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Journal Cover International Journal of Project Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0263-7863
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 0.99]   [H-I: 58]
  • Cost overrun in the Malaysian construction industry projects: A deeper
           insight
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Zayyana Shehu , Intan Rohani Endut , Akintola Akintoye , Gary D. Holt
      The construction industry drives economic growth and development in Malaysia, but unfortunately, its projects often suffer from cost overruns (that is, negative cost variance such that final project cost exceeds contract sum). This can lead to conflict and litigation, or in the extreme, projects may even be abandoned. To better understand this phenomenon, a questionnaire survey of Malaysian quantity-surveying consultants was undertaken to obtain project characteristics and cost performance data, in relation to a sample of 359 recently completed construction projects. Data were analysed in terms of project financial outturn based on: contract values; project sector; type of project; procurement route; nature of projects; and tendering method used. The findings offer stakeholders descriptive statistical cost performance information in relation to these characteristics. These statistics will support first-order project management decision-making within Malaysia particularly; and internationally more generally, with a view to helping minimise project cost variance in the future.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Analysing the organizational factors of project complexity using
           structural equation modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Sheheryar Mohsin Qureshi , ChangWook Kang
      The advancements in the field of project management have driven researchers to take heed of numerous issues related with evaluating and managing complexity in projects, which demonstrates the evident significance of the subject. Among several key factors, organizational factors make up a large portion of project complexity as previous research confirms. While several project complexity measures do exist, every measure has its limit and evaluates project complexity from its own criteria. Furthermore, existing literature lacks modelling of these organizational factors to explore the interrelationships among them. This study aims to identify and model these factors to assist project managers in handling organizational factors of project complexity in a more regulated fashion. The model is developed using structural equation modelling technique. Findings include the noticeable effect of project size on project complexity as well as other factors. Positive effects of project variety and the interdependencies on project complexity are also observed.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Competencies of project managers in international NGOs: Perceptions of
           practitioners
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Sophie Brière , Denis Proulx , Olga Navaro Flores , Mélissa Laporte
      In international development, despite the professionalization on NGOs of the numerous projects carried out, very few studies address the competencies of project managers in non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as opposite to the significant body of studies conducted for private sector projects. This article presents findings from an exploratory study aimed at identifying competencies of international development project managers and how these competencies are used in projects. A survey conducted with international development project managers in NGOs show the very specific situation they have to deal with and the significant change in meaning for project management capacities, considering their very particular environment. Here, human competencies take a new meaning for people who manage projects with limited support, limited resources and a double client system, where they need to satisfy a client donor while respecting local populations which needs are not always compatible with donors' vision.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • The effectiveness of contractual and relational governances in
           construction projects in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Ping Lu , Shuping Guo , Lamei Qian , Ping He , Xiaoyan Xu
      Based on the transaction cost economics, this article addresses the effectiveness of contractual and relational governances in improving project performance and restricting opportunism in construction. Ten hypotheses are presented. Using data from construction project in China, we adopt Partial Least Squares (PLS) to test and verify our hypothesis. The results show that the contractual and relational governances are important to improve project performance, and these two factors function as complements rather than substitutes. The contractual governance is more effective in improving performance while relational governance is more powerful in restricting opportunism. The opportunism does not have a direct negative impact on project performance.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Facilitating organizational ambidexterity through the complementary use of
           projects and programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Sergio Pellegrinelli , Ruth Murray-Webster , Neil Turner
      Creating and sustaining competitive advantage demands that firms both exploit knowledge and capabilities efficiently, and explore ways to innovate and respond flexibly. The study of this dual capability, ambidexterity, has become increasingly prevalent as organizations struggle to address rapidly changing environments. This paper draws upon longitudinal case research into a business transformation to study how organizational ambidexterity was achieved and sustained through the complementary use of programs and projects. In particular, a strategic, emergent approach to the management of the transformation program created flexibility, while the projects embedded in the program were managed to ensure the consistent, reliable and efficient delivery of new products, operating changes and key capabilities. In combining, but not conflating, these management approaches the organization responded successfully to discontinuous changes, and out-performed competitors. This paper adds to our knowledge of how ambidexterity works in practice and the use of projects and programs for implementing strategic change.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Emergent trends and passing fads in project management research: A
           scientometric analysis of changes in the field
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Julien Pollack , Daniel Adler
      This research uses quantitative techniques to reveal trends in project management related research published between 1962 and 2012. The data set for this research includes 94,472 unique records sourced from the Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases. The keywords and abstracts that authors have used to describe their work have been analysed in terms of word frequency, rate of change and the co-occurrence of keywords and abstract terms. This data has been used to construct network maps of the field, depicting the relative association between key topics. Comparisons are made between the frequencies of key terms and rapid changes in the ways that terms are used in the literature to identify emergent trends and passing fads. Amongst other findings, this research has revealed evidence to indicate a change in emphasis in project management research from a technical engineering orientation to one which encompasses a broader organisational perspective.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Toward a model for forming psychological safety climate in construction
