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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2970 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 2970 Journals sorted alphabetically
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.695, h-index: 63)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.476, h-index: 29)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 8.49, h-index: 101)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.44, h-index: 15)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.524, h-index: 25)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 4.97, h-index: 94)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 11.247, h-index: 87)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.148, h-index: 26)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.731, h-index: 74)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.505, h-index: 26)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.69, h-index: 80)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 5.234, h-index: 165)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.969, h-index: 30)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.635, h-index: 73)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.347, h-index: 84)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.822, h-index: 31)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.064, h-index: 63)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.017, h-index: 73)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 19)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.438, h-index: 24)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 10.736, h-index: 165)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.97, h-index: 41)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.174, h-index: 96)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.448, h-index: 31)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.03, h-index: 58)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.034, h-index: 53)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 76)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 62)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.528, h-index: 48)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access  
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription  
Psychiatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.549, h-index: 65)
Psychiatry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.297, h-index: 87)
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.013, h-index: 77)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.881, h-index: 13)
Psychologie Française     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.148, h-index: 9)
Psychology of Learning and Motivation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.076, h-index: 28)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 11)
Psychology of Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.956, h-index: 41)
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 7)
Psychoneuroendocrinology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.603, h-index: 107)
Psychosomatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.691, h-index: 72)
Public Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.751, h-index: 47)
Public Health Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.152, h-index: 3)
Public Relations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 34)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.953, h-index: 51)
Pump Industry Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 4)
Pure and Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription  
Quaderni Italiani di Psichiatria     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Quaternary Geochronology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.42, h-index: 31)
Quaternary Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.067, h-index: 63)
Quaternary Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.42, h-index: 78)
Quaternary Science Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.124, h-index: 113)
Radiation Measurements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.642, h-index: 62)
Radiation Physics and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 52)
Radioactivity in the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 9)
Radiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 16)
Radiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 7)
Radiologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.057, h-index: 62)
Radiology Case Reports     Open Access  
Radiology of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Radiotherapy and Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.894, h-index: 105)
Rare Metal Materials and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 62)
Recent Advances in Phytochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regenerative Therapy     Open Access  
Regional Science and Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.334, h-index: 45)
Regional Studies in Marine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.848, h-index: 76)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.832, h-index: 64)
Rehabilitación     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.105, h-index: 5)
Reinforced Plastics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.21, h-index: 10)
Reliability Engineering & System Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.471, h-index: 74)
Remote Sensing of Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 3.19, h-index: 146)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews     Partially Free   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.273, h-index: 97)
Renewable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.256, h-index: 82)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.16, h-index: 11)
Repertorio de Medicina y Cirugía     Open Access  
Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.293, h-index: 9)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.454, h-index: 24)
Reprodução & Climatério     Open Access  
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Health Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.839, h-index: 35)
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.021, h-index: 70)
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, h-index: 7)
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.977, h-index: 28)
Research in Developmental Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.09, h-index: 55)
Research in Economics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.208, h-index: 15)
Research in Intl. Business and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.463, h-index: 15)
Research in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.215, h-index: 68)
Research in Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.567, h-index: 31)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 18)
Research in Social Stratification and Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.78, h-index: 12)
Research in Transportation Business and Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.56, h-index: 3)
Research in Transportation Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.13, h-index: 13)
Research in Veterinary Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.645, h-index: 47)
Research Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.635, h-index: 129)
Resource and Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 38)
Resource-Efficient Technologies     Open Access  
Resources Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 25)
Resources, Conservation and Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.459, h-index: 59)
Respiratory Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.211, h-index: 11)
Respiratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.455, h-index: 78)
Respiratory Medicine Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.128, h-index: 6)
Respiratory Medicine CME     Hybrid Journal  
Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.828, h-index: 66)
Results in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 3)
Results in Pharma Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.34, h-index: 3)
Results in Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.211, h-index: 4)
Resuscitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.491, h-index: 89)
Reumatología Clínica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 10)
Review of Development Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 3)
Review of Economic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 4.757, h-index: 38)
Review of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 20)
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.945, h-index: 46)
Reviews in Physics     Open Access  
Reviews in Vascular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Argentina de Microbiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.259, h-index: 15)
Revista Argentina de Radiología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 6)
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Open Access  
Revista Clínica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 20)
Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Cancerología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ortopedia y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 21)
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de Calidad Asistencial     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 12)
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review     Open Access  
Revista de Gastroenterología de México     Open Access  
Revista de Gastroenterología de México (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista de la Educación Superior     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 9)
Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.21, h-index: 6)
Revista de Patología Respiratoria     Partially Free  
Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.268, h-index: 5)
Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista del Laboratorio Clínico     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.184, h-index: 3)
Revista del Pie y Tobillo     Open Access  
Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Artroscopia y Cirugía Articular     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cardiología     Open Access   (SJR: 0.592, h-index: 43)
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Cardiología Suplementos     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 8)
Revista Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 7)
Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.215, h-index: 11)
Revista Española de Investigación de Marketing ESIC     Open Access  
Revista Española de Medicina Legal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 3)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 6)
Revista Española de Patología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.118, h-index: 3)
Revista Hispanoamericana de Hernia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Cirugía de la Mano     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Fisioterapia y Kinesiología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 3)
Revista Iberoamericana de Micología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.432, h-index: 28)
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicologia y Salud     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Revista Internacional de Andrología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.179, h-index: 4)
Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Derecho Social     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología     Open Access  
Revista Médica Clínica Las Condes     Open Access  
Revista Médica de Homeopatía     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 2)
Revista Médica del Hospital General de México     Open Access  
Revista Médica Internacional sobre el Síndrome de Down     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Oftalmología     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Opinión Pública     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ortodoncia     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Trastornos Alimentarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Mexicana de Urología     Open Access  
Revista Odontológica Mexicana     Open Access  
Revista Paulista de Pediatria (English Edition)     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia, Medicina Dentária e Cirugia Maxilofacial     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.26, h-index: 9)
Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.305, h-index: 28)
Revue d'oncologie hématologie pédiatrique     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.135, h-index: 31)
Revue de Micropaleontologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 1.085, h-index: 18)
Revue de Pneumologie Clinique     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.16, h-index: 12)
Revue de Stomatologie et de Chirurgie Maxillo-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.233, h-index: 20)
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires Actualités     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Revue du Rhumatisme     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.109, h-index: 29)
Revue du Rhumatisme Monographies     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 3)
Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 12)
Revue Française d'Allergologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.116, h-index: 14)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [19 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Pregnant in a foreign city: A qualitative analysis of diet and nutrition
           for cross-border migrant women in Cape Town, South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Jo Hunter-Adams, Hanna-Andrea Rother
      How do migrant women navigate their food environment during pregnancy? Foods are imbued with new meanings in a new place, and in low-and-middle-income countries including South Africa, a changing food environment leaves the poor, including many migrants, vulnerable to malnutrition. Thus, one of the ways economic and social vulnerability may be experienced and reproduced is via the foods one consumes. Examining food perceptions in the context of pregnancy offers a potentially powerful lens on wellbeing. Methods Nine focus group discussions (N = 48) with Somali, Congolese, and Zimbabwean men and women, and 23 in-depth interviews with Congolese, Somali and Zimbabwean women living in Cape Town were conducted, exploring maternal and infant nutrition. We used thematic analysis to guide analysis. Results (1) Participants described longing for self-categorised “traditional” foods, yet had limited access and little time and space to prepare these foods in the manner they had back home. (2) Sought-after foods available—and even celebratory—for migrants in Cape Town during pregnancy tended to be calorie-dense, nutrient poor fast foods and junk foods. (3) The fulfilment of cravings was presented as the embodiment of health during pregnancy. (4) Iron-folic acid supplementation was perceived as curative rather than preventive. (5) While participants did not describe hunger during pregnancy, food scarcity seemed possible. Discussion Food perceptions during pregnancy reflected migrants’ orientation towards home. Fast foods were widely acceptable and available during pregnancy. These foods were not perceived to have negative health consequences. Nutrition interventions targeting migrants should consider the symbolic nature of food, the increasingly globalised food environment in urban LMIC settings, as well as the contexts in which health perceptions evolve.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T17:25:07Z
  • The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Katherine J. Barrett, Amanda L. Thompson, Margaret E. Bentley
      Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms—influence mothers’ infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T17:25:07Z
  • Development of an item bank for food parenting practices based on
           published instruments and reports from Canadian and US parents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Teresia M. O'Connor, Truc Pham, Allison W. Watts, Andrew W. Tu, Sheryl O. Hughes, Mark R. Beauchamp, Tom Baranowski, Louise C. Mâsse
      Research to understand how parents influence their children's dietary intake and eating behaviors has expanded in the past decades and a growing number of instruments are available to assess food parenting practices. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on how constructs should be defined or operationalized, making comparison of results across studies difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice item bank with items from published scales and supplement with parenting practices that parents report using. Items from published scales were identified from two published systematic reviews along with an additional systematic review conducted for this study. Parents (n = 135) with children 5–12 years old from the US and Canada, stratified to represent the demographic distribution of each country, were recruited to participate in an online semi-qualitative survey on food parenting. Published items and parent responses were coded using the same framework to reduce the number of items into representative concepts using a binning and winnowing process. The literature contributed 1392 items and parents contributed 1985 items, which were reduced to 262 different food parenting concepts (26% exclusive from literature, 12% exclusive from parents, and 62% represented in both). Food parenting practices related to ‘Structure of Food Environment’ and ‘Behavioral and Educational’ were emphasized more by parent responses, while practices related to ‘Consistency of Feeding Environment’ and ‘Emotional Regulation’ were more represented among published items. The resulting food parenting item bank should next be calibrated with item response modeling for scientists to use in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T17:25:07Z
  • Are food-related perceptions associated with meal portion size
           decisions? A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Michelle Spence, Violeta Stancu, Moira Dean, M. Barbara E. Livingstone, Eileen R. Gibney, Liisa Lähteenmäki
      The purpose of this study was to test a comprehensive model of meal portion size determinants consisting of sociodemographic, psychological and food-related variables, whilst controlling for hunger and thirst. Using cross-sectional nationally representative data collected in 2075 participants from the Island of Ireland (IoI) and Denmark (DK), eight separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between food-related variables and meal portion size (i.e. pizza, vegetable soup, chicken salad and a pork meal) within each country. Stepwise regressions were run with physiological control measures (hunger and thirst) entered in the first step, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, body mass index (BMI)) in the second step; psychological variables (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, general health interest (GHI)) in the third step and food-related variables (expected fillingness, liking, expected healthfulness, food familiarity) in the fourth step. Sociodemographic variables accounted for 2–19% of the variance in meal portion sizes; psychological variables explained an additional 3–8%; and food-related variables explained an additional 2–12%. When all four variable groups were included in the regression models, liking and sometimes expected healthfulness was positively associated with meal portion size. The strongest association was for liking, which was statistically significant in both countries for all meal types. Whilst expected healthfulness was not associated with pizza portion size in either country, it was positively associated with meals that have a healthier image (vegetable soup; chicken salad and in IoI, the pork meal). In conclusion, after considering sociodemographic and psychological variables, and the food-related variables of liking and expected healthfulness, there may be little merit in manipulating the satiating power, at least of these type of meals, to maintain or promote weight loss.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T17:25:07Z
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 102

