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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2801 journals)

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Infection, Genetics and Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.538, h-index: 46)
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.021, h-index: 65)
Information & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.469, h-index: 98)
Information and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.029, h-index: 50)
Information and Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 2.534, h-index: 34)
Information and Software Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.072, h-index: 54)
Information Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.537, h-index: 30)
Information Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.207, h-index: 47)
Information Processing & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access  
Information Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 51)
Information Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114, SJR: 2.606, h-index: 91)
Information Security Technical Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 15)
Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.529, h-index: 53)
Infosecurity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.119, h-index: 3)
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.545, h-index: 37)
Injury     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Injury Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.983, h-index: 72)
InmunologĂ­a     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.108, h-index: 7)
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.372, h-index: 56)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.577, h-index: 51)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.634, h-index: 75)
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.703, h-index: 75)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription  
Insulin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.175, h-index: 45)
Integration, the VLSI J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 24)
Integrative Medicine Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.025, h-index: 54)
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.912, h-index: 33)
Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery     Open Access  
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.696, h-index: 70)
Internet Interventions : The application of information technology in mental and behavioural health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.162, h-index: 2)
Intl. Biodeterioration & Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.884, h-index: 57)
Intl. Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.936, h-index: 48)
Intl. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.353, h-index: 48)
Intl. Dairy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.233, h-index: 87)
Intl. Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. Emergency Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 23)
Intl. Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 12)
Intl. Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.97, h-index: 69)
Intl. J. for Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.76, h-index: 100)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Drugs and Drug Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.871, h-index: 30)
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.692, h-index: 78)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.025, h-index: 36)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.492, h-index: 55)
Intl. J. of Biochemistry & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.423, h-index: 128)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.861, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.93, h-index: 77)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.234, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.18, h-index: 60)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.593, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.22, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 362, SJR: 1.122, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.752, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 33)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.522, h-index: 54)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.721, h-index: 58)
Intl. J. of Epilepsy     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.916, h-index: 68)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.614, h-index: 121)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.611, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.206, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.646, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Gynecology & Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.258, h-index: 65)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115, SJR: 0.904, h-index: 116)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.508, h-index: 42)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.988, h-index: 76)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.338, h-index: 122)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.177, h-index: 47)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.29, h-index: 66)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.913, h-index: 44)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.801, h-index: 50)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.017, h-index: 46)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 1.295, h-index: 51)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.724, h-index: 41)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 3.363, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.886, h-index: 81)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.387, h-index: 62)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.507, h-index: 64)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.947, h-index: 60)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.224]   [H-I: 71]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with
           1–3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Lisa R. Edelson, Cassandra Mokdad, Nathalie Martin
      Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more “reasoning” prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98




      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1–3
           years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jesse S. Husk, Sarah A. Keim
      Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1–3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0–539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3–240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1–1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2–3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2–2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: −2.1, −0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Christopher Holmberg, John E. Chaplin, Thomas Hillman, Christina Berg
      The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år (“14 years”) was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth
           movements increase perceived food palatability
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Sascha Topolinski, Lea Boecker
      We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1–2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child
           emotional eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Charlotte A. Hardman, Paul Christiansen, Laura L. Wilkinson
      Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a “child-responsive” model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived emotional over-eating in the child.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of
           behavioral weight loss treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Colleen A. Kase, Amani D. Piers, Katherine Schaumberg, Evan M. Forman, Meghan L. Butryn
      Despite common wisdom that reducing alcohol intake will facilitate weight loss, little research has examined whether participants in behavioral weight loss treatments actually decrease their alcohol intake, or whether reduced alcohol intake relates to weight loss outcomes in this context. This study examined the relationship of alcohol use to energy intake excluding alcohol and to weight in 283 overweight and obese adults participating in a 26-session behavioral weight loss treatment. The majority of participants consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol at baseline. Participants who consumed alcohol at baseline meaningfully reduced their alcohol intake by end-of-treatment. Alcohol use did not relate to weight at baseline or end-of-treatment when controlling for relevant demographic variables, and change in alcohol use was unrelated to weight change in the overall sample during treatment. However, end-of-treatment alcohol intake did relate to end-of-treatment energy intake excluding alcohol. In addition, behavioral impulsivity and change in alcohol intake interacted to predict weight loss, such that decreases in alcohol intake were associated with greater percent weight loss at end-of-treatment for participants with higher levels of impulsivity. Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to
           total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in
           healthy young women
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Amy J. Tucker, Sarah Heap, Jessica Ingram, Marron Law, Amanda J. Wright
      Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2–7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (r i ). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (r i  = 0.73–0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (r i  = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (r i ​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50–0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting.


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • The association of eating styles with weight change after an intensive
           combined lifestyle intervention for children and adolescents with severe
           obesity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jutka Halberstadt, Tatjana van Strien, Emely de Vet, Iris Eekhout, Caroline Braet, Jacob C. Seidell
      The main purpose of this prospective intervention study was to determine whether eating styles after an intensive, partly inpatient, one year combined lifestyle intervention are associated with weight change in the following year in severely obese children and adolescents. A total of 120 participants (8–19 years) with an average SDS-BMI of 3.41 (SD = 0.38) was included. Measurements were conducted at baseline (T0), at the end of treatment (T12) and at the end of follow up two years after baseline (T24). The primary outcome measurement was the ΔSDS-BMI between T12 and T24. As primary determinant of weight change after treatment, the participants eating styles were evaluated with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire – child report that measures external, emotional and restraint eating. The association between outcome and determinant was assessed in linear regression analyses. Complete data were available for 76 of the 120 participants. This study shows that for girls a higher score on restraint eating at T12 and a higher score on external eating at T12 were associated with more weight (re)gain in the year after treatment. No statistically significant association with emotional eating at T12 was found. In addition for girls a higher score on external eating at T0 was associated with more weight (re)gain in the year after treatment. Furthermore, the observed changes in eating styles suggest that on average it is possible to influence these with treatment, although the detected changes were different for girls and boys and for the different eating styles. More generally, this study indicates that for girls the levels of restraint and external eating after treatment were associated with the weight change during the following year. Trial registration : Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1678, registered 20-Feb-2009).


