Kyra Hamilton , Nina Knoll , Ralf Schwarzer
      Globally, fruit and vegetable intake is lower than recommended despite being an important component to a healthy diet. Adopting or maintaining a sufficient amount of fruit and vegetables in one's diet may require not only motivation but also self-regulatory processes. Action control and action planning are two key volitional determinants that have been identified in the literature; however, it is not fully understood how these two factors operate between intention and behavior. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the roles of action control and action planning as mediators between intentions and dietary behavior. A longitudinal study with three points in time was conducted. Participants (N = 286) were undergraduate students and invited to participate in a health behavior survey. At baseline (Time 1), measures of intention and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. Two weeks later (Time 2), action control and action planning were assessed as putative sequential mediators. At Time 3 (two weeks after Time 2), fruit and vegetable consumption was measured as the outcome. The results revealed action control and action planning to sequentially mediate between intention and subsequent fruit and vegetable intake, controlling for baseline behavior. Both self-regulatory constructs, action control and action planning, make a difference when moving from motivation to action. Our preliminary evidence, therefore, suggests that planning may be more proximal to fruit and vegetable intake than action control. Further research, however, needs to be undertaken to substantiate this conclusion.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Anthony Worsley , Wei C. Wang , Melissa Burton
      Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%–78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%–69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (−0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • The association between diet quality and mental health during the
           perinatal period. A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Rachel Baskin , Briony Hill , Felice N. Jacka , Adrienne O'Neil , Helen Skouteris
      Background: While maternal nutrition during pregnancy is known to play a critical role in the health of both mother and offspring, the magnitude of this association has only recently been realized. Novel, epigenetic data suggest that maternal dietary intake has permanent phenotypic consequences for offspring, highlighting the potency of antenatal diet. To date, the relationship between poor antenatal diet and maternal mental health specifically, remains poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review evidence that has examined associations between antenatal diet quality and the experience of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms during the perinatal period. Methods: A search for peer-reviewed papers was conducted using Medline Complete, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Academic Search Premiere and Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection. Results: Nine studies (cohort = 4, cross-sectional = 5) published between 2005 and 2013 were eligible for inclusion in this review. A synthesis of findings revealed positive associations between poor quality and unhealthy diets and antenatal depressive and stress symptoms. Healthy diets were inversely associated with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms. Postnatal depressive symptoms demonstrated inconsistent results. Conclusions: Given the paucity of research examining diet quality and mental health in women during the perinatal period, further sufficiently powered studies are urgently required to examine this association.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Automatic approach/avoidance tendencies towards food and the course of
           anorexia nervosa
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Renate A.M. Neimeijer , Peter J. de Jong , Anne Roefs
      Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of automatic approach/avoidance tendencies for food in Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We used a longitudinal approach and tested whether a reduction in eating disorder symptoms is associated with enhanced approach tendencies towards food and whether approach tendencies towards food at baseline are predictive for treatment outcome after one year follow up. Method: The Affective Simon Task-manikin version (AST-manikin) was administered to measure automatic approach/avoidance tendencies towards high-caloric and low-caloric food in young AN patients. Percentage underweight and eating disorder symptoms as indexed by the EDE-Q were determined both during baseline and at one year follow up. Results: At baseline anorexia patients showed an approach tendency for low caloric food, but not for high caloric food, whereas at 1 year follow up, they have an approach tendency for both high and low caloric food. Change in approach bias was neither associated with change in underweight nor with change in eating disorder symptoms. Strength of approach/avoidance tendencies was not predictive for percentage underweight. Discussion: Although approach tendencies increased after one year, approach tendencies were neither associated with concurrent change in eating disorder symptoms nor predictive for treatment success as indexed by EDE-Q. This implicates that, so far, there is no reason to add a method designed to directly target approach/avoidance tendencies to the conventional approach to treat patients with a method designed to influence the more deliberate processes in AN.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Association of distorted eating behaviors with cardiometabolic risk
           indices in preadolescents. The Healthy Growth Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): George Moschonis , Alexandra Georgiou , Katerina Sarapi , Yannis Manios