           project management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Yuzhong Shen , Martin M. Tuuli , Bo Xia , Tas Yong Koh , Steve Rowlinson
      The nature of construction projects and their delivery exposes participants to accidents and dangers. Safety climate serves as a frame of reference for employees to make sense of safety measures in the workplace and adapt their behaviors. Though safety climate research abounds, fewer efforts are made to investigate the formation of a safety climate. An effort to explore forming psychological safety climate, an operationalization of safety climate at the individual level, is an appropriate starting point. Taking the view that projects are social processes, this paper develops a conceptual framework of forming the psychological safety climate, and provides a preliminary validation. The model suggests that management can create the desired psychological safety climate by efforts from structural, perceptual, interactive, and cultural perspectives. Future empirical research can be built on the model to provide a more comprehensive and coherent picture of the determinants of safety climate.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Plans versus people: Comparing knowledge management approaches in
           IT-enabled business projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Andrew Gemino , Blaize Horner Reich , Chris Sauer
      This paper evaluates the impact of two approaches to knowledge management in projects — one focused on aligning project documents (“the Plan-based approach”) and another focused on developing shared understanding between different teams within a project (“the People-based approach”). A theoretical model and hypotheses are proposed and explored using data from a survey of 212 IT-enabled business projects. Results indicate that the people-based approach is more strongly influential on a project's success in securing business benefits. Although the plan-based approach is less influential, it does positively influence business benefit attainment and also supports the people-based approach. Thus, attaining shared understanding within the project team and aligning key documents are both important goals for a project's knowledge management strategy.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • What's in it for me' Using expectancy theory and climate to explain
           stakeholder participation, its direction and intensity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Russell L. Purvis , Thomas J. Zagenczyk , Gordon E. McCray
      Expectancy theory explains motivation on the degree to which an effort is perceived to lead to performance, performance leads to rewards, and the rewards offered are desirable. In this article, we draw on expectancy theory along with psychological and organizational climate research to understand whether and to what degree stakeholders will participate in the implementation of project management systems and complimentary software technologies. We contend that psychological and organizational climate influence perceptions relevant to expectancy, that in turn determine: a) whether or not stakeholders will participate in a project, b) whether they will help or harm the project, and c) whether a stakeholder is motivated to complete these actions. Data for the article is from three in-depth case studies. Results support that stakeholders assess the direction and strength of the psychological climate and that their assessments shape their motivation to participate in active support, token support, or counter-implementation actions.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Achieving satisfaction when implementing PPP transportation infrastructure
           projects: a qualitative comparative analysis of the A15 highway DBFM
           project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Stefan Verweij
      This article investigates how managers in public-private partnership (PPP) projects respond to social or physical events during the implementation of their projects, and which of their responses produce satisfactory outcomes. Multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) was used to examine the events that took place during a large Dutch Design, Build, Finance and Maintain (DBFM) transportation infrastructure project. The analysis found that most events were social in nature. Private managers' responses to these events were internally-oriented and resulted in dissatisfactory outcomes. In contrast, externally-oriented managerial responses were associated with satisfactory outcomes. The article concludes that both public and private managers need to invest sufficiently in stakeholder management resources and capabilities when implementing projects. Although the intention of DBFM contracts is to lower the burden on the government, public managers still play an important role as intermediaries between the contractor and the local stakeholders and this role should not be underestimated.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Ambidexterity in projects: An intellectual capital perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Neil Turner , Harvey Maylor , Juani Swart
      We identify the desirability of simultaneously using knowledge assets both to exploit and explore (ambidexterity) and highlight the significance of this for the project context. We use an intellectual capital perspective and theorise that managing projects draws upon human, social and organisational capital. We examine how this is used by managers, in a qualitative study in technology projects, to explain better how ambidexterity is achieved. Ambidexterity in the use of knowledge assets is shown to exist in the practices of managers but without them necessarily having a conscious strategy for it. We identify the mechanisms by which this happens and note the distinctive role of social capital. We demonstrate the integrative nature of the mechanisms, and how each mechanism can involve the deployment of either single or multiple elements of intellectual capital. In so doing we extend the existing theory to the operational level and demonstrate the utility of this approach.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Sorting out the essence of owner–contractor collaboration in capital
           project delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Mohammad Suprapto , Hans L.M. Bakker , Herman G. Mooi , Wim Moree
      Despite the relatively widespread recognition of relational-based contracting in engineering and construction projects, literature indicates a range of paradoxical issues in practice. This study attempts to reconstruct project practitioner's perspectives regarding the essence of collaborative relationships. Applying Q-methodology, subjective opinions and reflections of 30 project practitioners from 19 owner and engineering-construction firms were systematically analyzed. The result suggests four distinct perspectives towards effective working relationships, namely a) shared team responsibility, b) execution focused team, c) joint capability and structure; and d) senior leadership pair. Across perspectives, all practitioners shared a belief that an effective owner–contractor relationship should be based on affective trust, shared vision, and mutual attitudes such as open and honest communication, solution seeking instead of blaming, and senior management leadership. In contrast to prior research, long-term orientation and contractual functions were perceived to play a relatively limited role in improving owner–contractor relationships.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Examining the factors influencing cross-project knowledge transfer: An
           empirical study of IT services firms in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Dali Zhao , Meiyun Zuo , Xuefei (Nancy) Deng
