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Journal Cover Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1360-8592
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Can inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping techniques affect motor
           neuron excitability' A randomized cross-over trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad, Alireza Motealleh, Shekoofeh Abbasalipur, Mahan Shahroei, Sobhan Sobhani
      Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of facilitatory and inhibitory kinesiotaping on motor neuron excitability. Design Randomized cross-over trial. Method Twenty healthy people received inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping on two testing days. The H- and M-waves of the lateral gasterocnemius were recorded before and immediately after applying the two modes of taping. The Hmax/Mmax ratio (a measure of motor neuron excitability) was determined and analyzed. Results The mean Hmax/Mmax ratios were -0.013 (95% CI: -0.033 to 0.007) for inhibitory taping and 0.007 (95% CI: -0.013 to 0.027) for facilitatory taping. The mean difference between groups was -0.020 (95% CI: -0.048 to 0.008). The statistical model revealed no significant differences between the two interventions (P=0.160). Furthermore, there were no within-group differences in Hmax/Mmax ratio for either group. Conclusions Our findings did not disclose signs of immediate change in motor neuron excitability in the lateral gasterocnemius.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • Hamstring muscle length and pelvic tilt range among individuals with and
           without low back pain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Francis Oluwafunsho Fasuyi, Ayodele A. Fabunmi, Babatunde O.A. Adegoke
      Hamstring tightness has been documented not to be related to the pelvic tilt position during static standing posture, but there is limited data on the relationship between hamstring muscle length (HML) and pelvic tilt range (PTR) during the dynamic movement of forward bending. This ex-post facto was designed to compare each of HML and PTR in individuals with low back pain (LBP) and counterparts without LBP, and the relationship between HML and PTR in individuals with and without LBP. The study involved 30 purposively recruited individuals with LBP and 30 height and weight-matched individuals without LBP. Participants’ PTR and HML were assessed using digital inclinometer and active knee extension test respectively. Data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson Correlation (r) at α = 0.05. Participants without LBP had significantly longer (p = 0.01) HML than those with LBP but the PTR of both groups were not significantly different. HML and PTR had indirect but not significant correlations in participants with and without LBP. Hamstring muscle length is significantly reduced in individuals with LBP but it has no significant correlation with pelvic tilt range. Pelvic tilt range reduces as hamstring muscle length increases.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • Association between composites of selected motion palpation and pain
           provocation tests for sacroiliac joint disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Manijeh Soleimanifar, Noureddin Karimi, Amir Massoud Arab
      Background The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) has been implicated as a potential source of low back and buttock pain. Several types of motion palpation and pain provocation tests are used to evaluate SIJ dysfunction. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motion palpation and pain provocation tests in assessment of SIJ problems. Design This study is Descriptive Correlation. Methods 50 patients between the ages of 20 and 65 participated. Four motion palpation tests (Sitting flexion, Standing flexion, Prone knee flexion, Gillet test) and three pain provocation tests (FABER, Posterior shear, Resisted abduction test) were examined. Chi-square analysis was used to assess the relationship between results of the individuals and composites of these two groups of tests. Results No significant relationship was found between these two groups of tests. Conclusions It seems that motion palpation tests assess SIJ dysfunction and provocative tests assessed SIJ pain which is not related to each other.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • The Effects of Tai Chi on Physical Function and Well-being Among Persons
           with Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Klaudia J. Ćwiękała-Lewis, Matthew Gallek, Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae
      Current medical treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are mainly palliative, though research indicates Tai Chi exercise improves physical function and well-being. An electronic database search of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Embase was conducted, to examine current scientific literature for potential benefits of Tai Chi on physical function and well-being among persons with PD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria: 7 randomized clinical trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. PD participants (n=548) were on average age 68 years old and 50% women. Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Chi had better balance and one of more aspect of well-being, though mixed results were reported. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Chi exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Chi, before widespread recommendations can be made.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric
           trunk extension and flexion strength
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Irina Kliziene, Saule Sipaviciene, Jovita Vilkiene, Audrone Astrauskiene, Gintautas Cibulskas, Sarunas Klizas, Ginas Cizauskas
      Objective To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Participants Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Intervention Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 minutes. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. Results The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0,001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p < 0.001) and 2 months (r = 0.779, p < 0.001) after the Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p < 0.05) in the EG, and this reduction persisted for 1 month after completion of the program. Conclusions At 1 and 2 months after cessation of the Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • The Use of CranioSacral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Benefits
           from the Viewpoints of Parents, Clients, and Therapists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Susan Vaughan Kratz, Jane Kerr, Lorraine Porter



      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • Professional Ballet Dancers’ Experience of Injury and Osteopathic
           Treatment in the UK: A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Tobias Pollard-Smith, Oliver P. Thomson
      Objectives Professional dancers suffer significant musculoskeletal injuries during the course of their careers. Treatment-seeking behaviour is important in all patient populations, yet is rarely investigated amongst professional dancers. This qualitative study aimed to form a better understanding of how dancers decide to seek treatment, and in particular to explore their experiences of receiving osteopathic care for their injuries. Methods A qualitative study design using grounded theory was used as a methodological framework for data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore professional dancers’ experience of injury and decision-making to seek professional healthcare. Results Five themes were constructed that explain and describe dancers’ experience of injuries and their views and perspectives of treatment, these were; the growing dancer, the fear factor, learning to cope, effective treatment, and returning autonomy. Conclusion The personal development of each dancer consisted of an amalgam of internal and external pressures. These pressures combine with experiences of pain and injury to influence a dancer’s decision-making behaviour when injured and deciding to seek treatment. The study also provide factors relevant in the effective treatment of dancers, and outlined participants’ preference for a global physical approach to assessment and treatment of their musculoskeletal pain.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • T4 Syndrome- A distinct theoretical concept or elusive clinical
           entity' A case report
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Patricia Miyuki Hirai, Oliver P. Thomson
      The T4 syndrome has existed as a clinical concept for decades and it has been identified as a source of upper extremity (UE) symptoms. This case report explores the clinical reasoning in the diagnoses and management of a patient with symptoms consistent with T4-type syndrome and critically discusses the concept of T4 syndrome using recent research to help explain the clinical presentation. Manual therapy treatment focused on stimulation of the sympathetic ganglia, decreasing local upper thoracic pain and UE referral pattern noted during passive examination. The successful outcomes included immediate and lasting symptom relief after upper thoracic manipulation. Although treatment has been based on the theory that mechanical thoracic dysfunction can produce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) referral pain, the role the sympathetic reflexes potentially plays on the referral symptoms to the UE presently remains unclear.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • The Effect of Bikram Yoga on Endothelial Function in Young and Middle-Aged
           and Older Adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Stacy D. Hunter, Mandeep S. Dhindsa, Emily Cunningham, Takashi Tarumi, Mohammed Alkatan, Nantinee Nualnim, Ahmed Elmenshawy, Hirofumi Tanaka
      The purpose of this investigation was to determine if Bikram yoga, a style of heated hatha yoga, would improve endothelial function in young and middle-aged and older, healthy adults. This trial was performed in 36 young (n=17) and middle-aged and older adults (n=19) who completed 3 weekly Bikram yoga classes for 8 weeks. Height, body weight and body composition were determined and endothelial function was measured noninvasively using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after the intervention. No changes in body weight, BMI or body fat percentage occurred as a result of the intervention in either group. Brachial artery FMD was significantly increased in middle-aged and older (P<0.05) but not in young adults as a result of the intervention. The results demonstrate that a relatively short-term Bikram yoga practice might significantly improve vascular endothelial function in middle-aged and older adults. While apparently healthy individuals in this study experienced no adverse events, those with preexisting conditions should take caution and consult with a physician prior to engaging in this style of yoga.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:16:02Z
       