      PubDate: 2016-01-24T18:25:00Z
       
  • My child at mealtime: A visually enhanced self-assessment of feeding
           styles for low-income parents of preschoolers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Lenna L. Ontai, Stephanie L. Sitnick, Mical K. Shilts, Marilyn S. Townsend
      The importance of caregiver feeding styles on children's dietary outcomes is well documented. However, the instruments used to assess feeding style are limited by high literacy demands, making selfassessment with low-income audiences challenging. The purpose of the current study is to report on the development of My Child at Mealtime (MCMT), a self-assessment tool with reduced literacy demands, designed to measure feeding styles with parents of preschool-aged children. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 44 Head Start parents of 2–5 year old children to develop question wording and identify appropriate visuals. The resulting tool was administered to 119 ethnically diverse, low-income parents of 2–5 year old children. Factor analysis resulted in a two-factor structure that reflects responsiveness and demandingness in a manner consistent with existing assessment tools. Results indicate the final visually enhanced MCMT self-assessment tool provides a measure of parenting style consistent with existing measures, while reducing the literacy demand.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:37:52Z
       
  • The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach–avoidance
           training on approach bias and consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hugh Dickson, David J. Kavanagh, Colin MacLeod
      Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach–Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to ‘approach’ or ‘avoid’ chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:37:52Z
       
  • Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Marta Cosmina, Gianluigi Gallenti, Francesco Marangon, Stefania Troiano
      Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January–July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the “organic” attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:37:52Z
       
  • The association between sexual orientation, susceptibility to social
           messages and disordered eating in men
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Ido Gigi, Rachel Bachner-Melman, Lilac Lev-Ari
      Objective Much research points to higher levels of disordered eating and more negative body image in gay and bisexual men than in heterosexual men. The reasons for this difference, however, remain unclear. We hypothesized that disturbed body image and eating attitudes in gay and bisexual men would be partially explained by susceptibility to social messages. Methods Two hundred and sixty-two men (203 heterosexual, 46 gay and 13 bisexual) between 18 and 35 years of age participated in the study. They completed measures of disordered eating, body image, internalization of attitudes toward appearance, and concern for appropriateness. In addition, they were asked to what extent they were influenced by ten advertisements, four that emphasized physical appearance, and six that did not. Results As shown in previous research, gay and bisexual men reported higher levels of disordered eating and dissatisfaction with their bodies than heterosexual men. In addition, the gay and bisexual men were more susceptible than the heterosexual men to social messages, and reported being significantly more influenced than heterosexual men by advertisements focusing on physical appearance, but not by other advertisements. Susceptibility to social messages fully mediated the association between sexual orientation and disordered eating. Discussion Results provide support for the hypothesis that sensitivity to social messages about appearance explains, at least partially, the link between sexual orientation and disordered eating in men.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:37:52Z
       
  • Evaluation of the acceptability of improved supplementary foods for the
           treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Burkina Faso using a mixed
           method approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf, Tania Aase Draebel, Christian Ritz, Christian Fabiansen, Bernardette Cichon, Vibeke Brix Christensen, Charles Yameogo, Rouafi Oummani, André Briend, Kim F. Michaelsen, Per Ashorn, Suzanne Filteau, Henrik Friis
      The objective of this study was to evaluate, within the context of a randomized controlled trial of product effectiveness, the acceptability of new formulations of six corn-soy blended flours (CSB) and six lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with different quantities of milk and qualities of soy for the treatment of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Our study included 1546 children aged 6–23 months and involved questionnaires after one month of supplementation home visits and interviews with a sub-sample of 20 trial participants and their caretakers, and nine focus group discussion. All 12 products were well accepted in terms of organoleptic qualities and received good ratings. However, LNS were more appreciated by caretakers and children. Additionally, an effect of soy isolate was detected on child appreciation where products with high milk content also received better ratings. CSB were not consumed as readily; 33.9% (n = 257) of children receiving CSB were reported to have leftovers compared to 17.3% (n = 134) of children receiving LNS (p=<0.001). Both CSB and LNS were referred to as foods with medicinal properties and perceived as beneficial to child health. They were both reported to have high priority in the daily feeding of the child. In conclusion, there were minimal differences in acceptability of the various CSB and LNS formulations, although CSB were less readily consumed and required smaller meal volumes. Since all products were well-accepted, decisions regarding whether the more expensive products should be used for the treatment of MAM will need to be based on their effect on child nutrition, growth and health. Future supplementary feeding programs in similar contexts could furthermore consider introducing supplementary foods as a medical treatment, as this may increase adherence and decrease sharing.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:37:52Z
       