      Despite the significance of the knowledge initiatives at project level, our understanding of knowledge transfer between projects and of its influencing factors remains limited. Drawing on knowledge transfer and project management literature, we develop a theoretical model positing that cross-project knowledge transfer is influenced by project teams' transfer capabilities, project teams' relationship, project task context and project team context. We adopt mixed methods and empirically test the model in the context of Chinese IT services firms. Our data analysis reveals that cross-project knowledge transfer is affected differently by the capabilities of and governance efforts by the source and recipient teams. Our study concludes that project-based organizations and project managers will be able to better manage the complexity of cross-project knowledge transfer if they simultaneously consider the multiple dimensions of factors underlying the complex knowledge transfer process and be mindful of the source and recipient of knowledge in the project setting.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Project benefit management: A conceptual framework of target benefit
           formulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Ying-Yi Chih , Ofer Zwikael
      Successful realization of project benefits is strongly associated with organizational performance. Formulating project target benefits is regarded as the first and critical step in the benefit management process. In this study, we drew upon relevant theories and conducted in-depth interviews with senior managers in Australia to develop a conceptual framework of project target benefit formulation and corresponding propositions. Our findings highlight the important role of project target benefits in funding decision-making and suggest seven criteria for their appraisal (strategic fit, target value, measurability, realism, target date, accountability and comprehensiveness) and four constructs which improve the formulated target benefits (a formal benefit formulation process, senior executive leadership, senior executive supports, and public service motivation). These findings extend the current literature on project benefit management by providing a holistic view on how project target benefits should be formulated and appraised.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Multiproject lineage management: Bridging project management and
           design-based innovation strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Rémi Maniak , Christophe Midler
      Innovation-based strategies are widely recognized as key drivers to maintain competitive advantage. The design and strategic literature underline the possibility of triggering a multiproduct value-expansion dynamic based on the creation of new concepts dynamically twinned with corporate strategy. However, the multiproject-management literature—portfolio, program, and platform—lags behind and remains focused on ex ante coordination, resource allocation and selectionism. Thus, there are still few indications of the processes that stimulate and orient continuous, profitable multiproject creative expansion. Bridging the multiproject-management literature and design theory, we propose a model of multiproject lineage management (MPLM), which focuses on the key processes that drive exploration efforts and shape innovation trajectory. We conduct a multiple longitudinal case analysis in the automobile sector. Based on this analysis, we expose the principles of MPLM, mapping the roles of corporate, program and project management within a global expansion project. Finally, we highlight our contributions to managerial practices and the related literature.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • The governance of public–private partnerships in sports
           infrastructure: Interfering complexities in Belgium
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Martijn van den Hurk , Koen Verhoest
      Although public–private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure development has gained foothold in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) over time, dissimilar results are evident and the controversy around PPP remains. This paper investigates the contradictory achievements of the Flemish Sports Infrastructure Program. It shows that the form of governance as applied by the Flemish Government was inadequate and led to interferences of political, multi-actor, and technical complexities, which in turn compromised the performance of the Program. A mismatch is revealed between the complicated governance approach and the relatively straightforward infrastructures that were developed, hence the argument that a better sense of contingency is required in future PPP programs. Moreover, governments across the globe are recommended to think twice before embarking on PPP programs which include bundled procurement and mandating agreements: severe complexities are likely to emerge and convincing evidence on the merits of bundling and mandating has not yet been delivered. 2 2 This text is based on research conducted within the frame of the Policy Research Center on Governmental Organization – Decisive Governance (SBOV III, 2012-2015), funded by the Flemish Government. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and not those of the Flemish Government.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Value creation using the mission breakdown structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Erling S. Andersen
      The modern concept of project success includes the project contributing to the value creation of its base organization. We need tools to discuss what the project itself and the base organization should do to enhance this value creation. The Mission Breakdown Structure tool helps a company set up a project with a clearly defined mission and secures an effective interplay between the base organization and its project. This article presents the tool in principle and use an illustrative real-life case. The case looks like an IT project at the outset, but when using the Mission Breakdown Structure tool, we recognise that it is much more than that and that different stakeholders need to be involved to secure a successful project. Advice on how to use the Mission Breakdown Structure tool is also provided.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • On the management of social risks of hydraulic infrastructure projects in
           China: A case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Qian Shi , Yang Liu , Jian Zuo , Ningxia Pan , Guofeng Ma
      With social risk management attracting more attention in China, the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and the State Council released the “Guidance (trial) on Establishing a Sound Social Risk Assessment Mechanism”. It is mandated that all infrastructure projects must pass social risk assessment prior to the project implementation. However, social risk management is in its infancy and has not formed a unified paradigm in China. In this paper, with an aim to explore how to manage social risks of infrastructure projects, particularly during the process of urbanization, a case study was undertaken on the identification of social risks based on an in-depth investigation of a hydraulic project. Related stakeholders were recognized in the first instance, followed by the assessment of social risks based on observations, expert meetings, interviews and discussion forums. Response plans were developed to prevent, mitigate and cope with the potential consequences of social risk events that may occur before or during the implementation process. The findings of this paper may provide a reference to the social risk management of future infrastructures.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Feature based process framework to manage scope in dynamic NPD portfolios