  • Nintendo Wii Fit for Balance Rehabilitation in Patients with
           Parkinson’s Disease: a compartive study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Stefano Negrini, Luciano Bissolotti, Therapist Alessandro Ferraris, Fulvia Noro, Mark D. Bishop, Jorge Hugo Villafañe
      Background Impaired postural stability places individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) at an increased risk for falls. Objective We evaluated the effectiveness of 10 vs. 15 sessions of Nintendo Wii Fit for balance recovery for outpatients PD. Methods Twenty-seven patients, 48.1% female (66 ±8 years), with PD. Patients with PD were consecutively assigned to one of two groups receiving either 10 or 15 sessions (low dose or high dose group, respectively) with Nintendo Wii Fit in recovering balancing ability. All outcome measures were collected at baseline, immediately following the intervention period, and 1-month following the end of the intervention. Main outcome measure: Falls risk test (FRT), Stability index (PST), Berg balance scale (BBS) and Tinetti scale. Results The patients undergoing the 10 sessions demonstrated significantly improvement on the balance performances (Tinetti balance and gait scales, BBS and BSF) (all, P<0.05) as those undergoing 15 treatment with Nintendo Wii Fit, but no significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. Conclusions The results suggest that functional improvement can be made in fewer visits during outpatient rehabilitation sessions with Nintendo Wii Fit improving the efficiency of intervention.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T19:26:22Z
       
  • Increased Strength of The Scapular Stabilizer and Lumbar Muscles After
           Twelve Weeks of Pilates Training Using The Reformer Machine: A Pilot Study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Núbia Tomain Otoni dos Santos, Karoline Cipriano Raimundo, Sheila Aparecida da Silva, Lara Andrade Souza, Karoline Carregal Ferreira, Zuleika Ferreira Borges Santo Urbano, Andréa Licre Pessina Gasparini, Dernival Bertoncello
      Objective The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Methods Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m2) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm2). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p<0.05). Results After the training sessions, there were statistically significant differences between the groups for the scapular stabilizer muscles (p = 0.0263) and the lumbar muscles (p = 0.0001). For the scapular stabilizers, the initial/final values were 14.69 ± 2.80/14.79 ± 2.89 (control group) and 15.99 ± 3.54/17.44 ± 2.88 (Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). Conclusion After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • Stress Biomarker Responses to Different Protocols of Forced Exercise in
           Chronically Stressed Rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Maryam Radahmadi, Hojjatallah Alaei, Mohammad Reza Sharifi, Nasrin Hosseini
      Stress is one of the most significant causes of major health problems on a global scale. The beneficial effects of exercise on combating stress, however, are well-established. The present study investigated the stress biomarker responses, such as serum corticosterone, interlukin-1ß, and glucose levels, to different (preventive, therapeutic, protective, and continuous) protocols of forced exercise under stress. Male rats were randomly allocated to the following five groups: stressed, preventive, therapeutic, protective, and continuous (and/or pre-stress, post-stress, stress-accompanied, and both pre-stress and stress-accompanied exercise respectively) exercise groups. Stress was applied 6h/day for 21 days and the treadmill running was employed at a speed of 20-21m/min for 21 and 42 days. The findings showed that the therapeutic, protective, and continuous exercises led to reduced corticosterone and glucose levels. Whereas, the preventive exercise did not reverse the stress responses, and that the therapeutic exercise led to a significant decline in serum interlukin-1ß. It is concluded that protective, therapeutic, and, particularly, continuous exercises lead to significant reductions in serum corticosterone and the associated stress-induced hyperglycemia. Moreover, it appears that the timing and duration of exercise are the two factors contributing to changes in stress biomarker responses.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • The Scapula Backward Tipping Test: An Inter-Rater Reliability Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Deepak Sebastian, Raghu Chovvath, Ramesh Malladi
      Background & Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the scapula backward tipping test (SBTT) in detecting the presence of pectoralis minor (PM) tightness and subsequently scapula forward tipping, in a symptomatic population. PM tightness with scapula forward tipping has been described to cause pain and dysfunction in the shoulder region. Methods 30 patients with a diagnosis of shoulder pain were randomly assigned and examined by 2 musculoskeletal physical therapists at a time. The procedure consisted of having the individual lay on the stomach in a neutral head position with palms in the anatomical position. The examiner firmly stabilized the inferior angle of the scapula with one hand and the fingers of the other hand hooked the under surface of the coracoid process. A gentle yet firm pull was imparted in an upward direction to sense tightness and to observe movement of the acromion up to the tragus of the ear. A comparison was made with the other side to sense restriction. Inter-rater reliability was determined using the kappa statistic. Results The SBTT was found to be reproducible between examiners (Kappa= 0.735, SE of kappa = 0.123, 95% confidence interval), with a percentage agreement of 86.67%. Conclusion The SBTT may be incorporated as a simple yet effective test to determine the presence of PM tightness and subsequently scapula forward tipping.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • Influence of treadmill gait training with additional load on motor
           function, postural instability and history of falls for individuals with
           Parkinson’s disease: a randomized clinical trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Larissa Trigueiro, Gabriela Gama, Tatiana Ribeiro, Louise Gabriella Ferreira, Élida Rayanne Galvão, Emília Márcia Silva, Clécio Godeiro Júnior, Ana Raquel Lindquist
      Background Evaluate the effects of additional load (5% and 10% of body weight) with treadmill gait training on the motor aspects in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Randomized controlled single-blind trial with 30 individuals with PD. The volunteers were divided into three groups (treadmill with 0%, 5% or 10% load), where Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was applied. Treadmill gait training was conducted over 4 consecutive weeks, with three weekly sessions of 30 minutes each. Results There was a significant reduction in all groups in the time factor for motor function (F = 12.92; P = .001) and postural instability (F = 11.23; P = .002). No significant difference was observed in group x time interaction (F < 1.76; P > .19). Conclusion The treadmill comprises an effective therapy for people with PD, for important motor aspects such as motor function and postural instability. Additional load had no influence on results.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • Effects of Pilates exercise on general health of hemodialysis patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Zahra Rahimimoghadam, Zahra Rahemi, Neda Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Zohre Sadat
      Pilates is a type of exercise which has recently drawn exercise and health experts’ attention. They have noticed that it can improve hemodialysis patients’ general health. A clinical trial study was performed. Fifty hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. A demographic information questionnaire and a general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) were completed by the two groups at the beginning of the study. Then, modified Pilates exercises were carried out in the intervention group three times a week over a period of eight weeks. At the end of the study, the GHQ-28 questionnaire was completed by the two groups. In the intervention group, the difference between the mean scores of general health before (45.24 ± 9.9) and after (31.2 ± 6.9) the intervention was significant (p ≤ 0.002). After the intervention, the difference between the mean scores of the control (1.6 ± 1.3) and intervention (14 ± 0.78) groups was also significant (p ≤ 0.001).