      The association between distorted eating behavior (DEB) with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in children has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to examine the association between DEB with certain CMR indices in 9- to 13-year-old children in Greece. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 1803 schoolchildren from 77 primary schools in 4 counties of Greece with full data on DEBQ and ChEAT questionnaires and CMR indices. Children underwent anthropometric measurements and Tanner stage, serum lipid, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR levels assessments. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to test for the association between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices. Several significant associations between components of DEBQ and ChEAT with CMR indices were observed when tested at univariate regression models in both boys and girls. However, after adjusting for several possible confounders, including Tanner stage, all significant associations were lost in girls while only a few remained in boys. Thus, DEB might have an unfavorable effect also in certain CMR indices, besides nourishment status. This is more pronounced in preadolescent boys for whom hormonal changes due to the transition to adolescence have not yet been established compared to girls. Still further research is needed to shed more light on these associations.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the Clinical
           Impairment Assessment Questionnaire
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Josune Martín , Angel Padierna , Anette Unzurrunzaga , Nerea González , Belén Berjano , José M. Quintana
      The Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) assesses psychosocial impairment secondary to an eating disorder. The aim of this study was to create and validate a Spanish-language version of the CIA. Using a forward–backward translation methodology, we translated the CIA into Spanish and evaluated its psychometric characteristics in a clinical sample of 178 ED patients. Cronbach's alpha values, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and correlations between the CIA and the Eating Attitudes Test-12 and the Health-Related Quality of Life in ED-short form questionnaires evaluated the reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity, respectively. Known-groups validity was also studied comparing the CIA according to different groups; responsiveness was assessed by means of effect sizes. Data revealed a three-factor structure similar to that of the original CIA. Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.91 for the total CIA score supported its internal consistency and correlations with other instruments demonstrated convergent validity. The total CIA score and factor scores also significantly discriminated between employment status, evidencing known-groups validity. Responsiveness parameters showed moderate changes for patients with restrictive eating disorders. These findings suggest that the CIA can be reliably and validly used in Spain in a number of different clinical contexts, by researchers and clinicians alike.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Association between meal intake behaviour and abdominal obesity in Spanish
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Kristin Keller , Santiago Rodríguez López , Margarita M. Carmenate Moreno
      The study aims to evaluate the association between abdominal obesity with meal intake behaviour such as having a forenoon meal, having an afternoon meal and snacking. This cross-sectional study includes n = 1314 participants aged 20–79 who were interviewed during the Cardiac health “Semanas del Corazon” events in four Spanish cities (Madrid, Las Palmas, Seville and Valencia) in 2008. Waist circumference, weight and height were assessed to determine abdominal obesity (waist circumference: ≥88 cm in women and ≥102 cm in men) and BMI, respectively. The intake of forenoon and afternoon meal and snacking between the participants' regular meals were assessed with a questionnaire that also included individual risk factors. The information obtained about diet was required to calculate an Unhealthy Habit Score and a score reflecting the Achievement of Dietary Guidelines. Adjusted logistic regressions were used to examine the association between abdominal obesity and the mentioned meal intake behaviour controlling for sex, age, individual risk factors, BMI and diet. Having an afternoon meal (OR 0.60; 95% CI (0.41–0.88)) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity after adjusting for all confounders, whereas the positive association of snacking (OR 1.39; 95% CI (1.05–1.85)) was not independent of BMI (OR 1.25; 95% CI (0.84–1.87)). Taking a forenoon meal did not show any associations (OR 0.92; 95% CI (0.63–1.34)) with abdominal obesity. The results obtained could be helpful in the promotion of healthy habits in nutritional education programmes and also in health programmes preventing abdominal obesity.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • A nudge in a healthy direction. The effect of nutrition labels on food
           purchasing behaviors in university dining facilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Catherine E. Cioffi , David A. Levitsky , Carly R. Pacanowski , Fredrik Bertz
      Background: Despite legislation that requires restaurants to post nutritional labels on their products or menu items, the scientific literature provides inconsistent support for the idea that adding labels to foods will change buying patterns. Lack of success of previous research may be that sample sizes have been too small and durations of studies too short. Objective: To assess the effect of nutrition labeling on pre-packaged food purchases in university dining facilities. Design: Weekly sales data for a sample of pre-packaged food items were obtained and analyzed, spanning three semesters before and three semesters after nutritional labels were introduced on to the sample of foods. The labels summarized caloric content and nutrient composition information. Mean nutrient composition purchased were calculated for the sample of foods. Labeled food items were categorized as high-calorie, low-calorie, high-fat, or low-fat foods and analyzed for change as a function of the introduction of the labels. Setting: Data were obtained from all retail dining units located at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY where the pre-packaged food items were sold. Results: Results indicated that the introduction of food labels resulted in a 7% reduction of the mean total kcals purchased per week (p < 0.001) from the labeled foods. Total fat purchased per week were also reduced by 7% (p < 0.001). Percent of sales from “low-calorie” and “low-fat” foods (p < 0.001) increased, while percent of sales from “high-calorie” and “high-fat” foods decreased (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods in a large university dining hall produces a small but significant reduction of labeled high calorie and high fat foods purchased and an increase in low calorie, low fat foods.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Perceptions of university students regarding calories, food healthiness,
