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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3175 journals)

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Showing 2401 - 2600 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Otolaryngologia Polska     Partially Free   (SJR: 0.192, h-index: 12)
Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.958, h-index: 52)
Otolaryngology Case Reports     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review A : Natural Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Pacific-Basin Finance J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 36)
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.734, h-index: 46)
Paediatrics & Child Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.429, h-index: 22)
Paediatrics and Child Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 14)
Pain Management Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 36)
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.501, h-index: 112)
Palaeoworld     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 20)
Papillomavirus Research     Open Access  
Parallel Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 55)
Parasite Epidemiology and Control     Open Access  
Parasitology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.02, h-index: 46)
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 66)
Particuology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.682, h-index: 32)
Pathogenesis     Open Access   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 4)
Pathology - Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 48)
Pathophysiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.614, h-index: 38)
Patient Education and Counseling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.279, h-index: 96)
Pattern Recognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.051, h-index: 146)
Pattern Recognition Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.225, h-index: 109)
Pediatría     Open Access  
Pediatria Polska     Partially Free   (SJR: 0.132, h-index: 8)
Pediatric Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.822, h-index: 67)
Pediatric Dental J.     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.109, h-index: 1)
Pediatric Hematology Oncology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Infectious Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pediatric Neurology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.819, h-index: 73)
Pediatrics & Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.546, h-index: 23)
Pedobiologia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.766, h-index: 51)
Pedosphere     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.71, h-index: 34)
Península     Open Access  
Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.128, h-index: 96)
Performance Enhancement & Health     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.246, h-index: 7)
Performance Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.527, h-index: 50)
Pergamon Materials Series     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 2)
Perinatología y Reproducción Humana     Open Access  
Perioperative Care and Operating Room Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Perioperative Medizin     Full-text available via subscription  
Perioperative Nursing Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 5)
Personality and Individual Differences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.16, h-index: 108)
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.451, h-index: 22)
Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Personalized Medicine Universe     Full-text available via subscription  
Perspectives in Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Perspectives in Medical Virology     Full-text available via subscription  
Perspectives in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 3)
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.406, h-index: 56)
Perspectives in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Perspectives in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pervasive and Mobile Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.872, h-index: 38)
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.018, h-index: 55)
PET Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 13)
Petroleum Exploration and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.972, h-index: 24)
Pharmacochemistry Library     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.819, h-index: 57)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.108, h-index: 99)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.09, h-index: 158)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.121, h-index: 110)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 6)
Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Philosophy and Foundations of Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Photoacoustics     Open Access   (SJR: 2.073, h-index: 8)
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.678, h-index: 30)
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.784, h-index: 28)
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.738, h-index: 115)
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.509, h-index: 77)
Physica C: Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.472, h-index: 71)
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.049, h-index: 102)
Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.636, h-index: 66)
Physica Medica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.715, h-index: 24)
Physical Acoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Physical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.552, h-index: 19)
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.516, h-index: 41)
Physical Sciences Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physical Techniques in the Study of Art, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Physical Therapy in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 30)
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 26)
Physics Letters A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.755, h-index: 137)
Physics Letters B     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 3.186, h-index: 216)
Physics of Life Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 2.615, h-index: 39)
Physics of the Dark Universe     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 3.099, h-index: 15)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.14, h-index: 83)
Physics Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.242, h-index: 23)
Physics Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 8.102, h-index: 209)
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 62)
Physiology & Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.245, h-index: 122)
Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.769, h-index: 35)
Phytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, h-index: 134)
Phytochemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.484, h-index: 22)
Phytomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.013, h-index: 84)
Piel     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.117, h-index: 6)
Placenta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.608, h-index: 98)
Planetary and Space Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94, SJR: 1.072, h-index: 69)
Plant Gene     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.167, h-index: 84)
Plant Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.601, h-index: 107)
Plasmid     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.891, h-index: 46)
PM&R (Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.607, h-index: 32)
Poetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.867, h-index: 41)
Polar Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 13)
Polish Annals of Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.928, h-index: 68)
Polski Przegląd Otorynolaryngologiczny : Polish J. of Otorhinolaryngology Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Polyhedron     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.592, h-index: 78)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.188, h-index: 197)
Polymer Contents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Degradation and Stability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.241, h-index: 112)
Polymer Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85, SJR: 0.947, h-index: 69)
Porto Biomedical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.165, h-index: 4)
Postharvest Biology and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.577, h-index: 98)
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 92)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants     Full-text available via subscription  
Practical Radiation Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.845, h-index: 13)
Pratique Neurologique - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.103, h-index: 2)
Pratiques Psychologiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 8)
Precambrian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.214, h-index: 114)
Precision Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.068, h-index: 59)
Pregnancy Hypertension: An Intl. J. of Women's Cardiovascular Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.586, h-index: 11)
Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.621, h-index: 130)
Preventive Medicine Reports     Open Access  
Preventive Veterinary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 69)
Prevenzione & Assistenza Dentale     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.159, h-index: 3)
Primary Care Diabetes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.971, h-index: 20)
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.349, h-index: 32)
Principles of Medical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.386, h-index: 51)
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.166, h-index: 22)
Procedia Chemistry     Open Access  
Procedia CIRP     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.572, h-index: 15)
Procedia Computer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.314, h-index: 21)
Procedia Earth and Planetary Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Procedia Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Procedia Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 23)
Procedia Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Procedia Food Science     Open Access  
Procedia in Vaccinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 7)
Procedia IUTAM     Open Access   (SJR: 0.289, h-index: 8)
Procedia Manufacturing     Open Access  
Procedia Materials Science     Open Access  
Procedia Technology     Open Access  
Proceedings in Marine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.796, h-index: 90)
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.603, h-index: 27)
Process Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, h-index: 113)
Process Metallurgy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.741, h-index: 43)
Process Systems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Process Technology Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription  
Progrès en Urologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.253, h-index: 25)
Progrès en Urologie - FMC     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.189, h-index: 16)
Progresos de Obstetricia y Ginecología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 7)
Progress in Aerospace Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76, SJR: 1.488, h-index: 79)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.05, h-index: 87)
Progress in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Brain Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.637, h-index: 110)
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.847, h-index: 74)
Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 35)
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 8.176, h-index: 124)
Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 18)
Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.097, h-index: 30)
Progress in Industrial Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Progress in Lipid Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 5.108, h-index: 110)