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Negative stereotypes of the Scottish diet: A qualitative analysis of
           deep-fried Mars bar references in bestselling newspapers in Scotland,
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Christine Knight
      The Scottish diet is associated in the UK media and popular discourse with unhealthy deep-fried foods. In addition to the stereotype's negative effects on perceptions of Scottish food, culture and people, there is evidence that the stereotype of the Scottish diet has negative effects on food behaviour and public health in Scotland, having been shown to encourage consumption of deep-fried foods and discourage positive dietary change. The most notorious deep-fried food associated with Scotland is the deep-fried Mars bar (DFMB), arguably invented in Stonehaven (near Aberdeen), and first reported in the Scottish and UK press in 1995. This article reports findings from an analysis of newspaper references to the DFMB in the two highest selling newspapers in Scotland, the Scottish Sun and the Daily Record, between 2011 and 2014. A keyword search (“deep fried Mars bar”) using the online media database Lexis Library generated 97 unique records, and the resulting dataset was analysed thematically and discursively. Analysis showed that both newspapers clearly associated the DFMB with Scotland. Further, both newspapers portrayed the DFMB and the broader “deep-fried” Scottish diet stereotype ambivalently (mixed positive and negative associations). However, the Daily Record actively criticised the DFMB stereotype much more often than did the Scottish Sun. These findings suggest that the Scottish population encounters different messages in the press about food and nutrition from people elsewhere in the UK, and that these messages vary depending on choice of media in Scotland. Given the known negative effects of the stereotype, differences in Scottish media discourse should be considered a potential factor in persistent health inequalities affecting Scotland. Educational efforts, and opening discussion with journalists and amongst the Scottish public, may be helpful.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic
           countries between 1997 and 2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Lotte Holm, Drude Lauridsen, Thomas Bøker Lund, Jukka Gronow, Mari Niva, Johanna Mäkelä
      How have eating patterns changed in modern life? In public and academic debate concern has been expressed that the social function of eating may be challenged by de-structuration and the dissolution of traditions. We analyzed changes in the social context and conduct of eating in four Nordic countries over the period 1997–2012. We focused on three interlinked processes often claimed to be distinctive of modern eating: delocalization of eating from private households to commercial settings, individualization in the form of more eating alone, and informalization, implying more casual codes of conduct. We based the analysis on data from two surveys conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012. The surveys reported in detail one day of eating in representative samples of adult populations in the four countries (N = 4823 and N = 8242). We compared data regarding where, with whom, and for how long people ate, and whether parallel activities took place while eating. While Nordic people's primary location for eating remained the home and the workplace, the practices of eating in haste, and while watching television increased and using tablets, computers and smartphones while eating was frequent in 2012. Propensity to eat alone increased slightly in Denmark and Norway, and decreased slightly in Sweden. While such practices vary with socio-economic background, regression analysis showed several changes were common across the Nordic populations. However, the new practice of using tablets, computers, and smartphones while eating was strongly associated with young age. Further, each of the practices appeared to be related to different types of meal. We conclude that while the changes in the social organization of eating were not dramatic, signs of individualization and informalization could be detected.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Consumption of caffeinated beverages and the awareness of their caffeine
           content among Dutch students
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Marlou Mackus, Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo, Sarah Benson, Andrew Scholey, Joris C. Verster
      The purpose of the current study was to examine the knowledge of caffeine content of a variety of caffeinated beverages among Dutch university students. A pencil-and-paper survey was conducted among N = 800 Dutch students. Most participants (87.8%) reported consuming caffeinated beverages during the past 24 h. Their mean ± SD past 24-h caffeine intake from beverages was 144.2 ± 169.5 mg (2.2 ± 3.0 mg/kg bw). Most prevalent sources of caffeine were coffee beverages (50.8%) and tea (34.8%), followed by energy drink (9.2%), cola (4.7%), and chocolate milk (0.5%). Participants had poor knowledge on the relative caffeine content of caffeinated beverages. That is, they overestimated the caffeine content of energy drinks and cola, and underestimated the caffeine content of coffee beverages. If caffeine consumption is a concern, it is important to inform consumers about the caffeine content of all caffeine containing beverages, including coffee and tea. The current findings support previous research that the most effective way to reduce caffeine intake is to limit the consumption of coffee beverages and tea.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Strategies to improve the Willingness to Taste: The moderating role of
           children's Reward Sensitivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Laura Vandeweghe, Sandra Verbeken, Ellen Moens, Leentje Vervoort, Caroline Braet
      The present study investigates the effectiveness of different strategies to improve Willingness to Taste disliked vegetables and the moderating role of Reward Sensitivity. Preschool children (N = 204; age: M = 4.48, SD = 1.01) were randomly allocated to one of four different Willingness to Taste strategies. The findings indicate that first, Willingness to Taste is higher in the modelling and reward strategies compared to neutral instructions. Second, there is a differential effect of Willingness to Taste strategies dependent upon individual differences: children high in Reward Sensitivity were more likely to taste immediately when rewarded, while children low in Reward Sensitivity were more willing to taste when verbally encouraged, but with hesitation. This article thus highlights the roles of both individual differences and behavioral techniques for promoting a healthy diet in children.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Food preferences and weight change during low-fat and low-carbohydrate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Megan A. McVay, Corrine I. Voils, Paula J. Geiselman, Valerie A. Smith, Cynthia J. Coffman, Stephanie Mayer, William S. Yancy
      Understanding associations between food preferences and weight loss during various effective diets could inform efforts to personalize dietary recommendations and provide insight into weight loss mechanisms. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial in which participants were randomized to either a ‘choice’ arm, in which they were allowed to select between a low-fat diet (n = 44) or low-carbohydrate diet (n = 61), or to a ‘no choice’ arm, in which they were randomly assigned to a low-fat diet (n = 49) or low-carbohydrate diet (n = 53). All participants were provided 48 weeks of lifestyle counseling. Food preferences were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks thereafter with the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire. Participants were 73% male and 51% African American, with a mean age of 55. Baseline food preferences, including congruency of food preferences with diet, were not associated with weight outcomes. In the low-fat diet group, no associations were found between changes in food preferences and weight over time. In the low-carbohydrate diet group, increased preference for low-carbohydrate diet congruent foods from baseline to 12 weeks was associated with weight loss from 12 to 24 weeks. Additionally, weight loss from baseline to 12 weeks was associated with increased preference for low-carbohydrate diet congruent foods from 12 to 24 weeks. Results suggest that basing selection of low-carbohydrate diet or low-fat diet on food preferences is unlikely to influence weight loss. Congruency of food preferences and weight loss may influence each other early during a low-carbohydrate diet but not low-fat diet, possibly due to different features of these diets. Clinical trial registry NCT01152359.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Acculturation and environmental factors influencing dietary behaviors and
           body mass index of Chinese students in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Beiwen Wu, Chery Smith
      Focus groups (n = 7) were conducted with Chinese students (n = 43) studying in the USA to determine how acculturation and environmental factors influence dietary behavior and body mass index (BMI). This study used mixed methodology, collecting both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (24-h dietary recalls, food adoption scores, degree of acculturation, and height and weight measures) data. Themes emerging from focus group discussions were: a) dietary and social acculturation, b) factors influencing food intake, c) cultural importance of food, and d) changes in weight and BMI status. Environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors appear to have impacted the eating behaviors of the students. Because of the nature of the study, self-reported heights and weights were used to calculate BMI while living in China and actual heights and weights were taken for each student at the focus group to calculate current BMI after living in the USA. The majority of Chinese students (69% males; 85% females) experienced weight gain, resulting in an increased BMI based on weight/height data and as reported in focus group discussions. As a result, if students continue to gain weight, they may be at higher risk of developing chronic diseases in the future. Further, implemented dietary change may be transferred to other family members if students return to China. Results suggest that nutrition education should be provided to incoming foreign students during their orientation.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • ‘I ate too much so I must have been sad’: Emotions as a
           confabulated reason for overeating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Marieke A. Adriaanse, Sosja Prinsen, Jessie C. de Witt Huberts, Denise T.D. de Ridder, Catharine Evers
      Background Emotional eating (i.e., overeating in response to negative affect) is a commonly accepted explanation for eating behaviors that are not in line with personal eating-norms. However, the empirical evidence for a causal link between self-reported emotional eating and overeating is mixed. The present study tested an alternative hypothesis stating that high emotional eating scores are indicative of a susceptibility to use negative affect as a confabulated, post-hoc reason to explain overeating. Methods Female students (N = 46) participated in a ‘taste-test’ and came back to the lab a day later to receive feedback that they either ate too much (norm-violation condition) or an acceptable amount of food (control condition), whereafter emotional eating was assessed. Negative affect was measured several times throughout the study. Results In the norm-violation condition, participants with high emotional eating scores retrospectively rated their affect prior to eating as more negative than participants with low emotional eating scores. In the control condition, no effect of emotional score on affect ratings was found. Discussion For some individuals emotional eating scores may represent a tendency to retrospectively attribute overeating to negative affect. This could explain the lack of consistent findings for a link between self-reported emotional eating and overeating.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Infusing pleasure: Mood effects of the consumption of a single cup of tea
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Suzanne J.L. Einöther, Matthew Rowson, Johannes G. Ramaekers, Timo Giesbrecht
      Tea has historically been associated with mood benefits. Nevertheless, few studies have empirically investigated mood changes after tea consumption. We explored immediate effects of a single cup of tea up to an hour post-consumption on self-reported valence, arousal, discrete emotions, and implicit measures of mood. In a parallel group design, 153 participants received a cup of tea or placebo tea, or a glass of water. Immediately (i.e. 5 min) after consumption, tea increased valence but reduced arousal, as compared to the placebo. There were no differences at later time points. Discrete emotions did not differ significantly between conditions, immediately or over time. Water consumption increased implicit positivity as compared to placebo. Finally, consumption of tea and water resulted in higher interest in activities overall and in specific activity types compared to placebo. The present study shows that effects of a single cup of tea may be limited to an immediate increase in pleasure and decrease in arousal, which can increase interest in activities. Differences between tea and water were not significant, while differences between water and placebo on implicit measures were unexpected. More servings over a longer time may be required to evoke tea's arousing effects and appropriate tea consumption settings may evoke more enduring valence effects.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study
           of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian
           three-generation families
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Kate Rhodes, Flora Chan, Ivanka Prichard, John Coveney, Paul Ward, Carlene Wilson
      Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others’ food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families.

