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Journal Cover International Journal of Project Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-7863
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Relationship between the interactive use of control systems and the
           project performance: The moderating effect of uncertainty and equivocality
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ouafa Sakka, Henri Barki, Louise Côté
      Information system development (ISD) projects are knowledge-intensive settings that involve varying levels of uncertainty and equivocality. The objective of the present paper is to better understand how project managers can enhance ISD project performance by adapting their level of interactive use of a project's control system (PCS) to the project's uncertainty and equivocality. While interactive use of PCS can enable project managers to personally engage themselves in the project team members' work by regularly discussing project feedback information in face-to-face meetings, it can also be costly in terms of the time and attention it requires from project participants. These relationships were examined via PLS and Fisher test analyses of survey data collected on 93 ISD projects. The results indicated that PCS interactive use enhanced performance when project uncertainty and equivocality were high, but deteriorated it when they were low.


      PubDate: 2016-01-31T12:59:52Z
       
  • Selection and use of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in construction
           projects — Past and future research
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Chia Kuang Lee, Tak Wing Yiu, Sai On Cheung
      Research on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) selection and use has been gaining prevalent interest from project practitioners and researchers. This study presents a systematic review of the factors influencing ADR selection and use in construction projects for the last 32years. A total of 446 articles from 21 construction project-related journals were identified and reviewed. Among these, only 13 articles focused on the factors influencing ADR selection and use. These 13 articles were then analysed, synthesized, and summarized in terms of the research methods used, distribution across countries and citation influences. The studies on the selection and use of ADR were mainly based on utility. Utility factors offer less conceptual basis to explain decision making. To address this deficiency, this study reclassified ADR selection and use with reference to Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) based framework. The potential development and research avenues of using the TPB framework were also discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-01-16T00:08:11Z
       
  • A method to measure success dimensions relating to individual stakeholder
           groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Kate Davis
      A new method to measure and identify project success dimensions meriting further investigation is detailed. It considers the conceptualization, diagnosis and understanding of these dimensions to judge the success or failure of a project. The method used an inductive thematic analysis to reveal two major themes: one related to the multiple stakeholders involved in a project and the other to project structure. Further analysis showed three new success dimensions linked directly to the perception of project success: benefit to the stakeholder group, client/customer specific issues and time/cost/quality. Inclusion of these dimensions to measure project success has the potential to allow all stakeholder groups to share the same perception of project success.


      PubDate: 2016-01-16T00:08:11Z
       
  • A major infrastructure risk-assessment framework: Application to a
           cross-sea route project in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Tao Wang, Shuo Wang, Limao Zhang, Zhiye Huang, Yulong Li
      This paper proposes a major infrastructure risk assessment framework (MIRAF) based on an adapted Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) risk assessment model, and applies it to a cross-sea route project that is expected to connect Guangdong Province and Hainan Island. Two alternative schemes for the cross-sea route namely the tunnel scheme and the bridge scheme, are compared in terms of risks during their different project time spans. Results indicate that the risk of the bridge scheme is larger than that of the tunnel scheme, and that the risk will increase over time. Several risk factors, including damage to commercial interests of local fishermen, damage to habitat for rare and endangered animals, financial crisis and sea storm surge, are identified as significant factors during the implementation of the tunnel scheme. This approach can be used as a decision tool to identify, analyze and assess the risks existing in the major infrastructure projects.


      PubDate: 2016-01-16T00:08:11Z
       
  • The impact of organizational project benefits management governance on ERP
           project success: Neo-institutional theory perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Amgad Badewi, Essam Shehab
      The success of ERP has been discussed extensively throughout the last decade. However, this research offers a new lens for understanding this success through combining project management theory with institutional theory. Based on neo-institutional theory, it is proposed that the more the Project Management (PM) and Benefits Management (BM) are used as practice and governance frameworks in an organization, the more it is able to use them in ERP projects since they become part of its institutional logic in managing its projects. Therefore, ERP investment success is hypothesized to be associated with the organization's project and benefits management institutional logics. After analyzing 130 questionnaires using Structural Equation Modeling, it is found that these hypotheses are supported. Furthermore, the organizations that have both logics outperform others which have not. This research implies that project management is not responsible for the project investment success. This is the responsibility of business change management.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • “Evaluating performance of public sector projects in Russia: The
           choice of a social discount rate”
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Tatiana Kossova, Maria Sheluntcova
      Public sector project management in Russia is inefficiently carried out. One reason for this is an absence of generally accepted procedures for evaluating the performance of projects. In the framework of evaluating performance, there is the issue of evaluating the rate for discounting the anticipated benefits and costs of public projects to the present moment. This paper contains a methodology for estimating the social discount rate for cost–benefit analysis in various economic industries in Russia. We apply two approaches – social rate of time preferences and social opportunity cost of capital – and propose a methodology for projects related to any industry. We present examples of estimating the social discount rate for healthcare, education, social services, and infrastructure projects. Our results are useful when both the government and private firms are able to solve the same social problems. The findings are applicable for any country with unequal development of various economic industries.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • International journal of project management special issue on
           “project benefit management”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Ofer Zwikael