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Rui Abrantes , José Figueiredo
      The need to develop new products in increasingly frequent cycles of innovation drives organizations to form new product development (NPD) portfolios. In such dynamic environments, organizations need to reinforce their capabilities to deal with the simultaneity of multiple NPD projects, as well as with the frequent changes of the product scope. Many organizations, that have adopted the typical NPD process enforcing a streamlined product development process, are challenged beyond strict planning and rigorous control of their NPD projects. This paper identifies the challenges to manage the scope of a complete portfolio of NPD projects within the dynamic context that organizations face today, and using existing scope management practices. This paper suggests a novel approach to structuring the scope in dynamic NPD portfolios using feature modeling, and illustrates its use in an action-research case.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • An exploration into cost-influencing factors on construction projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Ying-Mei Cheng
      Construction cost overrun is a common problem in construction industries. The objective of this research is to extract the key cost-influencing factors with new concept and methods to help control the expenditure. Hence, this research adopts the Modified Delphi Method (MDM) with 2 groups and 2 rounds and Kawakita Jiro method (KJ) to consolidate the experts' opinions and identify and rank the key factors that affect project costs. Ninety cost-influencing factors are collected from literary review and interviews with experts with practical cost control experiences in the construction companies (Group 1). The KJ method is used to consolidate these factors into 4 categories and down to a total of 42 factors. 2 rounds of questionnaires are then conducted to filter the key factors. In order to verify views of those in the first group, Group 2 consists of experienced experts from the public sectors, consulting firms and construction companies as a comparison. Results of the analysis indicate that there are 16 key cost-influencing factors. Severity Index computation was then adopted to rank these key cost-influencing factors. The study renders that clearly defined scope of project in the contract and cost control are the major determinants for cost overrun.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Modeling construction time in Spanish building projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Miguel A. Guerrero , Yolanda Villacampa , Andrés Montoyo
      The literature states that project duration is affected by various scope factors. Using 168 building projects carried out in Spain, this paper uses the multiple regression analysis to develop a forecast model that allows estimating project duration of new builds. The proposed model uses project type, gross floor area (GFA), the cost/GFA relationship and number of floors as predictor variables. The research identified the logarithmic form of construction speed as the most appropriate response variable. GFA has greater influence than cost on project duration but both factors are necessary to achieve a forecast model with the highest accuracy. We developed an analysis to verify the stability of forecasted values and showed how a model with high values of fit and accuracy may display an anomalous behavior in the forecasted values. The sensitivity of the proposed forecast model was also analyzed versus the variability of construction costs.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • An investigation of stakeholder analysis in urban development projects:
           Empirical or rationalistic perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Rebecca Jing Yang
      The increasing research interest in multi-stakeholder analysis in urban planning reflects a growing recognition that stakeholders can and should influence the decision-making of urban development projects. Methods for identifying and prioritising stakeholders and their interests are explored in this study, and two perspectives (empiricism and rationalism) for stakeholder analysis are proposed. Two case studies, one regional renewal project and the other an infrastructure project, are presented to verify the usefulness of these two analysis perspectives. The results from the case studies show that no one method for stakeholder analysis is perfect; the selection of analytical perspective is an art with extensive considerations of ‘when, what, and how’ to choose methods to achieve the project objectives. Applying both empirical and rationalistic perspectives and comparing the analysis results when necessary are proposed as the best way to analyse stakeholders.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • The impact of uncertainty and ambiguity related to iteration and
           overlapping on schedule of product development projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Qing Yang , Ting Lu , Tao Yao , Bo Zhang
      Overlapping and iteration stemming from concurrent engineering are fundamental features of product development (PD) projects. They may not only reduce project duration but also create process uncertainty and ambiguity. We propose that the iteration and overlapping are the main causes of uncertainty and ambiguity in the PD process. Based on discrete-event simulation modeling and analysis with Arena software, our empirical research provides a quantitative method to reveal how uncertainty related to iteration and ambiguity related to overlapping impact on project schedule. In the simulation model, we use four variables to characterize uncertainty: iteration probability, iteration length, number of iterations and activity's learning curve effect. And different sequential and overlapped process structures are used to describe the variable of ambiguity in the model. Propositions regarding the reduction of uncertainty and ambiguity by controlling iteration and overlapping are derived. Simulation experiment results yield and reinforce several managerial insights, including: the relationship between uncertainty or ambiguity reduction and the complexity of iteration or levels of overlapping; and how to control project schedule and hedge the risk resulting from overlapping and iteration.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Critical factors for project efficiency in a defence environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Olivia Frinsdorf , Jian Zuo , Bo Xia
      Defence projects are typically undertaken within a multi-project-management environment where a common agenda of project managers is to achieve higher project efficiency. This study adopted a multi-facet qualitative approach to investigate factors contributing to or impeding project efficiency in the Defence sector. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify additional factors to those compiled from the literature survey. This was followed by a three-round Delphi study to examine the perceived critical factors of project efficiency. The results showed that project efficiency in the Defence sector went beyond its traditional internally focused scope to one that is externally focused. As a result, efforts are needed on not only those factors related to individual projects but also those factors related to project inter-dependencies and external customers. The management of these factors will help to enhance the efficiency of a project within the Defence sector.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Effects of project governance structures on the management of risks in