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • A social network-based intervention stimulating peer influence on
           children's self-reported water consumption: A randomized control trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Crystal R. Smit, Rebecca N.H. de Leeuw, Kirsten E. Bevelander, William J. Burk, Moniek Buijzen
      The current pilot study examined the effectiveness of a social network-based intervention using peer influence on self-reported water consumption. A total of 210 children (52% girls; M age = 10.75 ± SD = 0.80) were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 106; 52% girls) or control condition (n = 104; 52% girls). In the intervention condition, the most influential children in each classroom were trained to promote water consumption among their peers for eight weeks. The schools in the control condition did not receive any intervention. Water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and intentions to drink more water in the near future were assessed by self-report measures before and immediately after the intervention. A repeated measure MANCOVA showed a significant multivariate interaction effect between condition and time (V = 0.07, F(3, 204) = 5.18, p = 0.002, pη2 = 0.07) on the dependent variables. Further examination revealed significant univariate interaction effects between condition and time on water (p = 0.021) and SSB consumption (p = 0.015) as well as water drinking intentions (p = 0.049). Posthoc analyses showed that children in the intervention condition reported a significant increase in their water consumption (p = 0.018) and a decrease in their SSB consumption (p < 0.001) over time, compared to the control condition (p-values > 0.05). The children who were exposed to the intervention did not report a change in their water drinking intentions over time (p = 0.576) whereas the nonexposed children decreased their intentions (p = 0.026). These findings show promise for a social network-based intervention using peer influence to positively alter consumption behaviors. Trial registration This RCT was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614001179628). Study procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Social Sciences at Radboud University (ECSW2014-1003-203).