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • Effect of Melt Method on Thoracolumbar Connective Tissue: The Full Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Faria Sanjana, Hans Chaudhry, Thomas Findley
      Altered connective tissue structure has been identified in adults with chronic low back pain (LBP). A self-care treatment for managing LBP is the MELT method. The MELT method is a hands-off, self-treatment that is said to alleviate chronic pain, release tension and restore mobility, utilizing specialized soft treatments balls, soft body roller and techniques mimicking manual therapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether thickness of thoracolumbar connective tissue and biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of myofascial tissue in the low back region change in subjects with chronic LBP as a result of MELT. This study was designed using a quasi experimental pre-post- design that analyzed data from subjects who performed MELT. Using ultrasound imaging and an algorithm developed in MATLAB, thickness of thoracolumbar connective tissue was analyzed in 22 subjects. A hand-held digital palpation device, called the MyotonPRO, was used to assess biomechanical properties such as stiffness, elasticity, tone and mechanical stress relaxation time of the thoracolumbar myofascial tissue. A forward bending test assessing flexibility and pain scale was added to see if MELT affected subjects with chronic LBP. A significant decrease in connective tissue thickness and pain was observed in participants. Significant increase in flexibility was also recorded.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • Lumbar scoliosis: reducing lower back pain and improving function in
           adulthood. A case report with a 2-year follow-up
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Massimiliano Polastri, Michele Romano
      Background Lower back pain (LBP) can persist into adulthood as a sequelae of adolescent lumbar scoliosis, particularly under certain conditions influenced by aspects of bodily biomechanics and/or other factors. Here we describe the use of tailored bracing used in an adult with pre-existing lumbar scoliosis suffering from LBP. Case description A 40-year-old female presented with acute LBP. The subject complained of acute lumbar pain exacerbated when she was upright, and when she was engaged in the normal activities of daily life. At the time of the first observation, the patient was wearing a brace that was readily available commercially. We modified the non-individualized elastic brace that the patient had already purchased. Major improvements were observed in either or both of the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and Numerical Pain Rating Scale scores. Conclusion We speculate that the tailored bracing described in the present case may be a viable option in carefully selected cases.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • The use of a custom-made mouthguard stabilizes the electromyographic
           activity of the masticatory muscles among Karate-Dō athletes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Gilsane Raquel, Eli Luis Namba, Daniel Bonotto, Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa, Paula Cristina Trevilatto, Maria Ângela Naval Machado, Michelle Santos Vianna-Lara, Luciana Reis Azevedo-Alanis
      Aims To analyze and compare the electromyographic activity of the temporal (anterior portion) and masseter muscles among Karate-Dō athletes before and after training, with and without the use of a mouthguard. Methods Twenty athletes (14 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 23.7±7.5 years participated. They had surface electromyography recordings taken of their bilateral temporal and masseter muscles before and after training under the following conditions: no mouthguard, with a ready-made mouthguard, and with a custom-made mouthguard. Activity was examined at mandibular rest, while clenching, and at maximum voluntary contraction. The data were normalized using the mean maximum voluntary contraction. Results The right (p=0.005) and left (p=0.015) temporal muscles showed significantly lower electromyographic activity with a custom-made mouthguard compared with no mouthguard after training while clenching. The electromyographic activity of the temporal and masseter muscles did not show significant differences when tested at mandibular rest and while clenching before or after training with a custom-made mouthguard (p>0.05). Conclusion The use of a custom-made mouthguard preserved participants’ electromyographic profiles before and after training; thus, they allow for stable muscle activity during the training of Karate-Dō athletes.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • Experiences of intervertebral motion palpation in osteopathic practice - A
           qualitative interview study among Swedish osteopaths
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Niklas S. Sposato, Kristofer Bjerså
      Background Assessment in manual therapy includes quantitative and qualitative procedures, and intervertebral motion palpation (IMP) is one of the core assessment methods in osteopathic practice. The aim of this study was to explore osteopathic practitioners’ experiences of clinical decision-making and IMP as a diagnostic tool for planning and evaluation of osteopathic interventions. Method The study was conducted with semi-structured interviews that included eight informants. Content analysis was used as the analytical procedure. Result In total, three categories emerged from the analysis: strategic decision-making, diagnostic usability of IMP, and treatment applicability of IMP. Conclusion The study indicated that IMP was considered relevant and was given particular importance in cases where IMP findings confirmed clinical information attained from other stages in the diagnostic process as a whole. However, IMP findings were experienced as less important if they were not correlated to other findings.