  • The impact of menu energy labelling across socioeconomic groups: A
           systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Danja Sarink, Anna Peeters, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Alison Beauchamp, Julie Woods, Kylie Ball, Kathryn Backholer
      Introduction Menu energy labelling at point of purchase is gaining traction worldwide, yet the potential impact for different socioeconomic groups is unclear. We aimed to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of menu energy labelling by socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods A systematic search for papers published to September 2015 was conducted using terms for labelling, food outlets, and SEP. Quality of studies was assessed. Results were summarised across stages of an intervention logic pathway. Results Eighteen papers were identified. Of twelve studies reporting the effect of menu energy labelling in low SEP populations, six reported on purchase outcomes. All but one of these reported no positive effect of the policy for this population. Two of the five studies that compared purchase outcomes of menu labelling across SEP groups reported that the policy was effective overall. These two studies reported either a significant decline in fast food calories purchased from consumers in high (but not low) SEP neighbourhoods or a significantly greater decline in calories purchased among consumers visiting stores in higher SEP neighbourhoods post policy implementation. None of the included papers reached the highest quality score. Conclusions The current evidence describing the impact of menu energy labelling within or across SEP is limited in quantity and quality. Of the two studies that reported a positive benefit of menu energy labelling overall, both identified a greater effect on fast food purchases among consumers visiting stores in high compared to low SEP neighbourhoods. It is difficult to know whether the absence of effectiveness reported in low SEP populations represents a true lack of effectiveness or is a result of a more general lack of policy effectiveness or the limited quality of the reviewed studies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-20T10:37:52Z
       
  • l-rhamnose as a source of colonic propionate inhibits insulin secretion
           but does not influence measures of appetite or food intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Julia Darzi, Gary S. Frost, Jonathan R. Swann, Adele Costabile, M.Denise Robertson
      Activation of free fatty acid receptor (FFAR)2 and FFAR3 via colonic short-chain fatty acids, particularly propionate, are postulated to explain observed inverse associations between dietary fiber intake and body weight. Propionate is reported as the predominant colonic fermentation product from l-rhamnose, a natural monosaccharide that resists digestion and absorption reaching the colon intact, while effects of long-chain inulin on appetite have not been extensively investigated. In this single-blind randomized crossover study, healthy unrestrained eaters (n = 13) ingested 25.5 g/d l-rhamnose, 22.4 g/d inulin or no supplement (control) alongside a standardized breakfast and lunch, following a 6-d run-in to investigate if appetite was inhibited. Postprandial qualitative appetite, breath hydrogen, and plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids were assessed for 420 min, then an ad libitum meal was provided. Significant treatment x time effects were found for postprandial insulin (P = 0.009) and non-esterified fatty acids (P = 0.046) with a significantly lower insulin response for l-rhamnose (P = 0.023) than control. No differences between treatments were found for quantitative and qualitative appetite measures, although significant treatment x time effects for meal desire (P = 0.008) and desire to eat sweet (P = 0.036) were found. Breath hydrogen was significantly higher with inulin (P = 0.001) and l-rhamnose (P = 0.009) than control, indicating colonic fermentation. These findings suggest l-rhamnose may inhibit postprandial insulin secretion, however neither l-rhamnose or inulin influenced appetite.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:33:49Z
       
  • Attention with a mindful attitude attenuates subjective appetitive
           reactions and food intake following food-cue exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Naomi Fisher, Paul Lattimore, Peter Malinowski
      Background Excessive energy intake that contributes to overweight and obesity is arguably driven by pleasure associated with the rewarding properties of energy-dense palatable foods. It is important to address influences of external food cues in food-abundant societies where people make over 200 food related decisions each day. This study experimentally examines protective effects of a mindful attention induction on appetitive measures, state craving and food intake following exposure to energy-dense foods. Method Forty females were randomly allocated to a standard food-cue exposure condition in which attention is brought to the hedonic properties of food or food-cue exposure following a mindful attention induction. Appetitive reactions were measured pre, post and 10 min after post-cue exposure, after which a plate of cookies was used as a surreptitious means of measuring food intake. Results Self-reported hunger remained unchanged and fullness significantly increased for the mindful attention group post-cue exposure whereas hunger significantly increased for the standard attention group and fullness remained unchanged. There was no significant between-group difference in state craving post-cue exposure and 10 min later. Significantly more cookies were eaten by the standard attention group 10 min post-cue exposure although no significant between-group differences in appetitive and craving measures were reported at that time. Conclusion Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlights the importance of distinguishing mindful attention from attention. Results also demonstrate that mindful attention can influence food intake even when craving and hunger are experienced.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:33:49Z
       
  • A review of chemosensory perceptions, food preferences and food-related
           behaviours in subjects with Prader–Willi Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 99
      Author(s): Lorelei Martínez Michel, Andrea M. Haqq, Wendy V. Wismer
      Hyperphagia and obsessive preoccupation with food are hallmark characteristics of Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS). Although hyperphagia in PWS is linked to hypothalamic dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms behind this problem are poorly understood. Moreover, our understanding of how chemosensory perceptions and food choice/preferences relate to hyperphagia in individuals with PWS is very limited. This narrative review synthesizes studies that assessed chemosensory perceptions, food choices and food-related behaviours in PWS individuals and highlights knowledge gaps in research for further exploration. Twenty seven publications from relevant databases met inclusion criteria and were organized thematically by study technique in the review. Results suggested that PWS individuals have consistent preferences for sweet tastes and in most studies have exhibited a preference for calorie-dense foods over lower calorie foods. No firm conclusions were drawn concerning the chemosensory perceptions of PWS individuals and their influence on food preferences or choices; chemosensation among PWS individuals is an understudied topic. Current evidence suggests that eating behaviour in PWS is a complex phenomenon that involves a dysfunctional satiation and not excessive hunger. Food preferences, choices, and related behaviours and the impact of these on obesity management in those with PWS remain poorly understood and require further study using validated tools and methodologies.


