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Journal Cover   International Journal of Project Management
  [SJR: 1.092]   [H-I: 67]   [36 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-7863
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Stochastic earned value analysis using Monte Carlo simulation and
           statistical learning techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Fernando Acebes, María Pereda, David Poza, Javier Pajares, José Manuel Galán
      The aim of this paper is to describe a new integrated methodology for project control under uncertainty. This proposal is based on Earned Value Methodology and risk analysis and presents several refinements to previous methodologies. More specifically, the approach uses extensive Monte Carlo simulation to obtain information about the expected behavior of the project. This dataset is exploited in several ways using different statistical learning methodologies in a structured fashion. Initially, simulations are used to detect if project deviations are a consequence of the expected variability using Anomaly Detection algorithms. If the project follows this expected variability, probabilities of success in cost and time and expected cost and total duration of the project can be estimated using classification and regression approaches.


      PubDate: 2015-07-23T08:39:50Z
       
  • Damaged identities: Examining identity regulation and identity work of
           Gulf project managers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Michael Cowen, Damian Hodgson
      Research on the human side of project management is largely overshadowed by its technically focused counter-part. This results in a dangerous neglect of the impacts of a demanding project life and project managers' efforts to construct and sustain a valuable and valued identity at work. In this study of one Middle Eastern IT company, drawing on project management guides, company documents and interview responses from project managers, we examine the regulation of project manager identity using the lens of ‘identity work’. We show that intense identity work can be triggered from project life within a challenging environment, and identify various coping strategies employed by the managers interviewed. In some cases, however, we found that these pressures may lead to the project manager experiencing a temporarily “damaged” self-identity. We discuss the practical implications arising from our analysis for project management associations and organizations alike, and opportunities for future research.


      PubDate: 2015-07-19T04:14:41Z
       
  • Trust influencing factors in main contractor and subcontractor
           relationships during projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Emmanuel Manu , Nii Ankrah , Ezekiel Chinyio , David Proverbs
      Trust is crucial for achieving optimum benefits from supply chain integration and collaboration in the construction sector. Yet relationships between main contractors and subcontractors continue to be influenced by issues that promote vicious circles of distrust. This research investigates the trust influencing factors in main contractor–subcontractor relationships on projects. Empirical data was gathered from across four case studies through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations and document reviews, and analysed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed that the change management process, economic climate, payment practices, perceptions of future work opportunities, job performance and the project-specific context influence trustfulness and trustworthiness of the different parties. The findings also imply that stronger trust in the main contractor's supply chain can only be realised and sustained through promotion of trustworthiness-induced rather than benefit-induced trustfulness.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T09:01:00Z
       
  • When employees and external consultants work together on projects:
           Challenges of knowledge sharing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Torstein Nesheim , Håavard Mørch Hunskaar
      In project settings, personnel with different employment arrangements often work together and interact closely. Here, we study knowledge sharing when employees of the focal firm cooperate with external consultants. We differentiate between “in-group” (inside an employment category) and “out-group” (between employment categories) knowledge sharing and analyze the antecedents of knowledge sharing behavior. In an empirical study of 117 employees and external consultants, we find strong support for the main hypotheses: Internal employees tend to engage in more knowledge sharing than external consultants, in their relation to employees. Employees tend to engage in less knowledge sharing than external consultants, in their relation to external consultants. Trust in relation to a specific category of employment was also found to be statistically related to knowledge sharing behavior toward personnel in the category.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-09T09:01:00Z
       
  • Identifying and managing coordination complexity in global product
           development project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Qing Yang , Sonia Kherbachi , Yoo Suk Hong , Chen Shan
      The complexity of communication and coordination stemming from teams distributed across geographic locations and time zones is a fundamental feature of the global product development (GPD) project. The GPD project is also a complex web of interactions involving many overlapped activities and interdependent components. In order to manage coordination complexity, this paper presents a systematic method for identifying and measuring coordination drivers and coordination barriers in GPD projects. For characterizing coordination drivers, this paper builds quantitative models to measure dependency strengths related to product features and overlapped processes based on Multi-Domain Matrix (MDM) and Design Structure Matrix (DSM). For characterizing coordination barriers, the concepts of daily overlapping working hours ratio and relative spatial distance between GPD teams are presented for modeling dependency strengths related to temporal separation and spatial distance. Further, this paper proposes a new dependency rating scheme of organization DSM to evaluate the integrated coordinative dependency strength (ICDS). A two-stage clustering criteria minimizing the total coordination cost is used to reduce complexity of GPD organization. An industrial example is provided to illustrate the proposed models. Optimization results provide a more integrated managerial insight for evaluating ICDS and reducing total coordination cost.


