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Journal Cover Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
  [SJR: 0.522]   [H-I: 23]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1360-8592
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2817 journals]
  • Kinesio Taping for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Nicole L. Nelson
      Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a prevalent issue that engenders enormous social and economic burdens. Recently, kinesio taping (KT) has become of interest in the management of chronic pain. Accordingly, this is the first systematic review to explicitly report the effects of KT on CLBP. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of KT on CLBP. Methods A search was performed on the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORT Discus and Science Direct, up to June 17, 2015, using the following keywords: Kinesiology taping, kinesio taping, chronic low back pain. Results In total, five studies involving 306 subjects met the inclusion criteria and corresponded to the aim of this review. The methodological quality of the included RCTs was good, with a mean score of 6.6 on the 10-point PEDro Scale. Moderate evidence suggests KT, as a sole treatment or in conjunction with another treatment, is no more effective than conventional physical therapy and exercise with respect to improving pain and disability outcomes. There is insufficient evidence suggesting that KT is superior to sham taping in improving pain and disability. Limited evidence suggests that KT is more effective than sham taping in improving range of motion (ROM) and global perceived effect (GPE) in the short term. Very limited evidence indicates that KT is more effective than conventional physical therapy in improving anticipatory postural control of the transversus abdominus muscles and improved cerebral cortex potential. Conclusion Kinesio taping is not a substitute for traditional physical therapy or exercise. Rather, KT may be most effective when used as an adjunctive therapy, perhaps by improving ROM, muscular endurance and motor control. More high quality studies that consider the multiple factors that mediate CLBP, in the short, intermediate and long term, are needed to strengthen the evidence of the effectiveness of KT on CLBP.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Can Physical Therapy centred on cognitive and behavioural principles
           improve Pain Self-Efficacy in symptomatic lumbar isthmic
           spondylolisthesis' A case series
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Silvano Ferrari, Carla Vanti, Costa Francesco, Fornari Maurizio
      Purpose Pain-related self-efficacy is defined as “the beliefs held by people with chronic pain that were able to carry out certain activities, even when experiencing pain”, and it is considered a relevant mediator in the relationship between pain and disability in chronic low back pain. This case series describes a treatment aiming to improve pain self-efficacy in patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis. Method Ten consecutive outpatients with lumbar spondylolisthesis and chronic LBP referred to a rehabilitative clinic participated in this study. Cognitive and behavioural principles were integrated with functional and graded approach in each individual physical therapy program. The outcome measures concerned clinical instability and endurance tests, pain, disability and self-efficacy. Results Pain self-efficacy and lumbar function improved in 7 out of 10 patients; clinical tests improved in 9 out of 10 patients. Conclusion A rehabilitation program carried out by a physical therapist, centred on cognitive and behavioural principles, appeared useful in improving pain self-efficacy and lumbar function. These results may be interesting for future controlled trials.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Change of Pectoralis Minor’s length and acromial distance: Effects
           from active scapular retraction in scaption at 60 degrees shoulder
           elevation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Nitaya Viriyatharakij, Chatchada Chinkulprasert, Navarat Rakthim, Jetjaree Patumrat, Butsarin Ketruang
      As the pectoralis minor muscle is inserted into the coracoid process, an improper length of this muscle would affect scapular and shoulder motions. Therefore, this study is proposed to assess the effects on pectoralis minor’s length and acromial distance after active scapular retraction in scaption at 60 degrees elevation. Sixty right-hand-dominant participants (11 males, 49 females) were randomized into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group performed pectoralis minor muscle stretching by active scapular retraction, while the control group were asked to sit in an upright position. The result shows that, the mean lengths of pectoralis minor in the intervention group were significantly increased when compared with those of the control group (p=0.004 and p=0.014 respectively). Simultaneously, the reduction in acromial distance of this intervention group was substantially greater than the control group’s (p<0.001 and p=0.001 respectively). However, it should be noted that the results reported only relate to the period immediately following muscle stretching.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Low Level Light Therapy and Tattoos: A Case Report
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Teresa Ingenito
      Background and Purpose Physical therapists (PTs) frequently provide neuromusculoskeletal treatment for patients who incidentally may have one or more tattoos. Low level light therapy (LLLT) is one of the modalities commonly used by physical therapists to decrease pain and facilitate healing. Case Description This case report describes a 22 year old man who was given LLLT to address his complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Outcomes Blistering of the skin was documented over the LLLT application site, a black tattoo. Discussion The blisters, which formed after the LLLT treatment were most likely caused by the inadvertent and unexpected heating of the iron oxides and/or the metal salts in the tattoo’s black pigment. PTs should exercise caution when applying LLLT in the presence of dark tattoos.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • Changes in co-contraction during stair descent after manual therapy
           protocol in knee osteoarthritis: a pilot, single-blind, randomized study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Rodrigo Flores-Cartes, Agustín Montt-Rodriguez, Esteban Pozo, Alvaro Besoaín-Saldaña, Giselle Horment-Lara
      Introduction Manual therapy has shown clinical results in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, the biomechanical aspects during functional tasks have not been explored in depth. Methods Through surface electromyography, the medial and lateral co-contractions of the knee were measured while descending stairs, prior and posterior to applying a manual therapy protocol in the knee, with emphasis on techniques of joint mobilization and soft-tissue management. Results Sixteen females with slight or moderate knee osteoarthritis were recruited (eight experimental, eight control). It was observed that the lateral co-contraction index of the experimental group, posterior to intervention, increased by 11.7% (p = 0.014). Conclusions The application of a manual therapy protocol with emphasis on techniques of joint mobilization and soft-tissue management modified lateral co-contraction, which would have a protective effect on the joint.


      PubDate: 2016-05-01T13:44:34Z
       
  • A Model for Radiating Leg Pain of Endometriosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Geoffrey M. Bove
      Endometriosis is a prevalent female health disorder that often leads to back pain and radiating leg pain. Patients with such pain often seek care from multiple health care professionals, including manual therapists. We hypothesized that endometrioma can induce nerve inflammation thus the radiating leg pain that often accompanies endometriosis. To model sciatic endometriosis in female Wistar rats, a section of uterine horn was autotransplanted to the sciatic nerve. Uterus sections with the endometrium removed and autotransplanted to the sciatic nerve served as controls. After 1, 3, and 15 months the nerves were harvested and processed for immune cell presence and for neural elements. Control nerves were harvested after 4 months. All autotransplants survived, resulting in a fusion of the uterus sections to the nerves. Macroscopically, turgid cysts apposed to the nerves characterized the complexes. Microscopically, the complexes contained recruited macrophages, indicating persistent inflammation, and were innervated by small diameter axons. Only 1 of 8 control rats developed a small cyst, presumably due to residual endometrium. The persistent immune response and innervation suggest the nerve-uterus complexes as sources of inflammation and persistent neural discharge, and thus pain. This model could shed light upon the radiating leg pain that often accompanies endometriosis. Manual therapists should be aware of the possibility of endometriosis causing symptoms and examination findings that mimic musculoskeletal etiologies.