      PubDate: 2016-06-04T18:58:30Z
       
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation combined with integrative speech
           therapy in a child with cerebral palsy: A case report
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Vania L.C. Carvalho Lima, Luanda A. Collange Grecco, Valéria C. Marques, Felipe Fregni, Clara R. Brandão de Ávila
      The aim of this study was to describe the results of the first case combining integrative speech therapy with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over Broca's area in a child with cerebral palsy. The ABFW phonology test was used to analyze speech based on the Percentage of Correct Consonants (PCC) and Percentage of Correct Consonants – Revised (PCC-R). After treatment, increases were found in both PCC (Imitation: 53.63%–78.10%; Nomination: 53.19%–70.21%) and PPC-R (Imitation: 64.54%–83.63%; Nomination: 61.70%–77.65%). Moreover, reductions occurred in distortions, substitutions and improvement was found in oral performance, especially tongue mobility (AMIOFE-mobility before = 4 after = 7). The child demonstrated a clinically important improvement in speech fluency as shown in results of imitation number of correct consonants and phonemes acquire. Based on these promising findings, continuing research in this field should be conducted with controlled clinical trials.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance
           as well as abdominal muscle thickness
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mateus Beltrame Giacomini, Antônio Marcos Vargas da Silva, Laura Menezes Weber, Mariane Borba Monteiro
      The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p < 0.001), IO (p = 0.002) and EO (p < 0.001) thickness after the PM program. No alterations in lung function were found. These findings suggest that the PM program promotes abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Refugee experiences of individual basic body awareness therapy and the
           level of transference into daily life. An interview study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Trine Stårup Madsen, Jessica Carlsson, Maja Nordbrandt, Jonna Anne Jensen
      Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate refugee experiences of individual Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) and the level of transference into daily life. Method Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews. Malterud's version of Giorgi's 4-step analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants Three traumatised refugees with PTSD who had completed 14–20 individual BBAT sessions. Results The participants experienced the movements in BBAT as small and simple with big effects. BBAT was found to relieve pain and tension, bring peace of mind and body, and make it easier to sleep. Regular practice was necessary, as were instructions from a physiotherapist, to get the effect from BBAT. Positive changes in the contact to oneself and others were experienced and new coping strategies were developed. Conclusion Traumatised refugees experienced positive effects from BBAT and transference into daily life was experienced to a great extent.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial
           blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A
           single blind randomised controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Surussawadi Bennett, Michael John Bennett, Uraiwon Chatchawan, Patcharaporn Jenjaiwit, Rungthip Pantumethakul, Soontorn Kunhasura, Wichai Eungpinichpong
      Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Effect of Butler's neural tissue mobilization and Mulligan's bent leg
           raise on pain and straight leg raise in patients of low back ache
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Neha Tambekar, Shaila Sabnis, Apoorva Phadke, Nilima Bedekar
      Low back ache (LBA) is a common musculoskeletal disorder sometimes associated with a positive limited Straight leg raise (SLR) test. Mulligan's bent leg raise (BLR) and Butler's neural tissue mobilization (NTM) are commonly used techniques for the treatment of low back ache where SLR is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both the techniques on pain and limited SLR in patients with LBA. Thirty one patients with LBA with radiculopathy were randomly allocated into 2 groups; BLR [n = 16] NTM [n = 15]. The outcome measures i.e. visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and universal goniometer for measuring SLR range of motion (SROM) were assessed at the baseline, post intervention and after 24 h (follow up). Within group analysis using paired t-test revealed a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment VAS and SROM score(p < 0.05). However no difference was seen between pre-treatment and follow up (p > 0.05). The study showed that both techniques produce immediate improvement in pain and SLR range but this effect was not maintained during the follow up period.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Practitioners' perceptions of yoga's positive and negative effects:
           Results of a National United States survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Crystal L. Park, Kristen E. Riley, Tosca D. Braun
      Objectives Yoga is becoming increasingly popular, yet little information is available regarding practitioners' perceptions of effects of their practice. This study aimed to characterize perceptions of both positive and negative changes practitioners reported in physical and psychosocial domains. Design Cross-sectional internet-based survey. Participants Yoga practitioners (N = 542, including 162 teachers) recruited via email and flyers sent to yoga studios across the United States (US). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 85 years (M = 44). Measures Participants rated the extent to which they experienced positive or negative change in physical health and psychosocial dimensions and then listed up to three positive and three negative effects of their practice. Results Both students and teachers reported moderately high levels of positive physical changes and psychosocial changes, although teachers generally reported more positive changes. Few negative changes were reported. In open-ended responses, the most commonly reported positive effects were general health and fitness and relaxation. Most commonly reported negative effects were injuries, soreness, emotional triggers/irritability, and expense. Conclusions Findings suggest that yoga practitioners generally perceive high levels of positive changes, but some also experience adverse effects. Future research should assess subjective experiences of change alongside more objective measures of improvement.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Effect of static neck flexion in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon in
           healthy males and females
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Roghayeh Mousavi-Khatir, Saeed Talebian, Nader Maroufi, Gholam Reza Olyaei
      Introduction Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, especially among skilled workers who must keep their necks in a flexed position frequently during the day. The present study investigated changes in cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon parameters after sustained neck flexion. Methods The participants were 40 healthy subjects grouped by gender (20 females, 20 males). They were exposed to static neck flexion at the full angle of cervical flexion for 10 min. Each subject underwent three trials of cervical flexion and re-extension before and after this period. Differences in onset and cessation angle of flexion-relaxation phenomenon, maximum neck flexion angle, amplitude of neck muscle activation and flexion-relaxation ratio were evaluated. Results The maximum neck flexion angle significantly increased after sustained flexion. The onset of flexion-relaxation was significantly delayed during flexion, but cessation angle remained unchanged. Myoelectric activity of the cervical erector spinae muscles increased significantly after maintaining flexion, especially in female subjects. The flexion-relaxation ratio also decreased significantly. Conclusion It was concluded that 10 min of static flexion results in a delay in flexion-relaxation phenomenon and a shortened silence period. Also the cervical erector spinae muscles are required to be active longer and generate more activity. These neuromuscular changes may be a risk factor for neck pain.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Reproducibility of the low back clinical postural grouping in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ney Meziat-Filho, Roberta Mendonça, Adriano Pezolato, Felipe J.J. Reis, Leandro Alberto Calazans Nogueira
      Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Low Back Clinical Postural Grouping (LBCPG). Methods Fifty-eight school adolescents were evaluated by lateral photography. The examiners classified the posture of the participants as: hyperlordotic, sway back, flat back or neutral. The intra- and inter-rater reliability were quantified by the percentage agreement between clinicians and the kappa coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The intra-rater percentage agreement was 91.4%, k = 0.87 (95% IC 0.77–0.98, p < 0.001) for the more experienced rater, and 86.2% k = 0.79 (IC 95% 0.62–0.96, p < 0.001) for the less experienced rater. The percentage agreement between clinicians was 55.17% k = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.23–0.55, p < 0.001). The agreement rose to 70.69%, k = 0.58 (95% CI 0.41–0.74, p < 0.001) when an optional second opinion of the raters was also considered. Conclusion: The LBCPG was reliable when used by the same clinician. The strategy of a second opinion could be used to improve the inter-rater reliability in epidemiological studies with large samples.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Aquaticity: A discussion of the term and of how it applies to humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Danae Varveri, Christina Karatzaferi, Elizana Pollatou, Giorgos K. Sakkas
      The relationship between humans and water and the effects on aspects related to human performance has never been studied scientifically. The aim of the current systematic review is to attempt to define the term “aquaticity”, present the factors that describe it and reveal the form in which it presents itself in today's society, in order to become a distinct scientific field of study. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted using anecdotal reports from the internet and forums as well as scientific articles and books from databases on issues related to aquatic sports. To the best of our knowledge there are no scientific articles dealing with human's aquaticity. In the current systematic review, four factors have been recognized that are closely related to human aquaticity. Those are related to physical condition in the water, to apnea and ability to immerse, to mental health and to parameters related to body composition. According to our findings, “Aquaticity is the capacity of a terrestrial mammalian organism to function and habitualise in the aquatic environment. The level of aquaticity depends on mental and physical characteristics and can be improved by frequent exposure to the water element”. The ideal state of aquaticity is achieved through the activation of the diving reflex, when the human body is totally immersed in water. The development of knowledge regarding the aquatic environment leads humans to an improved state of aquaticity.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Cross friction algometry (CFA): Comparison of pressure pain thresholds
           between patients with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy
           subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 2
      Author(s): Andre Farasyn, Bert Lassat
      Palpation is widely used to assess muscular sensitivity in clinical settings but still remains a subjective evaluation. This cross-sectional study assessed a newly developed cross-friction algometry making palpation measurable. The objective was to investigate the reliability of pressure pain thresholds obtained using Cross-Friction Algometry (CFA-PPTs) measured at the level of Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus central muscle parts, and to compare the CFA-PPTs between patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (nCLBP) and matching healthy subjects. Participants Patients presenting nCLBP to GP's and send into a Pain Center and healthy subjects recruited via university ad valvas & flyers distribution. Outcome measures 30 patients with nCLBP were measured for cross-friction algometry. Other evaluations consisted of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results The inter- and intra-reliability were tested and found to be sufficient. The mean CFA-PPT values of the Erector spinae at levels T8, T10, L1 & L3 and the Gluteus maximus of the nCLBP group were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) when compared to the CFA-PPT values of the healthy group. The greatest difference (−58%) was found at L1 Erector spinae level and at the superior part of the Gluteus maximus measuring point (−59%). Within the group of patients with nCLBP it was surprising to notice that there was no significant correlation between all the reference points measured using CFA-PPTs and the outcomes of the VAS and ODI scores. Conclusions With the aid of CFA, the importance of local muscular disorder in the lumbar part of the Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus in patients with nCLBP is obviously demonstrated, but also reveals the very large inter-individual differences in muscular fibrosis sensitivity and/or pain behavior in daily life. This possibly re-opens the debate on which influences can be put forward as the most important: the central or the peripheral sensitization system.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T20:31:47Z
       