      PubDate: 2015-07-09T09:01:00Z
       
  • Taking stock of project value creation: A structured literature review
           with future directions for research and practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Markus Laursen , Per Svejvig
      This paper aims to take stock of what we know about project value creation and to present future directions for research and practice. We performed an explorative and unstructured literature review, which was subsequently paired with a structured literature review. We join several research areas by adopting the project value creation perspective on literature relating to benefits, value, performance, and success in projects. Our review includes 111 contributions analyzed through both an inductive and deductive approach. We find that relevant literature dates back to the early 1980s, and the still developing value-centric view has been the subject of many publications in recent years. We contribute to research on project value creation through four directions for future research: rejuvenating value management through combining value, benefits, and costs; supplementing value creation with value capture; applying a holistic approach to project, portfolio, and strategic management; and theorizing by applying independent models and frameworks.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T09:58:40Z
       
  • Classification of articles and journals on project control and earned
           value management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Laura L. Willems , Mario Vanhoucke
      This paper presents an overview of the existing literature on project control and earned value management (EVM), aiming at fulfilling three ambitions. First, the journal selection procedure allows to discern between high-quality journals and more popular business magazines. Second, the collected papers on project control and EVM, published in the selected journals, are classified based on a framework consisting of six distinct classes. Third, the classification framework indicates current trends and potential areas for future research, which can be summarized as follows: (i) increased attention to the stochastic nature of projects, (ii) enhanced validation of the proposed methodology using a large historical dataset or a simulation experiment, (iii) expansion of integrated control models, focusing on time and cost as well as other factors such as quality and sustainability, and (iv) development and validation of corrective action procedures.


      PubDate: 2015-07-05T09:58:40Z
       
  • The impact of project management (PM) and benefits management (BM)
           practices on project success: Towards developing a project benefits
           governance framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Amgad Badewi
      Benefits management (BM) and project management (PM) are two interrelated approaches to the success of projects. The literature, however, still lacks empirical evidence of the value of applying BM practices. Hence, it is aimed to test the impact of BM practices on the success of investments in projects, taking into consideration the impact of PM practices on that success. Since the results, based on 200 valid responses, suggest that a significant proportion of organisations adopt PM and BM concurrently, SEM was used. PM practices were not only found to influence project management success but also to affect project investment success. However, BM is found to be less significant and to have less impact on project investment success. Nevertheless, the probability of project success is enhanced significantly when PM and BM practices are combined together. Therefore, a governance based framework is developed to uncover the interweaving relationship between the two practices.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:37:59Z
       
  • Complex project conceptualization and the linguistic turn; the case of a
           small Australian construction company
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Allen McKenna , Georges Baume
      Conceptualizing complex projects, especially in the face of powerful communities of conflicting stakeholders can be messy. Doing so requires some means of coordinating the different ideas of stakeholders. The pragmatic cultural ethics summarized in the Australian ‘mate-ship’ argues success requires opportunity be given to all. This pragmatic philosophy provides the solution by offering all stakeholders the opportunity to be heard. After briefly reviewing pragmatism, this paper draws on the work of McKenna and Metcalfe and the linguistic turn, published in an earlier version of the International Journal of Project Management. It explains how this method can be used to help project managers conceive projects made complex by powerful communities of conflicting stakeholders. It then uses an Australian based organizational change project as an example of its application. Idea mapping is used to categorize stakeholder statements, revealing underlying linguistic concepts. It is argued that this approach provides a practical, yet philosophical and scientifically sound means of conceptualizing complex projects, and one that takes genuine advantage of the experience and knowledge of a wide range of stakeholders.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:37:59Z
       
  • IPMA Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Helgi Thor Ingason



      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:37:59Z
       
  • Exploratory findings on the influence of physical distance on six
           competencies in an international project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Olivier Mesly
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of physical distance between offices located in different countries working on the same international project, within an exploratory scope rather than a confirmatory perspective. Qualitative and quantitative investigations were conducted that show that physical distance impacts six competencies of the international project under investigation, including ability to instill trust and to cooperate. However, this impact can be positive or negative depending on circumstances, as physical distance acts as a moderating variable most particularly between trust and cooperation. A ratio between control and transparency, two of the six competencies, appears to be in line with past research on the importance of ensuring sound management.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:37:59Z
       
  • Benefits management: Lost or found in translation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Richard Breese , Stephen Jenner , Carlos Eduardo Martins Serra , John Thorp
      It is now about 25years since the emergence of benefits management (BM), but hitherto it has had limited impact on project management and even less on general management practices. This is despite evidence that a focus on benefits improves the success rate of projects and programmes. One of the areas for research to explain the limited uptake concerns the spread of knowledge on BM and its adoption by organisations. The theoretical lens of translation is used to examine this issue, which focuses on the processes through which management ideas spread and influence management practice. The global development of BM is traced to identify the changes in translation processes over time and the current geographical patterns of usage. This analysis is used in conjunction with the limited evidence available on translation processes at the level of the organisation to identify key factors for the impact of BM in the future.