Progress in Low Temperature Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Materials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 11.902, h-index: 109)
Progress in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.539, h-index: 28)
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.919, h-index: 79)
Progress in Natural Science : Materials Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.575, h-index: 34)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.794, h-index: 96)
Progress in Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 5.775, h-index: 185)
Progress in Nuclear Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.924, h-index: 39)
Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.031, h-index: 80)
Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.726, h-index: 99)
Progress in Optics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.656, h-index: 35)
Progress in Organic Coatings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.854, h-index: 77)
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.927, h-index: 85)
Progress in Pediatric Cardiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 22)
Progress in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.663, h-index: 31)
Progress in Polymer Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 8.3, h-index: 198)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.626, h-index: 48)
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 5.073, h-index: 111)
Progress in Solid State Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.713, h-index: 38)
Progress in Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.828, h-index: 66)
Propulsion and Power Research     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 1.142, h-index: 60)
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.224, h-index: 85)
Prostate Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Protein Expression and Purification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.767, h-index: 70)
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.586, h-index: 57)
Psicología Educativa     Open Access   (SJR: 0.139, h-index: 4)
Psiquiatría Biológica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)

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Journal Cover Appetite
  [SJR: 1.375]   [H-I: 92]   [20 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0195-6663 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8304
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • “That’s enough now!”: A prospective study of the effects of maternal
           control on children’s snack intake
    • Authors: Samantha B. Boots; Marika Tiggemann; Nadia Corsini
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Samantha B. Boots, Marika Tiggemann, Nadia Corsini
      The aim of this study was to investigate maternal feeding strategies as prospective predictors of young children’s snack intake. Participants were 252 mothers of children aged 3–11 years old who completed questionnaire measures of parent feeding strategies (Restriction and Covert Control) and reported on their child’s healthy and unhealthy snack intake at two time points separated by three years. Longitudinal regression models showed no prediction of healthy snack food intake. However, Time 1 parental restrictive feeding predicted greater unhealthy snack intake at Time 2, while Time 1 covert feeding strategies predicted lower unhealthy snack intake at Time 2. Structural equation modeling showed that these associations were independent of known covariates that influence children’s snack intake (child and parent weight, education level and SES). The results provide longitudinal evidence for the negative impact of restrictive parent feeding strategies on children’s snack intake and highlight the importance of dissuading parents from using this type of feeding control. Instead, parents should be encouraged to use more covert feeding strategies that are associated with less unhealthy snack intake over the longer term.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Oral processing behaviours that promote children's energy intake are
           associated with parent-reported appetitive traits: Results from the GUSTO
    • Authors: Anna Fogel; Lisa R. Fries; Keri McCrickerd; Ai Ting Goh; Phaik Ling Quah; Mei Jun Chan; Jia Ying Toh; Yap-Seng Chong; Kok Hian Tan; Fabian Yap; Lynette P. Shek; Michael J. Meaney; Birit F.P. Broekman; Yung Seng Lee; Keith M. Godfrey; Mary Foong Fong Chong; Ciarán G. Forde
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Anna Fogel, Lisa R. Fries, Keri McCrickerd, Ai Ting Goh, Phaik Ling Quah, Mei Jun Chan, Jia Ying Toh, Yap-Seng Chong, Kok Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Lynette P. Shek, Michael J. Meaney, Birit F.P. Broekman, Yung Seng Lee, Keith M. Godfrey, Mary Foong Fong Chong, Ciarán G. Forde
      Oral processing behaviours associated with faster eating rates have been consistently linked to increased energy intakes, but little is known about their links to children's appetitive traits. This study used the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) to explore cross-sectional and prospective associations between parent-reported appetitive traits and observed oral processing behaviours. Participants were 195 children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort, who participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 (Time 1) and 6 years (Time 2). Their mothers completed the CEBQ around the same time points. Children's bites, chews and swallows were coded, and used to calculate their eating rate, bite size, chews per bite, chew rate, oral exposure time and oral exposure per bite. At Time 1, children with higher scores in slowness in eating had lower eating and chew rates. At Time 2, higher scores for food enjoyment and lower for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and food fussiness were linked with higher eating rates and greater energy intakes (r > 0.16, p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were moderated by BMI and only present among children with higher BMI. Faster eating rates mediated the associations between greater food enjoyment, lower slowness in eating, lower food fussiness and higher intakes of energy. Children with higher slowness in eating scores had lower increases in eating rates over time, and children with higher BMI who had greater food enjoyment and food responsiveness scores had greater increases in eating rates over time. The findings suggest that oral processing behaviours linked with increased obesity risk may be underpinned by appetitive traits and may be one of the behavioural pathways through which these appetitive traits influence energy intakes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Leveraging delay discounting for health: Can time delays influence food
    • Authors: Bradley M. Appelhans; Simone A. French; Tamara Olinger; Michael Bogucki; Imke Janssen; Elizabeth F. Avery-Mamer; Lisa M. Powell
      Pages: 16 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Bradley M. Appelhans, Simone A. French, Tamara Olinger, Michael Bogucki, Imke Janssen, Elizabeth F. Avery-Mamer, Lisa M. Powell
      Delay discounting, the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is theorized to promote consumption of immediately rewarding but unhealthy foods at the expense of long-term weight maintenance and nutritional health. An untested implication of delay discounting models of decision-making is that selectively delaying access to less healthy foods may promote selection of healthier (immediately available) alternatives, even if they may be less desirable. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring healthy versus regular vending machine snack purchasing before and during the implementation of a 25-s time delay on the delivery of regular snacks. Purchasing was also examined under a $0.25 discount on healthy snacks, a $0.25 tax on regular snacks, and the combination of both pricing interventions with the 25-s time delay. Across 32,019 vending sales from three separate vending locations, the 25-s time delay increased healthy snack purchasing from 40.1% to 42.5%, which was comparable to the impact of a $0.25 discount (43.0%). Combining the delay and the discount had a roughly additive effect (46.0%). However, the strongest effects were seen under the $0.25 tax on regular snacks (53.7%) and the combination of the delay and the tax (50.2%). Intervention effects varied substantially between vending locations. Importantly, time delays did not harm overall vending sales or revenue, which is relevant to the real-world feasibility of this intervention. More investigation is needed to better understand how the impact of time delays on food choice varies across populations, evaluate the effects of time delays on beverage vending choices, and extend this approach to food choices in contexts other than vending machines. Trial registration, NCT02359916.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Investigating the role of personal and context-related factors in
           convenience foods consumption
    • Authors: Caterina Contini; Fabio Boncinelli; Francesca Gerini; Gabriele Scozzafava; Leonardo Casini
      Pages: 26 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Caterina Contini, Fabio Boncinelli, Francesca Gerini, Gabriele Scozzafava, Leonardo Casini
      In the scenario of food consumptions, we witness the consumer's growing consideration for the “convenience” attribute. Our study intends to understand the consumer behaviour towards convenience-processed foods by analysing in a single model the role of beliefs, personal traits, social influence and market availability. We applied a Structural Equation Model (SEM) to a representative sample of 426 Italian consumers. The results show a correlation between intention to consume convenience-processed foods and social influence, market availability and several personal traits, suggesting strategies for the development of the convenience food market.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Picky eating and food neophobia: Resemblance and agreement in parent/young
           adult dyads
    • Authors: Anjeli Elkins; Hana F. Zickgraf
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Anjeli Elkins, Hana F. Zickgraf
      Objective To explore selective eating in two samples: young adults and their middle aged parents, including the relationship between food neophobia and picky eating in each, resemblance between children and parents in these eating behaviors, agreement between child self-report and parent report on children's eating, and the relationship between parent eating behavior and parent-report on children's eating. We also explored the relationship between socioeconomic status and picky eating and food neophobia in each sample. Method University students responded to questionnaires assessing picky eating and food neophobia. Their parents were contacted and asked to complete the same measure about their own picky- and food neophobic behaviors and to report on their child's current picky eating and food neophobia. The final sample included 109 biological parent-child pairs. Results There were large positive correlations between food neophobia and picky eating in both samples. There were positive associations between parents' and children's self-reported selective eating behaviors. There was evidence of parent-child agreement in reporting on the child's selective eating, but also considerable variability between raters. This variability between child self-report and parent report was partially accounted for by parental selective eating. Finally, young adults from a lower-SES background (e.g., lower parent educational attainment and income) reported higher levels of pickiness and food neophobia. Conclusions Young adult children and their parents resemble each other in pickiness and food neophobia.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • A literature scoping review of eating practices and food environments in 1
           and 2-person households in the UK, Australia and USA
    • Authors: Fidelma Breen; John Coveney; Carol Anne Hartwick Pflaum
      Pages: 43 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Fidelma Breen, John Coveney, Carol Anne Hartwick Pflaum