  • Effect of cognitive task on postural control of the patients with chronic
           ankle instability during single and double leg standing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Zeinab shiravi, Saeed Talebian Moghadam, Mohammad Reza Hadian, Gholamreza Olyaei
      Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cognitive task on standing postural control of the injured and non-injured leg of athletes with chronic ankle instability. Methods Postural stability was measured by center of pressure parameters while chronic ankle instability patients (n = 8) randomly performed single and double leg standing in isolation or concurrently with a digit-backward cognitive task. Results After performing a concurrent cognitive task, anteroposterior sway significantly decreased in injured leg (P < 0.05) and area significantly decreased in both injured and non-injured legs (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in all center of pressure parameters between injured and non-injured legs. Conclusion The findings confirm the effect of a concurrent digit-backwards memory task on single leg standing balance in chronic ankle instability patients but the response to cognitive loading was not significantly different between the injured and non-injured legs.


      PubDate: 2016-05-15T20:21:16Z
       
  • Kinesio Taping for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Nicole L. Nelson
      Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a prevalent issue that engenders enormous social and economic burdens. Recently, kinesio taping (KT) has become of interest in the management of chronic pain. Accordingly, this is the first systematic review to explicitly report the effects of KT on CLBP. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of KT on CLBP. Methods A search was performed on the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORT Discus and Science Direct, up to June 17, 2015, using the following keywords: Kinesiology taping, kinesio taping, chronic low back pain. Results In total, five studies involving 306 subjects met the inclusion criteria and corresponded to the aim of this review. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was good, with a mean score of 6.6 on the 10-point PEDro Scale. Moderate evidence suggests KT, as a sole treatment or in conjunction with another treatment, is no more effective than conventional physical therapy and exercise with respect to improving pain and disability outcomes. There is insufficient evidence suggesting that KT is superior to sham taping in improving pain and disability. Limited evidence suggests that KT is more effective than sham taping in improving range of motion (ROM) and global perceived effect (GPE) in the short term. Very limited evidence indicates that KT is more effective than conventional physical therapy in improving anticipatory postural control of the transversus abdominus muscles and improved cerebral cortex potential. Conclusion Kinesio taping is not a substitute for traditional physical therapy or exercise. Rather, KT may be most effective when used as an adjunctive therapy, perhaps by improving ROM, muscular endurance and motor control. More high quality studies that consider the multiple factors that mediate CLBP, in the short, intermediate and long term, are needed to strengthen the evidence of the effectiveness of KT on CLBP.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Can Physical Therapy centred on cognitive and behavioural principles
           improve Pain Self-Efficacy in symptomatic lumbar isthmic
           spondylolisthesis' A case series
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Silvano Ferrari, Carla Vanti, Costa Francesco, Fornari Maurizio
      Purpose Pain-related self-efficacy is defined as “the beliefs held by people with chronic pain that were able to carry out certain activities, even when experiencing pain”, and it is considered a relevant mediator in the relationship between pain and disability in chronic low back pain. This case series describes a treatment aiming to improve pain self-efficacy in patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Method Ten consecutive outpatients with lumbar spondylolisthesis and chronic LBP referred to a rehabilitative clinic participated in this study. Cognitive and behavioural principles were integrated with functional and graded approach in each individual physical therapy program. The outcome measures concerned clinical instability and endurance tests, pain, disability and self-efficacy. Results Pain self-efficacy and lumbar function improved in 7 out of 10 patients; clinical tests improved in 9 out of 10 patients. Conclusion A rehabilitation program carried out by a physical therapist, centred on cognitive and behavioural principles, appeared useful in improving pain self-efficacy and lumbar function. These results may be interesting for future controlled trials.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Change of Pectoralis Minor’s length and acromial distance: Effects
           from active scapular retraction in scaption at 60 degrees shoulder
           elevation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Nitaya Viriyatharakij, Chatchada Chinkulprasert, Navarat Rakthim, Jetjaree Patumrat, Butsarin Ketruang
      As the pectoralis minor muscle is inserted into the coracoid process, an improper length of this muscle would affect scapular and shoulder motions. Therefore, this study is proposed to assess the effects on pectoralis minor’s length and acromial distance after active scapular retraction in scaption at 60 degrees elevation. Sixty right-hand-dominant participants (11 males, 49 females) were randomized into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group performed pectoralis minor muscle stretching by active scapular retraction, while the control group were asked to sit in an upright position. The result shows that, the mean lengths of pectoralis minor in the intervention group were significantly increased when compared with those of the control group (p=0.004 and p=0.014 respectively). Simultaneously, the reduction in acromial distance of this intervention group was substantially greater than the control group’s (p<0.001 and p=0.001 respectively). However, it should be noted that the results reported only relate to the period immediately following muscle stretching.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Low Level Light Therapy and Tattoos: A Case Report
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Teresa Ingenito
      Background and Purpose Physical therapists (PTs) frequently provide neuromusculoskeletal treatment for patients who incidentally may have one or more tattoos. Low level light therapy (LLLT) is one of the modalities commonly used by physical therapists to decrease pain and facilitate healing. Case Description This case report describes a 22 year old man who was given LLLT to address his complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Outcomes Blistering of the skin was documented over the LLLT application site, a black tattoo. Discussion The blisters, which formed after the LLLT treatment were most likely caused by the inadvertent and unexpected heating of the iron oxides and/or the metal salts in the tattoo’s black pigment. PTs should exercise caution when applying LLLT in the presence of dark tattoos.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Changes in co-contraction during stair descent after manual therapy
           protocol in knee osteoarthritis: a pilot, single-blind, randomized study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Rodrigo Flores-Cartes, Agustín Montt-Rodriguez, Esteban Pozo, Alvaro Besoaín-Saldaña, Giselle Horment-Lara
      Introduction Manual therapy has shown clinical results in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, the biomechanical aspects during functional tasks have not been explored in depth. Methods Through surface electromyography, the medial and lateral co-contractions of the knee were measured while descending stairs, prior and posterior to applying a manual therapy protocol in the knee, with emphasis on techniques of joint mobilization and soft-tissue management. Results Sixteen females with slight or moderate knee osteoarthritis were recruited (eight experimental, eight control). It was observed that the lateral co-contraction index of the experimental group, posterior to intervention, increased by 11.7% (p = 0.014). Conclusions The application of a manual therapy protocol with emphasis on techniques of joint mobilization and soft-tissue management modified lateral co-contraction, which would have a protective effect on the joint.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • A Model for Radiating Leg Pain of Endometriosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Geoffrey M. Bove
      Endometriosis is a prevalent female health disorder that often leads to back pain and radiating leg pain. Patients with such pain often seek care from multiple health care professionals, including manual therapists. We hypothesized that endometrioma can induce nerve inflammation thus the radiating leg pain that often accompanies endometriosis. To model sciatic endometriosis in female Wistar rats, a section of uterine horn was autotransplanted to the sciatic nerve. Uterus sections with the endometrium removed and autotransplanted to the sciatic nerve served as controls. After 1, 3, and 15 months the nerves were harvested and processed for immune cell presence and for neural elements. Control nerves were harvested after 4 months. All autotransplants survived, resulting in a fusion of the uterus sections to the nerves. Macroscopically, turgid cysts apposed to the nerves characterized the complexes. Microscopically, the complexes contained recruited macrophages, indicating persistent inflammation, and were innervated by small diameter axons. Only 1 of 8 control rats developed a small cyst, presumably due to residual endometrium. The persistent immune response and innervation suggest the nerve-uterus complexes as sources of inflammation and persistent neural discharge, and thus pain. This model could shed light upon the radiating leg pain that often accompanies endometriosis. Manual therapists should be aware of the possibility of endometriosis causing symptoms and examination findings that mimic musculoskeletal etiologies.


      PubDate: 2016-04-18T15:55:14Z
       
  • The effect of kinesio taping versus stretching techniques on muscle
           soreness, and flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Tarik Ozmen, Gokce Yagmur Gunes, Hanife Dogan, Ilyas Ucar, Mark Willems
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, or kinesio taping (KT) on muscle soreness and flexibility during recovery from exercise. Sixty-five females were randomly assigned to four groups: PNF stretching (n=15), static stretching (n=16), KT (n=17), and control (n=17). All participants performed nordic hamstring exercise (5 sets of 8 repetitions). In all groups, hamstring flexibility at 24 h and 48 h was not changed from baseline (p>.05). The muscle soreness was measured higher at 48 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the control group (p= 0.04) and at 24 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the PNF group (p<.01). No significant differences were found for intervention groups compared with control group in all measurements (p>.05). The KT application and pre-exercise stretching have no contribute to flexibility at 24 h and 48 h after exercise, but may attenuate muscle soreness.


      PubDate: 2016-04-18T15:55:14Z
       
  • Neurophysiological and clinical effects of dry needling in patients with
           upper trapezius myofascial trigger points
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Maryam Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Gholamreza Olyaei, Mohammad Reza Nourbakhsh
      Introduction Dry needling (DN) is a widely used treatment modality in myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The purpose of this pretest-posttest clinical trial was to investigate the neurophysiological and clinical effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. Methods A sample of 20 patients (3 man, 17 women; mean age 31.7±10.8) with upper trapezius MTrPs received one session of deep DN. The outcomes of neuromuscular junction response (NMJR), sympathetic skin response (SSR), pain intensity (PI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured at baseline and immediately after DN. Results There were significant improvements in SSR latency and amplitude, pain, and PPT after DN. The NMJR decreased and returned to normal after DN. Conclusions A single session of DN to the active upper trapezius MTrP was effective in improving pain, PPT, NMJR, and SSR in patients with myofascial trigger points. Further studies are needed.