           major infrastructure projects: A comparative analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Feng Guo , Yan Chang-Richards , Suzanne Wilkinson , Ti Cun Li
      Large infrastructure construction projects are prone to risks. Using desktop review and interviews with stakeholder organizations in two major infrastructure projects (the Yi-wan Railway Construction Project in China and the Northern Gateway Toll Road (NGTR) Project in New Zealand), this study investigated how different project governance structures affect the management of risks. Comparative analysis shows that project governance provides a structured mechanism to identify and address risks as they occur. Despite varied context, two projects relied upon flexible contractual arrangements to leverage risks among project participants. While a centralized, single-agent governance was adopted in the form of Project Management Headquarters (PMH) in Yi-wan Railway project, an alliance governance structure was used in the NGTR project. The former enabled top-down risk allocation whereas the latter encouraged proactive solutions to risk sharing. The research outcomes will inform the decision making among project stakeholders on establishing appropriate project governance arrangements in order to achieve target risk management outcome. By comparing real-time projects of varied scope, complexity and significance, the findings contribute to an improved understanding of the relationship between project organizations and project risk management.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Delivering complex engineering projects: Reexamining organizational
           control theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Li Liu , Mark Borman , Jun Gao
      The delivery performance of complex engineering projects, such as infrastructure projects, is poor and shows no sign of significant improvement. Most of these projects have been delivered by a contractor organization for a client—usually a public or statutory agency. To ensure expected outcomes, the client typically employs “control instruments”, such as specifying outputs, directing behaviors, selecting contractors and building relationships, to influence, or control, delivery by the contractors. The dominant literature informing the choice of control instruments is derived from organizational control theory, which primarily focuses on the exercise of control within a single organization and assumes that different types of control function independently. The persistent poor delivery performance of infrastructure projects suggests a need to revisit the recommendations of organizational control theory. While a number of papers have identified the potential of combining control instruments and the need to take into account the influence of operating in a client–contractor context the mechanics and influence of specific interactions remain little understood. A case study of the delivery of the Open Pool Australian Lightwater reactor (OPAL) Nuclear Research Reactor Project in Australia, documents how the various controls employed interacted and jointly impacted on the delivery outcome. The findings start the process of further developing control theory and offer a number of practical suggestions for combining control types for practitioners. There are two main contributions to theory by this study. First, it adds support to the view that the factors influencing the principal's choice of control modes are more complex than depicted by the control theory framework. Second, it enriches the emerging balance of control literature (Cardinal et al. 2004), suggesting that it is not only the number of control modes that determines performance but also the interactions between them. Thus not only is the appropriate choice of control modes based on more than task programmability and outcome measurability, it appears that interactions between control modes also play an important role. In the case studied a combination of input, output and clan control was seen as forming an effective combination. It was also assessed to be important to avoid behavior control due to the interaction effect between behavior control and output control when employing such a grouping.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Project complexity and systems integration: Constructing the London 2012
           Olympics and Paralympics Games
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Andrew Davies , Ian Mackenzie
      Our study of the London Olympics 2012 construction programme showed that systems integration is one of the major challenges involved in delivery of a complex – “system of systems” or array – project. Organizations cope with complexity by decomposing a project into different levels of systems integration with clearly-defined interfaces and buffers between levels and individual component subsystems. At the “meta systems integration” level, an organization has to be established with the capabilities to understand the total system of systems, manage external interfaces with the multiple stakeholder sand coordinate the integration of its component parts. At the “system integration” level, efforts are made to manage each individual system as a loosely-coupled, relatively self-contained subsystem with defined interfaces to coordinate interdependencies with other parts of overall array. Establishing processes to maintain stability whilst responding dynamically to uncertain and changing conditions is one of the most challenging aspects of systems integration.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Learning in a programme context: An exploratory investigation of drivers
           and constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Carl Dutton , Neil Turner , Liz Lee-Kelley
      There is little guidance in the literature on programme-based learning and knowledge transfer. We framed our research question as ‘What are the mechanisms for, drivers of, and barriers to programme-based learning'’ and investigated both within- and cross-programme learning at multiple levels. Our exploratory qualitative investigation of senior managers (primarily at the Programme Director/Delivery Director level) in a large UK-based telecommunications and network services provider revealed a number of interesting and important insights. Participants interviewed tended to call upon their own tacit knowledge and experience to understand their programmes in the first instance. Knowledge acquisition and sharing was largely through social contacts and peer-to-peer connections rather than the formal processes. Explicit organisational knowledge in this instance served mainly for reference but could be ‘signposted’ by trusted colleagues. Learning effects varied over the lifecycle of the programme and, in the case organisation, the enterprise programme office was not viewed as being conducive to effective learning. The findings have practical implications for understanding within- and cross-programme learning.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Project-conceptualisation in technological innovations: A knowledge-based
           perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Hammad Akbar , Saud Mandurah
      Project management is widely regarded as a knowledge-based process. Critical to this process is the initial project-conceptualisation phase, especially in the context of technological innovations, but which has received little attention in the literature. Specifically, hardly any study has examined how project activities overlap, how project roles evolve, what skills are required and how much time is spent across different knowledge-based project-conceptualisation stages, or sets of activities. We explore these patterns and their knowledge-based explanations through a cross-case analysis of four technological innovations. Our contribution is a knowledge-based project-conceptualisation framework that deepens the appreciation of the evolving nature of the critical project management aspects across the highly uncertain project-conceptualisation phase. We then offer practical steps for project managers to effectively manage this project management phase.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Identifying, framing and managing uncertainties in project portfolios