      The purpose of this article is to map the data currently available on the subject of eating practices and food environments in small (i.e. one- and two-person) households. Specifically, the enquiry is focused on commensality; the act of eating together. Research dates from the late 1980s, however, there are few recent publications on this subject. Searching Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest and Google Scholar, 2949 papers were found, but only 457 discussed any element of the research questions. These were further distilled to a count of 117, by abstract reading to 53 at which point, quality, location and study focus eliminated a further 34 articles leaving 19 articles. After full reading, it was clear that only seven of these focused on the research question in detail and these are marked as four-star articles by bold text. The 19 articles are analysed for quality and their aspects of relevance to the central research question is discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • The portion size effect: Women demonstrate an awareness of eating more
           than intended when served larger than normal portions
    • Authors: Gregory S. Keenan; Louise Childs; Peter J. Rogers; Marion M. Hetherington; Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Gregory S. Keenan, Louise Childs, Peter J. Rogers, Marion M. Hetherington, Jeffrey M. Brunstrom
      Large portion sizes lead to increased intake. Some studies suggest that individuals are unaware that they consume more when served larger portions. In a between-subjects design we asked female participants (N = 48) how much pasta and tomato sauce they intended to consume for lunch prior to eating. We then provided a smaller or a larger portion of the same food and invited participants to self-serve a portion into a second bowl (same size in both conditions). After eating until comfortably full, participants were shown an image of the amount they had selected at the beginning of the meal. They were then asked whether they perceived having eaten more or less than this amount, and by how much more or less they had eaten. In total 46 responses were analysed. Of the participants who received the large portion and who ate more than intended, 77% (p = .029) correctly identified eating more. However, when participants were asked to indicate by how much they had eaten above or below their intended amount, those who ate more after receiving a larger portion underestimated their intake by 25% (p = .003). These findings suggest that greater intake from a larger portion is associated with an awareness of having eaten a large quantity combined with a failure to register the actual amount consumed (in the direction of underestimation). The latter might be attributed to an error associated with the visual estimation of volume.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Measuring feeding difficulties in toddlers with Down syndrome
    • Authors: Marijn van Dijk; Wilma Lipke-Steenbeek
      Pages: 61 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Marijn van Dijk, Wilma Lipke-Steenbeek
      Early feeding problems occur frequently across the population, but have a higher incidence in children with Down syndrome (DS). Early identification can possibly be improved with the help of a valid screening instrument based on caregiver reports. In a previous study, we investigated the concurrent validity of the Dutch version of the Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCH-FS, SEP in Dutch) in a sample of typically developing toddlers, and we found a correlation between the score on the instrument and observed behavior during a regular meal. The current pilot study was a replication in a sample of children with DS (aged 1; 0–3; 0) and their primary caregivers (n = 32). The results showed that children in the sample did not score higher on the SEP than children in their respective norm groups. In addition, when caregivers reported more symptoms of feeding problems on the SEP, children showed more food refusal and negative affect during the observed meal. This suggests that the screening instrument is particularly associated with negative mealtime interactions. This is in contrast with earlier results, which mainly indicated a relation with eating skills.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Retraining of automatic action tendencies in individuals with obesity: A
           randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Hannah Ferentzi; Hannah Scheibner; Reinout Wiers; Eni S. Becker; Johannes Lindenmeyer; Sylvia Beisel; Mike Rinck
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Hannah Ferentzi, Hannah Scheibner, Reinout Wiers, Eni S. Becker, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Sylvia Beisel, Mike Rinck
      Obesity is a major health concern, characterized by an automatically activated tendency to (over)-eat. Recent research suggests that an effective way to counteract automatic approach tendencies in unhealthy consumption behavior might be approach bias modification. Therefore, we investigated an approach-avoidance training for unhealthy food cues in 189 patients with obesity of a psychosomatic inpatient clinic who were participating in a nutrition advice program. Patients in the active training group were trained to make avoidance movements (pushing a joystick) in response to unhealthy food pictures and approach movements (pulling the joystick) in response to positive pictures, while the control group received sham training (approaching and avoiding both picture types). Approach-avoidance bias, body mass index, eating pathology and food-specific implicit associations were assessed before and after the training. In line with our hypothesis, approach-avoidance bias improved in the active training group after the training, in comparison to the sham training group. Moreover, this effect generalized to new, untrained stimuli. However, no effects of the training were found in a food-specific Single-Target Implicit Association Test, or on eating pathology questionnaires or body mass index. While the training results are promising, the effect of approach-avoidance bias modification on relevant behavior in obesity has yet to be established before it may be implemented as an add-on treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Effects of left dlPFC modulation on social cognitive processes following
           food sampling
    • Authors: Peter A. Hall; Cassandra J. Lowe; Adrian B. Safati; Huaqi Li; Emilia B. Klassen; Amer M. Burhan
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Peter A. Hall, Cassandra J. Lowe, Adrian B. Safati, Huaqi Li, Emilia B. Klassen, Amer M. Burhan
      Background The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) plays a central role in the inhibition of eating, but also the modulation of conscious thought processes that might precede, accompany or follow initial food tasting. The latter might be particularly important to the extent that post-tasting cognitions may drive prolonged eating beyond the satiety point. However, we know very little about the effect of the dlPFC on conation following initial food sampling. This investigation compared the effects of dlPFC attenuation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on social cognition following (Study 1) and prior to (Study 2) a food consumption opportunity. Methods In Study 1, participants (N = 21; M age = 21 years) were randomized to active or sham continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS; an inhibitory variant of rTMS) targeting the left dlPFC followed by an interference task. Participants subsequently completed measures of attitudes, norms and perceived control following a mock taste test. In Study 2, (N = 36, M age  = 21 years) a second sample of right handed participants (N = 37; M age  = 21 years) were assigned to active or sham cTBS, followed by an interference task and two measures of attitudes (implicit and explicit), both assessed prior to the same taste test paradigm. Results In Study 1, findings revealed a reliable effect of cTBS on post-tasting attitudes (t(1,19) = 3.055, p = .007; d = 1.34), such that attitudes towards calorie dense snack foods were significantly more positive following active stimulation than following sham stimulation. Similar effects were found for social norms (t(1,19) = 3.024, p = .007, d = 1.31) and perceived control (t(1,20) = 19.247, p < .001, d = 0.50). In Study 2, no effects of cTBS were observed on pre-consumption attitudes, despite reliable effects on interference scores and subsequent consumption. Conclusions The left dlPFC may selectively modulate facilitative social cognition following initial food sampling (but not pre-consumption).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Gender comparisons of young adults’ eating behavior regulation:
           Re-examination of the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale (REBS)
    • Authors: Tessa Hamilton; Jessica Hoffman; Dilbur Arsiwalla; Robert Volpe; Ellyn Schmidt; Sareen Gropper
      Pages: 80 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Tessa Hamilton, Jessica Hoffman, Dilbur Arsiwalla, Robert Volpe, Ellyn Schmidt, Sareen Gropper
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale (REBS) in mixed-gender, American samples and to evaluate how responses differed across male and female respondents. Responses were examined in a sample of 535 undergraduate students in the Southeastern United States. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the predicted factor structure; male and female participants were analyzed in a multi-group, unconstrained configural model, with male and female participants analyzed simultaneously to allow for multi-group comparisons within the same model. Additional analyses evaluated measurement invariance, reliability of the measure in the new sample, gender differences in subscale scores, and correlations across factors. Results of confirmatory factor analysis, multi-group by gender comparisons suggested that the factor structure did not vary across genders. In addition, factor structure was consistent with the findings of the original studies examining the psychometric property of the REBS, with the exception of the ‘introjected regulation’ subscale, which measures regulation of eating behaviors to avoid self-enforced consequences. Consistent with expectations, female participants' ratings were higher, on average, on more autonomous forms of eating regulation; however, contrary to expectations, scores did not differ significantly between males and females on more external forms of eating regulation. Conclusions, limitations, and implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Mary Poppins was right: Adding small amounts of sugar or salt reduces the
           bitterness of vegetables
    • Authors: Alyssa J. Bakke; Cody A. Stubbs; Elliott H. McDowell; Kameron J. Moding; Susan L. Johnson; John E. Hayes
      Pages: 90 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Alyssa J. Bakke, Cody A. Stubbs, Elliott H. McDowell, Kameron J. Moding, Susan L. Johnson, John E. Hayes
      Only a quarter of adults and 7% of children consume recommended amounts of vegetables each day. Often vegetables are not initially palatable due to bitterness, which may lead children and adults to refuse to taste or eat them. The objective of this research was to determine if very small amounts of sugar or salt (common household ingredients) could lead to significant reductions in bitterness intensity and increased hedonic ratings of green vegetable purees. For Experiment 1, three different green vegetable purees (broccoli, spinach, and kale) were prepared with different levels of sugar (0%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 1.8%) or salt (0 and 0.2%). Samples were evaluated using standard descriptive analysis techniques with nine adults who completed more than 20 h of green vegetable specific training as a group. For Experiment 2, each vegetable puree was prepared with either 0% or 2% sugar, and bitterness was assessed via a forced choice task with 84 adults. For Experiment 3, each vegetable puree was prepared with 0%, 1%, or 2% sugar and rated for liking on standard 9 point hedonic scales by 99 adults. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that addition of small amounts of sugar and salt each reduced the bitterness (and increased sweetness and saltiness) from all three vegetables without altering other sensory properties (e.g. texture or aroma). Experiment 3 showed that adding sugar to vegetable purees increased hedonic ratings for adult consumers. We also found parents had mixed attitudes about the idea of adding sugar to foods intended for infants and toddlers. Further research on the effects of bitterness masking especially for specific populations (e.g., infants and young children or adults who have higher sensitivity to bitter taste) is warranted.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • What matters most - what parents model or what parents eat'