           and the importance of calorie information in menu labelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Ana Carolina Fernandes , Renata Carvalho Oliveira , Vanessa Mello Rodrigues , Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck Fiates , Rossana Pacheco Proença
      This study investigated Brazilian university students' perceptions of the concept of calories, how it relates to food healthiness, and the role of calorie information on menus in influencing food choices in different restaurant settings. Focus groups were conducted with 21 undergraduate students from various universities. Transcriptions were analysed for qualitative content, by coding and grouping words and phrases into similar themes. Two categories were obtained: Calorie concept and connection to healthiness; and Calorie information and food choices in restaurants. Calories were understood as energy units, and their excessive intake was associated with weight gain or fat gain. However, food healthiness was not associated to calorie content, but rather to food composition as a whole. Calorie information on restaurant menus was not considered enough to influence food choices, with preferences, dietary restrictions, food composition, and even restaurant type mentioned as equally or more important. Only a few participants mentioned using calorie information on menus to control food intake or body weight. Students' discussions were suggestive of an understanding of healthy eating as a more complex issue than calorie-counting. Discussions also suggested the need for more nutrition information, besides calorie content, to influence food choices in restaurants.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • The effects of TV unhealthy food brand placement on children. Its separate
           and joint effect with advertising
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Rodrigo Uribe , Alejandra Fuentes-García
      This paper examines the effect of unhealthy food brand placement on children across different age groups (9, 12 and 15 year-old children). Results show that both brand awareness, and the behavioral disposition (toward junk food and McDonald's) increased when children were exposed to this marketing technique (in comparison with the control group). In the case of age, older groups (12–15) performed better in brand awareness, but scored lower in behavioral disposition than the 9-year-old group. Moreover, the joint use of advertising and placement (synergy) increased the effect of these communication tactics on children. Results are discussed in terms of previous results of the studies providing evidence of the influence of promotional tools of junk food on children.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and
           sport facility eating environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Dana Lee Olstad , Julianne Vermeer , Linda J. McCargar , Rachel J.L. Prowse , Kim D. Raine
      Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p < 0.05) and a reduction in sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p < 0.05) light items from baseline to the TLL period. The effectiveness of TLL did not differ according to any of the demographic or other factors examined in the survey. Average daily revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Lauren T. Williams , John Germov , Sascha Fuller , Maria Freij
      This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Acute responses to opioidergic blockade as a biomarker of hedonic eating
           among obese women enrolled in a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention
           trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Ashley E. Mason , Robert H. Lustig , Rashida R. Brown , Michael Acree , Peter Bacchetti , Patricia J. Moran , Mary Dallman , Barbara Laraia , Nancy Adler , Frederick M. Hecht , Jennifer Daubenmier , Elissa S. Epel
      There are currently no commonly used or easily accessible ‘biomarkers’ of hedonic eating. Physiologic responses to acute opioidergic blockade, indexed by cortisol changes and nausea, may represent indirect functional measures of opioid-mediated hedonic eating drive and predict weight loss following a mindfulness-based intervention for stress eating. In the current study, we tested whether cortisol and nausea responses induced by oral ingestion of an opioidergic antagonist (naltrexone) correlated with weight and self-report measures of hedonic eating and predicted changes in these measures following a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention. Obese women (N = 88; age = 46.7 ± 13.2 years; BMI = 35.8 ± 3.8) elected to complete an optional sub-study prior to a 5.5-month weight loss intervention with or without mindfulness training. On two separate days, participants ingested naltrexone and placebo pills, collected saliva samples, and reported nausea levels. Supporting previous findings, naltrexone-induced cortisol increases were associated with greater hedonic eating (greater food addiction symptoms and reward-driven eating) and less mindful eating. Among participants with larger cortisol increases (+1 SD above mean), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = −0.95, SE(b) = 0.40, 95% CI [−1.74, −0.15], p = .021. Naltrexone-induced nausea was marginally associated with reward-based eating. Among participants who endorsed naltrexone-induced nausea (n = 38), mindfulness participants (relative to control participants) reported greater reductions in food addiction symptoms, b = −1.00, 95% CI [−1.85, −0.77], p = .024, and trended toward reduced reward-based eating, binge eating, and weight, post-intervention. Single assessments of naltrexone-induced cortisol increases and nausea responses may be useful time- and cost-effective biological markers to identify obese individuals with greater opioid-mediated hedonic eating drive who may benefit from weight loss interventions with adjuvant mindfulness training that targets hedonic eating.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • The role of appeals to tradition in origin food marketing. A survey among
           Polish consumers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Paweł Bryła