      PubDate: 2016-04-18T15:55:14Z
       
  • The effect of kinesio taping versus stretching techniques on muscle
           soreness, and flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Tarik Ozmen, Gokce Yagmur Gunes, Hanife Dogan, Ilyas Ucar, Mark Willems
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, or kinesio taping (KT) on muscle soreness and flexibility during recovery from exercise. Sixty-five females were randomly assigned to four groups: PNF stretching (n=15), static stretching (n=16), KT (n=17), and control (n=17). All participants performed nordic hamstring exercise (5 sets of 8 repetitions). In all groups, hamstring flexibility at 24 h and 48 h was not changed from baseline (p>.05). The muscle soreness was measured higher at 48 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the control group (p= 0.04) and at 24 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the PNF group (p<.01). No significant differences were found for intervention groups compared with control group in all measurements (p>.05). The KT application and pre-exercise stretching have no contribute to flexibility at 24 h and 48 h after exercise, but may attenuate muscle soreness.


      PubDate: 2016-04-18T15:55:14Z
       
  • Neurophysiological and clinical effects of dry needling in patients with
           upper trapezius myofascial trigger points
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Maryam Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Gholamreza Olyaei, Mohammad Reza Nourbakhsh
      Introduction Dry needling (DN) is a widely used treatment modality in myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The purpose of this pretest-posttest clinical trial was to investigate the neurophysiological and clinical effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. Methods A sample of 20 patients (3 man, 17 women; mean age 31.7±10.8) with upper trapezius MTrPs received one session of deep DN. The outcomes of neuromuscular junction response (NMJR), sympathetic skin response (SSR), pain intensity (PI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured at baseline and immediately after DN. Results There were significant improvements in SSR latency and amplitude, pain, and PPT after DN. The NMJR decreased and returned to normal after DN. Conclusions A single session of DN to the active upper trapezius MTrP was effective in improving pain, PPT, NMJR, and SSR in patients with myofascial trigger points. Further studies are needed.


      PubDate: 2016-04-18T15:55:14Z
       
  • Does leg predomination affect the measurement of vasti muscle activity
           during single leg squatting' A reliability study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Javid Mostamand, Dan L. Bader, Zoë Hudson
      Introduction Although measuring vasti muscle activity may reveal whether the pain relief is associated with altering this parameter during functional activities in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), it may be necessary to determine whether the inherent properties of the dominant leg influences the reliability of measuring VMO/VL amplitude. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of leg predomination on reliability testing of the VMO/VL amplitude measurement during single leg squatting in healthy subjects. Methods Using an electromyography (EMG) unit, the ratio amplitudes of VMO and VL muscles of ten healthy subjects with a right dominant leg was assessed during single leg squatting. Data was collected from two silver-silver surface electrodes placed over the muscle bellies of the VMO and VL. This procedure was performed on the both right and left legs, during three separate single leg squats from a neutral position to a depth of approximately 30° of knee flexion. Subjects were then asked to repeat the test procedure after a minimum of a week’s interval. The amplitude of VMO and VL were then calculated using root mean square (RMS). Results There was no significant difference between the VMO/VL amplitude mean values of paired test of right (mean, SD of 0.85, 0.10) and left knees (mean, SD of 0.82, 0.10) (p> 0.05). The CV (coefficient of variation) values during within and between session tests, revealed the high repeatability and reproducibility of VMO/VL amplitude measurements on both knees. The ICC (intra class correlation coefficient) values during within and between sessions tests showed the high reliability of these measurements on both knees. Conclusion The high reliability of VMO/VL amplitude measurements on both dominant and non-dominant legs of healthy subjects suggests that the VMO/VL amplitude measurement would not be influenced by the leg predomination during single leg squatting.