      PubDate: 2016-05-14T17:18:59Z
  • Picky eating: Associations with child eating characteristics and food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Klazine van der Horst, Denise M. Deming, Ruta Lesniauskas, B. Thomas Carr, Kathleen C. Reidy
      Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12–47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the “other vegetables” category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T15:14:41Z
  • Involving children in cooking activities: A potential strategy for
           directing food choices toward novel foods containing vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Xavier Allirot, Noelia da Quinta, Krithika Chokupermal, Elena Urdaneta
      Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P < 0.05). We did not demonstrate any difference between the two groups in overall food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T15:14:41Z
  • Emotion regulation training to reduce problematic dietary restriction: An
           experimental analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Ann F. Haynos, Bailey Hill, Alan E. Fruzzetti
      Evidence suggests that emotion regulation may be a process relevant to problematic dietary restriction. However, emotion regulation has not been evaluated as an intervention target across a range of restriction severity. This study utilized an experimental design to examine whether targeting emotion regulation reduced problematic dietary restriction. Within a self-identified restrictive sample (n = 72), the effects of an emotion regulation condition (i.e., emotion regulation training) were compared to those of a control condition (i.e., nutrition information training) on dietary restriction indices (i.e., effort to reduce intake on a progressive ratio task, work towards an alternate reinforcer on a progressive ratio task, intake by dietary recall) following a stressor. Exploratory analyses of potential moderators (i.e., restraint, BMI, binge eating and purging status, emotion regulation difficulties) were conducted to examine whether these factors affected the impact of training on dietary restriction. No significant main effects of condition were detected on any outcome measure. However, results were moderated by BMI status. Participants with lower BMIs exerted less effort towards dietary restriction following the emotion regulation condition versus the control condition (p = 0.02). Results suggest that targeting emotion regulation may help to reduce problematic dietary restriction among lower weight individuals.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T15:14:41Z
  • High perceived stress is associated with unfavorable eating behavior in
           overweight and obese Finns of working age
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Elina Järvelä-Reijonen, Leila Karhunen, Essi Sairanen, Sanni Rantala, Jaana Laitinen, Sampsa Puttonen, Katri Peuhkuri, Maarit Hallikainen, Kristiina Juvonen, Tero Myllymäki, Tiina Föhr, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Riitta Korpela, Miikka Ermes, Raimo Lappalainen, Marjukka Kolehmainen
      Stress-related eating may be a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Rather little is known about how stress associates with eating behavior and food intake in overweight individuals in a free-living situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate this question in psychologically distressed overweight and obese working-aged Finns. The study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Of the 339 study participants, those with all the needed data available (n = 297, 84% females) were included. The mean age was 48.9 y (SD = 7.6) and mean body mass index 31.3 kg/m2 (SD = 3.0). Perceived stress and eating behavior were assessed by self-reported questionnaires Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Intuitive Eating Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales and ecSatter Inventory. Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed by 48-h dietary recall, Index of Diet Quality, and AUDIT-C. Individuals reporting most perceived stress (i.e. in the highest PSS tertile) had less intuitive eating, more uncontrolled eating, and more emotional eating compared to those reporting less perceived stress (p < 0.05). Moreover, individuals in the highest PSS tertile reported less cognitive restraint and less eating competence than those in the lowest tertile (p < 0.05). Intake of whole grain products was the lowest among those in the highest PSS tertile (p < 0.05). Otherwise the quality of diet and alcohol consumption did not differ among the PSS tertiles. In conclusion, high perceived stress was associated with the features of eating behavior that could in turn contribute to difficulties in weight management. Stress-related way of eating could thus form a potential risk factor for obesity. More research is needed to develop efficient methods for clinicians to assist in handling stress-related eating in the treatment of obese people.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T15:14:41Z
  • Proximity of snacks to beverages increases food consumption in the
           workplace: A field study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Ernest Baskin, Margarita Gorlin, Zoë Chance, Nathan Novemsky, Ravi Dhar, Kim Huskey, Michelle Hatzis
      In an effort to bolster employee satisfaction, many employers provide free snacks at the office. Unfortunately, keeping employees happy can conflict with the goal of keeping them healthy, since increased snacking at work can contribute to overeating and obesity. Building on the growing body of research in choice architecture, we tested one factor that might influence snack consumption without impacting satisfaction: the relative distance between snacks and beverages. In a large field study at Google, we measured snack consumption when snacks were closer to or farther from beverages. We found that employees who used the beverage station closer to the snack station were more likely to take a snack– the likelihood of snacking increased from 12% to 23% for men and from 13% to 17% for women when the beverage station closest to the snack station was used. These results imply that employers and even families could reduce snack consumption easily, cheaply, and without backlash, by increasing the relative distance between beverages and snacks.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T15:14:41Z
  • The role of expectations in the effect of food cue exposure on intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Eva Kemps, C. Peter Herman, Sarah Hollitt, Janet Polivy, Ivanka Prichard, Marika Tiggemann
      Pre-exposure to food cues has often been shown to increase food intake, especially in restrained eaters. This study investigated the role of expectations in the effect of such pre-exposure on food intake. A sample of 88 undergraduate women was exposed to visual food cues (photos of grapes and chocolate-chip cookies). In a 2 × 2 × 2 design, participants were explicitly told to expect that they would be tasting and rating either grapes or chocolate-chip cookies. Participants subsequently completed an ostensible taste test, in which they tasted and rated either grapes or cookies, such that half were given the food that they had been led to expect and the other half were given the other food. Participants' restraint status (restrained versus unrestrained) was based on their scores on the Revised Restraint Scale (Herman & Polivy, 1980). A significant interaction between expected food and restraint status was found. When participants were led to expect that they would be tasting grapes, restrained and unrestrained eaters did not differ in their subsequent consumption (of either grapes or cookies). However, when participants were led to expect that they would be tasting cookies, restrained eaters ate significantly less (of both grapes and cookies) than did unrestrained eaters, even though craving ratings were similarly elevated for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. The findings are consistent with counteractive control theory in that restrained eaters who expected to eat a high caloric food may have been able to activate their dieting goal, thereby limiting their food intake. The findings further point to an important role for expectations in the understanding and regulation of food intake in restrained eaters.