      PubDate: 2015-06-30T14:37:59Z
       
  • Evaluation of the excess revenue sharing ratio in PPP projects using
           principal–agent models
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yinglin Wang , Jicai Liu
      In PPP projects, a reasonable risk-sharing system determines whether project financing will be successful. It is often necessary for the host government to provide investors with certain guarantees that relieve some of the risk shouldered by the private parties in order to attract investment. For instance, a minimum revenue guarantee (MRG) supplied by the government reduces the market risk taken by the investor. Based on the principle that the benefits one receives should be fairly equal to the risks taken, governments have the right to share any excess revenue the investors gain equal to the difference between the actual revenue gained by the investors and the cap of the expected earnings. As a result, an excess revenue sharing ratio has to be determined. This paper integrates the fairness preference theory with the traditional principal–agent model in order to calculate optimal incentives when principals (governments) employ agents (investors) who have fairness preferences. This study shows that sharing ratio of the excess revenue is related to the fairness preferences and the effort cost coefficient of the investors. Furthermore, governments can obtain more expected revenue when hiring investors with higher fairness preferences.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Intuition in project management and missing links: Analyzing the
           predicating effects of environment and the mediating role of reflexivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Said Elbanna
      The role of an intuitive cognitive style in project planning may be more complex than prior studies have allowed for. Therefore, we used a model of the role of environment in intuition and the relationships between intuition, reflexivity, and project outcomes (measured as project success and speed of completion) in order to examine how environment influences intuition; and whether reflexivity mediates the link between intuition and project outcomes. Our field study incorporates responses from 450 managers representing 410 projects from firms located in the United Arab Emirates. The regression analysis suggests that competition uncertainty and environmental complexity are determinants of intuition; intuition promotes team reflexivity and this in turn enhances project outcomes. These results show that the intuitive approach in planning projects and team reflexivity are complementary foundations for improving different aspects of project performance and, therefore, that models of intuition in project management should incorporate the effects of reflexivity.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Call for papers: International Journal of Project Management Special issue
           “Managing Disaster Recovery Projects”
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yan Chang-Richards (Alice) , Randy Rapp , Suzanne Wilkinson , Jason von Meding , Richard Haigh