      PubDate: 2016-04-14T01:16:24Z
       
  • Hip and groin pain in a cyclist resolved after performing a pelvic floor
           fascial mobilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Sivan Navot, Leonid Kalichman
      Pelvic floor muscle assessment in situations of hip/groin pain in both male and female patients can be a key element in treatment success. We present herein, a 32 year old male professional cyclist, exhibiting right hip and groin pain during cycling and prolonged sitting. The pain commenced after the patient suffered a right hip severe contusion in 2013 causing a tear in the tensor fascia lata and gluteus medius muscle. The patient did not complain of pelvic floor dysfunctions. After receiving several series of conventional physical therapy for the hip/groin pain, the patient experienced partial pain relief and slight improvement of hip range of motion. His pelvic floor muscles and fascia involvement were subsequently assessed. Two sessions of Pelvic Floor Fascial Mobilization (PFFM) were performed and the patient fully recovered. The authors believe that PFFM, a new fascial-oriented manual therapy of the pelvic floor approach, can be used for both hip/groin and pelvic floor pain or dysfunction.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • The Influence of Positional Release Therapy on the Myofascial Trigger
           Points of the Upper Trapezius Muscle in Computer Users
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): M. Mohammadi Kojidi, F. Okhovatian, A. Rahimi, A.A. Baghban, H. Azimi
      Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Positional Release Therapy (PRT) in computer users via latent trigger points (LTrPs) of the upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods Twenty-eight women with the upper trapezius MTrPs participated in this study. Subjects were randomly classified into two groups (14 in each group): the subjects in the Group 1 received PRT in shortened position while those in the group 2 received sham control in the neutral position of the upper trapezius muscle. They received three therapy sessions every other day for one week. The local pain intensity and Pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured via Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and algometry, respectively, before interventions and repeated 5 minutes after the first and third treatment sessions in each group. Results One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. After treatment, between groups comparison revealed that for PPT and VAS, there were significant differences between the two groups (VAS and PPT; P< 0.05). Conclusion Both groups (PRT and sham control) showed alleviation of pain and increase in PPT during three sessions of therapy although PRT showed to be more effective in these patients.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Is there an association between women’s consultations with a massage
           therapist and health-related quality of life' Analyses of 1,800 women
           aged 56-61 years
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Jane Frawley, Wenbo Peng, David Sibbritt, Lesley Ward, Romy Lauche, Yan Zhang, Jon Adams
      Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonplace in Australia with massage being a popular CAM modality. Methods This is a sub-study from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). A total of 2,120 mid-age (56-61 year old) women who consulted a CAM practitioner were invited to participate in this study. The Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire was used to measure women’s health-related quality of life. Results A total of 1,800 women returned the questionnaire generating a response rate of 85.0%. Overall, 912 (50.7%) women visited a massage therapist in the previous 12 months. Women with lower quality of life scores in terms of bodily pain (p=0.012) and/or emotional health (p=0.029) were more likely to consult a massage therapist than those with higher scores. Conclusion The implications of these associations are important for informing healthcare providers in providing effective and coordinated care for patients with pain and mood symptoms.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Does ‘Kinesio Tape’ alter thoracolumbar fascia movement during
           lumbar flexion' An observational laboratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Shihfan Jack Tu, Roger Woledge, Dylan Morrissey
      Background Changes in thoracolumbar fascial thickness, structure and shear strain are associated with lower back pain (LBP). Therapeutic taping techniques such as Kinesio-Taping (KT) are increasingly used to treat LBP, albeit with variable effects and unclear mechanisms. However, evidence for quantifying the treatment effects in vivo fascia properties is inadequate. We therefore aimed to explore taping mechanisms using an in vivo ultrasound measurement. Methods Thoracolumbar ultrasound videos of known orientations and positions were taken from 12 asymtomatic participants (8 males and 4 females, aged 22.9 ± 3.59) while performing velocity-guided lumbar flexion with and without KT applied. An automated algorithm using cross-correlation to track contiguous tissue layers across sequential frames in the sagittal plane, was developed and applied to two movements of each subject in each taping condition. Differences of inter-tissue movements and paracutaneous translation at tissue boundaries were compared. Results Significant reduction in the mean movement of subcutaneous tissue during lumbar flexion before and after taping was found. There was no difference in other observed tissue layers. Tissue paracutaneous translation at three boundaries were significantly reduced during lumbar flexion when KT was applied (skin-subcutaneous: 0.25mm, p < 0.01; subcutaneous-perimuscular tissue: 0.5mm, p = 0.02; and perimuscular-muscle: 0.46, p = 0.05). No overall reduction in lumbar flexion was found (p = 0.10). Conclusions KT reduced subcutaneous inter-tissue movement and paracutaneous translation in the superficial thoracolumbar fascia during lumbar flexion, and the relationship of such difference to symptomatic change merits exploration. Combining ultrasound data with muscle activation information may be useful to reveal potential mechanisms of therapeutic taping in patients with LBP.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Reliability of upper trapezius morphology, its mechanical properties and
           blood flow in female patients with myofascial pain syndrome using
           ultrasonography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Hakimeh Adigozali, Azadeh Shadmehr, Esmail Ebrahimi, Asghar Rezasoltani, Farrokh Naderi
      Objective In the present study, the intra-rater reliability of upper trapezius morphology, its mechanical properties and intramuscular blood circulation in females with myofascial pain syndrome were assessed using ultrasonography. Design A total of 37 patients (31.05±10 years old) participated in this study. Ultrasonography producer was set up in three stages: a) Gray-scale: to measure muscle thickness, size and area of trigger points; b) Ultrasound elastography: to measure muscle stiffness; and c) Doppler imaging: to assess blood flow indices. Results According to data analysis, all variables, except End Diastolic Velocity (EDV), had excellent reliability (>0.806). Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for EDV was 0.738, which was considered a poor to good reliability. Conclusion The results of this study introduced a reliable method for developing details of upper trapezius features using muscular ultrasonography in female patients. These variables could be used for objective examination and provide guidelines for treatment plans in clinical settings.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Assessment of the posture of adolescents in everyday clinical practice:
           intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and validity of a posture index
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Oliver Ludwig, Annette Hammes, Jens Kelm, Eduard Schmitt
      Objectives The assessment of the posture of children and adolescents using photometric methods has a long tradition in paediatrics, manual therapy and physiotherapy. It can be well integrated into the clinical routine and enables objective documentation. One-dimensional parameters such as angle sizes are mostly used in the diagnosis of postural defects in children and adolescents by means of photogrammetry. This study examined the posture index, a complex parameter, which evaluates the alignment of several trunk segments in the sagittal plane and is suitable for use as a screening parameter in everyday clinical practice. Methods For this postural photographs were taken in the sagittal plane of the habitual posture in a subgroup of 105 adolescents (12.9 ± 2.6 years) for analysing validity, and in a subgroup of 25 adolescents (12.1 ± 2.8 years) for analysing reliability and objectivity. Marker spheres (12 mm) were placed on five anatomical landmarks. The posture was also evaluated clinically by experienced investigators (PT, MD, DSc). The distances of the marker points to the plumb line through the malleolus lateralis were calculated and the posture index calculated from these. In order to determine the objectivity, reliability and validity of the posture index, statistical parameters were calculated. Results The posture index demonstrated very good objectivity (intraclass correlation coefficient ICC = 0.865), good reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.842) and good validity compared to the posture assessment done by the medical experts (Spearman's rho = 0.712). Conclusions The posture index reflects a doctor’s assessment of the posture of children and adolescents and is suitable as a clinical parameter for the assessment of postural defects.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Effect of Exams Period on Prevalence of Myofascial Trigger Points and Head
           Posture in Undergraduate Students: Repeated Measurements Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Leonid Kalichman, Natalie Bulanov, Aryeh Friedman
      Background Myofascial Trigger points (MTrPs) may be caused or aggravated by many factors, such as mental stress associated with exams and impaired posture. Aim To compare the prevalence and sensitivity of MTrPs, and forward head position (FHP) during exam period vs. mid-semester among physical therapy students. Methods 39 physical therapy students were palpated for MTrPs in neck and shoulder muscles and were photographed laterally for FHP measurement during the academic semester and during the academic examination period. Results The subjects showed higher prevalence of active MTrPs in the right Trapezius and Levator Scapula muscles, and higher prevalence of latent MTrPs in the left Sternocleidomastoideus and Levator Scapula muscles during exams, as well as a higher rate of tenderness in suboccipital musculature. Conclusions Physical therapy students show greater prevalence of MTrPs during exams. The authors recommend implementing preventative programs towards the examination period.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Long-term impact of ankle sprains on postural control and fascial
           densification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Leonid Kalichman, Hila Lachman, Naama Freilich
      Objective To evaluate the effect of a past ankle sprain (AS) on postural control and fascial changes in the adjacent body segment. Methods 20 young, healthy subjects with a history (≥6 months) of significant (Grades 2, 3) lateral ASs and 20 controls with no history of AS were recruited to cross-sectional case-control study. All subjects performed the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). The Stecco method was used to evaluate fascial densification in the calf and upper foot areas. Results The leg with the AS in the study group vs. the right leg in the control group exhibited significant differences (lower scores of SEBT test in the AS group) for the following directions: anterior (p <0.001), antero-lateral (p <0.001), posterior (P = 0.028), postero-medial (P = 0.001), medial (P = 0.001), antero-medial (p <0.001). A comparison between the leg with an AS in the study group and the right leg in the control group showed a significantly high prevalence of fascial densification for the talus internal rotation (p= 0.014), talus retromotion (p=0.001), talus lateral (p=0.040) and pes external rotation (p=0.060) points. Conclusions There are long term effects of an AS on postural control and on the sensitivity and movability of the fascia in the calf and foot.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Older adult Alexander technique practitioners walk differently than
           healthy age-matched controls
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Kate A. Hamel, Christopher Ross, Brooke Schultz, Matthew O’Neill, David Anderson
      The Alexander Technique (AT) seeks to eliminate harmful patterns of tension that interfere with the control of posture and movement and in doing so, it may serve as a viable intervention method for increasing gait efficacy in older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the comfortable pace gait kinematics of older AT practitioners with those of healthy, age-matched controls. Participants were six licensed AT practitioners and seven healthy age-matched controls between the ages of 63 and 75. During the stance phase, AT participants exhibited significantly greater ankle stance range of motion (ROM) and plantar flexion at toe off, as well as lower ROM of the trunk and head compared to controls. During the swing phase, the AT practitioners had significantly increased hip and knee flexion and a trend toward significantly increased dorsiflexion. The findings suggest that the older AT practitioners walked with gait patterns more similar to those found in the literature for younger adults. These promising results highlight the need for further research to assess the AT's potential role as an intervention method for ameliorating the deleterious changes in gait that occur with aging.