      The frequency of the use of tradition in marketing is growing. Appealing to tradition reflects the need to have reference points, trust and stability. The perceived authenticity of a product is strongly connected with its origin, which is expressed by the factors of time (history), place (area), socialisation (local community) and naturalness (raw materials). The paper aims to examine consumer attitudes, preferences and behaviours regarding origin food in Poland. We carried out a survey in a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. According to our respondents, the characteristics differentiating origin food from conventional food include links with tradition as well as sensory and health properties. Referring to the typology proposed by van der Meulen, traditionality and territoriality are the most important characteristics of origin food. The perceived authenticity of origin products depends to the largest extent on such factors as: natural taste, product quality, sale in the region of origin and labelling. The most important determinants of origin food selection include: traditional recipe, taste, and product uniqueness.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Nutrition therapy in cachectic cancer patients. The Tight Caloric Control
           (TiCaCo) pilot trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Elisabeth De Waele , Sabrina Mattens , Patrick Honoré , Herbert Spapen , Jacques De Grève , Joeri J. Pen
      Background: Cancer is a common disease and many patients are diagnosed with advanced stages. Due to cancer generalization, patients may become ill-nourished and even cachectic. Malignancy-related cachexia is associated with worsening physical function, reduced tolerance to anticancer therapy and increased mortality. We assessed the effect of a patient-tailored nutritional approach in newly discovered, treatment-naive cancer patients with cachexia. Methods: In a randomized, single-blinded, controlled pilot study, patients were treated with either intensive, biometric parameter-oriented dietary counseling (nutrition therapy) compared to regular dietary counseling (control), before and during conventional cancer treatment. Twenty patients were enrolled over a one-year period, 10 receiving nutrition therapy and 10 controls. The primary endpoint was recovery of body composition after nutrition therapy. Secondary endpoints declined in morbidity and mortality with nutrition therapy. Results: Average weight evolution in the control group after 3, 6 and 12 months was 0.19 ± 7.87 kg, −9.78 ± 7.00 kg and −5.8 kg, and in the nutrition therapy group 0.69 ± 2.4 kg, 0.77 ± 2.58 kg and 1.29 ± 3.76 kg. Control patients had a significantly longer average hospital stay than subjects from the nutrition therapy group (37.6 vs. 3.4 days). Eight nutrition therapy patients and 1 control patient were still alive after 2 years. Conclusions: Nutrition therapy based on patient-specific biophysical parameters helps to maintain body weight and induces a more optimal nutritional balance in cachectic cancer patients. Moreover, survival in cancer patients improved when their nutritional status, even partially, ameliorated.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Cohabitational effect of grandparents on dietary intake among young
           Japanese women and their mothers living together. A multicenter
           cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Satomi Kobayashi , Keiko Asakura , Hitomi Suga , Satoshi Sasaki
      We examined the cohabitational effect of the grandparents on dietary intakes among young Japanese women and their mothers, using data from a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 35 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Among a total of 2032 three-generation families, 1336 female dietetic students (18–20 years), 1336 of their mothers (36–59 years), and 1560 of their paternal or maternal grandmothers (59–94 years) were included. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed with self-administered diet history questionnaires. The prevalence of students and their mothers living with the grandparents (GP) was 36%. Students living with GP had a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, total dietary fiber, β-carotene, vitamin C and potassium and lower intake of meats than those living without GP. For mothers, fish and shellfish and vitamin C intakes were higher and meat intake was lower among participants living with GP. The median correlation coefficients of food and nutrient intakes in the students–grandmothers living together was higher than in those living apart for both paternal grandmothers (PGM) and maternal grandmothers (MGM) (all P < 0.01). The median values of mothers–PGM living together were also significantly higher than in those living apart (P < 0.01). However, the values of mothers–MGM did not significantly differ between those living with and without MGM. These results may suggest that family members who live together tend to share similar dietary habits. Further, the mother's dietary habits might affect those of their children even after they live apart.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Acceptability of new formulations of corn-soy blends and lipid-based
           nutrient supplements in Province du Passoré, Burkina Faso
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf , Tania Aase Dræbel , Christian Fabiansen , Bernardette Cichon , Vibeke Brix Christensen , Charles Yameogo , Christian Ritz , Mette Frahm Olsen , Henrik Friis
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of new formulations of six corn-soy blended flours (CSB) and six lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with different quantities of milk and qualities of soy to be used for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Furthermore, we wanted to explore the acceptability of foods currently used for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in Burkina Faso to identify possible barriers that could affect the acceptability of the new formulations of supplementary foods. The study was carried out prior to a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of these new formulations. The study involved an observed test-meal and a three-day take-home ration of the experimental food supplements to 6- to 30-months-old healthy children, followed by questionnaire-based interviews about the acceptability of these supplements. Interviews and focus group discussions were carried out to explore the acceptability of foods currently used for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition. The results suggest that both LNS and CSB products with different quantities of milk and qualities of soy are equally well accepted among healthy children in rural Burkina Faso based on general appreciation of the supplements and organoleptic properties. All experimental foods received good ratings and there was no significant difference between the foods. However, after the take-home ration, 58% of participants receiving CSB reported having left-overs at the end of the day compared to 37% (n = 33) of the participants receiving LNS (p = 0.004), suggesting that CSB was not as readily consumed as LNS. Yet, both CSB and LNS products were perceived as easy to administer and the frequency of feeding was estimated to be adequate. The study also found that similar foods, used for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition, were well appreciated in the study location. LNS were to a higher degree associated with medicine or foods with medicinal properties, but both LNS and CSB were perceived as beneficial to child health.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of