      PubDate: 2016-01-15T10:33:49Z
       
  • Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve
           home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Senbagam Virudachalam, Paul J. Chung, Jennifer A. Faerber, Timothy M. Pian, Karen Thomas, Chris Feudtner
      Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1–4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21–45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p < 0.05). The child persuasion group was more varied with regard to age, income, and household structure but cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p < 0.05). Discrete choice experiments using maximum difference scaling can be employed to design and tailor interventions to change health behaviors. Segmenting a diverse target population by needs and preferences enables the tailoring and optimization of future interventions to improve parental home food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T18:46:28Z
       
  • RYGB progressively increases avidity for a low-energy, artificially
           sweetened diet in female rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Nori Geary, Thomas Bächler, Lynda Whiting, Thomas A. Lutz, Lori Asarian
      Weight re-gain within 2 y after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is significantly associated with increased intake of and cravings for sweet foods. Here we describe a novel model of this late increase in sweet appetite. Ovariectomized RYGB and Sham-operated rats, with or without estradiol treatment, were maintained on Ensure liquid diet and offered a low-energy, artificially sweetened diet (ASD) 2 h/d. First, we tested rats more than six months after RYGB. ASD meals were larger in RYGB than Sham rats, whereas Ensure meals were smaller. General physical activity increased during ASD meals in RYGB rats, but not during Ensure meals. Second, new rats were adapted to ASD before surgery, and were then offered ASD again during 4–10 wk following surgery. Estradiol-treated RYGB rats lost the most weight and progressively increased ASD intake to >20 g/2 h in wk 9–10 vs. ∼3 g/2 h in Sham rats. Finally, the same rats were then treated with leptin or saline for 8 d. Leptin did not affect body weight, Ensure intake, or activity during meals, but slightly reduced ASD intake in estradiol-treated RYGB rats. Food-anticipatory activity was increased in estradiol-treated RYGB rats during the saline-injection tests. Because increased meal-related physical activity together with larger meals is evidence of hunger in rats, these data suggest that (1) RYGB can increase hunger for a low-energy sweet food in rats and (2) low leptin levels contribute to this hunger, but are not its only cause. This provides a unique rat model for the increased avidity for sweets that is significantly associated with weight recidivism late after RYGB.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T18:46:28Z
       
  • Easy to open? Exploring the ‘openability’ of hospital food
           and beverage packaging by older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Alison F. Bell, Karen L. Walton, Linda C. Tapsell
      Food is increasingly a packaged commodity, both in the community and in institutionalised settings such as hospitals, where many older people are malnourished. Previous research with patients aged over 65 years in NSW public hospitals identified difficulties opening milk, water, juices, cereal and tetra packs. The aim of this paper was to assess the ability of well older people living in the community to open food and beverage items routinely used in NSW hospitals in order to gain further insights into the older person/pack interaction and the role of hand and finger strength in pack opening. A sample of 40 older people in good health aged over 65 years from 3 community settings participated in the study. The attempts at pack opening were observed, the time taken to open the pack was measured and the correlation between grip and pinch strengths with opening times was determined. Tetra packs, water bottles, cereal, fruit cups, desserts, biscuits and cheese portions appeared to be the most difficult food products to open. Ten percent of the sample could not open the water bottles and 39% could not open cheese portions. The results were consistent with the previous research involving hospitalised older adults, adding emphasis to the conclusion that food and beverage packaging can be a potential barrier to adequate nutrition when particular types of packaged products are used in hospitals or the community. The ageing population is rapidly becoming a larger and more important group to consider in the provision of goods and services. Designers, manufacturers and providers of food and beverage products need to consider the needs and abilities of these older consumers to ensure good ‘openability’ and promote adequate nutritional intakes.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T18:46:28Z
       
  • Exploring individual cognitions, self-regulation skills, and
           environmental-level factors as mediating variables of two versions of a
           Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention aimed at
           adults: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Linda Springvloet, Lilian Lechner, Math JJM. Candel, Hein de Vries, Anke Oenema
      Background This study explored whether the determinants that were targeted in two versions of a Web-based computer-tailored nutrition education intervention mediated the effects on fruit, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake among adults who did not comply with dietary guidelines. Method A RCT was conducted with a basic (tailored intervention targeting individual cognitions and self-regulation), plus (additionally targeting environmental-level factors), and control group (generic nutrition information). Participants were recruited from the general Dutch adult population and randomly assigned to one of the study groups. Online self-reported questionnaires assessed dietary intake and potential mediating variables (behavior-specific cognitions, action- and coping planning, environmental-level factors) at baseline and one (T1) and four (T2) months post-intervention (i.e. four and seven months after baseline). The joint-significance test was used to establish mediating variables at different time points (T1-mediating variables – T2-intake; T1-mediating variables – T1-intake; T2-mediating variables – T2-intake). Educational differences were examined by testing interaction terms. Results The effect of the plus version on fruit intake was mediated (T2–T2) by intention and fruit availability at home and for high-educated participants also by attitude. Among low/moderate-educated participants, high-energy snack availability at home mediated (T1–T1) the effect of the basic version on high-energy snack intake. Subjective norm mediated (T1–T1) the effect of the basic version on fat intake among high-educated participants. Discussion Only some of the targeted determinants mediated the effects of both intervention versions on fruit, high-energy snack, and saturated fat intake. A possible reason for not finding a more pronounced pattern of mediating variables is that the educational content was tailored to individual characteristics and that participants only received feedback for relevant and not for all assessed mediating variables. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Registry NTR3396.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T18:46:28Z
       