      PubDate: 2016-04-10T01:00:52Z
       
  • Viola M. Frymann, D.O., F.A.A.O., Internationaly Recongnized And
           Pioneering Osteopathic Physican, Dies At 94 In San Diego, California By
           Dr. Hollis King, D.O., PhD
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Hollis H. King



      PubDate: 2016-04-06T18:57:50Z
       
  • Dosage and Manual Therapies – can we translate science into
           practice'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Leon Chaitow



      PubDate: 2016-04-02T02:12:44Z
       
  • Chronic Caesarian section scar pain Treated with fascial scar release
           techniques: A case series
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Jennifer B. Wasserman, Jessica L. Steele-Thornborrow, Jeremy S. Yuen, Melissa Halkiotis, Elizabeth M. Riggins
      Objective Describe outcomes of two subjects with chronically painful Caesarian section (C-section) scars following an intervention of specific myofascial scar release techniques. Study Design Case series. Background Over 1.3 million C-sections are performed annually in the US. Anywhere from 7 – 18% of those will develop chronic scar pain. Although anecdotal evidence supporting the use of fascial release in reducing surgical scar pain exists, almost no research has been published. Methods and Measures: Two subjects who both underwent two C-sections resulting in chronic discomfort of 6-9 years duration participated in this study. Both reported premenstrual pain, pain upon pressure to the lower abdomen, and pain during bowel movements. Subject 1 also reported sharp pain with bed mobility. Four, 30-minute treatment sessions over a period of two weeks consisted of stretching the scar until a release in tissue tension was felt by the treating therapist. Outcome measures included pain and pressure tolerance using a Pressure Algometer, measurements of scar flexibility using an Adheremeter, and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). These measures were collected at baseline, five days after the final treatment and at four weeks. Results Both subjects demonstrated improvements in all outcome measures. At four weeks, pressure tolerance at all point improved as much as 79% (p<0.0001) and scar mobility increased in all directions at all points as much as 200% (p<0.0001). Following treatment, both subjects rated their premenstrual pain for all previously painful activities at 0/10 for the first time since their surgeries. Conclusions These results suggest that scar release techniques may help reduce chronic scar pain in women who have had C-section surgery.


      PubDate: 2016-03-12T14:47:37Z
       
  • Pilates increases isokinetic muscular strength of the elbow flexor and
           extensor muscles of older women: A randomized controlled clinical trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Laís Campos de Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires-Oliveira, Amanda Coutinho Abucarub, Letícia Siqueira Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de Oliveira
      Introduction The number of elderly people is growing and the practice of physical exercise, such as Pilates, contributes to increased muscular strength and functional autonomy in this population. Objective: To verify the influence of Pilates on the isokinetic muscular strength of the elbow flexors and extensors, and on the functionality of the upper limbs, of older women. Method Thirty volunteers were randomized into two groups-Pilates group (PG) and Control Group (CG). The PG exercises were performed twice weekly for 12 weeks. Evaluations were performed pre and post-intervention, for isokinetic muscular strength of the elbow flexors and extensors and functionality of the upper limbs. Results In the intra-group comparison, the PG improved strength of the elbow extensors and the functionality of the upper limbs (p < 0.05). When comparing the post-intervention moment, the PG was superior to the CG in all variables (p < 0.05), with a large effect size (d > 0.80). Conclusion Pilates increases the isokinetic muscular strength of the elbow flexors and extensors, in addition to the functionality of the upper limbs, in older women.


      PubDate: 2016-03-12T14:47:37Z
       
  • The Shin Box Get-Up
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Jair Lee, Craig Liebenson



      PubDate: 2016-03-12T14:47:37Z
       
  • Myofascial techniques: what are their effects on joint range of motion and
           pain' - A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled
           trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Tamsyn R. Webb, Dévan Rajendran
      Background This systematic review aimed to determine the evidence for the effect of a single manually applied myofascial technique (MFT) on joint range of motion (JROM) and pain in non-pathological symptomatic subjects. Methods
      Authors independently searched the following databases: PEDro; Cochrane Library; NLM PubMed; EMBASE; Academic Search Premier; MEDLINE; Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection; PsycINFO; SPORTSDiscus; CINAHL Plus from 2003 to 2015. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that used JROM as an outcome measure were identified. RCT quality was independently evaluated using PEDro and Cochrane Risk of Bias tools and all reported outcome data were independently abstracted and presented. If post-intervention central tendencies and variance were reported, these were assessed for heterogeneity with a view to performing a meta-analysis. Results Nine RCTs (n=534) were systematically reviewed and outcome data presented; all trials concluded that MFT increased JROM and reduced pain levels in symptomatic patients. Two RCTs (n=161) were judged ‘moderately’ heterogeneous (I 2 =47.2%; Cochran’s Q = 5.69; p=0.128, df=3) and meta-analysis using a fixed effects model suggested a ‘moderate’ effect size of MFTs on jaw opening (ES=0.578; 95%CI 0.302 to 0.853). Conclusion Although results reported by each RCT indicate that MFT increases JROM and reduces pain scores, there are a number of threats that challenge the statistical inferences underpinning these findings. Only two trials could be meta-analysed, the results of which suggest that applying MFTs to symptomatic patients diagnosed with latent trigger-points in masseter muscle can increase jaw JROM.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T14:36:10Z
       
  • A Critical Overview of the Current Myofascial Pain Literature –
           March 2016
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Jan Dommerholt, Todd Hooks, Michelle Finnegan, Rob Grieve
      The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others.