    • Authors: Amber E. Vaughn; Chantel L. Martin; Dianne S. Ward
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Amber E. Vaughn, Chantel L. Martin, Dianne S. Ward
      Purpose Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating (“parent role modeling”) and parents' actual food intake (“parent dietary intake”) on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. Methods Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis. The sample included parents of preschool-age children from households with at least one overweight parent. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used to assess parent modeling of healthy eating (“healthy modeling”). Three days of dietary recalls were used to collect parents' report of their own intake and their children's intake (excluding food at child care). Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent intake of healthy and unhealthy foods were explored using Pearson correlations. Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score on child HEI score were examined with linear regression. Additionally, the interaction between parent healthy modeling and HEI score on child HEI score was tested. Results Parent healthy modeling was significantly correlated with parent intake of healthy foodsLinear regression showed a significant association between parent modeling and child HEI score, even after controlling for parent diet (β = 3.08, SE = 0.87, p < 0.001). Children whose parents had high parent healthy modeling scores had higher HEI scores (mean = 61.5 ± 10.4) regardless of parent HEI score. We did not find evidence that parent healthy modeling and diet quality interact to influence child diet quality. Conclusions Parents' healthy modeling is an important practice in influencing children's diet quality, possibly more so than the quality of parents' diets.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • The family child care home environment and children's diet quality
    • Authors: Sara E. Benjamin-Neelon; Amber E. Vaughn; Alison Tovar; Truls Østbye; Stephanie Mazzucca; Dianne S. Ward
      Pages: 108 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Sara E. Benjamin-Neelon, Amber E. Vaughn, Alison Tovar, Truls Østbye, Stephanie Mazzucca, Dianne S. Ward
      Background Developing healthy eating behaviors and food preferences in early childhood may help establish future healthy diets. Large numbers of children spend time in child care, but little research has assessed the nutritional quality of meals and snacks in family child care homes. Therefore, it is important to assess foods and beverages provided, policies related to nutrition and feeding children, and interactions between providers and children during mealtimes. We examined associations between the nutrition environments of family child care homes and children's diet quality. Methods We assessed the nutrition environments of 166 family child care homes using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) (scores range: 0–21). We also recorded foods and beverages consumed by 496 children in care and calculated healthy eating index (HEI) (scores range: 0–100). We used a mixed effects linear regression model to examine the association between the EPAO nutrition environment (and EPAO sub-scales) and child HEI, controlling for potential confounders. Results Family child care homes had a mean (standard deviation, SD) of 7.2 (3.6) children in care, 74.1% of providers were black or African American, and children had a mean (SD) age of 35.7 (11.4) months. In adjusted multivariable models, higher EPAO nutrition score was associated with increased child HEI score (1.16; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.98; p = 0.006). Higher scores on EPAO sub-scales for foods provided (8.98; 95% CI: 3.94, 14.01; p = 0.0006), nutrition education (5.37; 95% CI: 0.80, 9.94; p = 0.02), and nutrition policy (2.36; 95% CI: 0.23, 4.49; p = 0.03) were all associated with greater child HEI score. Conclusions Foods and beverages served, in addition to nutrition education and nutrition policies in family child care homes, may be promising intervention targets for improving child diet quality.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • A qualitative investigation of how mothers from low income households
           perceive their role during family meals
    • Authors: Amanda C. Trofholz; Anna K. Schulte; Jerica M. Berge
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Amanda C. Trofholz, Anna K. Schulte, Jerica M. Berge
      Background Having regular family meals has been shown to be protective for child dietary intake (e.g., higher intake of fruit and vegetables). Mothers appear to be most responsible for preparing family meals. Therefore, understanding how mothers perceive their roles around family meals may help identify ways in which to help more families have regular family meals. Methods United States mothers (n = 83) from the Twin Cities, Minnesota were interviewed during an in-home visit. Researchers trained in qualitative interviewing used a semi-structured approach and asked questions regarding the mothers' overall perception of their role during family meals. Interviews were coded using a mixed deductive and inductive content analysis approach. The majority of mothers were from minority and low-income households. Results Mothers described their roles during family meals as the follows: 1) Helping children make healthy choices at family meals; 2) Making the meal happen; 3) Monitoring children's food intake; 4) Managing behavior at the family meal; 5) Making the family meal atmosphere enjoyable; and 6) Facilitating conversation/communication. Two secondary research questions also emerged about the specifics of the mothers' perception of her role at family meals (i.e., How do mothers deal with fighting or arguing if it occurs at family meals' and What do mothers talk about with children at family meals') Conclusions Results show that mothers have a large and varied role during family meals. Additionally, they are willing to put effort into family meals and want them to be enjoyable. Findings also suggest that mothers can be supported by encouraging fuller family participation in family meals and by offering mothers quality nutrition and parent feeding practice information.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • Suppressing images of desire: Neural correlates of chocolate-related
           thoughts in high and low trait chocolate cravers
    • Authors: Stephan F. Miedl; Jens Blechert; Adrian Meule; Anna Richard; Frank H. Wilhelm
      Pages: 128 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Stephan F. Miedl, Jens Blechert, Adrian Meule, Anna Richard, Frank H. Wilhelm
      Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs. free thinking instructions after being exposed to chocolate and neutral images. Enhanced cue reactivity was evident in high trait chocolate cravers in that they reported more chocolate-related thoughts selectively after chocolate images compared to their low trait craving counterparts. This cue reactivity was mirrored neurally by higher activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum, demonstrating enhanced reward system activity. Unexpectedly, high trait chocolate cravers successfully reduced their elevated chocolate thoughts in the suppression condition. This lends support for the use of thought suppression as a means of regulating unwanted thoughts, cravings and imagery. Whether this thought manipulation is able to curb the elevated cue reactivity and the underlying reward sensitivity in chocolate cravers in applied settings remains to be shown.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • A spontaneous binge-like eating model in mice using unpredictable once
           weekly access to palatable diets
    • Authors: Michelle Murphy; Dorieka J. Dijkstra; Jacqueline S. Duncan; Graham W. Horgan; Julian G. Mercer
      Pages: 137 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Michelle Murphy, Dorieka J. Dijkstra, Jacqueline S. Duncan, Graham W. Horgan, Julian G. Mercer
      Many pre-clinical models of binge-like eating involve predictable, scheduled, access to a palatable diet high in fat (HF), where access may be preceded by anticipatory behaviour. Here, to introduce spontaneity into the binge-type consumption of palatable diets, mice were allowed 2 h access on a random day once per week and at a random time within an 8 h window either side of the transition from dark phase to light phase. Despite normal intake of a stock diet prior to unpredictable access to HF diet, mice immediately initiated a substantial eating episode when presented with HF diet. Following this consumption, compensatory hypophagia was observed relative to stock diet-fed controls, and cumulative energy intakes converged. There were no effects of HF diet on body weight or body composition over a 12-week period. Binge-like consumption was also observed on unpredictable access to the complete liquid diet, chocolate Ensure, but not with a 10% sucrose solution. Binge-like responses to unpredictable access to HF diet or Ensure were similar in male and female mice, although there were effects of sex on caloric consumption from stock diet in the compensatory period following palatable diet intake, with higher intakes in females. The timing of the 2h access period relative to light phase transition affected intake of palatable diets, but less robustly than the equivalent effect on stock diet intake during the same timed periods – the diurnal patterning of energy intake was diet sensitive. The large spontaneous binge-like consumption on unpredictable access to either solid or liquid palatable diets in mice of either sex offers the potential to combine these attributes with other manipulations where a developing obesity is part of the binge-like eating phenotype.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • A mind cleared by walnut oil: The effects of polyunsaturated and saturated
           fat on extinction learning
    • Authors: Holly C. Miller; Dieter Struyf; Pascale Baptist; Boushra Dalile; Lukas Van Oudenhove; Ilse Van Diest
      Pages: 147 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Holly C. Miller, Dieter Struyf, Pascale Baptist, Boushra Dalile, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
      The treatment of anxiety-based psychopathology often hinges upon extinction learning. Research in nutritional neuroscience has observed that the regular consumption of perilla oil (50% alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) facilitates extinction learning in rats (Yamamoto et al., 1988). However, acute facilitation of extinction learning by oils rich in ALA has not been reported for rats or humans, though the acute consumption of rapeseed oil (10% ALA) has been observed to improve cognitive processing speed in humans (Jones, Sünram-Lea, & Wesnes, 2012). For this reason, the present laboratory work examined the effects of adding walnut oil (12% ALA) to a chocolate milkshake on the acquisition, generalization, and extinction of a fear-based prediction in young adults. It compared performance between subjects. The other participants consumed a similar milkshake with either an equicaloric amount of cream (saturated fat), or with no added fat (control). Acquisition and generalization of the fear-based prediction were similar for all groups. However, those who consumed walnut oil extinguished most rapidly and profoundly. Implications for extinction learning are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • A biopsychosocial model of body image, disordered eating, and
           breastfeeding among postpartum women
    • Authors: Rachel F. Rodgers; Jennifer L. O'Flynn; Althea Bourdeau; Emily Zimmerman
      Pages: 163 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Rachel F. Rodgers, Jennifer L. O'Flynn, Althea Bourdeau, Emily Zimmerman