  • Increasing the size of portion options affects intake but not portion
           selection at a meal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Faris M. Zuraikat, Liane S. Roe, Gregory J. Privitera, Barbara J. Rolls
      In an environment with large portion sizes, allowing consumers more control over their portion selection could moderate the effects on energy intake. We tested whether having subjects choose a portion from several options influenced the amount selected or consumed when all portion sizes were systematically increased. In a crossover design, 24 women and 26 men ate lunch in the lab once a week for 3 weeks. At each meal, subjects chose a portion of macaroni and cheese from a set of 3 portion options and consumed it ad libitum. Across 3 conditions, portion sizes in the set were increased; the order of the conditions was counterbalanced across subjects. For women the portion sets by weight (g) were 300/375/450, 375/450/525, and 450/525/600; for men the portions were 33% larger. The results showed that increasing the size of available portions did not significantly affect the relative size selected; across all portion sets, subjects chose the smallest available portion at 59% of meals, the medium at 27%, and the largest at 15%. The size of portions offered did, however, influence meal intake (P < 0.0001). Mean intake (±SEM) was 16% greater when the largest set was offered (661 ± 34 kcal) than when the medium and smallest sets were offered (both 568 ± 18 kcal). These results suggest that portions are selected in relation to the other available options, and confirm the robust effect of portion size on intake. Although presenting a choice of portions can allow selection of smaller amounts, the sizes offered are a critical determinant of energy intake. Thus, the availability of choices could help to moderate intake if the portions offered are within an appropriate range for energy needs.


      PubDate: 2016-01-05T08:22:26Z
       
  • What is eaten when all of the foods at a meal are served in large
           portions?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2016
      Source:Appetite
      Author(s): Liane S. Roe, Samantha M.R. Kling, Barbara J. Rolls
      Portion size affects intake, but when all foods are served in large portions, it is unclear whether every food will be consumed in greater amounts. We varied the portion size (PS) of all foods at a meal to investigate the influence of food energy density (ED) on the PS effect as well as that of palatability and subject characteristics. In a crossover design, 48 women ate lunch in the laboratory on four occasions. The meal had three medium-ED foods (pasta, bread, cake) and three low-ED foods (broccoli, tomatoes, grapes), which were simultaneously varied in PS across meals (100%, 133%, 167%, or 200% of baseline amounts). The results showed that the effect of PS on the weight of food consumed did not differ between medium-ED and low-ED foods (p<0.0001). Energy intake, however, was substantially affected by food ED across all portions served, with medium-ED foods contributing 86% of energy. Doubling the portions of all foods increased meal energy intake by a mean (±SEM) of 900±117 kJ (215±28 kcal; 34%). As portions were increased, subjects consumed a smaller proportion of the amount served; this response was characterized by a quadratic curve. The strongest predictor of the weight of food consumed was the weight of food served, both for the entire meal (p<0.0001) and for individual foods (p=0.014); subject characteristics explained less variability. Intake in response to larger portions was greater for foods that subjects ranked higher in taste (p<0.0001); rankings were not related to food ED. This study demonstrates the complexity of the PS effect. While the response to PS can vary between individuals, the effect depends primarily on the amounts of foods offered and their palatability compared to other available foods.


      PubDate: 2016-01-05T08:22:26Z
       
  • “Food addiction” is associated with night eating severity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Laurence J. Nolan, Allan Geliebter
      Night eating syndrome (NES) and “food addiction” (FA) are associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and disturbed eating behavior. The present study was conducted to examine whether NES is associated with FA, and whether BMI, depression and sleep quality contribute to any relationship between NES and FA. Two groups were studied: a sample of 254 university students and a sample of 244 older adults. All completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Zung Self-report Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and BMI was computed from height and weight. In both samples, higher global NEQ scores were significantly correlated with more FA symptoms, elevated depression, and poorer sleep quality, and these correlations were significantly higher in the older adult sample than in the younger student sample. Higher BMI was significantly correlated with NEQ score only in the older adult sample. The hypothesis that the prediction of NEQ by YFAS was moderated by BMI and group membership (moderated moderation) was tested; while the prediction of NEQ by YFAS was not moderated by BMI, elevated YFAS predicted higher NEQ in the adult sample than it did in the student sample. In addition, multiple regression revealed that “continued use of food despite adverse effects” was the sole FA symptom predictive of NES symptoms in students while in older adults food tolerance was the only predictor of NES. Thus, NES appears to be associated with FA, more strongly in an older community sample; higher food tolerance in NES may contribute to a desire to eat late in the evening and/or when awakening at night.


      PubDate: 2016-01-05T08:22:26Z
       
  • Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of
           appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Tom J. Hazell, Hashim Islam, Logan K. Townsend, Matt S. Schmale, Jennifer L. Copeland
      The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life stages will be a powerful tool in developing more successful strategies for managing weight.


      PubDate: 2016-01-05T08:22:26Z
       
  • Examining the role of residential segregation in explaining racial/ethnic
           gaps in spending on fruit and vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Igor Ryabov
      The present study used nationally-representative data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) merged with census-track data from the 2010 United States Census to model racial/ethnic disparities in spending on fresh and processed fruit and vegetables as a function of residential racial/ethnic segregation, income, household size and structure, educational attainment, marital status, age and sex. Results indicate that, in the absence of any controls, African–Americans and Hispanics tend to spend less on vegetables than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African–Americans are also found to spend less on fruit. The initial analysis also shows that Hispanics spend more on fresh fruit compared to whites and blacks. However, after controlling for socio-economic status, marital status, age, sex (individual-level predictors) and residential racial/ethnic segregation (neighborhood-level predictor), racial/ethnic disparities in the spending on fruit and vegetable become insignificant. We also found that racial/ethnic segregation has a strong and negative effect on the expenditure on fruit and vegetables.