      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • The project manager cannot be a hero anymore! Understanding critical
           competencies in project-based organizations from a multilevel approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Sabrina Loufrani-Fedida , Stéphanie Missonier
      This paper focuses on improving the understanding of critical competencies in project-based organizations (PBOs) from a multilevel approach. To do so, we detail the types of “PBO competencies” (functional and integrative), and identify their links with the three levels of competencies in PBOs (individual, collective, and organizational). We perform case studies of four PBOs (IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Arkopharma, and Temex) operating in different sectors and reveal the relations that unite the three levels of critical competencies. The multilevel approach also highlights a new reading of the collective competence of a project team. Our study recommends that both practitioners and current academic researchers stop looking for the perfect, “ideal” project manager who would possess all of the necessary critical competencies for projects. Managers should consider sharing responsibility between the individual and organizational competencies and should not expect a project manager to possess all the required competencies.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Developing a framework for statistical process control approaches in
           project management
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Jeroen Colin , Mario Vanhoucke
      Different statistical process control (SPC) approaches were proposed over the years for project management using earned value management/earned schedule. A detailed examination of these approaches has led us to express a need for a unified framework in which to test and compare them. The main drivers for this need were the lack of a formal definition for a state of control, the unavailability of a benchmark dataset, the absence of measures to quantify the SPC performance and the lack of consensus on how to overcome and test the normality assumption. In this paper, we present such a framework that combines a classification from empirical data, a known project dataset, a sound simulation model and two quantitative measures for project control efficiency. Four SPC approaches from prior literature have been implemented and an exhaustive experiment was set up to compare and to discuss their value for the project management practice.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Key antecedents and practices for Supply Chain Management adoption in
           project contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Davide Aloini , Riccardo Dulmin , Valeria Mininno , Simone Ponticelli
      An adequate identification of antecedents is recognized as fundamental in order to set the basis for connecting the inter-organizational networks in a SCM perspective. This work aims to identify key antecedents of SCM in a project-based environment by using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM). This is firstly useful in order to highlight the relationships among the antecedents and to deduce priority for their achievement. The findings provide a hierarchical perspective of the 16 identified antecedents. In particular, three macro-classes of prerequisites were defined: cross-organizational cooperation, rules and procedures — accessibility, and super-ordinate goals. Moreover, results from a longitudinal and illustrative case study are also presented in order to compare the out-coming ISM model with evidence from a success case in the Yacht-building context so offering interesting insights about the implementation process. From a managerial perspective, the proposed model offers a conceptual path for SCM adoption, emphasizing most critical issues that have to be considered and organized in this complex and unpredictable setting.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Resource management process framework for dynamic NPD portfolios
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Rui Abrantes , José Figueiredo
      This paper presents empirical results from a research on how companies developing products reconfigure their resources (we refer to human resources) as changes continuously occur to their new product development (NPD) portfolios. Although resource scheduling and allocation methods have received a wide attention in academic literature, the systematic and holistic resource management processes that support the whole organization's portfolio are still not understood. We have adopted an action research approach and worked together with different project teams of a multi-national company. This research approach has allowed us to get close contact with the difficulties faced by its managers, imposed by the need to quickly respond to the frequent changes in a coordinated manner. This research contributes to an improved understanding of the context in which resource management decisions are made. For practitioners, this proposes a process framework for organizations to effectively manage their resources in the context of dynamic NPD portfolios.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Diagnosing organizational risks in software projects: Stakeholder
           resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Simon L.R. Vrhovec , Tomaž Hovelja , Damjan Vavpotič , Marjan Krisper
      Critical success and failure factors of software projects were extensively studied. However, software project risk management has rarely researched organizational risks even though most problems occur when the social aspects are not addressed. By employing the resistance to change theory, our paper develops an organizational risk diagnosing (ORD) framework in order to show how can organizational risks be better understood and managed. Organizational risk factors may have non-trivial underlying root causes. A failure to diagnose them may result in ineffective risk responses that address the symptoms. A case study of a loan application software project has been conducted in one of the biggest banks in South-Eastern Europe. An analysis of the risk management process in the studied case allows a better understanding of organizational risk management.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Persuasion and management support for IT projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Gloria H.W. Liu , Eric T.G. Wang , Cecil E.H. Chua
      This study assesses the effectiveness of an IT project team's direct persuasion behaviors in obtaining management support. The literature typically suggests that obtaining management support is critical for IT project success. The literature also generally prescribes cognition-based approaches to obtaining such support, ignoring the potential effect of emotion on influencing management. We employ organizational influence theory to identify direct persuasion strategies and posit that both cognitive involvement and emotional involvement mediate the effectiveness of influence strategies on management support. Our argument was tested on a survey of non-MIS managers who recently undertook large IT projects. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of two persuasion behaviors applied by the project team to obtain management support. Both persuasion behaviors encourage management support by increasing management's cognitive and emotional involvement in the project. We find that emotional involvement has a stronger effect than cognitive involvement on management support. Important implications for theory and practice are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Signs to dogma: A Heideggerian view of how artefacts distort the project
           world
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Bronte van der Hoorn , Stephen J. Whitty