      Background The aim of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image, eating, and feeding attitudes among postpartum women. Specifically, the model predicted that desired weight-loss, depressive symptoms, and body surveillance would predict body dissatisfaction and appearance-related barriers to breastfeeding, which in turn would predict maternal disordered eating and breastfeeding self-efficacy. Methods Data from 151 women, mean age = 32.77 (4.47) years, who provided complete data in response to an online survey were analyzed. Results Path analysis revealed that after minor modifications, the biopsychosocial model was a good fit to the data. Desired weight-loss, depressive symptoms, and body surveillance were associated with higher levels of disordered eating and lower levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy directly, as well as indirectly through body dissatisfaction and appearance-related barriers to breastfeeding. Conclusion Findings provide support for an integrated biopsychosocial model of body image concerns, and eating and feeding attitudes among postpartum women as well as highlighting the need for additional support around body image, eating, and breastfeeding following childbirth. Our study has clinical implications for healthcare providers working with new mothers and can be used to inform postpartum psychoeducation efforts addressing breastfeeding, weight loss expectations and body image concerns.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • “Mom, quit fat talking—I'm trying to eat (mindfully) here!”:
           Evaluating a sociocultural model of family fat talk, positive body image,
           and mindful eating in college women
    • Authors: Jennifer B. Webb; Courtney B. Rogers; Lena Etzel; Meagan P. Padro
      Pages: 169 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 126
      Author(s): Jennifer B. Webb, Courtney B. Rogers, Lena Etzel, Meagan P. Padro
      A growing evidence base confirms sociocultural theory's predictions regarding the influence of direct exposure to family factors (e.g., parental commentary) in promoting disordered eating behavior as mediated by negative body image. Nevertheless, this model has not been specifically applied to investigating indirect or vicarious exposure to family communications (e.g., negative body talk) in estimating mindful eating behavior via positive body image intervening variables. Therefore, to address this gap the present study provided a preliminary evaluation of the indirect effects of overhearing family fat talk through both body appreciation and functional body appreciation in predicting mindful eating among undergraduate females. Participants included 333 women attending a large southeastern public university who completed measures of mindful eating, family fat talk, body appreciation, and functional body appreciation via an online survey platform. Results indicated that family fat talk was inversely associated with mindful eating, body appreciation, and functional body appreciation. Whereas engaging in mindful eating positively corresponded with both positive body image indices. A regression model controlling for BMI also revealed that an orientation towards appreciating what the body can do (and not a general appreciation of the body) helped explain the inverse association between family fat talk and mindful eating. Our initial findings tentatively suggest that focusing on the self-objectifying and self-denigrating body-related commentary of family members may disrupt attention to one's own appreciation of the (internal) workings of the body thereby undermining the mindful eating process. Implications for further expanding the translation of sociocultural theory in the context of positive body image and mindful eating are considered.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
  • A multidimensional approach to understanding the potential risk factors
           and covariates of adult picky eating
    • Authors: Jordan M. Ellis; Rebecca R. Schenk; Amy T. Galloway; Hana F. Zickgraf; Rose Mary Webb; Denise M. Martz
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Jordan M. Ellis, Rebecca R. Schenk, Amy T. Galloway, Hana F. Zickgraf, Rose Mary Webb, Denise M. Martz
      Objective Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. Methods A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables. A structural equation modeling procedure tested a series of regression models that included BMI and disordered eating behaviors as covariates. Results SEM modeling indicated that retrospective reports of greater parental pressure to eat, higher disgust sensitivity, lower PE age of onset, and experiencing an aversive food event were associated with general adult PE behavior. Results also indicated parental encouragement of healthy eating may be a protective factor, and that men endorsed higher levels of adult PE. Exploratory analyses indicated that cross-sectional predictors and covariates were differentially related to specific aspects of PE as measured by the APEQ subscales. Conclusions Early experiences, including parental approaches to feeding, appear to be potential risk factors of PE behavior in adults. A nuanced understanding of adult PE is important for the prevention and treatment of severe PE behaviors, related psychosocial impairment, and ARFID.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Steps toward understanding the impact of early emotional experiences on
           disordered eating: The role of self-criticism, shame, and body image shame
    • Authors: Ana Carolina Gois; Cláudia Ferreira; Ana Laura Mendes
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Ana Carolina Gois, Cláudia Ferreira, Ana Laura Mendes
      In research, it has been suggested that early threatening emotional experiences, characterized by abuse, rejection, neglect or absence of affiliative signals may activate maladaptive defensive responses. Further, several studies have emphasised the association between the recall of early emotional experiences and eating psychopathology. However, this relationship does not seem to be direct. Thus, the current study explored the mediator roles of self-criticism and shame (general and body image-focused shame) in the link between early emotional experiences and the engagement in disordered eating, while controlling for the effect of body mass index. The sample of this study included 552 female participants, aged between 18 and 40 years old. The path analysis indicated that the absence of early positive emotional experiences was associated with disordered eating behaviours, through an increased perception of being negatively perceived as inferior or unattractive by others, self-critical attitudes, and body image-focused shame. The tested model accounted for 63% of body image shame and for 67% of disordered eating's variance, and showed an excellent model fit. These findings suggest that shame and self-criticism are defensive mechanisms associated with early threatening emotional experiences, which may trigger disordered eating behaviours. These data appear to offer important research and clinical implications supporting the development of intervention community programs for body and eating difficulties, that specifically target shame (general and body image-focused shame) and self-criticism, through the development of more adaptive emotional regulation strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Premenstrual appetite and emotional responses to foods among women with
           premenstrual dysphoric disorder
    • Authors: Ju-Yu Yen; Tai-Ling Liu; I-Ju Chen; Su-Yin Chen; Chih-Hung Ko
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Ju-Yu Yen, Tai-Ling Liu, I-Ju Chen, Su-Yin Chen, Chih-Hung Ko
      The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in late-luteal appetite for highly sweet (HS) and highly salty and fatty (HSF) foods in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). After initial assessment in a psychiatric interview, the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) was used to identify women with moderate-to-severe premenstrual symptoms. Sixty-seven women with PMDD and 74 healthy controls were evaluated in the early-follicular and late-luteal (pre-menstrual) phases of the menstrual cycle. Because the PSST is designed to assess symptoms only in the late-luteal phase, an 11-point Likert scale was used to rate PMDD symptoms once a week in the evaluation mentioned previously and the following two menstrual cycles. Participants were shown pictures of 15 highly sweet (HS) and 15 highly salty and fatty (HSF) foods, desire to eat each food was rated on an eleven-point Likert scale (0, “none at all”; 10, “extreme desire”), and sweet-food craving was rated using the food craving-state questionnaire. Emotional responses to the foods were measured with a four-point Likert scale we previously validated. Depression, irritability, and impulsivity were measured with standard psychiatric instruments. Women with PMDD, but not control women, had late-luteal phase elevations in desire to eat HS food, sweet-food craving and emotional responses to HS foods. Desire to eat for HSF foods did not differ significantly across the menstrual cycle between groups. There were significant correlations between emotional responses to and desire to eat HS foods. Moreover, late-luteal phase irritability and impulsivity scores were associated with desire to eat HS foods. These data suggest that targeted assessment of increased late-luteal appetites for HS foods may facilitate clinical interventions in women with PMDD.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.029
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Pre- and postprandial variation in implicit attention to food images
           reflects appetite and sensory-specific satiety
    • Authors: Graeme R. Davidson; Timo Giesbrecht; Anna M. Thomas; Tim C. Kirkham
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Graeme R. Davidson, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna M. Thomas, Tim C. Kirkham
      Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety. Participants were required to detect targets within a rapid visual stream, presented after task-irrelevant food (preferred or non-preferred sandwiches, or desserts) or non-food distractor images. All categories of food distractor preferentially captured attention even when appetite levels were low, but became more distracting as appetite increased preprandially, reducing task accuracy maximally as hunger peaked before lunch. Postprandially, attentional capture was markedly reduced for images of the specific sandwich type consumed and, to a lesser extent, for images of other sandwich types that had not been eaten. Attentional capture by images of desserts was unaffected by satiation. These findings support an important role of selective visual attention in the guidance of motivated behaviour. Naturalistic, meal-related changes in appetite are accompanied by changes in implicit attention to visual food stimuli that are easily detected using the EBA paradigm. Preprandial enhancement of attention capture by food cues likely reflects increases in the incentive motivational value of all food stimuli, perhaps providing an implicit index of wanting. Postprandial EBA responses confirm that satiation on a particular food results in relative inattention to that food, supporting an important attentional component in the operation of sensory-specific satiety.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.028
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Similar taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed Dutch and
           Malaysian foods
    • Authors: Pey Sze Teo; Astrid W.B. van Langeveld; Korrie Pol; Els Siebelink; Cees de Graaf; See Wan Yan; Monica Mars
      Pages: 32 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Pey Sze Teo, Astrid W.B. van Langeveld, Korrie Pol, Els Siebelink, Cees de Graaf, See Wan Yan, Monica Mars