      PubDate: 2016-01-05T08:22:26Z
       
  • Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A
           population-based study in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Maria Fernanda Gombi-Vaca, Rosely Sichieri, Eliseu Verly-Jr
      Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008–2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Editors / Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97




      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Annechen Bahr Bugge
      Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Olfactory Specific Satiety depends on degree of association between odour
           and food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Lorenzo D. Stafford
      The pleasantness of a food odour decreases when that food is eaten to satiety or even smelled for a brief period (Olfactory Specific Satiety, OSS), which suggests that odours signal food variety and encourage approach behaviour toward novel foods. In the study here, we aimed to extend this theory to understand the consequence of manipulating the food consumed and its degree of association to the evaluated odour. We also wished to clarify if these effects related to individual sensitivity to the target odour. In the study here, participants (n = 94) rated the pleasantness of a food odour (isoamyl acetate) and then consumed confectionary that had either Low or High association to that odour or a No food control. This was followed by final pleasantness ratings for the odour and a threshold sensitivity test. Results revealed that in line with OSS, pleasantness decreased in the High association group only. This effect was not dependent on any differences in sensitivity to the target odour. These findings are consistent with OSS, and that this effect likely depends on activation of brain areas related to odour hedonics rather than the degree to which the odour is detected.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • “What do you think of when I say the word
           ‘snack’?” Towards a cohesive definition among
           low-income caregivers of preschool-age children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Nicholas A. Younginer, Christine E. Blake, Kirsten K. Davison, Rachel E. Blaine, Claudia Ganter, Alexandria Orloski, Jennifer Orlet Fisher
      Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3–5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60–90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Validation of the modified Parenting Strategies for Eating and Physical
           Activity Scale-Diet (PEAS-Diet) in Latino children
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Sandra C. Soto, Elva M. Arredondo, Lucy A. Horton, Guadalupe X. Ayala
      Research shows that Latino parenting practices influence children's dietary and weight outcomes. Most studies use parent-reported data, however data from children may provide additional insight into how parents influence their children's diet and weight outcomes. The Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) has been validated in Latino adults, but not in children. This study evaluated the factor structure and concurrent and predictive validity of a modified version of the PEAS (PEAS-Diet) among Latino children. Data were collected from 361 children ages 7–13 from Imperial County, California, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating. The PEAS-Diet included 25 candidate items targeting six parenting practices pertaining to children's eating behaviors: (a) monitoring; (b) disciplining; (c) control; (d) permissiveness; (e) reinforcing; and (f) limit-setting. Children were on average ten years old (±2), 50% boys, 93% self-identified as Latino, 81% were US-born, and 55% completed English versus Spanish-language interviews. Using varimax rotation on baseline data with the total sample, six items were removed due to factor loadings <.40 and/or cross-loading (>.32 on more than one component). Parallel analysis and interpretability suggested a 5-factor solution explaining 59.46% of the variance. The subscale “limit-setting” was removed from the scale. The final scale consisted of 19 items and 5 subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from α = .63-.82. Confirmatory factor analyses provided additional evidence for the 5-factor scale using data collected 4 and 6 months post-baseline among the control group (n = 164, n = 161, respectively). Concurrent validity with dietary intake was established for monitoring, control, permissiveness, and reinforcing subscales in the expected directions. Predictive validity was not established. Results indicated that with the reported changes, the interview-administered PEAS-Diet is valid among Latino children aged 7–13 years.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Rose Omari, Godfred Frempong
      In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy
           eating in Australian truck drivers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Caitlin Vayro, Kyra Hamilton
      In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of
           portion size normality: Three experimental studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Eric Robinson, Melissa Oldham, Imogen Cuckson, Jeffrey M. Brunstrom, Peter J. Rogers, Charlotte A. Hardman
      Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a ‘normal’ sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Help the climate, change your diet: A cross-sectional study on how to
           involve consumers in a transition to a low-carbon society
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Joop de Boer, Annick de Witt, Harry Aiking
      This paper explores how the transition to a low-carbon society to mitigate climate change can be better supported by a diet change. As climate mitigation is not the focal goal of consumers who are buying or consuming food, the study highlighted the role of motivational and cognitive background factors, including possible spillover effects. Consumer samples in the Netherlands (n = 527) and the United States (n = 556) were asked to evaluate food-related and energy-related mitigation options in a design that included three food-related options with very different mitigation potentials (i.e. eating less meat, buying local and seasonal food, and buying organic food). They rated each option's effectiveness and their willingness to adopt it. The outstanding effectiveness of the less meat option (as established by climate experts) was recognized by merely 12% of the Dutch and 6% of the American sample. Many more participants gave fairly positive effectiveness ratings and this was correlated with belief in human causation of climate change, personal importance of climate change, and being a moderate meat eater. Willingness to adopt the less meat option increased with its perceived effectiveness and, controlling for that, it was significantly related to various motivationally relevant factors. The local food option appealed to consumer segments with overlapping but partly different motivational orientations. It was concluded that a transition to a low carbon society can significantly benefit from a special focus on the food-related options to involve more consumers and to improve mitigation.


      PubDate: 2016-01-01T08:54:17Z
       
  • Reframing convenience food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 98
      Author(s): Peter Jackson, Valerie Viehoff
      This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of ‘convenience’ food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character.