      PubDate: 2016-03-08T14:36:10Z
       
  • Neurodynamic treatment for patients with nerve-related leg pain: Protocol
           for a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Giovanni E. Ferreira, Fábio F. Stieven, Francisco X. Araújo, Matheus Wiebusch, Carolina G. Rosa, Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz, Marcelo F. Silva
      Objectives To investigate if neurodynamic treatment is more effective than advice to remain active in patients with nerve-related leg pain. Design Parallel-group randomized controlled trial blinded to the outcome assessor conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Participants Sixty patients recruited from the community and private practices. Intervention Patients will be randomly assigned to receive four sessions of neurodynamic treatment over two weeks comprising passive lumbar foramen opening and neurodynamic sliders plus home exercises or advice to remain active. Main outcome measures Leg pain intensity, disability, low back pain intensity, functional ability, symptoms distribution and global impression of recovery will be assessed at two and four weeks after randomization. Analysis A linear mixed model will be employed for each outcome following intention to treat principles.


      PubDate: 2016-03-01T04:48:04Z
       
  • The effect of adding myofascial techniques to an exercise programme for
           patients with anterior knee pain - A randomized clinical trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): G. Telles, D.R. Cristovão, F.A.T.C. Belache, M.R.A. Santos, R.S. Almeida, L.A.C. Nogueira
      Anterior knee pain is a common complaint and can cause difficulty with its inability to bear weight. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of adding myofascial techniques to an exercise programme for patients with anterior knee pain. A clinical trial with 18 patients with a clinical diagnosis of anterior knee pain was conducted. One group (E) with nine individuals was treated with hip muscle strengthening exercises; another group (EM), with nine individuals, had myofascial techniques added. To quantify the results, the Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) were used. The E group showed an improvement in pain (p = 0.02), but not in the mean degree of disability. The EM group showed an improvement in pain (p = 0.01), as well as the degree of disability (p = 0.008). The effect size analysis showed that participants of the EM group had a greater impact on clinical pain and disability (Cohen`s d = 0.35 and 0.30, respectively). The addition of myofascial techniques should be considered to improve the functionality of the lower limbs and reduce pain in patients with anterior knee pain.


      PubDate: 2016-02-25T04:29:44Z
       
  • The Effectiveness of Manual versus Algometer Pressure Release Techniques
           for Treating Active Myofascial Trigger Points of the Upper Trapezius
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Walaa Abu-Taleb, Aliaa Rehan Youssef, Amir Saleh
      Manual pressure release (MPR) is a popular treatment of trigger points. Yet, treatment response may be influenced by inconsistent application of pressure. Further, it may contribute to increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist and hand in therapists. Therefore, this study aimed at introducing a novel method to apply pressure using the algometer and to compare its effectiveness to MPR. Forty-five volunteers with active trigger points of the upper trapezius received algometer pressure release (APR), MPR, or sham ultrasound (US). Pain pressure threshold (PPT) and contralateral active and passive neck side-bending ranges were assessed at baseline and immediately after a single session. Results showed no significant differences in post-treatment PPT between the study groups (p>0.05). The APR group showed a significant increase in passive side-bending range compared with the two other groups, whereas active range improved in the APR compared with the US group (p<0.05). Our results show that using APR to apply pressure release to upper trapezius trigger points is more effective compared with manual release and sham US.


      PubDate: 2016-02-25T04:29:44Z
       
  • Comparison of the effect of different modalities of physical exercise on
           functionality and anthropometric measurements in community-Dwelling older
           women
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Ana Paula Sena Lomba Vasconcelos, Diogo Correia Cardozo, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
      The present study aims to assess the effect of different modalities of physical exercises (“Functional Gymnastics”–FG,“Resistance Training”–RT and “Pilates combined with Hydrogymnastics”–PCH) on functional capacity and anthropometric measurements of 148 older women (60 years old or more). A comparative observational study was conducted. Functional and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline and after 16 weeks. All groups assessed showed significant changes between baseline and post-training. On the comparison of pre and post-training, differences in anthropometric measurements but not in functional test performance were found. The PCH had greater weight loss compared to the FG and RT, reduction in BMI compared to the FG and RT; reduction in waist compared to the FG and RT, and in hip compared to the RT. Although all groups improved, Pilates/Hydrogymnastics combination was more strongly associated with reductions in weight, BMI, waist and hip measurements but not functionality, than other modalities. These results highlight the role of combination physical exercise training in older women.


      PubDate: 2016-02-25T04:29:44Z
       
  • The effect of kinesiology tape on knee proprioception in healthy subjects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Rui Torres, Raquel Trindade, Rui Soles Gonçalves
      Background Kinesiology tape can improve athletic performance; however, due to cutaneous stimulation its application can have an influence on proprioception. Objectives To determine the effects of kinesiology tape on knee proprioception applied to quadriceps, namely in the joint position sense (JPS) and in the threshold to detect passive movement (TTDPM), both immediately after and 24 hours after its application. Methods Thirty young healthy participants were randomly divided into experimental and control group. In the experimental group, a kinesiology tape on the quadriceps muscle was applied. The JPS and the TTDPM of the knee was assessed before, immediately after and 24 hours after the kinesiology tape intervention. Results No significant differences were found in the assessment made before intervention. The Friedman Test showed that kinesiology tape had no influence on JPS in either group over time (p>0.05). However, the TTDPM decreased significantly immediately after and 24 hours after its application (p<0.05).


      PubDate: 2016-02-25T04:29:44Z
       
  • Non-invasive Methods of Computer Vision in the Posture Evaluation of
           Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Rozilene Maria C. Aroeira, Estevam B. de Las Casas, Antônio Eustáquio M. Pertence, Marcelo Greco, João Manuel R.S. Tavares
      Purpose Reviewing techniques for non-invasive postural evaluation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) based on information extraction from images based on computer methods. Methods The Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, ScieLo and PubMed databases were used, for the period 2011-2015. Results 131 articles were found based on keyword of which 15 articles met the established eligibility criteria. Of these, 4 were based on photogrammetry, and 11 based on laser, structured light, ultrasound, and Moiré projection. In these studies, the methodological quality varied from low to high. Conclusions The findings indicated diversity in methodologies; 14/15 articles reviewed were limited to the evaluation of the topography of the posterior back. A study, using two-dimensional photogrammetry, presented a whole body postural evaluation. As the asymmetry in AIS can be extended to the whole body, more attention should be given to develop full body assessment techniques to provide important additional data to aid in treatment decisions.


      PubDate: 2016-02-20T17:51:05Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, Volume 20, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2016-02-16T17:16:10Z
       
  • Mobilisation of the thoracic spine in the management of spondylolisthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): P.P. Mohanty, Monalisa Pattnaik
      Introduction Segmental instability due to lumbar spondylolisthesis is a potential cause of chronic low back pain. Hypomobility of the spine results in compensatory segmental hypermobility of the segment above or below restricted segments. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the effects of mobilisation of the hypomobile upper thoracic spine along with conventional flexion exercises and stretching of short hip flexors on the degree of slippage and the functions of the persons with lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methodology All patients with spondylolisthesis were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I - Experimental group, treated with mobilisation of the thoracic spine along with the conventional physiotherapy and Group II - Conventional group, treated with conventional stretching, strengthening, and lumbar flexion exercise programme. Results The experimental group treated with mobilisation of the thoracic spine shows a significant reduction in the percentage of vertebral slip from pre-treatment to post-treatment measurements. Conclusion Low back pain due to spondylolisthesis may be benefited by mobilisation of the thoracic spine along with stretching of short hip flexors, piriformis, lumbar flexion range of motion exercises, core strengthening exercises, etc.