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Miia Martinsuo , Tuomas Korhonen , Teemu Laine
      Uncertainties in the organization, external environment and from single projects may hamper project portfolio performance unless managed properly. This paper introduces a framework on uncertainties and their management in project portfolios and pursues increased understanding on how managers can take uncertainty into account better. We explore uncertainties, how managers frame them as opportunities or threats, and the actual practice of managing them across ten R&D project portfolios. The framework on project portfolio uncertainties and their management is further refined based on the empirical results. As key contributions, we show evidence on the balanced existence of three types of uncertainties, the threat bias in their framing, and the dominance of rational, opportunity driven mechanisms of control in uncertainty management. We discuss the context-dependent practice of project portfolio management and the need to complement rational mechanisms with structural and cultural, for project portfolio management to become a dynamic capability.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Research updating the APM Body of Knowledge 4th
           edition” [Int. J. Proj. Manag. 24 (2006) 461–473]
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Peter W.G. Morris , Ashley Jamieson , Miles M. Shepherd



      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Three domains of project organising
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 5
      Author(s): Graham M. Winch
      It has become axiomatic in research on project organising that projects are temporary organisations. Yet there are a number of challenges to this axiom: research on matrix organisation, the embeddedness of projects in project ecologies, and projectification all emphasise the relationship of the project to permanent organisations. Similarly, research on project-based firms and owner organisations which are relatively permanent challenges this axiom. This paper develops a conceptual framework which defines three domains of project organising: project-based firms; projects and programmes; and owners and operators as its principal theoretical contribution. This conceptual framework draws our attention to two important new areas for future research in project organising. The first is at the interfaces between the three domains of project organising: commercial, resourcing, and governance. The second is on project organising as temporary configurations of permanent organisations in coalitions to deliver particular outputs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Quality vs risk: An investigation of their relationship in software
           development projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Lazaros Sarigiannidis , Prodromos D. Chatzoglou
      Quality, risk and successful software development projects are three concepts which appear to be indisputably intertwined with one another. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between people quality, process quality and risk in the context of software development projects of Greek companies. Project team members with different characteristics were used as key respondents. The final sample consisted of 112 projects from 63 companies. Empirical data were analysed using the structural equation modelling technique. The main results indicate a negative effect of people quality on project risk level. On the contrary, process quality appears to have a slightly limited effect, defining only the risk level associated with the project team. The results contribute in the existing literature underlining the importance of quality on the reduction of the project risk level, thus, creating the necessary background for new similar research attempts in the future.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • An economic–probabilistic model for project selection and
           prioritization
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Camila Costa Dutra , José Luis Duarte Ribeiro , Marly Monteiro de Carvalho
      This paper presents an economic–probabilistic model for project selection and prioritization that enables necessary investments and potential benefits and their inherent variability to be quantified, thus providing a stochastic analysis of expected returns for projects. The model was developed in three steps: definition of criteria; definition of the most appropriate method to be used; and model building. A practical test to evaluate the applicability and usefulness of the model comprising a portfolio of investment projects at a power distribution company was conducted. The results show three major contributions of the proposed model: i) a set of sufficiently complete criteria, ii) the combined use of economic and probabilistic approaches which qualifies the information available to decision makers, and iii) the use of financial language, which is more easily understood and has a concrete meaning for both management and technical staff.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Separating project risk from the time value of money: A step toward
           integration of risk management and valuation of infrastructure investments
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): R. David Espinoza
      The rationale for using heuristics to establish a risk premium that is added to the risk-free rate to obtain the value of an investment is questioned and an alternative method, termed decoupled net present value (DNPV), is proposed. Rather than using utility theory concepts to decrease the value of uncertain cash flows, the risks associated with project cash flows are discretely quantified using insurance and contingent claim valuation concepts. Synthetic insurance premiums are designed to “protect” the value of expected cash flows which are treated as additional project costs. Because identified project risks are quantified in financial terms and treated as a real cost to the project, DNPV allows business executives to evaluate the effect on the value of the project of different risks and select management techniques that are deemed more effective. Hence, DNPV is both a valuation methodology and a risk management tool.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • EDM: Earned Duration Management, a new approach to schedule performance
           management and measurement
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Homayoun Khamooshi , Hamed Golafshani
      The concept of schedule monitoring and control as one of the most important functions of project and program management has not been fully exploited. One possible explanation could be the dominance of the Earned Value Management System (EVMS, also known as EVM). EVM was originally developed as a cost management and control tool which was extended to track the schedule as well. EVM and its derivatives (e.g. Earned Schedule) use cost as a proxy to measure schedule performance to control the duration of the project. While there is a correlation between schedule, cost, quality, and scope of a project, using cost to control duration has proven to be misleading. In contrast to Earned Value and Earned Schedule, the authors have developed the Earned Duration Management (EDM) in which they have decoupled schedule and cost performance measures and developed a number of indices to measure progress and performance of schedule and cost, as well as the efficacy and efficiency of the plan at any level of the project. These new indices are easy to understand, have wider applications, and can be used by contractors, clients and the scheduling offices to assess and measure schedule performance. The newly developed duration performance measures are all schedule-based and can be used for forecasting the finish date of the project.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • An Earned Schedule-based regression model to improve cost estimate at