      Three recent studies showed that taste intensity signals nutrient content. However, current data reflects only the food patterns in Western societies. No study has yet been performed in Asian culture. The Malaysian cuisine represents a mixture of Malay, Chinese and Indian foods. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste intensity and nutrient content in commonly consumed Dutch (NL) and Malaysian (MY) foods. Perceived intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation were assessed for 469 Dutch and 423 Malaysian commonly consumed foods representing about 83% and 88% of an individual's average daily energy intake in each respective country. We used a trained Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) with quantitative sensory Spectrum™ 100-point rating scales and reference solutions, R1 (13-point), R2 (33-point) and R3 (67-point). Dutch and Malaysian foods had relatively low mean sourness and bitterness (<R1), but higher mean sweetness, saltiness and fat sensation (between R1 and R2). Mean umami taste intensity of Malaysian foods (15-point) was higher than that of Dutch foods (8-point). Positive associations were found between sweetness and mono- and disaccharides (R2 = 0.67 (NL), 0.38 (MY)), between umami and protein (R2 = 0.29 (NL), 0.26 (MY)), between saltiness and sodium (R2 = 0.48 (NL), 0.27 (MY)), and between fat sensation and fat content (R2 = 0.56 (NL), 0.17(MY)) in Dutch and Malaysian foods (all, p < 0.001). The associations between taste intensity and nutrient content are not different between different countries, except for fat sensation-fat content. The two dimensional basic taste-nutrient space, representing the variance and associations between tastes and nutrients, is similar between Dutch and Malaysian commonly consumed foods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Measurement of food-related approach–avoidance biases: Larger biases
           when food stimuli are task relevant
    • Authors: Anja Lender; Adrian Meule; Mike Rinck; Timo Brockmeyer; Jens Blechert
      Pages: 42 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Anja Lender, Adrian Meule, Mike Rinck, Timo Brockmeyer, Jens Blechert
      Strong implicit responses to food have evolved to avoid energy depletion but contribute to overeating in today's affluent environments. The Approach–Avoidance Task (AAT) supposedly assesses implicit biases in response to food stimuli: Participants push pictures on a monitor “away” or pull them "near" with a joystick that controls a corresponding image zoom. One version of the task couples movement direction with image content-independent features, for example, pulling blue-framed images and pushing green-framed images regardless of content (‘irrelevant feature version’). However, participants might selectively attend to this feature and ignore image content and, thus, such a task setup might underestimate existing biases. The present study tested this attention account by comparing two irrelevant feature versions of the task with either a more peripheral (image frame color: green vs. blue) or central (small circle vs. cross overlaid over the image content) image feature as response instruction to a ‘relevant feature version’, in which participants responded to the image content, thus making it impossible to ignore that content. Images of chocolate-containing foods and of objects were used, and several trait and state measures were acquired to validate the obtained biases. Results revealed a robust approach bias towards food only in the relevant feature condition. Interestingly, a positive correlation with state chocolate craving during the task was found when all three conditions were combined, indicative of criterion validity of all three versions. However, no correlations were found with trait chocolate craving. Results provide a strong case for the relevant feature version of the AAT for bias measurement. They also point to several methodological avenues for future research around selective attention in the irrelevant versions and task validity regarding trait vs. state variables.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.032
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Mindfulness and laboratory eating behavior in adolescent girls at risk for
           type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: Shelly K. Annameier; Nichole R. Kelly; Amber B. Courville; Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Jack A. Yanovski; Lauren B. Shomaker
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Shelly K. Annameier, Nichole R. Kelly, Amber B. Courville, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A. Yanovski, Lauren B. Shomaker
      Mindfulness-based intervention has become increasingly popular to address disinhibited eating in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Theoretically, present-moment attention promotes the ability to recognize and respond to internal hunger cues and to differentiate physiological hunger from other stimuli. Yet, there is limited research describing the relationship of mindfulness with disinhibited eating patterns in adolescents. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to laboratory eating in 107 adolescent (12–17 years) girls at risk for T2D. Adolescents reported dispositional mindfulness, were evaluated for recent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) by interview, and participated in two successive, standardized laboratory test meals to assess eating when hungry as well as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Adolescents rated state appetite throughout the test meal paradigms. In analyses adjusting for body composition and other possible confounds, mindfulness was inversely related to caloric intake during the EAH paradigm. Mindfulness did not relate to energy intake when hungry. Instead, there was a significant interaction of reported LOC-eating by state hunger, such that girls with recent, reported LOC-eating and high state hunger consumed more calories when hungry, regardless of mindfulness. Findings suggest that in girls at risk for T2D, mindfulness may play a role in disinhibited eating. A propensity for LOC-eating may be most salient for overeating in a high hunger state.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T16:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.030
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • A treat for the eyes. An eye-tracking study on children's attention to
           unhealthy and healthy food cues in media content
    • Authors: Ines Spielvogel; Jörg Matthes; Brigitte Naderer; Kathrin Karsay
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Ines Spielvogel, Jörg Matthes, Brigitte Naderer, Kathrin Karsay
      Based on cue reactivity theory, food cues embedded in media content can lead to physiological and psychological responses in children. Research suggests that unhealthy food cues are represented more extensively and interactively in children's media environments than healthy ones. However, it is not clear to this date whether children react differently to unhealthy compared to healthy food cues. In an experimental study with 56 children (55.4% girls; M age = 8.00, SD = 1.58), we used eye-tracking to determine children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues embedded in a narrative cartoon movie. Besides varying the food type (i.e., healthy vs. unhealthy), we also manipulated the integration levels of food cues with characters (i.e., level of food integration; no interaction vs. handling vs. consumption), and we assessed children's individual susceptibility factors by measuring the impact of their hunger level. Our results indicated that unhealthy food cues attract children's visual attention to a larger extent than healthy cues. However, their initial visual interest did not differ between unhealthy and healthy food cues. Furthermore, an increase in the level of food integration led to an increase in visual attention. Our findings showed no moderating impact of hunger. We conclude that especially unhealthy food cues with an interactive connection trigger cue reactivity in children.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.033
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Changes in eating behavior and plasma leptin in children with obesity
           participating in a family-centered lifestyle intervention
    • Authors: Tamara R. Cohen; Tom J. Hazell; Catherine A. Vanstone; Celia Rodd; Hope A. Weiler
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Tamara R. Cohen, Tom J. Hazell, Catherine A. Vanstone, Celia Rodd, Hope A. Weiler
      The goal of childhood obesity lifestyle interventions are to positively change body composition, however it is unknown if interventions also modulate factors that are related to energy intake. This study aimed to examine changes in eating behaviors and plasma leptin concentrations in overweight and obese children participating in a 1-year family-centered lifestyle intervention. Interventions were based on Canadian diet and physical activity (PA) guidelines. Children were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: Control (Ctrl; no intervention), Standard treatment (StnTx: 2 servings milk and alternatives/day (d), 3x/wk weight-bearing PA), or Modified treatment (ModTx: 4 servings milk and alternatives/day; daily weight-bearing PA). Study visits occurred every 3-months for 1-y; interventions were held once a month for 6-months with one follow-up visit at 8-months. Ctrl received counselling after 1-y. Caregivers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and reported on diet and activity. Plasma leptin were measured from morning fasted blood samples. Seventy-eight children (mean age 7.8 ± 0.8 y; mean BMI 24.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated; 94% completed the study. Compared to baseline, at 6-months StnTx reduced Emotional Overeating and Desire to Drink scores (p < 0.05) while Food Responsiveness scores were reduced in both StnTx and ModTx (p < 0.05). At 1-year, scores for Desire to Drink in StnTx remained reduced compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Plasma leptin concentrations were significantly lower in ModTx at 6-months compared to baseline (p < 0.05). This study resulted in intervention groups favorably changing eating behaviors, supporting the use family-centered lifestyle interventions using Canadian diet and PA recommendations for children with obesity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the
           Family Diet Study
    • Authors: Wai Yew Yang; Tracy Burrows; Lesley MacDonald-Wicks; Lauren T. Williams; Clare E. Collins; Winnie Siew Swee Chee
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Wai Yew Yang, Tracy Burrows, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lauren T. Williams, Clare E. Collins, Winnie Siew Swee Chee
      Background and aims Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. Materials and method The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8–12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Results Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of ‘perceived child overweight’ was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). Children who were overweight (F = 37.4; p < 0.001) and under-reported energy intake (F = 13.1; p = 0.001) had higher median scores for the parental perception of risk of child being overweight. Median scores for the CCO and PTE domains were significantly higher in low-income families (F = 7.87; F = 9.75; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Malay parents in this present study are concerned about their child's weight, particularly for those overweight. Family size, household income, and child weight status significantly influence parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.037
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • The buffer effect of body compassion on the association between shame and
           body and eating difficulties
    • Authors: Sara Oliveira; Inês A. Trindade; Cláudia Ferreira
      Pages: 118 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Sara Oliveira, Inês A. Trindade, Cláudia Ferreira