           food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Nicoletta Cavazza , Margherita Guidetti , Fabrizio Butera
      The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered “feminine food”, and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Human contact imagined during the production process increases food
           naturalness perceptions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Nathalie Abouab , Pierrick Gomez
      It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n = 69) and an experiment (n = 133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with
           chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate
           consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Adrian Meule , Julia M. Hormes
      The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Age- and gender-specific norms for the German version of the Three-Factor
           Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Antje Löffler , Tobias Luck , Francisca S. Then , Melanie Luppa , Claudia Sikorski , Peter Kovacs , Anke Tönjes , Yvonne Böttcher , Jana Breitfeld , Annette Horstmann , Markus Löffler , Christoph Engel , Joachim Thiery , Michael Stumvoll , Steffi G. Riedel-Heller
      The ‘Fragebogen zum Essverhalten’ (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour (‘cognitive restraint’, ‘disinhibition’ and ‘hunger’) as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40–79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, and 70–79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p < 0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p < 0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Eye gaze tracking reveals heightened attention to food in adults with
           binge eating when viewing images of real-world scenes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Avery Popien , Mallory Frayn , Kristin M. von Ranson , Christopher R. Sears
      Individuals with eating disorders often exhibit food-related biases in attention tasks. To assess the engagement and maintenance of attention to food in adults with binge eating, in the present study, eye gaze tracking was used to compare fixations to food among non-clinical adults with versus without binge eating while they viewed images of real-world scenes. Fifty-seven participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-second presentations of scenes containing high-calorie and/or low-caloriefood items in various settings (restaurants, social gatherings, etc.). Participants with binge eating fixated on both high-calorie and low-calorie food items significantly more than controls, and this was the case when the high- and low-calorie food items were presented in the same image and in different images. Participants with binge eating also fixated on food items significantly earlier in the presentations. A time course analysis that divided each 8-second presentation into 2-second intervals revealed that participants with binge eating attended to food items more than control participants throughout the 8-second presentation. These results have implications for theory regarding the initiation and maintenance of binge eating.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Leonard H. Epstein , Katelyn A. Carr , Jennifer L. Scheid , Eden Gebre , Alexis O'Brien , Rocco A. Paluch , Jennifer L. Temple
      Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The
           role of food neophobia
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Frances A. Maratos , Paul Staples
      Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias towards the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control for children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Janet M. Liechty , Jaclyn A. Saltzman , Salma M. Musaad
      The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD = 2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Vegetable parenting practices scale. Item response modeling analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Tzu-An Chen , Teresia M. O'Connor , Sheryl O. Hughes , Alicia Beltran , Janice Baranowski , Cassandra Diep , Tom Baranowski
      Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We also tested for differences in the ways item function (called differential item functioning) across child's gender, ethnicity, age, and household income groups. Method: Parents of 3–5 year old children completed a self-reported vegetable parenting practices scale online. Vegetable parenting practices consisted of 14 effective vegetable parenting practices and 12 ineffective vegetable parenting practices items, each with three subscales (responsiveness, structure, and control). Multidimensional polytomous item response modeling was conducted separately on effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Results: One effective vegetable parenting practice item did not fit the model well in the full sample or across demographic groups, and another was a misfit in differential item functioning analyses across child's gender. Significant differential item functioning was detected across children's age and ethnicity groups, and more among effective vegetable parenting practices than ineffective vegetable parenting practices items. Wright maps showed items only covered parts of the latent trait distribution. The harder- and easier-to-respond ends of the construct were not covered by items for effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices, respectively. Conclusions: Several effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices scale items functioned differently on the basis of child's demographic characteristics; therefore, researchers should use these vegetable parenting practices scales with caution. Item response modeling should be incorporated in analyses of parenting practice questionnaires to better assess differences across demographic characteristics.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Greater perceived ability to form vivid mental images in individuals with