      PubDate: 2016-02-16T17:16:10Z
       
  • Predictive models of six-minute walking distance in adults with sickle
           cell anemia: implications for rehabilitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Cirlene de Lima Marinho, Maria Christina Paixão Maioli, Andrea Ribeiro Soares, Ricardo Bedirian, Pedro Lopes de Melo, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Arthur de Sá Ferreira, Agnaldo José Lopes
      Background Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is characterized by a broad spectrum of abnormalities that affect most body organs and systems. To date, there is few data on the influence of these patients’ clinical characteristics on the functional exercise capacity. Aim To investigate the effect of the clinical complications on the functional exercise capacity of adult SCA patients. Method Cross-sectional study, where 45 SCA patients underwent clinical evaluations, echocardiography, pulmonary function testing, and determination of six-minute walking distance (6MWD). Results A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between 6MWD and hemoglobin (Hb) level, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, forced vital capacity, acute chest syndrome, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The prediction model for 6MWD explained 67% of the 6MWD variability (P < 0.001). Conclusions Hemodynamics, cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and episodes of acute lung injury seem to impact the 6MWD in adults with SCA.


      PubDate: 2016-02-16T17:16:10Z
       
  • Therapeutic Effects of Connective Tissue Manipulation on Wound Healing and
           Bacterial Colonization Count among Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Leonard Henry Joseph, Aatit Paungmali, John Dixon, Liz Holey, Amaramalar Selvi Naicker, Ohnmar Htwe
      This study investigated the therapeutic effects of connective tissue manipulation (CTM) in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). A total of 20 participants (10 in CTM group and 10 in conventional treatment group (CG)) with DFU underwent the conventional DFU treatment. In addition, the CTM group received CTM twice per week for 6 weeks. The percentage wound area reduction (PWAR) and bacterial colonization count (BCC) in log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per ml wound fluid was evaluated at baseline and six weeks. Results showed a significant change in PWAR in CTM (p<0.05, t = 3.82, Df = 9, CI L= 0.98 U=3.81) and CG (p<0.05, t = 2.97, Df = 9,CI L= 0.26 U=1.98). Mean reduction of BCC showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), with percentage of BCC reduction higher in CTM group (6.45%) than CG (3.55%). The findings suggest CTM as an effective adjunct therapy for DFU to enhance conventional treatments.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T16:48:43Z
       
  • Myofascial Triggerpoint Release (MTR) for Treating Chronic Shoulder Pain:
           A New Approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Christopher-Marc Gordon, Frank Andrasik, Robert Schleip, Niels Birbaumer, Massimiliano Rea
      Background This study comprehensively evaluated a myofascial triggerpoint release (MTR) technique for shoulder pain. Methods Twenty-three (from an initial sample of 25) patients experiencing shoulder pain received MTR, in four 10-minute sessions over a period of 2 weeks, applied exclusively on the more painful shoulder, with assessments being recorded both before and after treatment (and for pain at 1 and 13 months). Measures of stiffness and elasticity were collected to monitor the process of therapy, while subjective measures of pain and objective measures of pressure pain thresholds tracked primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes focused on suffering, stress, and quality of life. Results A statistically significant decrease in stiffness and increase in elasticity was observed post intervention for the treated side only, while pressure pain thresholds improved on the untreated side as well. Reports of pain significantly decreased after treatment, with gains being maintained at 1 and 13 months following treatment. Levels of suffering, stress, and quality of life revealed statistically significant improvement as well. Conclusions MTR resulted in clinically significant improvements in the primary measures of pain, objective mechanical tissue properties, and secondary measures in patients with chronic shoulder pain.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T16:48:43Z
       
  • Comparison between static stretching and the Pilates method on the
           flexibility of older women
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Laís Campos de Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires-Oliveira
      Introduction Flexibility decreases with advancing age and some forms of exercise, such as static stretching and Pilates, can contribute to the improvement of this physical ability. Objective: To compare the effects of static stretching and Pilates on the flexibility of healthy older women, over the age of 60 years. Method Thirty-two volunteers were randomized into two groups (Static stretching or Pilates) to perform exercises for 60 minutes, twice a week, for three months. Evaluations to analyze the movements of the trunk (flexion and extension), hip flexion and plantar and dorsiflexion of the ankle were performed before and after the intervention, using a fleximeter. Results The static stretching exercises improved the trunk flexion and hip flexion movements, while the Pilates improved all evaluated movements. However, over time, the groups presented differences only for the trunk extension movement. Conclusion For some body segments, Pilates may be more effective for improving flexibility in older women compared to static stretching.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T16:48:43Z
       
  • Respiratory dysfunction in patients with chronic neck pain: what is the
           current evidence'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Zacharias Dimitriadis, Eleni Kapreli, Nikolaos Strimpakos, Jacqueline Oldham
      Respiratory function of patients with neck pain has not been given much consideration in usual clinical practice. The problem has however been highlighted occasionally by renown clinical scientists and recently there is a growing interest in the investigation of respiratory function in this clinical population. The aim of this review is to critically present the emerging evidence and discuss the similarities and differences observed. Although the evidence for some respiratory parameters is conflicting, it seems to be generally agreed that others such as maximal voluntary ventilation, strength of respiratory muscles, chest mechanics and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide are affected in patients with chronic neck pain. The effect size of the respiratory dysfunction regarding these respiratory parameters can be approximately described as moderate. These findings not only suggest a more thoughtful drug prescription, but they may lead to consideration of incorporation of respiratory assessment and treatment into routine physiotherapy practice. Indeed preliminary studies exploring the incorporation of treatment into usual practice have provided very promising results not only in relation to respiratory function, but also for other parameters of clinical interest. There remains however imminent need for randomized controlled trials to confirm the evidence base for such an approach.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T16:48:43Z
       