      Body compassion is a new construct which incorporates two multidimensional concepts: body image and self-compassion. Self-compassion has been revealed as a protective mechanism against body image and eating-related-related disturbances, including eating disorders. However, the study of this compassionate competence specifically focused on the domain of the body is still largely unexplored. This study aims to test whether body compassion moderate the impact of external shame on body image shame and disordered eating, in a sample of 354 women from the Portuguese general population. Correlation analyses showed that body compassion was negatively associated with experiences of shame and disordered eating. Path analysis results demonstrated the existence of a moderator effect of body compassion on the relationship between general feelings of shame and both body image shame and related behaviours, and disordered eating symptomatology. In fact, results suggested that body compassion buffered the impact of general feelings of shame on these psychopathological indices, with the tested model accounting for 46% and 39% of the variance of body image shame and disordered eating, respectively. This study contributes to a better understanding of the role of body compassion in body image and eating difficulties. Body compassion seems to be an important protector of these difficulties in women by buffering the effects of general shame on body image shame and related body concealment behaviours, as well as disordered eating. The findings from this study thus appear to offer important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of promoting body compassion in prevention and treatment programs for body image difficulties and disordered eating.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Ecology shapes moral judgments towards food-wasting behavior: Evidence
           from the Yali of West Papua, the Ngorongoro Maasai, and Poles
    • Authors: Michał Misiak; Marina Butovskaya; Piotr Sorokowski
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Michał Misiak, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski
      People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles. What's more, Yali judge food wasting harsher than Poles. These results suggest that there are cultural differences in moral judgments of food wasting. These differences might reflect the impact of unstable ecology on food economy of a given society. We hypothesize that harsh moral judgment concerning food waste may serve as a cultural adaptation for food insecurity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Cross-sectional associations between maternal self-efficacy and dietary
           intake and physical activity in four-year-old children of first-time
           Swedish mothers
    • Authors: Jeanett Friis Rohde; Bohman Benjamin; Berglind Daniel; Lena M. Hansson; Frederiksen Peder; Erik Lykke Mortensen; Berit Lilienthal Heitmann; Rasmussen Finn
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Jeanett Friis Rohde, Bohman Benjamin, Berglind Daniel, Lena M. Hansson, Frederiksen Peder, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann, Rasmussen Finn
      Background Healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours are established early in life where children learn by observing their parents. Therefore, parents can act as role models and influence their children toward a healthier lifestyle. Besides a strong association between parental and child health behaviours, parents also influence their children's health behaviours through socio-cognitive processes, where perceived self-efficacy is the central component. The objective was to examine if parental self-efficacy among Swedish mothers was associated with their four-year-old children's dietary and physical activity behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on information from control participants that took part in the Swedish primary prevention trial of childhood obesity (PRIMROSE) (n = 420 mother-child pairs). Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between parental self-efficacy (Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting Healthy Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours in Children Scale) and children's dietary intake (parent reported) and levels of physical activity (accelerometer) with adjustments for potential confounders. Results Mothers' efficacy beliefs in promoting healthy dietary or physical activity behaviours in their children were associated with a slightly higher consumption of fruit and vegetables among their children (β: 0.03 [95%CI: 0.01; 0.04] P < 0.001) and slightly higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous activity (β: 0.43 [95%CI: 0.05; 0.81] P = 0.03). Mothers' belief in their ability to limit unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours was inversely associated with children's intake of unhealthy snacks (β: −0.06 [95%CI: −0.10; −0.02] P < 0.01). Conclusion Our cross-sectional study suggests weak positive correlations between maternal self-efficacy and healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours, and weak inverse associations between maternal self-efficacy and unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours among their children.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.026
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Brain response to food cues varying in portion size is associated with
           individual differences in the portion size effect in children
    • Authors: Kathleen L. Keller; Laural K. English; S. Nicole Fearnbach; Marlou Lasschuijt; Kaitlin Anderson; Maria Bermudez; Jennifer O. Fisher; Barbara J. Rolls; Stephen J. Wilson
      Pages: 139 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Kathleen L. Keller, Laural K. English, S. Nicole Fearnbach, Marlou Lasschuijt, Kaitlin Anderson, Maria Bermudez, Jennifer O. Fisher, Barbara J. Rolls, Stephen J. Wilson
      Large portions promote intake of energy dense foods (i.e., the portion size effect--PSE), but the neurobiological drivers of this effect are not known. We tested the association between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) brain response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) and children's intake at test-meals of high- and low-ED foods served at varying portions. Children (N = 47; age 7–10 years) participated in a within-subjects, crossover study consisting of 4 meals of increasing PS of high- and low-ED foods and 1 fMRI to evaluate food images at 2 levels of PS (Large, Small) and 2 levels of ED (High, Low). Contrast values between PS conditions (e.g., Large PS - Small PS) were calculated from BOLD signal in brain regions implicated in cognitive control and reward and input as covariates in mixed models to determine if they moderated the PSE curve. Results showed a significant effect of PS on intake. Responses to Large relative to Small PS in brain regions implicated in salience (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex) were positively associated with the linear slope (i.e., increase in intake from baseline) of the PSE curve, but negatively associated with the quadratic coefficient for the total meal. Responses to Large PS High ED relative to Small PS High ED cues in regions associated with cognitive control (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were negatively associated with the linear slope of the PSE curve for high-ED foods. Brain responses to PS cues were associated with individual differences in children's susceptibility to overeating from large portions. Responses in food salience regions positively associated with PSE susceptibility while activation in control regions negatively associated with PSE susceptibility.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Eating with eyes – Comparing eye movements and food choices between
           overweight and lean individuals in a real-life buffet setting
    • Authors: Eunice Wang; Yusuf O. Cakmak; Mei Peng
      Pages: 152 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Eunice Wang, Yusuf O. Cakmak, Mei Peng
      Researchers have long sought to pinpoint factors underpinning individual differences in eating behaviour. Emerging data from eye-tracking studies have suggested that attentional biases to food exist among individuals and food types. However, such studies have thus far relied on food images and computerised tasks, limiting real-world implications. The present study tested 32 healthy male participants (16 being overweight) for attentional biases in an ad libitum buffet setting, using wearable eye-trackers. The eye-tracking analyses suggested that sugar content moderated visual fixation biases (p < 0.05), whereas BMI exerted significant effects on pupil diameter (p < 0.05). In addition, findings from the study revealed tripartite relationships between eye-tracking, self-reported liking, and ad libitum intake. Although visual fixation in the “view” condition was correlated with liking for high-calorie food, further analyses showed that this measure was not a strong predictor of food selection. Instead, visual fixation during the selection task could be the key predictor for selection of savoury food. In contrast, neither eye-tracking nor self-reported measures could adequately predict selection of desserts, implicating distinct decision-making processes for different types of food. Due to the small sample size, findings from this study should be replicated in future research. Overall, this study highlights the importance of realistic experimental settings in eye-tracking studies for understanding eating behaviour.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Who eats with family and how often' Household members and work styles
           influence frequency of family meals in urban Japan
    • Authors: Wakako Takeda; Melissa K. Melby; Yuta Ishikawa
      Pages: 160 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Wakako Takeda, Melissa K. Melby, Yuta Ishikawa
      Family commensality, or meals eaten together with family members, is a key practice to understand the socio-cultural organization of eating and family lives. Yet empirical evidence is limited outside of western societies, which have different household structures, work styles, and socio-cultural constructions of the practice. This study examined frequencies of family commensality based on 242 surveys of Japanese adults aged between 20 and 85 in two metropolitan areas. Results showed that family commensality is less frequent not only among those living alone, but also among those living with only non-partners including adult children, parents, and non-family members, than among those living with partners. Full-time employment was associated with late dinner times on weekdays. Later weekday dinner times were strongly associated with reduced frequency of dinners together. Late dinners have become commonplace among full-time workers in postwar Japan, and the peak dinner time in Japan occurs later than in other developed countries. Thus, work and lifestyle constraints impacting schedules appear to influence the frequency of family commensality. Our results suggest that frequencies of family commensality are influenced by co-residents and work styles of participants rather than household sizes. The idea that reduction of household size drives reduction of family commensality may be biased by previous studies conducted in western countries where most people reside in either single or nuclear households. Our study highlights complex determinants of family commensality, beyond presence of other household members, and demonstrates a need for rigorous investigation of family commensality across cultures.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Subjective satiety and plasma PYY concentration after wholemeal pasta
    • Authors: Giuseppina Costabile; Ettore Griffo; Paola Cipriano; Claudia Vetrani; Marilena Vitale; Gianfranco Mamone; Angela A. Rivellese; Gabriele Riccardi; Rosalba Giacco
      Pages: 172 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Giuseppina Costabile, Ettore Griffo, Paola Cipriano, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Gianfranco Mamone, Angela A. Rivellese, Gabriele Riccardi, Rosalba Giacco
      Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30±2 yrs (mean±SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Participants consumed on two different days, at one week interval, 117g of wholemeal pasta or 100g of refined wheat pasta (control pasta), similar in energy and macronutrient composition except for fiber amount, which was higher in wholemeal pasta (11 vs 3 g). Appetite ratings, glucose/insulin/lipid and gastrointestinal hormone responses were measured at fasting and for 4-h after the ingestion of the pasta tests, after which self-reported energy intake for 8-h was evaluated. After the wholemeal pasta, the desire to eat and the sensation of hunger were lower (-16%, p=0.04 and -23%, p=0.004, respectively) and satiety was higher (+13%; p=0.08) compared with the control pasta; no effect on self-reported energy intake at subsequent meal was observed. After wholemeal pasta, glucose, triglyceride increased and GLP-1 responses were not different compared to control pasta but insulin response at 30 min (p<0.05) and ghrelin at 60 min (p=0.03) were lower and PYY levels higher (AUC=+44%, p=0.001). The appetite rating changes correlated with PYY plasma levels (p<0.03). In conclusion, consumption of whole grain instead of refined wheat pasta contributed to appetite control but did not seem to influence acute energy balance. Appetite ratings were associated with modifications in PYY hormone concentrations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • A process and outcome evaluation of an in-class vegetable promotion
    • Authors: Gael Myers; Shannon Wright; Sally Blane; Iain S. Pratt; Simone Pettigrew
      Pages: 182 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Gael Myers, Shannon Wright, Sally Blane, Iain S. Pratt, Simone Pettigrew
      Objective Nutrition interventions that target both fruits and vegetables are effective in increasing fruit consumption, but have been limited in their ability to improve vegetable intake. To address the low proportion of children meeting vegetable intake guidelines, approaches specifically targeting vegetables are needed. This paper reports on a mixed-method analysis of a 10-week vegetable promotion pilot project that aimed to increase vegetable intake as part of the existing Crunch&Sip in-class fruit and vegetable break program. Design The intervention was designed to promote vegetable consumption through the implementation of vegetable-focused resources, including curriculum resources and parent education materials. Teachers completed pre- and end-of-intervention surveys. Process measures related to the use of resources and teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. The outcome evaluation included measures of children's vegetable consumption during Crunch&Sip breaks and teachers' attitudes and confidence relating to educating students about the benefits of consuming vegetables. Subjects Twenty-one Western Australian primary schools already participating in the Crunch&Sip program participated in the pilot intervention and evaluation. Coverage included 35 primary school teachers representing 818 students aged 4–11 years. Results The proportion of children bringing vegetables for Crunch&Sip more than doubled over the 10-week intervention (21% vs 46%; p < 0.001). Improvements were observed in teachers' perceived knowledge about the nutritional benefits of vegetables (p = 0.001) and confidence to educate students about the benefits of vegetable consumption (p = 0.028). Conclusions Preferentially promoting vegetable consumption as part of an existing school-based nutrition program may be an effective strategy to increase children's vegetable intake.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • (Not) Eating for the environment: The impact of restaurant menu design on
           vegetarian food choice
    • Authors: Linda Bacon; Dario Krpan
      Pages: 190 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Linda Bacon, Dario Krpan
      Previous research has shown that restaurant menu design can influence food choices. However, it remains unknown whether such contextual effects on food selection are dependent on people's past behavior. In the present study, we focused on vegetarian food choices, given their important implications for the environment, and investigated whether the influence of different restaurant menus on the likelihood of selecting a vegetarian dish is moderated by the number of days on which people reported eating only vegetarian food during the previous week. In an online scenario, participants were randomly assigned to four different restaurant menu conditions—control (all dishes presented in the same manner), recommendation (vegetarian dish presented as chef's recommendation), descriptive (more appealing description of vegetarian dish), and vegetarian (vegetarian dishes placed in a separate section)—and ordered a dish for dinner. The results showed that the recommendation and descriptive menus increased the likelihood of vegetarian dish choices for infrequent eaters of vegetarian foods, whereas these effects tended to reverse for those who ate vegetarian meals more often. The vegetarian menu had no impact on the infrequent vegetarian eaters' choice but backfired for the frequent vegetarian eaters and made them less likely to order a vegetarian dish. These findings indicate that people's past behavior is an important determinant of the impact of nudging on food choices, and that achieving sustainable eating may require more personalized interventions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • The Montreal Children’s Hospital Feeding Scale: Relationships with
           parental report of child eating behaviours and observed feeding
    • Authors: Samantha Rogers; Maria Ramsay; Jackie Blissett
      Pages: 201 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Samantha Rogers, Maria Ramsay, Jackie Blissett
      Feeding problems are common, with implications for nutrition, growth and family stress, placing burden on primary care services. The Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCHFS) is a quick and reliable measure of feeding problems for clinical settings, but there is little examination of its relationship to commonly used research measures of parental feeding practice, child eating behaviour and observations of parent-infant interaction at mealtimes. We examined the relationships between the MCHFS, demographics and early feeding history, weight across the first year, parental report of feeding practices and child eating behaviours, and observations of maternal-infant feeding interaction at 1 year. The MCHFS, Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) were completed by 69 mothers when their infants were 1-year-old (37 male, 32 female). Infant weight was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Mothers were observed feeding their infants at 1 year. The MCHFS was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = .90) and showed significant overlap with other measures of feeding and eating. Potential feeding problems were identified in 10 of the children (14%) reflecting similar rates in other community samples. Higher MCHFS scores were associated with lower birthweight and weight across the first year, greater satiety responsiveness, fussiness and slowness in eating, lower enjoyment of food and food responsiveness, and less observed infant food acceptance. Parents of infants with more feeding problems reported less encouragement of balance and variety in their children's diets. Conclusion: MCHFS showed good criterion validity with other parental report measures of eating and observations of mealtime interactions. MCHFS may be a useful tool for researching feeding problems in community samples.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Influence of oral processing on appetite and food intake – A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Emma M. Krop; Marion M. Hetherington; Chandani Nekitsing; Sophie Miquel; Luminita Postelnicu; Anwesha Sarkar
      Pages: 253 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Emma M. Krop, Marion M. Hetherington, Chandani Nekitsing, Sophie Miquel, Luminita Postelnicu, Anwesha Sarkar
      Food delivers energy, nutrients and a pleasurable experience. Slow eating and prolonged oro-sensory exposure to food during consumption can enhance the processes that promote satiation. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of oral processing on subjective measures of appetite (hunger, desire to eat) and objectively measured food intake. The aim was to investigate the influence of oral processing characteristics, specifically “chewing” and “lubrication”, on “appetite” and “food intake”. A literature search of six databases (Cochrane library, PubMed, Medline, Food Science and Technology s, Web of Science, Scopus), yielded 12161 articles which were reduced to a set of 40 articles using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. A further two articles were excluded from the meta-analysis due to missing relevant data. From the remaining 38 papers, detailing 40 unique studies with 70 subgroups, raw data were extracted for meta-analysis (food intake n = 65, hunger n = 22 and desire to eat ratings n = 15) and analyzed using random effects modelling. Oral processing parameters, such as number of chews, eating rate and texture manipulation, appeared to influence food intake markedly but appetite ratings to a lesser extent. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant effect of the direct and indirect aspects of oral processing that were related to chewing on both self-reported hunger (−0.20 effect size, 95% confidence interval CI: −0.30, −0.11), and food intake (−0.28 effect size, 95% CI: −0.36, −0.19). Although lubrication is an important aspect of oral processing, few studies on its effects on appetite have been conducted. Future experiments using standardized approaches should provide a clearer understanding of the role of oral processing, including both chewing and lubrication, in promoting satiety.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • What's technology cooking up' A systematic review of the use of
           technology in adolescent food literacy programs
    • Authors: Catherine A. Wickham; Elena T. Carbone
      Pages: 333 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Catherine A. Wickham, Elena T. Carbone
      Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies. Titles and abstracts of 545 articles were collected and reviewed from 13 electronic databases. Studies were selected if they were peer-reviewed, included adolescents 12-19 years-old, incorporated concepts related to FL, and employed technology as part of the intervention. Eight studies, six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and two interventions without controls were included. Seven of the interventions used Internet or web-based platforms to access program components and all RCTs incorporated game elements. Studies included between two and four constructs of FL. All reported positive changes in food intake with five reporting significant positive pre- and post-intervention changes. Few technology-driven FL-related studies exist within the literature. Although all studies reported improvements in dietary intake, due to variation in program design, delivery, and evaluation it is difficult to tease out the effect of the technology component. Continued research is needed to: 1) determine the degree to which FL should be included in interventions to effect a positive change on dietary intake; 2) develop adolescent-specific FL measures to more appropriately evaluate changes in knowledge, food-related skills, and dietary intake; and 3) design technology-driven interventions so that technology components can be analyzed separately from other program elements.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
  • Are there different types of dieters' A review of personality and
           dietary restraint
    • Authors: Jennifer S. Mills; Laura Weinheimer; Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman
      Pages: 380 - 400
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Appetite, Volume 125
      Author(s): Jennifer S. Mills, Laura Weinheimer, Janet Polivy, C. Peter Herman
      We review the research on the association between personality and dietary restraint as measured by commonly-used self-report assessment instruments (Restraint Scale, TFEQ, DEBQ, and EDE-Q). In order to expand our understanding of the potentially different types of dieters, we examine the different personality profiles that emerge from existing studies of restraint and personality, including associations between restraint and body dissatisfaction and body focus, self-esteem, neuroticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, perfectionism and narcissism. This research provides some preliminary evidence that different measures of restraint are associated not only with different eating behaviours, but that they capture different personality profiles.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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