      There are a variety of artefacts that are commonly associated with projects and their management. This article uses the Heideggerian concept of signs to disclose the elements of the “lived experience” of project work that are veiled or distorted by these artefacts. The exploration also identifies the elements of the dominant thinking of project management (dogma) that are referred to by these artefacts. The reason for this veiling and distortion is discussed with reference to the linguistics concept of veiled intention. A key implication of these findings is that effort is being expended on these artefacts which reinforce thinking that is not aligned with the “lived experience” of projects. It also indicates the relationship of the dominant project management dogma to the discipline’s artefacts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Recognizing excellence in project management research
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • When narcissism drives project champions: A review and research agenda
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jeffrey K. Pinto , Peerasit Patanakul
      Narcissism is a psychological state or personality disorder that is characterized by high self-regard and desire for personal aggrandizement. In an organization setting, narcissistic behavior of individuals can impact a number of operational initiatives, including new product development and other project ventures. As many projects in an organization receive sponsorship from key executives, the question must be considered: do narcissistic behaviors in project champions have any impact on the selection and governance of these projects? The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential impact on projects of narcissism in project champions. In particular, the impacts of narcissistic behavior on project choices and project governance were investigated. Propositions for future research are presented. Challenges and suggested methodologies for studying narcissism and championing behavior are also discussed. Finally, we offer an agenda for future research.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Construction safety personnel's perceptions of safety training practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Sevilay Demirkesen , David Arditi
      The effectiveness of safety training practices is an important part of safety management on a construction site. Safety professionals’ perceptions of the effectiveness of training practices in safety training sessions were sought in a survey administered to the top 400 contractors in the U.S. The study shows that contractors are sensitive to organizational, feedback, content, process, and worker issues. Whenever they encounter language problems, they use visual aids, and provide translators and safety guidelines written in workers’ own language. Very few statistically significant differences are observed when the findings are analyzed from the point of view of the demographic characteristics of the respondents. The contribution of this study is that it conveys the views of safety personnel about how safety learning can be achieved, sustained and improved by addressing organizational, feedback, content, process, and worker issues in training sessions. It provides project managers with best practices in safety training sessions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Overcoming resistance to change in engineering and construction: Change
           management factors for owner organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Brian C. Lines , Kenneth T. Sullivan , Jake B. Smithwick , Josh Mischung
      For owner organizations in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry, successful implementation of new processes for procuring, contracting, and managing requires a concerted change management effort. The objective of this study was to empirically measure the impact of individual change management factors on minimizing resistance from organizational members during implementation, which is often cited as a major reason for organizational change failure. Project team resistance to the implementation of a new project delivery system was tracked across sixteen owner organizations. Findings include identification of six change management factors that contribute to minimizing resistance to change, including certain aspects of project scope, size and duration, organizational expectations of change implementation speed, the establishment of formal change agents, and the level of change agent involvement with implementation activities. Implications for change leaders and practitioners are discussed to recommend strategies for reducing resistance to change.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • An alternative incomplete information bargaining model for identifying the
           reasonable concession period of a BOT project
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Haijun Bao , Yi Peng , Jose Humberto Ablanedo-Rosas , Hongman Gao
      Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) scheme has been widely advocated with increasing demand of public infrastructure in recent years. As a critical component of the BOT contract, identifying concession period has been emphasized by both researchers and practitioners. However, existing studies usually assume the availability of complete information for decision-making, which is unreasonable in real-life projects. Therefore, this study develops a model to identify the reasonable concession period of a BOT project by utilizing incomplete information bargaining analysis. The model provides more guidelines for decision-making under the constraints of incomplete information. A hypothetical case from existing studies is used to demonstrate the procedure of the model. The model provides an alternative tool for the government to design the concession period before BOT tendering, which would reduce relevant negotiations after bidding. Limitations and relevant future studies have also been discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Cross-country comparisons of key drivers, critical success factors and
           risk allocation for public-private partnership projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jui-Sheng Chou , Dinar Pramudawardhani
      Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are an effective and established strategy for procuring infrastructure. Although numerous countries have implemented PPPs for infrastructure development in recent years, not all projects have been successful. Most PPP failures result from inappropriate risk allocation and a lack of information on success factors in specific countries. For this study, we compared the categories of key drivers, critical success factors (CSFs), and preferred risk allocation in PPPs established in Taiwan, Singapore, China, the United Kingdom, and Indonesia. Mean value analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and dimensional importance were used to analyze and compare these categories. Data on PPPs in Taiwan, Singapore, China, and the United Kingdom were obtained through comprehensive literature reviews. Data for Indonesia were obtained through structured surveys distributed to PPP practitioners and academicians. Considering Indonesia as the baseline, the results revealed that Indonesia and Taiwan exhibit several similar indicators of key drivers. Furthermore, comparisons with several countries revealed that Indonesian CSFs are most similar to those of China. Regarding risk allocation preference, the analytical results indicated that Singapore exhibits the most similarity with Indonesia. This study provides useful information for people seeking to invest in PPP projects, enabling them to enhance their understanding of key drivers, CSFs, and risk allocation in the researched countries. Based on our findings, international investors can apply investment strategies by considering the similarities and differences in each country.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Exploring factors of preparing public engagement for large-scale
           development projects via a focus group study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jingyu Yu , Mei-yung Leung