           high compared to low BMI
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Barkha P. Patel , Katja Aschenbrenner , Daniel Shamah , Dana M. Small
      Obese individuals report more frequent food cravings than their lean counterparts. Since mental imagery plays a role in eliciting and maintaining craving we hypothesized that one's ability to image may be associated with body mass index (BMI) and account, at least in part, for the association between BMI and craving. Twenty-five participants (BMI range: 17.7 kg/m2–34.2 kg/m2) completed three measures of perceived mental imagery ability (The Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Olfactory Imagery Questionnaire, The Vividness of Food Imagery Questionnaire), and one measure of craving (Food-Craving Inventory). As predicted, correlation analyses revealed positive associations between BMI and perceived ability to image odors and foods, but not visual objects. Olfactory imagery was singled out as the best predictor of BMI in a hierarchical regression analysis. A second experiment with 57 participants (BMI range: 19.1 kg/m2–38.7 kg/m2) then confirmed the significant positive association between BMI and perceived ability to image odors. These results raise the possibility that imagery ability may play a role in the heightened food cue reactivity observed in obese individuals.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • “Food addiction is real”. The effects of exposure to this
           message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Charlotte A. Hardman , Peter J. Rogers , Rebecca Dallas , Jade Scott , Helen K. Ruddock , Eric Robinson
      Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N = 60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real (“Real” condition) or that food addiction is a myth (“Myth” condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p = .018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Attitudes and beliefs of Australian adults on reality television cooking
           programmes and celebrity chefs. Is there cause for concern?
           Descriptive analysis presented from a consumer survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): A.M. Villani , T. Egan , J.B. Keogh , P.M. Clifton
      Background: There is evidence suggesting that the nutritional content of recipes promoted by celebrity chefs or television cooking programmes contradict healthy eating guidelines. This study aims to investigate people's attitudes and beliefs about popular television cooking programmes and celebrity chefs. Methods: Males and females who watch television cooking programmes were recruited to participate in a self-administered online questionnaire (22-items) which included multiple-choice and rank order questions. Results: A total of n = 207 participants undertook the questionnaire with fully completed questionnaires available for n = 150 participants (Males, n = 22; Females, n = 128; aged 38.4 ± 14 years). The majority of respondents watch ≤30 minutes of television cooking programming per day (total responses, n = 153/207; 74%) with almost three-quarters (total responses, n = 130/175; 74%) having attempted a recipe. New cooking ideas (total responses, n = 81/175; 46%) and entertainment (total responses, n = 64/175; 36.5%) were the two main reasons participants gave for watching these programmes. Significantly more respondents believed recipes use excessive amounts of unhealthy fat, sugar or salt (unhealthy: 24%; healthy: 7%; P < 0.0001). Almost half of all respondents (total responses, n = 67/151; 44%) believed these programmes have no impact on their habitual diet. Discussion and Conclusion: Our results suggest television cooking programmes and celebrity chefs are unlikely to impact habitual dietary intake; rather, vicarious viewing and entertainment appear important factors relating to why people watch these programmes. However results generated from the present study are descriptive and subjective and further investigation into the impact of television cooking programmes and celebrity chefs on behavioural change requires attention. Further investigation including a systematic investigation into the dietary quality of recipes promoted by celebrity chefs against national healthy eating benchmarks is also warranted.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate
           consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Fania C.M. Dassen , Katrijn Houben , Anita Jansen
      Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate – both general and food-specific – and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p < .001) and negatively to the immediate subscale of the CFC-food (r = −.43, p < .001). The general CFC and discount rate (MCQ and MCQ-snack) were not related to healthy eating (all p > .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Influence of choice on vegetable intake in children: an in-home study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 91
      Author(s): Victoire W.T. de Wild , Cees de Graaf , Hendriek C. Boshuizen , Gerry Jager
      Children's vegetable consumption is still far below that recommended, and stimulating their intake is a challenge for caregivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether choice-offering is an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake in an in-home situation. Seventy children (mean age 3.7; SD 1) randomly assigned to a choice or a no-choice condition, were exposed 12 times to six familiar target vegetables at home during dinner. In the choice group, two selected vegetables were offered each time, whereas the no-choice group only received one vegetable. Vegetable intake was measured by weighing children's plates before and after dinner. A mixed linear model with age, gender, and baseline vegetable liking as covariates was used to compare intake between the choice and the no-choice group. Mixed linear model analysis yielded estimated means for vegetable intake of 48.5 g +/− 30 in the no-choice group and 57.7 g +/− 31 for the choice group (P = 0.09). In addition, baseline vegetable liking (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.06) predicted vegetable intake to be higher when the child liked vegetables better and with older age. These findings suggest that choice-offering has some, but hardly robust, effect on increasing vegetable intake in children. Other factors such as age and liking of vegetables also mediate the effect of offering a choice.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and