      PubDate: 2015-12-28T08:49:34Z
       
  • Relative validity of a tool to measure food acculturation in children of
           Mexican descent
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Luz Elvia Vera-Becerra, Martha L. Lopez, Lucia L. Kaiser
      The purpose of this study was to examine relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure food acculturation in young Mexican-origin children. In 2006, Spanish-speaking staff interviewed mothers in a community-based sample of households from Ventura, California (US) (n = 95) and Guanajuato, Mexico (MX) (n = 200). Data included two 24-h dietary recalls (24-DR); a 30-item FFQ; and anthropometry of the children. To measure construct, convergent, and discriminant validity, data analyses included factor analysis, Spearman correlations, t-test, respectively. Factor analysis revealed two constructs: 1) a US food pattern including hamburgers, pizza, hot dogs, fried chicken, juice, cereal, pastries, lower fat milk, quesadillas, and American cheese and 2) a MX food pattern including tortillas, fried beans, rice/noodles, whole milk, and pan dulce (sweet bread). Out of 22 food items that could be compared across the FFQ and mean 24-DRs, 17 were significantly, though weakly, correlated (highest r = 0.62, for whole milk). The mean US food pattern score was significantly higher, and the MX food pattern score, lower in US children than in MX children (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for child's age and gender; mother's education; and household size, the US food pattern score was positively related to body mass index (BMI) z-scores (beta coefficient: +0.29, p = − 0.004), whereas the MX food pattern score was negatively related to BMI z-scores (beta coefficient: −0.28, p = 0.002). This tool may be useful to evaluate nutrition education interventions to prevent childhood obesity on both sides of the border.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • Stability of food neophobia from infancy through early childhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Kameron J. Moding, Cynthia A. Stifter
      The purpose of the present study was to examine whether rejection of novel foods during infancy predicted child behavioral and parent-reported neophobia at 4.5 years of age. Data for the present study were drawn from a longitudinal study following individuals (n = 82) from infancy through early childhood. At 6 and 12 months of age, the infants tasted a novel food (green beans, hummus, or cottage cheese) and their reactions were coded for rejection of the food (i.e. crying, force outs, or refusals). The children returned to the laboratory at 4.5 years of age and participated in a behavioral neophobia task where they were offered three novel foods (lychee, nori, and haw jelly) and the number of novel foods they tasted was recorded. Mothers also reported their own and their children's levels of food neophobia. Regression analyses revealed that rejection of novel foods at 6 months interacted with maternal neophobia to predict parent-rated child neophobia. Infants who exhibited low levels of rejection at 6 months showed higher levels of parent-rated neophobia when their mothers also showed high compared to low levels of neophobia. At 12 months of age, however, infants who exhibited high levels of rejection tended to have high levels of parent-rated neophobia regardless of their mothers' levels of neophobia. These results provide preliminary evidence that rejection of novel foods during infancy does predict neophobia during early childhood, but the results vary depending on when rejection of new foods is measured.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • Sustained satiety induced by food foams is independent of energy content,
           in healthy adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Wendy A.M. Blom, Wieneke P. Koppenol, Ewoud A.H. Schuring, Salomon L. Abrahamse, Luben N. Arnaudov, David J. Mela, Simeon D. Stoyanov
      Our previous research demonstrated high, sustained satiety effects of stabilized food foams relative to their non-aerated compositions. Here we test if the energy and macronutrients in a stabilized food foam are critical for its previously demonstrated satiating effects. In a randomized, crossover design, 72 healthy subjects consumed 400 mL of each of four foams, one per week over four weeks, 150 min after a standardized breakfast. Appetite ratings were collected for 180 min post-foam. The reference was a normal energy food foam (NEF1, 280 kJ/400 mL) similar to that used in our previous research. This was compared to a very low energy food foam (VLEF, 36 kJ/400 mL) and 2 alternative normal energy foams (NEF2 and NEF3) testing possible effects of compositional differences other than energy (i.e. emulsifier and carbohydrate source). Appetite ratings were quantified as area under the curve (AUC) and time to return to baseline (TTRTB). Equivalence to NEF1 was predefined as the 90% confidence interval of between-treatment differences in AUC being within −5 to +5 mm/min. All treatments similarly affected appetite ratings, with mean AUC for fullness ranging between 49.1 and 52.4 mm/min. VLEF met the statistical criterion for equivalence to NEF1 for all appetite AUC ratings, but NEF2 and NEF3 did not. For all foams the TTRTB for satiety and fullness were consistently between 150 and 180 min, though values were shortest for NEF2 and especially NEF3 foams for most appetite scales. In conclusion, the high, sustained satiating effects of these food foams are independent of energy and macronutrient content at the volumes tested.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating,
           predict young adult eating behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jordan M. Ellis, Amy T. Galloway, Rose Mary Webb, Denise M. Martz, Claire V. Farrow
      Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • The impact of sugar sweetened beverage intake on hunger and satiety in
           minority adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Grace E. Shearrer, Gillian A. O'Reilly, Britini R. Belcher, Michael J. Daniels, Michael I. Goran, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Jaimie N. Davis
      Limited research has examined the effects of habitual SSB consumption on hunger/fullness ratings and gut hormones. This study hypothesized that high versus low intakes of habitual SSBs would result in greater hunger, decreased fullness, and a blunted gut hormone response, however the high versus low fiber group would exhibit decreased hunger and increased fullness. This was a randomized crossover feeding trial with 47 African American and Hispanic adolescents. The experiment included three 24-hour recalls to assess habitual dietary intake. During the test meal phase, subjects were served breakfast and lunch. During the ad libitum meal phase, subjects were fed an ad libitum dinner. During the test meal phase, blood was drawn every 30 minutes for 3 hours. During the ad libitum meal phase, hunger and fullness visual analogue scales were completed. For this analysis, subjects were grouped into the following habitual SSB categories: low SSB (≤1 SSB serv/day), medium SSB (>1 - <2 serv/day), and high SSB (≥2 serv/day). Fiber categories were created based on quartiles of intake. Mixed modeling was used to explore how SSB and fiber categories predicted ghrelin/PYY values and hunger/fullness ratings across time within and between test meals. The following a priori covariates included: sex, ethnicity, age, and obesity status. The low SSB group had higher fullness ratings over the ad libitum meal compared to the high SSB group (β =-0.49, CI=(-0.89, -0.08), p=0.02) and higher ghrelin concentrations than the medium and high SSB group over the test meal phase (β =-1.86, CI=(-2.81, -0.92), p<0.01). Habitual SSB intake appears to play a key role in moderating fullness responses possibly via ghrelin.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • Are vegans the same as vegetarians? The effect of diet on perceptions
           of masculinity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Margaret A. Thomas
      Food and food consumption matters in interpersonal interactions. Foods consumed can affect how a person is perceived by others in terms of morality, likeability, and gender. Food consumption can be used as a strategy for gendered presentation, either in terms of what foods are consumed or in the amount of food consumed. Finally, foods themselves are associated with gender. Previous research (Browarnik, 2012; Ruby & Heine, 2011) shows inconsistent patterns in the association between vegetarianism and masculinity. The current research conceptually replicates and extends this research by including the explicit label of vegetarian. The four studies in this article provide increased information about the effects of diet on gendered perceptions. Study 1 shows that vegetarian and omnivorous targets are rated equally in terms of masculinity. Study 2 shows that perceptions of vegetarians and vegans are similar, though comparing this research with past research indicates that perceptions of vegetarians are more variable. Study 3 shows that veganism leads perceptions of decreased masculinity relative to omnivores. Finally, Study 4 tests one possible mechanism for the results of Study 3, that it is the choice to be vegan that impacts perceptions of gender. Implications include increased knowledge about how meatless diets can affect the perceptions of gender in others. Multiple directions for future research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • Building a framework for theory-based ethnographies for studying
           intergenerational family food practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Sanne Siete Visser, Inge Hutter, Hinke Haisma
      The growing rates of (childhood) obesity worldwide are a source concern for health professionals, policy-makers, and researchers. The increasing prevalence of associated diseases—such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and psychological problems—shows the impact of obesity on people's health, already from a young age. In turn, these problems have obvious consequences for the health care system, including higher costs. However, the treatment of obesity has proven to be difficult, which makes prevention an important goal. In this study, we focus on food practices, one of the determinants of obesity. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that interventions designed to encourage healthy eating of children and their families are not having the desired impact, especially among groups with a lower socioeconomic background (SEB). To understand why interventions fail to have an impact, we need to study the embedded social and cultural constructions of families. We argue that we need more than just decision-making theories to understand this cultural embeddedness, and to determine what cultural and social factors influence the decision-making process. By allowing families to explain their cultural background, their capabilities, and their opportunities, we will gain new insights into how families choose what they eat from a complex set of food choices. We have thus chosen to build a framework based on Sen's capability approach and the theory of cultural schemas. This framework, together with a holistic ethnographic research approach, can help us better understand what drives the food choices made in families. The framework is built to serve as a starting point for ethnographic research on food choice in families, and could contribute to the development of interventions that are embedded in the cultural realities of the targeted groups.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among
           low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011–2012 California
           Health Interview Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Teresa M. Smith, Uriyoán Colón-Ramos, Courtney A. Pinard, Amy L. Yaroch
      An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011–12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P < .05). Significant differences across subgroups existed for prevalence of overweight or obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population.