      PubDate: 2016-05-06T15:14:41Z
  • Psychosocial factors as mediators of food insecurity and weight status
           among middle school students
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Don E. Willis, Kevin M. Fitzpatrick
      Research regarding the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth has produced mixed results. However, few studies on this topic have utilized data that includes survey responses from children themselves regarding their experience with food insecurity. This study was undertaken to examine the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth, as well as the potential mediation by psychosocial factors. A survey of 5th-7th grade students was administered to gather information on food insecurity, social and psychological resources, and health. The primary analysis includes OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression conducted using SPSS software and Sobel's test for mediation. Results suggest a positive association between food insecurity and weight status even when controlling for key demographic variables. In addition, we find that this association is mediated by psychosocial factors—namely, perceived social status and depression. Insights from this work highlight the need to consider non-nutritional pathways through which food insecurity impacts health as well the need to continue surveying youth directly when examining their experiences with food insecurity.

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T08:56:18Z
  • Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Karina Silva Garcia, Thomas G. Power, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M. O'Connor, Sheryl O. Hughes
      Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children—a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4–5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex—mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T08:56:18Z
  • Sensory specific satiety: More than ‘just’ habituation?
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Laura L. Wilkinson, Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Sensory specific satiety (SSS) describes the decline in pleasantness associated with a food as it is eaten relative to a food that has not been eaten (the ‘eaten’ and ‘uneaten’ foods, respectively). The prevailing view is that SSS is governed by habituation. Nevertheless, the extent to which SSS results solely from this ‘low-level’ process remains unclear. Three experiments were conducted to explore the hypothesis that ‘top-down’ cognitive activity affects the expression of SSS; specifically, we manipulated participants' expectations about whether or not they would have access to alternative test foods (uneaten foods) after consuming a test meal (eaten food). This manipulation was motivated by ‘Commodity Theory,’ which describes the relative increase in value of a commodity when it becomes unavailable. We tested the hypothesis that a decline in the pleasantness and desire to eat the eaten food is exaggerated when uneaten foods are unavailable to participants. None of our findings supported this proposition – we found no evidence that SSS is dependent on top-down processes associated with the availability of other uneaten test foods.

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T08:56:18Z
  • Benefit beliefs about protein supplements: A comparative study of users
           and non-users
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Christina Hartmann, Michael Siegrist
      The consumption of protein supplements among leisure time exercisers is growing. The present study aims to identify factors that motivate protein supplement consumption by comparing users' and non-users' underlying benefit beliefs about protein supplement. The study is based on an online survey of 813 Swiss adults (376 users of protein supplements and 437 non-users). Participants answered questions related to their benefit beliefs regarding protein supplement, their protein supplements consumption frequency, their activity level (GPAQ), and their reasons for taking protein supplement. In women, the most commonly cited reasons were to increase muscles (57.3%) and to regulate their weight (48.6%); and in men to increase muscles (83.7%) and to promote regeneration (53.7%). Furthermore, a principal component analysis revealed four benefit belief factors: (a) restore nutrients/avoid weakness; (b) fitness promotion; (c) health/well-being; (d) muscle modulation/competitive performance. The analysis showed that both users and non-users predominantly perceive protein supplements consumption as a strategy to modulate muscle mass, while beliefs in a health and well-being promoting effect was more prevalent among users (M = 3.2, SD = 1.3) than non-users (M = 2.7, SD = 1.3) (p < 0.001). Moreover, health and wellbeing-related beliefs were associated with an increased likelihood of a higher protein supplements intake frequency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–1.9), while physical activity level was not associated with protein supplements intake frequency. In addition, a negative correlation between physical activity level and beliefs in a fitness-promoting effect of protein supplements (r = −0.14, p < 0.001) was observed, indicating that for a subgroup, protein supplements might license lower activity levels. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, consumers of varying activity levels consume protein supplements and believe in its' various positive features. Users should be better informed to prevent misguided health beliefs.