  • Evidence for the existence of nociceptors in rat thoracolumbar fascia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Siegfried Mense, Ulrich Hoheisel
      Recently, the existence of nociceptive fibers in fascia tissue has attracted much interest. Fascia can be a source of pain in several disorders such as fasciitis and non-specific low back pain. However, little is known about the properties of fascia nociceptors and possible changes of the fascia innervation by nociceptors under pathological circumstances. In this histologic study, the density of presumably nociceptive fibers and free nerve endings was determined in the three layers of the rat TLF: inner layer (IL, covering the multifidus muscle), middle layer (ML) and outer layer (OL). As markers for nociceptive fibers, antibodies to the neuropeptides CGRP and SP as well as to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) were used. As a pathological state, an inflammation of the TLF was induced with injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant. The density of CGRP- and SP-positive fibers was significantly increased in the inner and outer layer of the inflamed fascia. In the thick middle layer, no inflammation-induced change occurred. In additional experiments, a neurogenic inflammation was induced in the fascia by electrical stimulation of dorsal roots. In these experiments, plasma extravasation was visible in the TLF, which is clear functional evidence for the existence of fascia nociceptors. The presence of nociceptors in the TLF and the increased density of presumably nociceptive fibers under chronic painful circumstances may explain the pain from a pathologically altered fascia. The fascia nociceptors probably contribute also to the pain in non-specific low back pain.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T16:48:43Z
       
  • The effect of Kinesio taping technique on trigger points of the piriformis
           muscle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Fahimeh Hashemirad, Noureddin Karimi, Roshanak Keshavarz
      Background Kinesio taping (KT) is a novel method which has recently emerged as a viable option to treat various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of KT on pain and hip joint range of motion (ROM) in individuals with myofacial trigger points in the piriformis muscle. Methods 51 patients with involment of the piriformis muscle were assigned to experimental (N = 33) or control (N = 18) groups. The experimental group received KT with unloading techniques on the piriformis muscle and they were asked to keep this tape in place for three days. Pain and internal rotation (IR) of hip joints were measured at baseline, immediately after the KT application, and at a 72-hour follow-up. Results The analysis of repeated measurement ANOVA yielded no main effects, but the interactions between group and time for each dependent variable (pain and ROM) were significant. A post-hoc analysis revealed significant improvment in pain and hip IR immediately postapplication and at a 72-hour follow up in the KT group, while no significant change were found on dependent variables in the control group. Discussion Our findings suggests that KT application may be effective for pain relief and increasing ROM in patients with myofacial trigger points in the piriformis muscle.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T16:48:43Z
       
  • The effectiveness of Pilates on balance and falls in community dwelling
           older adults: a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Sharon Josephs, Mary Lee Pratt, Emily Calk Meadows, Stephanie Thurmond, Amy Wagner
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether Pilates is more effective than traditional strength and balance exercises for improving balance measures, balance confidence and reducing falls in community dwelling older adults with fall risk. Method Thirty-one participants with fall risk were randomly assigned to the Pilates group (PG) or the traditional exercise group (TG). Both groups participated in 12 weeks of exercise, 2 times/week for 1 hour. Results There was significant improvement in the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale for both the PG (mean difference = 6.31, p < .05) and the TG (mean difference = 7.45, p = .01). The PG also showed significant improvement in the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (mean difference = 10.57, p = .008). Conclusion Both Pilates and traditional balance programs are effective at improving balance measures in community dwelling older adults with fall risk, with the Pilates group showing improved balance confidence.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T16:48:43Z
       
  • Process for Massage Therapy Practice and Essential Assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Ann Blair Kennedy, Jerrilyn Cambron, Patricia A. Sharpe, Ravensara S. Travillian, Ruth P. Saunders
      Background Little evidence exists about processes in massage therapy practice. Investigating current frameworks is warranted. This qualitative study is a secondary data analysis using grounded theory to understand how massage therapy experts describe massage therapy practice. Methods 31 massage therapy experts were invited to a 2-day symposium to discuss best practices for the profession. Through qualitative analysis, memoing, and discussion, the data were summarized into themes. Results Three themes were identified around massage therapy practice: 1) client centered, 2) structure for practice, and 3) influencing factors. Each theme is clarified and expanded. Discussion Conceptual models were developed for research and clinical practice and a definition for massage therapy practice was identified. Challenges and limitations are discussed. Conclusion The goal of providing these models is to give massage therapists tools to deliver the best possible care. The models need testing to see if they help advance the profession.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:04:38Z
       
  • The effect of extremity strength training on fibromyalgia symptoms and
           disease impact in an existing multidisciplinary treatment program
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Dan Vaughn, Tamara Kas, Megan Colby, Maureen Case
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of upper and lower body extremity strengthening exercise in patients with Fibromyalgia (FM) within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program. Participants Patients between the ages of 18 – 65 with the medical diagnosis of FM. Methods Comparative study design. The control and experimental group received the same multidisciplinary treatment except that the experimental group performed upper and lower extremity strengthening exercises. Outcome Measures The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was administered at evaluation and discharge from the program in order to measure change in quality of life (QOL). Results Statistically significant changes in FIQ scores were found for both groups. The addition of extremity strengthening in the experimental group produced an average 4 points greater reduction in FIQ score, however, these results are not considered statistically significant. Conclusions This study appears to validate the success of a multidisciplinary approach in treating patients with FM, with the possibility for further benefit with the addition of extremity strengthening.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:04:38Z
       
  • The biomechanical model in manual therapy: is there an ongoing crisis or
           just the need to revise the underlying concept and application'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Christian Lunghi, Paolo Tozzi, Giampiero Fusco
      Different approaches to body biomechanics are based on the classical concept of “ideal posture” which is regarded as the state where body mass is distributed in such a way that ligamentous tensions neutralize the force of gravity and muscles retain their normal tone, as result of the integration of somatic components related to posture and balance mechanisms. When compromised, optimal posture can be restored through the balanced and effective use of musculoskeletal components; however, various research findings and the opinion of experts in this field suggest a move away from the dogmas that have characterized the idea of health dependent on ideal posture, to promote instead dynamic approaches based on the interdependency of the body systems as well as on the full participation of the person in the healing process. Following these concepts, this article proposes a revised biomechanical model that sees posture as the temporary result of the individual’s current ability to adapt to the existing allostatic load through the dynamic interaction of extero-proprio-interoceptive information integrated at a neuromyofascial level. Treatments using this revised model aim to restore the optimal posture available to the person in that particular given moment, through the efficient and balanced use of neuro–myofascia–skeletal components in order to normalize aberrant postural responses, to promote interoceptive and proprioceptive integration and to optimize individual responses to the existing allostatic load. The latter is achieved via multimodal programs of intervention, in a salutogenic approach that, from a traditional perspective, evolves on an anthropological basis, to the point of centering its work on the person.