           healthy eating among women in a Latin American city
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Ietza Bojorquez , Claudia Unikel , Irene Cortez , Diego Cerecero
      Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward “healthy eating” could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional–modern–healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico–United States (US) border. Women 18–65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: “tortillas,” “hamburgers” and “vegetables.” Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the “hamburgers” pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the “vegetables” pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the “hamburgers” pattern.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals.
           Cross-sectional analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Jennifer Remnant , Jean Adams
      Background: Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. Methods: We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges (‘healthier’, luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. Results: 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of ‘healthier’ meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Conclusions: Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available – particularly amongst meals specifically marked as ‘healthier’. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as ‘healthier’.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Leonardo de Sousa Fortes , Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira , Saulo Melo Fernandes de Oliveira , Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino , Sebastião Sousa Almeida
      The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X2  = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R2  = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R2  = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R2  = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R2  = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R2  = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R2  = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R2  = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Menu label accuracy at a university's foodservices. An exploratory recipe
           nutrition analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Charles Feldman , Douglas Murray , Stephanie Chavarria , Hang Zhao
      The increase in the weight of American adults and children has been positively associated with the prevalence of the consumption of food-away-from-home. The objective was to assess the accuracy of claimed nutritional information of foods purchased in contracted foodservices located on the campus of an institution of higher education. Fifty popular food items were randomly collected from five main dining outlets located on a selected campus in the northeastern United States. The sampling was repeated three times on separate occasions for an aggregate total of 150 food samples. The samples were then weighed and assessed for nutrient composition (protein, cholesterol, fiber, carbohydrates, total fat, calories, sugar, and sodium) using nutrient analysis software. Results were compared with foodservices' published nutrition information. Two group comparisons, claimed and measured, were performed using the paired-sample t-test. Descriptive statistics were used as well. Among the nine nutritional values, six nutrients (total fat, sodium, protein, fiber, cholesterol, and weight) had more than 10% positive average discrepancies between measured and claimed values. Statistical significance of the variance was obtained in four of the eight categories of nutrient content: total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol (P < .05). Significance was also reached in the variance of actual portion weight compared to the published claims (P < .001). Significant differences of portion size (weight), total fat, sodium, protein, and cholesterol were found among the sampled values and the foodservices' published claims. The findings from this study raise the concern that if the actual nutritional information does not accurately reflect the declared values on menus, conclusions, decisions and actions based on posted information may not be valid.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old
           children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 September 2015
      Source:Appetite, Volume 92
      Author(s): Catarina Durão , Valeska Andreozzi , Andreia Oliveira , Pedro Moreira , António Guerra , Henrique Barros , Carla Lopes
      This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort – Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4–7 times/day; dairy 3–5 times/day; meat and eggs 5–10 times/week; fish 2–4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11–18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14–27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher possibility of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T10:15:47Z
       
  • Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases
           satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Eva-Lena Stenblom , Emil Egecioglu , Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
      Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p < 0.05), increased satiety (14% increase, p < 0.01), reduced cravings for all snacks and sweets during the day (36% reduction, p < 0.05), as well as cravings for salty (30%, p < 0.01); sweet (38%, p < 0.001); and sweet-and-fat (36%, p < 0.05) snacks, respectively, and decreased subjective liking for sweet (28% reduction, p < 0.01). The treatment effects on wanting all snacks, sweet-and-fat snacks in particular, were positively correlated to higher emotional eating scores (p < 0.01). The treatment effect of thylakoids on scores for wanting and liking were correlated to a reduced intake by treatment (p < 0.01 respectively), even though food intake was not affected significantly. In conclusion, thylakoids may be used as a food supplement to reduce hedonic hunger, associated with overeating and obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food.