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T08:56:18Z
  • Secondary school pupils’ food choices around schools in a London
           borough: Fast food and walls of crisps
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): M. Caraher, S. Lloyd, M. Mansfield, C. Alp, Z. Brewster, J. Gresham
      The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five ‘A’s of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of ‘two for one’ type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as ‘cool’, queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were ‘cool’. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five ‘A’s above.

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T08:56:18Z
  • Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Megan H. Pesch, Alison L. Miller, Danielle P. Appugliese, Katherine L. Rosenblum, Julie C. Lumeng
      Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
  • Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined
           neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Richard B. Lopez, Marina Milyavskaya, Wilhelm Hofmann, Todd F. Heatherton
      Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters' experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18–23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
  • Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus
           groups with Australian adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Helen Dixon, Michael Murphy, Maree Scully, Mischa Rose, Trish Cotter
      This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams – Weight, Activity, or Nutrition – where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages – (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by ‘what’ and ‘how’ ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by ‘why’ ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
  • Mindful decision making and inhibitory control training as complementary
           means to decrease snack consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Evan M. Forman, Jena A. Shaw, Stephanie P. Goldstein, Meghan L. Butryn, Lindsay M. Martin, Nachshon Meiran, Ross D. Crosby, Stephanie M. Manasse
      Objective Obesity is largely attributable to excess caloric intake, in particular from “junk” foods, including salty snack foods. Evidence suggests that neurobiological preferences to consume highly hedonic foods translate (via implicit processes) into poor eating choices, unless overturned by inhibitory mechanisms or interrupted by explicit processes. The primary aim of the current study was to test the independent and combinatory effects of a computerized inhibitory control training (ICT) and a mindful decision-making training (MDT) designed to facilitate de-automatization. Methods We randomized 119 habitual salty snack food eaters to one of four short, training conditions: MDT, ICT, both MDT and ICT, or neither (i.e., psychoeducation). For 7 days prior to the intervention and 7 days following the intervention, participants reported on their salty snack food consumption 2 times per day, on 3 portions of their days, using a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment system. Susceptibility to emotional eating cues was measured at baseline. Results Results indicated that the effect of MDT was consistent across levels of trait emotional eating, whereas the benefit of ICT was apparent only at lower levels of emotional eating. No synergistic effect of MDT and ICT was detected. Conclusions These results provide qualified support for the efficacy of both types of training for decreasing hedonically-motivated eating. Moderation effects suggest that those who eat snack foods for reasons unconnected to affective experiences (i.e., lower in emotional eating) may derive benefit from a combination of ICT and MDT. Future research should investigate the additive benefit of de-automization training to standard weight loss interventions.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
  • US consumer attitudes toward sodium in baby and toddler foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Katherine A. John, Mary E. Cogswell, Lixia Zhao, Joyce Maalouf, Janelle P. Gunn, Robert K. Merritt
      Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1–3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, “It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium.” Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%–70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%–87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%–99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%–100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
  • Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial
           on additional long-term weight effects of parent training
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Petra Warschburger, Katja Kroeller, Johannes Haerting, Susanne Unverzagt, Andreas van Egmond-Fröhlich
      Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances ‘obesity-specific’ parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7–13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
  • Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among
           school-age children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Martha J. Nepper, Weiwen Chai
      The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6–12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6–9 years vs. 10–12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

      PubDate: 2016-04-26T08:00:13Z
  • Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic
           discourse (1975–2013)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Anita Borch, Unni Kjærnes
      In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food.

      PubDate: 2016-04-22T10:56:38Z
  • Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal
           ideas: An association rule learning approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Allison E. Doub, Meg L. Small, Aron Levin, Kristie LeVangie, Timothy R. Brick
      Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = −3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population.

      PubDate: 2016-04-22T10:56:38Z
  • Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss
           intervention in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Fernanda Mata, Juan Verdejo-Roman, Carles Soriano-Mas, Murat Yücel, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
      This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12–18; BMI range: 22–36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass.

      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
  • Consumer trust in the Australian food system – The everyday erosive
           impact of food labelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Emma Tonkin, Trevor Webb, John Coveney, Samantha B. Meyer, Annabelle M. Wilson
      Consumer trust in food system actors is foundational for ensuring consumer confidence in food safety. As food labelling is a direct communication between consumers and food system actors, it may influence consumer perceptions of actor trustworthiness. This study explores the judgements formed about the trustworthiness of the food system and its actors through labelling, and the expectations these judgements are based on. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 24 Australian consumers were conducted. Theoretical sampling focussed on shopping location, dietary requirements, rurality, gender, age and educational background. The methodological approach used (adaptive theory) enabled emerging data to be examined through the lens of a set of guiding theoretical concepts, and theory reconsidered in light of emerging data. Food labelling acted as a surrogate for personal interaction with industry and government for participants. Judgements about the trustworthiness of these actors and the broader food system were formed through interaction with food labelling and were based on expectations of both competence and goodwill. Interaction with labelling primarily reduced trust in actors within the food system, undermining trust in the system as a whole. Labelling has a role as an access point to the food system. Access points are points of vulnerability for systems, where trust can be developed, reinforced or broken down. For the participants in this study, in general labelling demonstrates food system actors lack goodwill and violate their fiduciary responsibility. This paper provides crucial insights for industry and policy actors to use this access point to build, rather than undermine, trust in food systems.

      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
  • Consumer preferences for food labels on tomatoes in Germany –
           A comparison of a quasi-experiment and two stated preference
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Stephan G.H. Meyerding
      In many studies, consumer preferences are determined by using direct surveys. For this method social desirability is problematic. This leads to the effect that participants answer in a way that they perceive as desired by society. This leads to the stated importance of certain features in these studies not being reflected in real purchasing decisions. Therefore, the aim of the study is to compare consumer preferences measured by a quasi-experiment to those quantified by direct questions. Another objective is to quantify the part-worth utilities of product characteristics such as origin, price and food labels. Part-worth utilities are estimated on an interval scale with an arbitrary origin and are a measure for preferences. The real purchasing situation was simulated in a quasi-experiment using a choice-based conjoint analysis. The part-worth utilities were then compared with the results of a conventional preference assessment (Likert scale). For this purpose, 645 consumers from all over Germany were surveyed in 2014. The participants were on average 44 years old and 63% were women. The results of the conjoint analysis report the highest part-worth utility (2.853) for the lowest price (1.49€), followed by the characteristic “grown locally” (2.157). For the labels, the German organic label shows the highest part-worth utility (0.785) followed by Fairtrade/“A heart for the producer” (0.200). It is noticeable that the carbon footprint labels have negative part-worth utilities compared to tomatoes without a label (−0.130 with CO2 indication, −0.186 without CO2 indication). The price is ranked 12th in the importance of the characteristics of purchasing tomatoes in the survey with a Likert scale, whereas it is first in the evaluation of the quasi-experiment (conjoint analysis), which supports the assumption of a social desirability bias.