           completion
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Timur Narbaev , Alberto De Marco
      Traditional Earned Value Management (EVM) index-based methods for Cost Estimate at Completion (CEAC) of an ongoing project have been known for their limitations inherent with both the assumption that past EVM data is the best available information and early-stage unreliability. In an attempt to overcome such limitations, a new CEAC methodology is proposed based on a modified index-based formula predicting expected cost for the remaining work with the Gompertz growth model via nonlinear regression curve fitting. Moreover, the proposed equation accounts for the schedule progress as a factor of cost performance. To this end, it integrates into its equation an Earned Schedule-based factor indicating expected duration at completion. The proposed model shows itself to be more accurate and precise in all early, middle, and late stage estimates than those of four compared traditional index-based formulae. The developed methodology is a practical tool for Project Managers to better incorporate the progress status into the task of computing CEAC and is a contribution to extending EVM research to better capture the inherent relation between cost and schedule factors.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Overlapping design and construction activities and an optimization
           approach to minimize rework
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): M.A. Hossain , D.K.H. Chua
      Construction industry often faces challenge to complete project in minimum possible time. Overlapping design and construction activities with early information from the precedent activities shortens project completion with the expense of rework in downstream design and construction activities. However, the expected amount of rework must be properly quantified to decide on the overlapping strategy. This study presents an integrated framework to overlap design and construction activities using the concepts of upstream evaluation and downstream sensitivity characteristics and develops a simulation model in order to ascertain project performance in terms of total project duration and expected amount of rework. The results indicate that reduction in project duration and expected rework amount vary based on the accuracy of upstream early information and sensitivity of downstream activities. Moreover, unplanned overlapping may not necessarily reduce project duration but may result in excessive design and construction rework which can be very costly. This study also describes a decision-making framework to optimize project schedule with minimal rework. The search for an optimal overlapping strategy is carried out using an Overlapping Strategy Matrix (OSM) with the genetic algorithm (GA) to eliminate unnecessary rework. The proposed optimization method minimizes the expected amount of rework while maintaining the project completion contract date and provides an effective means to decide on the overlapping strategy.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Subcontracting in project-based firms: Do you follow the same pattern
           across your different projects'
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Jorge Tarziján , Francisco Brahm
      This article analyzes an important dimension in which the organization of the projects performed by the same firm can differ: the insourcing or outsourcing of an activity that needs to be undertaken in each of the different projects. Analyzing the variability of a firm's insourcing or outsourcing decision across its projects gives us a better understanding of the firm's decision-making process in terms of the stability of its choices across projects and the main determinants of that variability. This analysis is valuable because a firm that manages multiple projects can benefit from the careful analysis and consideration of the interactions among and the specificities of its projects. Using a comprehensive database of construction firms and projects, we conclude that firms demonstrate variability in their insource or outsource choices across projects and that this variability is explained by factors such as the number of projects simultaneously undertaken, the variability in a project's complexity, and their market power in local markets. These results suggest that the theories explaining firm boundaries in project-based firms should be expanded to include interrelationships between projects and the individual project characteristics that drive differences in insource or outsource choices.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Barriers towards integrated product development — Challenges from a
           holistic project management perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Anita Friis Sommer , Iskra Dukovska-Popovska , Kenn Steger-Jensen
      The basis for product development in many large industrial companies is a traditional project management method positing non-overlapping phases, independent activities, and a dedicated project team. Research findings indicate that the use of integrated product development methods increases performance compared to traditional methods in contexts of complex problem solving, which are disruptive and non-linear. Even though integrated product development has been the focus of a large number of research studies, these studies mostly focus on identifying success criteria and improving performance, while the requirements for implementing integrated product development remain under-researched. This study takes a more holistic project management perspective and identifies both the challenges and the requirements of successful implementation through an in-depth case study. It was found in a chosen case company that successful implementation requires awareness and skills of integrated product development in senior management, as well as a set of cross-organizational project governance structures.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Competencies required of project managers at the design phase of mass
           house building projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): D.K. Ahadzie , D.G. Proverbs , Isaac Sarkodie-Poku
      Contemporary management researchers argue that competency-based measures are the only viable means for refocusing project managers (PMs) on what it takes to achieve managerial excellence towards engendering their professional development in a modern competitive work environment. Subsequently, a study has identified the need to establish and match the competency profiles of PMs to the project lifecycle in Mass House Building projects (MHBPs), to help improve managerial performance on these projects from inception to completion. Drawing on the well acclaimed task-contextual organizational theory of job performance, 110 structured questionnaires containing design related behavioural competencies were delivered to Property Developers in Ghana to establish their consensus on what they consider to be the core competencies that PMs must possess at the design phase of MHBPs. The data was then subjected to multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) towards isolating the relevant competencies. The findings suggest that from the perspective of senior managers (specifically managing directors of housing development companies in Ghana), they expect PMs to possess the following competencies towards ensuring effective design management at the design phase of the lifecycle of MHBPs: job-knowledge of mass contract packaging; job knowledge of performance characteristics of materials for design of MHBPs; technical quality of strategies for managing the design process; job knowledge of thermal comfort assessment and provisions in the design of MHBPs and then job knowledge of relevant design codes, legislation and regulation for MHBPs. The paper provides an important empirical impetus to a foundation paper which has already established competencies for the construction phase of the lifecycle of MHBPs. It is therefore important that PMs focus their attention on these findings towards improving their managerial and professional development for effective design management of MHBPs.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Exploring the interactive effects of safety investments, safety culture