      PubDate: 2016-04-18T15:55:14Z
       
  • Does leg predomination affect the measurement of vasti muscle activity
           during single leg squatting' A reliability study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Javid Mostamand, Dan L. Bader, Zoë Hudson
      Introduction Although measuring vasti muscle activity may reveal whether the pain relief is associated with altering this parameter during functional activities in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), it may be necessary to determine whether the inherent properties of the dominant leg influences the reliability of measuring VMO/VL amplitude. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of leg predomination on reliability testing of the VMO/VL amplitude measurement during single leg squatting in healthy subjects. Methods Using an electromyography (EMG) unit, the ratio amplitudes of VMO and VL muscles of ten healthy subjects with a right dominant leg was assessed during single leg squatting. Data was collected from two silver-silver surface electrodes placed over the muscle bellies of the VMO and VL. This procedure was performed on the both right and left legs, during three separate single leg squats from a neutral position to a depth of approximately 30° of knee flexion. Subjects were then asked to repeat the test procedure after a minimum of a week’s interval. The amplitude of VMO and VL were then calculated using root mean square (RMS). Results There was no significant difference between the VMO/VL amplitude mean values of paired test of right (mean, SD of 0.85, 0.10) and left knees (mean, SD of 0.82, 0.10) (p> 0.05). The CV (coefficient of variation) values during within and between session tests, revealed the high repeatability and reproducibility of VMO/VL amplitude measurements on both knees. The ICC (intra class correlation coefficient) values during within and between sessions tests showed the high reliability of these measurements on both knees. Conclusion The high reliability of VMO/VL amplitude measurements on both dominant and non-dominant legs of healthy subjects suggests that the VMO/VL amplitude measurement would not be influenced by the leg predomination during single leg squatting.