      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
  • Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types
           of food products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Joop de Boer, Hanna Schösler
      This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as ‘conventional’, ‘efficient’, ‘gourmet’ and ‘pure’. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
  • Elasticity in portion selection is predicted by severity of anorexia and
           food type in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): M. Herzog, C.R. Douglas, H.R. Kissileff, J.M. Brunstrom, K.A. Halmi
      The size of portions that people select is an indicator of underlying mechanisms controlling food intake. Fears of eating excessive portions drive down the sizes of portions patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) can tolerate eating significantly below those of healthy controls (HC) (Kissileff et al., 2016). To determine whether patients with AN will also reduce the sizes of typical or ideal portions below those of controls, ANOVA was used to compare maximum tolerable, typical, and ideal portions of four foods (potatoes, rice, pizza, and M&M's) in the same group of 24 adolescent AN patients and 10 healthy adolescent controls (HC), on which only the maximal portion data were previously reported. Typical and ideal portion sizes did not differ on any food for AN, but for HC, typical portions sizes (kcals) became larger than ideal as the energy density of the food increased, and were significant for the most energy dense food. Ideal portions of low energy dense foods were the same for AN as for in HC. There was a significant 3-way (group × food × portion type) interaction, such that HC selected larger maximum than typical portions only for pizza. We therefore proposed that individuals of certain groups, depending on the food, can be flexible in the amounts of food chosen to be eaten. We call this difference between maximum-tolerable, and typical portion sizes selected “elasticity.” Elasticity was significantly smaller for AN patients compared to HC for pizza and was significantly inversely correlated with severity of illness. This index could be useful for clinical assessment of AN patients, and those with eating problems such as in obesity and bulimia nervosa and tracking their response to treatment.

      PubDate: 2016-04-17T10:58:12Z
  • Eating at the table, on the couch and in bed: An exploration of different
           locus of commensality in the discourses of Brazilian working mothers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi, Patrícia da Rocha Pereira, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Priscila de Morais Sato
      Background Commensality is a remarkable human act, and tends to be more present among families. Nevertheless, it is possible that eating at the table is being taking for granted when one refers to family meals. Thus, this paper aims to analyze working mothers' discourses about family meals eaten at the table, on the couch and in the bed/bedroom. Methods The participants were thirty mothers working in public universities of the Brazilian region called Baixada Santista. A qualitative study was conducted, using semi-structured interviews. In the transcripts the words “table”, “couch”, “bed”, “bedroom” were located and the excerpts containing them were extracted and analyzed according to a classical and exploratory content analysis. Results The table is a significant component of meals that unite the family. While for some the meal at the table is an enjoyable moment, it is a stiff moment for others. Indeed, manners and the notion of hierarchy appeared only for the table. Regarding the couch, it seems that the family chose to eat there, because it is a more casual and relaxed setting. Eating in the bed was related to precarity, intimacy and casualness. In the three settings, watching television was a common practice, replacing or being added to talking. Conclusions Commensality is such an important practice that appears in different settings and even in precarity contexts. The table emerged as the maximal cornerstone of commensality. However, when it was not present, new arrangements were made. Especially the couch seems to be a new commensal space, less formal and rigid, but able to allow some collective conviviality. Eating in the bed was a less common practice. Finally, the significant role that television assumed in meals is highlighted.