      Public engagement (PE) is increasingly employed to gauge public opinions and obtain their support on large-scale planning and development projects. Despite its booming development, there is a lack of research on how to prepare PE activities. In order to explore the factors of preparing PE activities in the construction industry, four focus groups were conducted, each including different stakeholders (e.g., PE organizers, construction professionals, interest groups, and local residents). Seven critical factors for preparing PE were identified into 3 main dimensions: (1) social (e.g., governmental support and bottom-up consultation approaches); (2) project (e.g., project characteristics, PE program, and project information and publicity); and (3) stakeholder (e.g., stakeholder identification and representative sampling). Based on the results of focus groups, we propose several practical recommendations to stimulate active engagement and improve performance of PE activities, including developing PE guidelines, preparing project information with appropriate language and formatting, and establishing stakeholder identification methods.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Integration and governance of multiple project management offices (PMOs)
           at large organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Tamara Tsaturyan , Ralf Müller
      This paper addresses governance of PMOs as an integration of loosely-coupled multiple governance units in large project-based organizations. A four-dimensional framework of PMO governance, consisting of structural, procedural, relational and regulative dimensions, is conceptually developed. This concept is qualitatively tested through a case study at a large European bank, which uses a network of four different project management offices (PMOs). The analysis explores the formal and informal aspects of their integration. Results suggest a predominance of relational and regulative dimensions for integration of multiple-PMO governance structures, and propose variables for observation and analysis of integration efforts in PMO governance. Implications include increased understanding of networked governance of PMOs, as well as the development of associated governance dimensions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Opening the black box of project management: Does World Bank project
           supervision influence project impact?
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Lavagnon A. Ika
      While the World Bank supervises projects, we do not know if this supervision influences project impact. Taking a managerial lens and, hence, moving away from a micro-economic lens, this research shifts the focus from how much effort is spent on project supervision to what makes it successful. Thus, the research looks inside the “black box” of project supervision and specifically examines the perceptions of World Bank project supervisors. Based on a sample of 178 projects and using structural equation modeling, we show that project supervision's critical success factors (CSFs) include design, monitoring, coordination, and training but by far design and monitoring are the prominent ones. Moreover, we find that project supervision positively influences project management success, but may not influence project impact. Since supervision pays off as it can lead to better project implementation performance, the World Bank should focus more on project planning, context and governance to achieve impact.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Evaluating the level of stakeholder involvement during the project
           planning processes of building projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Amirhossein Heravi , Vaughan Coffey , Bambang Trigunarsyah
      The purpose of this study is to examine the current level of stakeholder involvement during the project's planning process. Stakeholders often provide the needed resources and have the ability to control the interaction and resource flows in the network. They also ultimately have strong impact on an organisation's survival, and therefore appropriate management and involvement of key stakeholders should be an important part of any project management plan. A series of literature reviews was conducted to identify and categorise significant phases involved in the planning. For data collection, a questionnaire survey was designed and distributed amongst nearly 200 companies who were involved in the residential building sector in Australia. Results of the analysis demonstrate the engagement levels of the four stakeholder groups involved in the planning process and establish a basis for further stakeholder involvement improvement.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • The effects of project characteristics on adopting relational transaction
           strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Yan Ning , Florence Yean Yng Ling
      The objective of this study is to investigate whether project complicatedness and the chances of recurring exchanges influence the adoption of relational transactions in public construction projects. A structured questionnaire was administrated in Singapore. The Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyze the data. The statistical results show that: (1) the level of project complicatedness has a positive correlation with the preservation of relationships, cooperation between contracting parties and procedural flexibility; and (2) the chances of recurring exchanges are positively correlated with harmonization between contracting parties, cooperation between contracting parties and procedural flexibility. The quantitative results were complemented by qualitative evidence from eight in-depth interviews, which validated that both the level of project complicatedness and the chances of recurring exchanges have influence on the adoption of relational transaction practices. This study contributes to knowledge by presenting empirically that project characteristics influence the adoption of relational transactions.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Playing projects: Identifying flow in the ‘lived experience’
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Bronte van der Hoorn
      The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ‘lived experience’ of projects discourse. The research study uses an arts-based research method (musical improvisation on a xylophone and/or glockenspiel) to access the participant's perception of their experience of managing a project. Participants are then asked to explain their improvisation and therefore their experience. Key findings were that participants described their ‘lived experience’ of project managing as having ‘ups and downs’, including challenges and issues, and as experiencing variations in emotions over the project lifecycle. Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory is used to show that these ‘lived experience’ findings support a Heideggerian paradigm and personal perspective of what a project is. Projectness is not a characteristic of the activity itself. A project is a personal phenomenon defined in terms of the relationship between the individual or organisation and activity. It is dependent on capability versus the challenge presented by the activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Managing collaborative research projects: A synthesis of project
           management literature and directives for future research
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jan vom Brocke , Sonia Lippe
      Collaborative research projects have emerged as a particular form of academia–industry interaction. Over the past ten to fifteen years they have received increasing attention in the project portfolio of public and private organisations as well as in the project management literature. They present specific challenges, demanding of adaptations and adjustments to existing project management approaches. By means of a systematic literature review we provide a comprehensive list of the main challenges associated with these projects, as well as the guidelines, tools & techniques, and conceptual results that have been proposed to overcome them. The findings are synthesised into three main paradoxes, four general management strategies, and two main research streams. Against this background, we propose directives for future research that serve to improve the transfer of scientific knowledge into practice.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Does Agile work? — A quantitative analysis of agile project
           success