      PubDate: 2016-04-14T01:16:24Z
       
  • Hip and groin pain in a cyclist resolved after performing a pelvic floor
           fascial mobilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Sivan Navot, Leonid Kalichman
      Pelvic floor muscle assessment in situations of hip/groin pain in both male and female patients can be a key element in treatment success. We present herein, a 32 year old male professional cyclist, exhibiting right hip and groin pain during cycling and prolonged sitting. The pain commenced after the patient suffered a right hip severe contusion in 2013 causing a tear in the tensor fascia lata and gluteus medius muscle. The patient did not complain of pelvic floor dysfunctions. After receiving several series of conventional physical therapy for the hip/groin pain, the patient experienced partial pain relief and slight improvement of hip range of motion. His pelvic floor muscles and fascia involvement were subsequently assessed. Two sessions of Pelvic Floor Fascial Mobilization (PFFM) were performed and the patient fully recovered. The authors believe that PFFM, a new fascial-oriented manual therapy of the pelvic floor approach, can be used for both hip/groin and pelvic floor pain or dysfunction.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • The Influence of Positional Release Therapy on the Myofascial Trigger
           Points of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Computer Users
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): M. Mohammadi Kojidi, F. Okhovatian, A. Rahimi, A.A. Baghban, H. Azimi
      Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Positional Release Therapy (PRT) in computer users via latent trigger points (LTrPs) of the upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods Twenty-eight women with the upper trapezius MTrPs participated in this study. Subjects were randomly classified into two groups (14 in each group): the subjects in the Group 1 received PRT in shortened position while those in the group 2 received sham control in the neutral position of the upper trapezius muscle. They received three therapy sessions every other day for one week. The local pain intensity and Pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured via Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and algometry, respectively, before interventions and repeated 5 minutes after the first and third treatment sessions in each group. Results One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. After treatment, between groups comparison revealed that for PPT and VAS, there were significant differences between the two groups (VAS and PPT; P< 0.05). Conclusion Both groups (PRT and sham control) showed alleviation of pain and increase in PPT during three sessions of therapy although PRT showed to be more effective in these patients.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Is there an association between women’s consultations with a massage
           therapist and health-related quality of life' Analyses of 1,800 women
           aged 56-61 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Jane Frawley, Wenbo Peng, David Sibbritt, Lesley Ward, Romy Lauche, Yan Zhang, Jon Adams
      Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonplace in Australia with massage being a popular CAM modality. Methods This is a sub-study from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). A total of 2,120 mid-age (56-61 year old) women who consulted a CAM practitioner were invited to participate in this study. The Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire was used to measure women’s health-related quality of life. Results A total of 1,800 women returned the questionnaire generating a response rate of 85.0%. Overall, 912 (50.7%) women visited a massage therapist in the previous 12 months. Women with lower quality of life scores in terms of bodily pain (p=0.012) and/or emotional health (p=0.029) were more likely to consult a massage therapist than those with higher scores. Conclusion The implications of these associations are important for informing healthcare providers in providing effective and coordinated care for patients with pain and mood symptoms.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Does ‘Kinesio Tape’ alter thoracolumbar fascia movement during
           lumbar flexion' An observational laboratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Shihfan Jack Tu, Roger Woledge, Dylan Morrissey
      Background Changes in thoracolumbar fascial thickness, structure and shear strain are associated with lower back pain (LBP). Therapeutic taping techniques such as Kinesio-Taping (KT) are increasingly used to treat LBP, albeit with variable effects and unclear mechanisms. However, evidence for quantifying the treatment effects in vivo fascia properties is inadequate. We therefore aimed to explore taping mechanisms using an in vivo ultrasound measurement. Methods Thoracolumbar ultrasound videos of known orientations and positions were taken from 12 asymtomatic participants (8 males and 4 females, aged 22.9 ± 3.59) while performing velocity-guided lumbar flexion with and without KT applied. An automated algorithm using cross-correlation to track contiguous tissue layers across sequential frames in the sagittal plane, was developed and applied to two movements of each subject in each taping condition. Differences of inter-tissue movements and paracutaneous translation at tissue boundaries were compared. Results Significant reduction in the mean movement of subcutaneous tissue during lumbar flexion before and after taping was found. There was no difference in other observed tissue layers. Tissue paracutaneous translation at three boundaries were significantly reduced during lumbar flexion when KT was applied (skin-subcutaneous: 0.25mm, p < 0.01; subcutaneous-perimuscular tissue: 0.5mm, p = 0.02; and perimuscular-muscle: 0.46, p = 0.05). No overall reduction in lumbar flexion was found (p = 0.10). Conclusions KT reduced subcutaneous inter-tissue movement and paracutaneous translation in the superficial thoracolumbar fascia during lumbar flexion, and the relationship of such difference to symptomatic change merits exploration. Combining ultrasound data with muscle activation information may be useful to reveal potential mechanisms of therapeutic taping in patients with LBP.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Reliability of upper trapezius morphology, its mechanical properties and
           blood flow in female patients with myofascial pain syndrome using
           ultrasonography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Hakimeh Adigozali, Azadeh Shadmehr, Esmail Ebrahimi, Asghar Rezasoltani, Farrokh Naderi