      PubDate: 2016-04-12T10:22:30Z
  • Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in
           Wistar rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): I.C. Macedo, C. de Oliveira, R. Vercelino, A. Souza, G. Laste, L.F. Medeiros, V.L. Scarabelot, E.A. Nunes, J. Kuo, F. Fregni, W. Caumo, I.L.S. Torres
      It has been suggested that food craving—an intense desire to consume a specific food (particularly foods high in sugar and fat)—can lead to obesity. This behavior has also been associated with abuse of other substances, such as drugs. Both drugs and food cause dependence by acting on brain circuitry involved in reward, motivation, and decision-making processes. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can be activated following evocation and is implicated in alterations in food behavior and craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of modulates brain activity significantly, has emerged as a promising treatment to inhibit craving. This technique is considered safe and inexpensive; however, there is scant research using animal models. Such studies could help elucidate the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of eating disorders, including food craving. The aim of our study was to evaluate palatable food consumption in rats receiving tDCS treatment (anode right/cathode left). Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomized by weight and divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control, with no stimulation; sham, receiving daily 30 s tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days; and tDCS, receiving daily 20 min tDCS (500 μA) sessions for 8 consecutive days. All rats were evaluated for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. A palatable food consumption test was performed at baseline and on treatment completion (24 h after the last tDCS session) under fasting and feeding conditions and showed that tDCS decreased food craving, thus corroborating human studies. This result confirms the important role of the prefrontal cortex in food behavior, which can be modulated by noninvasive brain stimulation.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
  • Influencing factors of children's fruit, vegetable and sugar-enriched food
           intake in a Finnish preschool setting – Preschool personnel's
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Carola Ray, Suvi Määttä, Reetta Lehto, Gun Roos, Eva Roos
      Introduction A large proportion of young children spend most of their weekdays at preschool in Western countries. In Finland, three meals are included in a full day at preschool. These meals have the potential to promote healthy eating. This study aimed to obtain the personnel's (preschool teachers, day-care nurses) views on the factors influencing children's fruit, vegetable, and sugar-enriched food intake at preschool. Study design Four focus groups, in all 14 preschool personnel. Two researchers independently analysed the data using a socio-ecological framework. Results At the child level, age, peers, and the child's personality were recognized as factors influencing the fruit and vegetable (FV) and sugar-enriched food intake. At the preschool level, both the physical and social environments were discussed thoroughly, whereas at the societal level, policies of the EU, the state, and the municipality were mentioned as factors that influence what children eat in preschool. The personnel also discussed the interactions between factors both between levels and within levels. Conclusions In Finnish preschools, children's food intake is influenced on and within several levels of the socio-ecological model. The identification of the factors influencing food intake allows different methods of intervention at multiple levels to promote healthy eating behaviours in preschools.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
  • Catastrophizing and anxiety sensitivity mediate the relationship between
           persistent pain and emotional eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): E. Amy Janke, Elizabeth Jones, Christina M. Hopkins, Madelyn Ruggieri, Alesha Hruska
      Stress-induced or “emotional eating” contributes to increased caloric intake and weight gain, yet models examining psychosocial factors that promote and sustain this behavior are incomplete. There is a need to identify explicit, clinically-relevant mechanisms of emotional eating behavior. Pain is a common stressor associated with increased weight and, potentially, altered eating behaviors. The present study applies the Fear Avoidance Model (FAM) of pain to examine processes that may explain the relationship between pain and increased weight while also providing the opportunity to examine specific mechanisms that may encourage eating during a variety of stressors. Our aim is to better understand the impact of pain on eating behavior and the potential for the FAM to improve our understanding of the psychological mechanisms that promote eating during times of duress. A survey of 312 adults explored the link between pain experience and stress-induced eating, further examining the mediating effects of the psychological aspects of the FAM (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, and pain-related fear). 24% of respondents reported persistent pain, and had significantly higher BMIs than their pain-free peers. All three FAM components were positively correlated with measures of emotional, external, and restrained eating. Anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing significantly mediated the relationship between persistent pain and emotional eating behavior, while anxiety sensitivity alone mediated the relationship between persistent pain and external eating. Findings suggest pain may be associated with increased likelihood for emotional eating and that characteristics from FAM, in particular anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing, may mediate the relationship between the presence of persistent pain and emotional eating behavior. Evidence-based treatments targeting anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing could be useful to address emotional eating in individuals struggling with both weight and chronic pain.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
  • Exploring divergent trajectories: Disorder-specific moderators of the
           association between negative urgency and dysregulated eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Sarah E. Racine, Shelby J. Martin
      Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a well-established risk factor for dysregulated eating (e.g., binge eating, loss of control eating, emotional eating). However, negative urgency is transdiagnostic, in that it is associated with multiple forms of psychopathology. It is currently unclear why some individuals with high negative urgency develop dysregulated eating while others experience depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Investigating disorder-specific moderators of the association between negative urgency and psychopathology may help elucidate these divergent trajectories. The current study examined interactions among negative urgency and eating disorder-specific risk factors specified in the well-established dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint). We hypothesized that these interactions would predict dysregulated eating, but not depressive symptoms or problematic alcohol use. Latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to test this hypothesis in a large (N = 313) sample of female college students. Negative urgency was significantly associated with dysregulated eating, depressive symptoms, and problematic alcohol use. However, interactions among negative urgency and dual-pathway model variables were specific to dysregulated eating and accounted for an additional 3–5% of the variance beyond main effects. Findings suggest that eating disorder-specific risk factors may shape negative urgency into manifesting as dysregulated eating versus another form of psychopathology. Future research should use longitudinal designs to further test the impact of interactions among disorder-specific risk factors and negative urgency on divergent psychopathology trajectories.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
  • The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals
           served to children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Nicole Kasper, Cami Mandell, Sarah Ball, Alison L. Miller, Julie Lumeng, Karen E. Peterson
      Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4–8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy “Adequacy foods” and the absence of “Moderation foods”, (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
  • Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A
           population-based study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Priscila de Morais Sato, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer Lourenço, Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Patrícia Rocha Pereira, Paula Andrea Martins, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
      This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30–39 years (β: −0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T14:47:47Z
  • Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the
           United Kingdom
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Lucy J. Mallinson, Jean M. Russell, Margo E. Barker
      Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18–40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: ‘epicures’ (n = 135), ‘traditional consumers’ (n = 255), ‘casual consumers’ (n = 246), ‘food detached consumers’ (n = 151) and ‘kitchen evaders’ (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by “buy a lot and waste a lot” behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives.

      PubDate: 2016-04-02T20:29:42Z
  • Deliberate choices or strong motives: Exploring the mechanisms underlying
           the bias of organic claims on leniency judgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): Marília Prada, David Rodrigues, Margarida V. Garrido
      Organic claims can influence how a product is perceived in dimensions that are unrelated with the food production method (e.g., organic food is perceived as more healthful and less caloric than conventional food). Such claims can also bias how the consumers of organic food are perceived and how other people judge their behavior. Schuldt and Schwarz (2010) have shown that individuals evaluating a target with a weight-loss goal are more lenient in judging the target forgoing exercise when the target had an organic (vs. conventional) dessert. This impact of organic claims on leniency judgments has been interpreted either as a halo or a licensing effect. In the current research we aim to replicate and extend Schuldt and Schwarz's (2010) results by examining the mechanisms that are more likely to explain the observed leniency judgments. In Experiment 1, we observed that leniency towards a target that has consumed an organic meal is only observed when the target intentionally chooses such organic meal (vs. choice determined by the situation). These findings suggest that the impact of organic claims on leniency judgments is not merely based on a halo effect. Instead, a licensing account emerges as the most probable mechanism. In Experiment 2, we further found that stronger (vs. weaker) motives for forgoing exercise influenced leniency judgments to the same extent as having had an organic meal. Understanding the mechanisms that shape consumers' decisions may have important implications to prevent bias in their judgments about food and exercise.

      PubDate: 2016-03-29T09:06:09Z
  • The importance of taste on dietary choice, behaviour and intake in a group
           of young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 August 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 103
      Author(s): S. Kourouniotis, R.S.J. Keast, L.J. Riddell, K. Lacy, M.G. Thorpe, S. Cicerale
      The ‘taste of food’ plays an important role in food choice. Furthermore, foods high in fat, sugar and salt are highly palatable and associated with increased food consumption. Research exploring taste importance on dietary choice, behaviour and intake is limited, particularly in young adults. Therefore, in this study a total of 1306 Australian university students completed questionnaires assessing dietary behaviors (such as how important taste was on food choice) and frequency of food consumption over the prior month. Diet quality was also assessed using a dietary guideline index. Participants had a mean age of 20 ± 5 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) of 22 ± 3 kg/m2, 79% were female and 84% Australian. Taste was rated as being a very or extremely important factor for food choice by 82% of participants. Participants who rated taste as highly important, had a poorer diet quality (p = 0.001) and were more likely to consume less fruit (p = 0.03) and vegetables (p = 0.05). Furthermore, they were significantly more likely to consume foods high in fat, sugar and salt, including chocolate and confectionary, cakes and puddings, sweet pastries, biscuits, meat pies, pizza, hot chips, potato chips, takeaway meals, soft drink, cordial and fruit juice (p = 0.001–0.02). They were also more likely to consider avoiding adding salt to cooking (p = 0.02) and adding sugar to tea or coffee (p = 0.01) as less important for health. These findings suggest that the importance individuals place on taste plays an important role in influencing food choice, dietary behaviors and intake.

      PubDate: 2016-03-29T09:06:09Z
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