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Pedro Serrador , Jeffrey K. Pinto
      The Agile project management methodology has been widely used in recent years as a means to counter the dangers of traditional, front-end planning methods that often lead to downstream development pathologies. Although numerous authors have pointed to the advantages of Agile, with its emphasis on individuals and interactions over processes, customer collaboration over contracts and formal negotiations, and responsiveness over rigid planning, there are, to date, very few large-scale, empirical studies to support the contention that Agile methods can improve the likelihood of project success. Developed originally for software development, it is still predominantly an IT phenomenon. But due to its success it has now spread to non-IT projects. Using a data sample of 1002 projects across multiple industries and countries, we tested the effect of Agile use in organizations on two dimensions of project success: efficiency and overall stakeholder satisfaction against organizational goals. We further examined the moderating effects of variables such as perceived quality of the vision/goals of the project, project complexity, and project team experience. Our findings suggest that Agile methods do have a positive impact on both dimensions of project success. Further, the quality of the vision/goals is a marginally significant moderator of this effect. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Improving and embedding project management practice in organisations
           — A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Gabriela Fernandes , Stephen Ward , Madalena Araújo
      This paper describes the results of a qualitative study to develop a framework to help organisations to embed useful project management improvement initiatives (PMIIs), which specifically aimed to identify key PMIIs and key embedding factors, based upon the circumstances encountered in different organisations. While the literature on PM provides some advice about PMIIs, understanding how to facilitate their embedment appears to be limited. However, research reported in the innovation literature provides a useful preliminary set of salient factors. A first attempt at framework conceptualisation based on a literature review was used as a starting point for exploratory empirical research. A series of thirty semi-structured interviews with PM professionals sought to identify additional PMIIs and embedding factors and check its salience. Analysis of the interviews data led to a framework comprising key 15 PMIIs and 26 key embedding factors, grouped into four improving themes and six embedding themes.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Barriers against effective responses to early warning signs in projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Sara Haji-Kazemi , Bjørn Andersen , Ole Jonny Klakegg
      It is a major challenge for project organizations to react sufficiently quickly to the identified early warning signs of project problems in order to avoid the occurrence of those problems. This article investigates project and project organization specifications that influence the effectiveness of responses to early warning signs in projects. Based on a survey of Norwegian project managers or leaders' approaches to responding to such signs, this study reveals that there are specific barriers to their ability to respond to identified early warning signs. Barriers may develop due to organizational factors, such as project managers' optimism bias, the normalization of deviance within an organization, and the lack of an outside view. They can also develop due to projects' complexity. The authors elaborate on Ansoff's management model by clarifying the mentality filter in order to better define the procedure whereby obstructions are created.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Key attributes of effectiveness in managing project portfolio
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Peerasit Patanakul
      While project portfolio management (PPM) has been practiced, the understanding of PPM effectiveness is still limited. The lack of such an understanding has practitioners continuing with a PPM approach that has not been measured as to its effectiveness and impact on business results. To promote a better understanding of PPM effectiveness, this study investigates PPM practices in real-life business settings to identify key attributes of PPM effectiveness. As a result, six attributes of PPM effectiveness were identified. The strategic attributes are 1) strategic alignment, 2) adaptability to internal and external changes, and 3) the expected value of the portfolio. The operational attributes are 1) project visibility, 2) transparency in portfolio decision making, and 3) predictability of project delivery. Based on these attributes, a definition of PPM effectiveness was purposed. This paper concludes with contributions and implications, including limitations and agenda for future research.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Bridging BIM and building: From a literature review to an integrated
           conceptual framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ke Chen , Weisheng Lu , Yi Peng , Steve Rowlinson , George Q. Huang
      A Building Information Model (BIM) is at risk of being ‘blind and deaf’ if its contained information cannot be synchronized with ongoing building processes in a real-time manner. Previous studies have attempted to explore solutions to the problem, with a view to making BIM a more useful decision-support system. However, an integrated conceptual framework summarizing these studies and structuring future development in the area is missing. Based on an ex post facto critical review of 75 papers of this kind published over the past decade, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for bridging BIM and building (BBB), which highlights the importance of synchronizing information between BIM and real-life building processes. The framework is further illustrated through a case study of prefabricated housing construction in Hong Kong. With this integrated conceptual framework, future research on BBB can proceed on a more solid footing.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Choosing your words carefully: Leaders' narratives of complex emergent
           problem resolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Liselore A. Havermans , Anne Keegan , Deanne N. Den Hartog
      As leaders, project and program managers use language as a vital tool in shaping their projects and programs. The ways in which leaders frame issues through their use of language impacts on how these issues are approached and resolved by members of the project team. In this study we explore the narratives of project and program managers in complex emergent problem resolution. We analyze interview data to show the storylines leaders construct regarding which groups are more or less important and the tensions between these groups, whether they frame the impact of outsiders as positive or negative, and how they portray the role of conflicting perspectives in problem resolution. We discuss the practical implications arising from our analysis of leadership narratives in the management of projects, the limitations of the current study and opportunities for future research.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Performance measurement and the prediction of capital project failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Hong Long Chen
      This paper examines how changes in project-management performance in the execution phase affect project outcomes at completion. While identifying the key determinants of project-management performance is critical, few studies examine the discriminatory power of performance variables for predicting capital project failure at completion. Using 130 capital projects and a longitudinal design, this study develops a performance-measurement model based on changes in project-management performance during the execution phase. Subsequent hierarchical logistic-regression analysis reveals a good explanation of the variation in the failure of capital projects and high classification accuracy. Validating out-of-sample data demonstrates that the optimal model provides a reasonably good overall classification rate of 81.54%. Ultimately, our findings suggest that performance changes in the execution phase explain an important part of project outcomes and, more importantly, are useful predictors for project failure.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Relationships between a project management methodology and project success