      PubDate: 2016-01-28T01:35:47Z
       
  • Effects of Achilles tendon vibration, surface and visual conditions on
           lower leg electromyography in young adults with and without recurrent
           ankle sprains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Anat V. Lubetzky, Robert Price, Sarah W. McCoy
      Functional ankle instability is associated with decreased ankle muscle function. Compliant surfaces and eyes-closed training are commonly used for rehabilitation and prevention of ankle sprains. Brief Achilles tendon vibration is commonly used in the study of postural control. To test the level of activation of tibialis anterior (TIB) and fibularis longus (FIB), bilateral Achilles tendon vibration was applied for the middle 20 seconds in a series of 60-second trials, when 10 healthy young adults and 10 adults with history of repeated ankle sprains were standing bipedal: on floor, on memory foam, or on a Both Sides Up (BOSU) ball, with eyes open, and on floor and foam with eyes closed. Differences in Integrated surface electromyography (IEMG) of TIB and FIB were significant for both groups pre, during, and post vibration (Friedman Tests, p < 0.001 for all). In both groups, the highest IEMG for TIB was obtained during vibration when standing on foam with eyes closed, whereas the highest IEMG for FIB was obtained during vibration when standing on the BOSU. Bipedal stance on BOSU and brief Achilles tendon vibration may be a useful intervention when a session’s goal is to facilitate lower leg muscles activation. Future research should explore training effects as well as the effect of FIB tendon vibration.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T01:22:32Z
       
  • Angry Posture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Jose Luis Rosário, Maria Suely Bezerra Diógenes, Rita Mattei, José Roberto Leite
      Postural abnormalities can affect the emotions and vice-versa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a relationship between subjective anger and body posture in 28 women, aged between 20 and 39 years, with a normal body mass index (or underweight) and an absence of neurological, psychiatric or musculoskeletal disorders. The postural parameters photographed were the inclination of the shoulders, protrusion of the head, hyperextension of the knees and shoulder elevation. The degree of anger was rated by analogue scales representing current and usual anger. The results indicated that a relationship exists between current anger and the inclination of the shoulders (p = 0.03), protrusion of the head (p = 0.05) and hyperextension of the knees (p = 0.05). Correlations were found between usual anger, shoulder elevation (p = 0.05) and hyperextension of the knees (p = 0.05). In conclusion, posture is associated with emotions, and usual anger can lead to shoulder protraction.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T01:22:32Z
       
  • Repeat-measures longitudinal study evaluating behavioural and
           gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism before, during and after
           visceral osteopathic treatment (VOT)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Ioná Bramati-Castellarin, Vinood B. Patel
      This study investigated the influence of visceral osteopathic technique (VOT) on the behaviour and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of children with autism using a validated questionnaire to measure outcome. Methods The 49 recruited autistic children suffered GI symptoms and impaired social interaction and communication, but were otherwise healthy. Thirty minute VOT sessions were applied to the abdomens of the children over a 6 week period whilst their GI and behavioural parameters were recorded. Outcomes were measured using a modified Autism Research Institute Secretin Outcomes Survey Form, the ‘S.O.S Form’. Four questionnaires were completed by parents before treatment (control period), four completed during treatment (treatment period) and one completed six weeks after the last treatment (post treatment period). Subjects acted as their own controls. Results Results from repeat ANOVA demonstrated a positive, overall significant, symptomatic improvement (p<0.05) in ‘social behaviour and communication’ and ‘digestive signs’ subscales of the questionnaire comparing before and after VOT treatment. Significant improvement in vomiting (p = 0.00029), poor appetite (p = 0.039) and eye contact (p = 0.035) was also demonstrated after VOT application. Discussion and conclusion The experimental hypothesis has been supported indicating a positive effect of VOT on some of the measured GI symptoms and behavioural patterns in this group of children with autism. This data indicates that the application of VOT may be of benefit to children with autism and GI disturbance.


      PubDate: 2016-01-18T00:59:08Z
       
  • Immediate effects of hamstring stretching alone or combined with ischemic
           compression of the masseter muscle on hamstrings extensibility, active
           mouth opening and pain in athletes with temporomandibular dysfunction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Luis Espejo-Antúnez, Elisa Castro-Valenzuela, Fernando Ribeiro, Manuel Albornoz-Cabello, Anabela Silva, Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla
      Objective To assess the immediate effects of hamstrings stretching alone or combined with ischemic compression of the masseter muscle on hamstrings extensibility, active mouth opening and pain in athletes with temporomandibular dysfunction and hamstrings shortening. Methods Forty-two participants were randomized to receive the stretching technique (n=21) or the stretching plus the ischemic compression (n=21). Outcome measures were: hamstrings extensibility, active mouth opening, pressure pain thresholds and pain intensity. Results Both interventions improved significantly active mouth opening (group 1: 35.7±6.7 to 39.1±7.6mm, p<0.001; group 2: 34.0±6.2 to 37.6 ± 5.6mm, p<0.001), active knee extension (group 1: 33.1±8.5 to 40.8±8.2º, p<0.001; group 2: 28.9±6.5 to 35.5±6.4º, p<0.001) and pain. No significant differences were found between interventions. Conclusion Hamstrings stretching induced an acute improvement in hamstrings extensibility, active mouth opening and pain. Moreover, the addition of ischemic compression did not induce further improvements on the assessed parameters.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T18:23:28Z
       
  • Editorial: Simulation of Abstract Models of Structural Homeostasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Dorothea Blostein



      PubDate: 2016-01-09T18:23:28Z
       
  • Developing and testing an instrument to assess aquaticity in humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2016
      Source:Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
      Author(s): Danae Varveri, Andreas D. Flouris, Nikitas Smirnios, Elizana Pollatou, Christina Karatzaferi, Giorgos K. Sakkas
      We developed and validated an aquaticity assessment test (AAT) for the evaluation of human physical adequacy in the water. Forty-six volunteers (25M/21F; 20±8 years,) participated and performed 10 easy-to-administer and practical aquatic tasks. Group A was formed by 36 elite athletes (M/F 20/16, 24.7±10yrs) from two sports categories depending on their affinity to the water environment: terrestrial (wrestling, cycling, dancing) and aquatic (swimming, synchronized swimming, free diving) sports. Group B was formed by 10 non-athlete participants (5M/5F, 14.4±1.4yrs) and was assessed by two independent evaluators. Participants in Group A performed the aquatic tasks once to develop the final AAT items and cutoffs. Participants in Group B performed the aquatic tasks twice on different days to assess repeatability. Factor analysis recommended all 10 aquatic tasks to be included in the final AAT, resulting in scores ranging from 9.5-49.5. The AAT scores were statistically different between the terrestrial and the aquatic sports’ participants (p<0.001). The duration of the test was 25 minutes from the time of water entry. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses demonstrated that the cutoffs for low and high aquaticity levels in this sample were ≤23.7 and ≥43.3, respectively. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the aquaticity scores obtained on different days and by different examiners highly correlated (p<0.001) and were not significantly different (p>0.05). The AAT appears to be a valid and reliable tool for the evaluation of human physical adequacy in the water. It is an easy and user-friendly test which can be performed in any swimming pool without a need for highly trained staff and specialized equipment, however more research needs to be done in order to be applied in other population group.


      PubDate: 2016-01-09T18:23:28Z
       
 
 
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