      Objective In the present study, the intra-rater reliability of upper trapezius morphology, its mechanical properties and intramuscular blood circulation in females with myofascial pain syndrome were assessed using ultrasonography. Design A total of 37 patients (31.05±10 years old) participated in this study. Ultrasonography producer was set up in three stages: a) Gray-scale: to measure muscle thickness, size and area of trigger points; b) Ultrasound elastography: to measure muscle stiffness; and c) Doppler imaging: to assess blood flow indices. Results According to data analysis, all variables, except End Diastolic Velocity (EDV), had excellent reliability (>0.806). Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for EDV was 0.738, which was considered a poor to good reliability. Conclusion The results of this study introduced a reliable method for developing details of upper trapezius features using muscular ultrasonography in female patients. These variables could be used for objective examination and provide guidelines for treatment plans in clinical settings.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Assessment of the posture of adolescents in everyday clinical practice:
           intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and validity of a posture index
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Oliver Ludwig, Annette Hammes, Jens Kelm, Eduard Schmitt
      Objectives The assessment of the posture of children and adolescents using photometric methods has a long tradition in paediatrics, manual therapy and physiotherapy. It can be well integrated into the clinical routine and enables objective documentation. One-dimensional parameters such as angle sizes are mostly used in the diagnosis of postural defects in children and adolescents by means of photogrammetry. This study examined the posture index, a complex parameter, which evaluates the alignment of several trunk segments in the sagittal plane and is suitable for use as a screening parameter in everyday clinical practice. Methods For this postural photographs were taken in the sagittal plane of the habitual posture in a subgroup of 105 adolescents (12.9 ± 2.6 years) for analysing validity, and in a subgroup of 25 adolescents (12.1 ± 2.8 years) for analysing reliability and objectivity. Marker spheres (12 mm) were placed on five anatomical landmarks. The posture was also evaluated clinically by experienced investigators (PT, MD, DSc). The distances of the marker points to the plumb line through the malleolus lateralis were calculated and the posture index calculated from these. In order to determine the objectivity, reliability and validity of the posture index, statistical parameters were calculated. Results The posture index demonstrated very good objectivity (intraclass correlation coefficient ICC = 0.865), good reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.842) and good validity compared to the posture assessment done by the medical experts (Spearman's rho = 0.712). Conclusions The posture index reflects a doctor’s assessment of the posture of children and adolescents and is suitable as a clinical parameter for the assessment of postural defects.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Effect of Exams Period on Prevalence of Myofascial Trigger Points and Head
           Posture in Undergraduate Students: Repeated Measurements Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Leonid Kalichman, Natalie Bulanov, Aryeh Friedman
      Background Myofascial Trigger points (MTrPs) may be caused or aggravated by many factors, such as mental stress associated with exams and impaired posture. Aim To compare the prevalence and sensitivity of MTrPs, and forward head position (FHP) during exam period vs. mid-semester among physical therapy students. Methods 39 physical therapy students were palpated for MTrPs in neck and shoulder muscles and were photographed laterally for FHP measurement during the academic semester and during the academic examination period. Results The subjects showed higher prevalence of active MTrPs in the right Trapezius and Levator Scapula muscles, and higher prevalence of latent MTrPs in the left Sternocleidomastoideus and Levator Scapula muscles during exams, as well as a higher rate of tenderness in suboccipital musculature. Conclusions Physical therapy students show greater prevalence of MTrPs during exams. The authors recommend implementing preventative programs towards the examination period.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Long-term impact of ankle sprains on postural control and fascial
           densification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Leonid Kalichman, Hila Lachman, Naama Freilich
      Objective To evaluate the effect of a past ankle sprain (AS) on postural control and fascial changes in the adjacent body segment. Methods 20 young, healthy subjects with a history (≥6 months) of significant (Grades 2, 3) lateral ASs and 20 controls with no history of AS were recruited to cross-sectional case-control study. All subjects performed the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). The Stecco method was used to evaluate fascial densification in the calf and upper foot areas. Results The leg with the AS in the study group vs. the right leg in the control group exhibited significant differences (lower scores of SEBT test in the AS group) for the following directions: anterior (p <0.001), antero-lateral (p <0.001), posterior (P = 0.028), postero-medial (P = 0.001), medial (P = 0.001), antero-medial (p <0.001). A comparison between the leg with an AS in the study group and the right leg in the control group showed a significantly high prevalence of fascial densification for the talus internal rotation (p= 0.014), talus retromotion (p=0.001), talus lateral (p=0.040) and pes external rotation (p=0.060) points. Conclusions There are long term effects of an AS on postural control and on the sensitivity and movability of the fascia in the calf and foot.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Older adult Alexander technique practitioners walk differently than
           healthy age-matched controls
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Kate A. Hamel, Christopher Ross, Brooke Schultz, Matthew O’Neill, David Anderson
      The Alexander Technique (AT) seeks to eliminate harmful patterns of tension that interfere with the control of posture and movement and in doing so, it may serve as a viable intervention method for increasing gait efficacy in older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the comfortable pace gait kinematics of older AT practitioners with those of healthy, age-matched controls. Participants were six licensed AT practitioners and seven healthy age-matched controls between the ages of 63 and 75. During the stance phase, AT participants exhibited significantly greater ankle stance range of motion (ROM) and plantar flexion at toe off, as well as lower ROM of the trunk and head compared to controls. During the swing phase, the AT practitioners had significantly increased hip and knee flexion and a trend toward significantly increased dorsiflexion. The findings suggest that the older AT practitioners walked with gait patterns more similar to those found in the literature for younger adults. These promising results highlight the need for further research to assess the AT's potential role as an intervention method for ameliorating the deleterious changes in gait that occur with aging.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Dosage and Manual Therapies – can we translate science into
           practice'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Leon Chaitow



      PubDate: 2016-04-02T02:12:44Z
       
 
 
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