      PubDate: 2015-04-30T18:59:44Z
       
  • Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and
           associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A
           cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Yong Xue , Eva Lee , Ke Ning , Yingdong Zheng , Defu Ma , Hongchong Gao , Baoru Yang , Ying Bai , Peiyu Wang , Yumei Zhang
      Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7–12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p < 0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: −0.332, 0.036; p = 0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: −0.533, −0.237; p < 0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: −0.563, −0.203; p < 0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth.


      PubDate: 2015-04-30T18:59:44Z
       
  • Parental control over feeding in infancy: influence of infant weight,
           appetite and feeding method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Alison Fildes , Cornelia HM van Jaarsveld , Clare Llewellyn , Jane Wardle , Abigail Fisher
      Background and Objective Parental control over feeding has been linked to child overweight. Parental control behaviours have been assumed to be exogenous to the child, but emerging evidence suggests they are also child-responsive. This study tests the hypothesis that parental control in early infancy is responsive to infant appetite and weight. Subjects and Methods Participants were 1920 mothers from the Gemini twin cohort, using one randomly selected child per family. Data comes from questionnaires completed when the children were approximately 8 months. Mothers completed measures of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, reported feeding method (breast- and bottle feeding), rated their infant's appetite during the first 3 months, provided health professional recorded weight measurements, and reported their concerns about their infant's weight. Logistic regression examined predictors of ‘pressure’ and ‘restriction’, adjusting for maternal demographics and BMI. Interactions between feeding method and control were also tested. Results ‘Pressure’ was associated with lower birth weight (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.97), greater concern about underweight (OR=1.88, 1.29–2.75), and lower infant appetite (OR=0.59, 0.47–0.75). ‘Restriction’ was associated with higher appetite (OR=1.44, 1.09-1.89) and bottle feeding (OR=2.86, 2.18-3.75). A significant interaction with feeding method indicated infants with high appetites were more likely to be restricted only if they were bottle-fed (OR=1.52, 1.13-2.04). Conclusion Mothers vary in their levels of control over milk-feeding and this is partly responsive to the infant's characteristics. They tend to pressure infants who are lighter and have a smaller appetite, and restrict infants with larger appetites if they are bottle-fed. Guidance on infant feeding may be better received if it acknowledges that parents respond to infant characteristics in order to achieve their feeding goals.


      PubDate: 2015-04-15T09:00:44Z
       
  • Making food labels social. The impact of colour of nutritional labels and
           injunctive norms on perceptions and choice of snack foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2015
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Milica Vasiljevic , Rachel Pechey , Theresa M. Marteau
      Recent studies report that using green labels to denote healthier foods, and red to denote less healthy foods increases consumption of green- and decreases consumption of red-labelled foods. Other symbols (e.g. emoticons conveying normative approval and disapproval) could also be used to signal the healthiness and/or acceptability of consuming such products. The present study tested the combined effects of using emoticons and colours on labels amongst a nationally representative sample of the UK population (n = 955). In a 3 (emoticon expression: smiling vs. frowning vs. no emoticon) × 3 (colour label: green vs. red vs. white) ×2 (food option: chocolate bar vs. cereal bar) between-subjects experiment, participants rated the level of desirability, healthiness, tastiness, and calorific content of a snack bar they had been randomised to view. At the end they were further randomised to view one of nine possible combinations of colour and emoticon labels and asked to choose between a chocolate and a cereal bar. Regardless of label, participants rated the chocolate as tastier and more desirable when compared to the cereal bar, and the cereal bar as healthier than the chocolate bar. A series of interactions revealed that a frowning emoticon on a white background decreased perceptions of healthiness and tastiness of the cereal bar, but not the chocolate bar. In the explicit choice task selection was unaffected by label. Overall nutritional labels had limited effects on perceptions and no effects on choice of snack foods. Emoticon labels yielded stronger effects on perceptions of taste and healthiness of snacks than colour labels. Frowning emoticons may be more potent than smiling emoticons at influencing the perceived healthiness and tastiness of foods carrying health halos.


      PubDate: 2015-04-09T20:42:41Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015