           in different project governance contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Robert Joslin , Ralf Müller
      This study looks at the relationship between the use of a project management methodology (PMM) and project success, and the impact of project governance context on this relationship. A cross-sectional, world-wide, online survey yielded 254 responses. Analysis was done through factor analysis and moderated hierarchical regression analysis. The results of the study show that the application of a PMM account for 22.3% of the variation in project success, and PMMs that are considered sufficiently comprehensive to manage the project lead to higher levels of project success than PMMs that need to be supplemented for use by the project manager. Project governance acts as a quasi-moderator in this relationship. The findings should benefit project management practitioners by providing insights into the choice of PMM in different governance contexts. Academics should benefit from insights into PMMs' role as a success factors in projects.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Quantifying the complexity of transportation projects using the fuzzy
           analytic hierarchy process
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): An T. Nguyen , Long D. Nguyen , Long Le-Hoai , Chau N. Dang
      Transportation projects are increasingly complex. A systematic approach for measuring and evaluating complexity in transportation projects is imperative. Thirty six project complexity factors were identified specifically for transportation construction. Using factor analysis, this study deduced the six components of project complexity, namely sociopolitical, environmental, organizational, infrastructural, technological, and scope complexity. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP) method was employed to determine the weights of the components and parameters of project complexity. Sociopolitical complexity was the most defining component of complexity in transportation construction. A complexity level (CL) was proposed to measure the overall project complexity. The application of the proposed approach was demonstrated in a case study of three transportation projects performed by a heavy construction company. As a quantitative measure CL enables managers to better anticipate potential difficulties in complex transportation projects. As a result, scarce resources will be allocated efficiently among transportation projects in a company’s portfolio.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Review of studies on the Critical Success Factors for Public–Private
           Partnership (PPP) projects from 1990 to 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Robert Osei-Kyei , Albert P.C. Chan
      The Critical Success Factors for Public–Private Partnership is a major research interest worldwide therefore this paper aims to methodically review studies on the CSFs for implementing PPP from some selected top tier academic journals from 1990 to 2013 (years inclusive). The search results indicated an increased research interest in the exploration of PPP CSFs since 1990. The mostly identified CSFs are risk allocation and sharing, strong private consortium, political support, community/public support and transparent procurement. It was further noticed that Australia, the U.K., China and Hong Kong have been the countries of focus for most research studies on PPP CSFs. Finally the research approaches adopted are case study, questionnaire survey and mixed methods. The findings revealed provide an overview of CSFs for PPPs in order to enhance future implementations. Moreover a checklist of CSFs for PPPs has been developed, which could be adopted for further empirical studies.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Relational factors in owner–contractor collaboration: The mediating
           role of teamworking
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): Mohammad Suprapto , Hans L.M. Bakker , Herman G. Mooi
      We hypothesized that teamworking quality, defined as an inter-team collaborative process, is the mediator that links the efficacy of three antecedents—relational attitudes (relational norms and senior management commitment), collaborative practices (team integration and joint working procedures), and teams' joint capability (the project team's overall competence and experience)—in improving project performance (efficiency, effectiveness, perceived satisfaction, perceived success). Using a sample of 113 capital projects, we applied partial least squares structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results confirm that the three antecedents indirectly influence project performance through teamworking quality. There is no empirical evidence that these antecedents directly influence project performance: relational attitudes, teams' joint capability, and collaboration practices do not automatically lead to a successful collaboration without day-to-day managerial intervention in teamworking processes. We also found that the parties' expectations regarding continuing relationships, as a consequence of good project performance, are directly affected by relational attitudes.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Implementing systems thinking to manage risk in public private partnership
           projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 6
      Author(s): M. Loosemore , E. Cheung
      The complexity of public private partnership (PPP) projects ensures that risks can arise and spread in unpredictable and sometimes catastrophic ways. Systems thinking is often proposed as a potential solution to this problem but has not been widely adopted in practice. To explore the reasons for this, interviews were conducted with sixteen senior construction professionals with experience of PPPs. The results show that the main barriers to the adoption of systems thinking are: conflicts of interest within PPP projects; confrontational contracts; resistance to change; lack of time and resources; perceptions of complexity; unknown legal implications of sharing risk; and external validation of existing risk management practices. It is concluded that in moving to a systems thinking approach, deeply imbedded ontologies, path dependencies, confrontational practices, and traditional linear and reductionist risk management practices will need to be challenged. Five key questions are also proposed for future research in this area.


      PubDate: 2015-06-25T10:43:11Z
       
  • Risk-bearing capacity as a new dimension to the analysis of project
           governance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Chen-Yu Chang
      Project governance has been recognized as a critical factor to the success of project delivery in practice. Accordingly, this research aims to demonstrate that the notion of risk-bearing capacity (RBC) can be drawn upon as a new dimension to the analysis and design of project governance. An effort is made to link this concept with the definitions of governance employed within the literature of transaction cost economics and corporate governance. The RBC approach distinguishes itself from extant views of project governance through its ability to quantitatively integrate organizational (e.g., delivery system), contractual (e.g., risk-sharing ratio) and financial (e.g., insurance cover) measures. This novel approach provides an avenue for incorporating the project's historical construction and operating data into the design of project governance; an advantage with the potential to exponentially increase as a torrent of digital data is made available through the deployment of emergent information technologies (e.g. building information modelling).


      PubDate: 2015-05-13T19:26:25Z
       
 
 
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