           and project hazard on safety performan An empirical analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yingbin Feng , Evelyn Ai Lin Teo , Florence Yean Yng Ling , Sui Pheng Low
      This study aims to explore the interactive effects of safety investments, safety culture and project hazard on construction safety performance. Data were collected using multiple techniques from 47 completed building projects in Singapore. Data were analyzed using correlation analysis, regression analysis, moderation analysis and mediation analysis. The results show that: (1) safety performance improves when there is a higher level of safety investments, a higher level of safety culture or a lower level of project hazard; (2) the effect of any individual factor on safety performance varies with the changes in other factors; (3) the effect of voluntary safety investments on safety performance is mediated by safety culture; and (4) the relationship between accident frequency rate and accident severity rate is moderated by project hazard level. The study suggests that safety performance of building projects is determined by the synergy effect of safety investments, safety culture and project hazard.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Rating defence major project success: The role of personal attributes and
           stakeholder relationships
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Alicia Mazur , Anne Pisarski , Artemis Chang , Neal M. Ashkanasy
      In this paper we develop and test a model of the associations between major project managers' personal attributes and project success in the context of the Australian Defence industry. In our model, emotional intelligence, cognitive flexibility and systemic thinking were hypothesised to relate to project success, mediated by internal and external stakeholder relationships. The model was tested in an online survey with 373 major project managers. Emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility were found to be related to the development, quality and effectiveness of major project managers' relationships with both internal and external stakeholders; and these in turn were associated with their ratings of project success. Systemic thinking, however, had no relationship with either stakeholder relationships or project success. Additional research is needed to examine the contribution of a wider range of personal attributes to stakeholder relationships and project success, and to assess whether this model is applicable in other industries and types of projects.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Toward a genealogy of project management: Sidewinder and the management of
           exploratory projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Sylvain Lenfle
      This paper deals with the management of exploratory projects, i.e. projects where neither the goals nor the means to attain them can be defined at the beginning. It relies on the historical case study of the Sidewinder Air-to-Air missile, designed by the US Navy between 1947 and 1957. The case is interesting because it violated all the best practices of PM, yet involved a short and cheap development process that resulted in a best-seller in missile history. This case thus helps to analyze the inner working of an understudied skunkworks (project-level) and to discuss the governance of exploratory projects (firm-level), more specifically the limits of Stage-Gate processes for radical innovations.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Theme: INBAM 2013: The fourth annual conference of the International
           Network of Business and Management Journals
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Rodney Turner



      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • From potential absorptive capacity to innovation outcomes in project
           teams: The conditional mediating role of the realized absorptive capacity
           in a relational learning context
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Antonio L. Leal-Rodríguez , José L. Roldán , José A. Ariza-Montes , Antonio Leal-Millán
      Starting from the construct absorptive capacity, this study separately treats its two dimensions – potential absorptive capacity (PACAP) and realized absorptive capacity (RACAP) – and analyzes their influence on innovation outcomes (IO) in project teams. We also examine potential absorptive capacity as an antecedent of realized absorptive capacity. In addition, we propose that relational learning (RL) will play a moderator role reinforcing the PACAP and RACAP link. Consequently, this paper builds and tests a conditional process model. Data was collected from a sample of 110 project managers of firms belonging to the Spanish automotive components manufacturing sector. Results from variance-based structural equation modeling and PROCESS tool show that RACAP fully mediates the influence of the PACAP on IO, and this indirect effect is positively conditioned by RL. This paper provides evidence that when RL achieves a low value, this indirect influence is not different from zero.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • The moderating effect of human resource management practices on the
           relationship between knowledge absorptive capacity and project performance
           in project-oriented companies
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 6
      Author(s): Sujinda Popaitoon , Sununta Siengthai
      In response to recent calls for research on human resource management (HRM) in project management, this research investigates the links between HRM practices, the project team's knowledge absorptive capacity (ACAP) and project performance in project-oriented companies (POCs). Based on survey data from 198 projects in multinational companies (MNCs) in the Thai automotive industry, this research finds that HRM practices moderate the effects of a project team's knowledge ACAP on project performance, in particular of potential ACAP on long-run project performance. In addition, HRM practices covary with a project team's realized ACAP, the other dimension of ACAP, to affect short-run project performance. This research sheds light on the different roles that HRM practices play in a project, finding that HRM practices not only facilitate knowledge management from the current project to future projects but also strengthen the relationship between a project team's knowledge ACAP and long-term project performance. This research contributes to the understanding of HRM in the literature of project management.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
  • Best papers from 2013 EURAM conference in Istanbul
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Christophe Midler



      PubDate: 2014-04-28T01:33:15Z
       
 
 
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