      PubDate: 2015-12-11T18:44:41Z
       
  • The associations of vegetable consumption with food mavenism, personal
           values, food knowledge and demographic factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Anthony Worsley, Wei C. Wang, Tahlia Farragher
      Background Poor dietary choices, in particular low consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with the prevalence of diet related diseases. Ways to increase consumption are urgently required. This paper examines the associations of demographic, psychographic and food knowledge variables with reported vegetable consumption. Methods An online questionnaire was administered in late 2012 to a national sample 2146 Australians who were selected to represent the Australian population in terms of age, sex, education and location of residence. It was divided into sections which assessed food knowledge, food involvement, food mavenism, personal values and personality factors, demographic characteristics and reported consumption of 13 vegetables and the total number of servings of vegetables per day. Principal components analyses of the individual vegetable consumption ratings derived three forms of vegetable consumption scores. These and total serving per day were used as dependent variables in a structural equation model to identify pathways between them and their likely antecedents. Major findings Three types of vegetable consumption were formed:Salad vegetables (onion, tomato and lettuce);Dinner vegetables (carrot, peas and beans); and‘Green’ vegetables (cabbage, spinach broccoli and cauliflower). Food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values mediated the relationships between demographics and conscientiousness and the vegetable consumption variables. Conclusions The three types of vegetable consumption and total servings per day were associated with different antecedent pathways. The mediating roles of food mavenism, food knowledge, food involvement and equality-universalist values may present opportunities for health promotion and the horticultural industry to increase population vegetable intake. Further research is required to test these associations via experimental and longitudinal studies and qualitative investigation of the meaning and place of the three forms of vegetable consumption in people's daily lives is recommended.


      PubDate: 2015-11-27T13:31:19Z
       
  • Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A
           meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of
           effectiveness
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Andrew Jones, Lisa C.G. Di Lemma, Eric Robinson, Paul Christiansen, Sarah Nolan, Catrin Tudur-Smith, Matt Field
      Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p < .001; I 2 = 71%). Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory.


      PubDate: 2015-11-27T13:31:19Z
       
  • Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary
           body odour
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jitka Fialová, S. Craig Roberts, Jan Havlíček
      Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect – distinctive breath odour – are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a “garlic” or “non-garlic” condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).


      PubDate: 2015-11-22T15:22:13Z
       
  • Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2016
      Source:Appetite, Volume 97
      Author(s): Jenna M. Marx, Debra A. Hoffmann, Dara R. Musher-Eizenman
      This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: “meal”, “snack”, or “either meal or snack”. One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life.


      PubDate: 2015-11-22T15:22:13Z
       
 
 
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