      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • Complexity, uncertainty-reduction strategies, and project performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Serghei Floricel, John L. Michela, Sorin Piperca
      This paper investigates how complexity influences projects and their performance. We develop a classification of project complexity by relying on fundamental theoretical insights about complexity and then use results from practice-oriented literature to assign concrete project complexity factors to the resulting categories. We also identify specific strategies for organizing and knowledge production that project planners use to address complexity-related uncertainties. We theorize about the way these strategies interact with various types of complexity to increase project performance. Anticipated influences are mostly corroborated using survey data on 81 complex projects from five continents and a diversity of sectors.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • Barriers to the use of an IT Project Management Methodology in a large
           financial institution
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Marco Alexandre Terlizzi, Fernando de Souza Meirelles, Heverton Roberto Oliveira Cesar de Moraes
      The global financial crisis of 2008 demanded greater control mechanisms from the financial service industry. The IT Project Management Methodology (PMM) is considered an important control mechanism for IT governance to support managers in achieving more predictable rates of project management success (PMS). The aim of this study is to further investigate how an implemented IT PMM that contributes to PMS is used in a large Brazilian financial institution. A case study was conducted on one of the largest financial institutions in the world that is located in Brazil by means of interviews, analysis of a database of 3047 IT projects and a survey of 347 IT professionals. The study showed that, despite the belief of 90% of the IT professionals that the use of an IT PMM improves PMS rates, there are five main barriers that prevent its proper use: very tight project deadlines; working as both a developer and a project manager; working simultaneously on several projects; difficulty using the project management software; and a lack of knowledge of the PMM. Finally, an action plan to solve these issues is presented.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • What impacts the performance of large-scale government projects?
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Peerasit Patanakul, Young Hoon Kwak, Ofer Zwikael, Min Liu
      Government projects and programs contribute to national growth at a great magnitude. However, records show that they are not well managed, even when project teams follow established project management principles. As a result, this study aimed at identifying key characteristics of government projects and programs, and recommending how they can be used to improve performance. This paper analyzed 39 public projects undertaken in the U.S., UK, and Australia and reviewed officially by the national audit offices and government agencies, including the Los Angeles Metro, London Heathrow's Terminal 5, and the fatal Australia's Homeowner Insulation Program. Based on this analysis the paper suggests six key characteristics, 17 practical recommendations, and six research propositions. These findings can support government project managers to utilize project management approaches according to project characteristics. This paper can support policy makers and government officials in improving the approaches for the management of government projects and programs


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • Unpacking the impact of attachment to project teams on boundary-spanning
           behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sujin Lee, Sukanlaya Sawang
      As business environments become even more competitive, project teams are required to make an effort to operate external linkages from within an organization or across organizational boundaries. Nevertheless, some members boundary-span less extensively, isolating themselves and their project teams from external environments. Our study examines why some members boundary-span more or less through the framework of group attachment theory. Data from 521 project team members in construction and engineering industries revealed that the more individuals worry about their project team's acceptance (group attachment anxiety), the more likely they are to perceive intergroup competition, and thus put more efforts into operating external linkages and resources to help their own teams outperform competitors. In contrast, a tendency to distrust their project teams (group attachment avoidance) generates members' negative construal of their team's external image, and thus fewer efforts are made at operating external linkages. Thus, project leaders and members with high group attachment anxiety may be best qualified for external tasks.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • How to apply the Systemic Lessons Learned Knowledge model to wire an
           organisation for the capability of storytelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Stephen Duffield, Stephen J. Whitty
      This study is an application of the Systemic Lessons Learned Knowledge (Syllk) model that enables management to conceptualise how organisational know-how for storytelling is wired (distributed) across various elements of an organisation. The research method consisted of action research cycles within a large division of a government organisation. Storytelling interventions and initiatives were implemented with two action research cycles completed. Actions and changes were observed, monitored, evaluated, and reflected on using an after action review process. This study has established that the alignment of the people and system elements (learning, culture, social, technology, process and infrastructure) can positively influence an organisation's capability for storytelling, and therefore learn lessons from stories of past project experiences.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • Development of performance metrics for phase-based capital project
           benchmarking
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Sungmin Yun, Jiyong Choi, Daniel P. de Oliveira, Stephen P. Mulva
      Despite various research efforts focusing on the development of an effective measurement system, most project performance metrics were designed for post evaluation of processes and practices after project completion. This paper presents performance metrics tailored to phase-based benchmarking, which can be utilized as both leading and lagging indicators. Built upon industry experts' input and an extensive review of existing metrics, a framework for performance metrics was developed to evaluate performance outcomes for five major phases; front end planning/programming, design/engineering, procurement, construction, and startup/commissioning. Within this framework, phase-wise and phase-specific metrics were created under the categories of cost, schedule, efficiency, staffing, procurement, and safety performance. The results show that the framework and metrics are effective for the evaluation of project performance throughout capital project delivery. By employing the benchmarking process during the course of the project, industry practitioners can improve project performance and develop proactive strategies for subsequent phases.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • When traditional information technology project managers encounter the
           cloud: Opportunities and dilemmas in the transition to cloud services
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 3
      Author(s): Chen Wang, Lincoln C. Wood, Hamzah Abdul-Rahman, Yit Teng Lee
      Cloud computing has rapidly changed the conventional way information technology (IT) products and services are delivered. This study aims to identify the opportunities and dilemmas IT project managers are encountering in managing cloud projects, and to develop a system dynamics model to capture the complexity of cloud adoption. A questionnaire survey was conducted among IT project managers and data were analyzed via T-Tests, ANOVA, and principal component analysis. The identified opportunities and dilemmas in adopting cloud services formed the elements in the system dynamics model. Findings revealed incorporating cloud services in IT projects could shorten project timeline, optimize project scope, and reduce project cost. However, project managers also expressed concern about data privacy, security, IT governance, and local regulation when moving services to the cloud. Incorporation of proper change management plan and detailed risk management plan are required to identify the privacy and regulatory concerns.


      PubDate: 2016-01-10T13:45:06Z
       
  • Explicating the dynamics of project capabilities
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Andrew Davies, Tim Brady
      This article provides a foundation to guide future research on project capabilities based on three main contributions. First, drawing upon research on dynamic capabilities and organisational ambidexterity, we suggest that innovative and routine dimensions of project capabilities are developed and mobilised to deal with the variety of exploratory and exploitative conditions facing an organisation. Second, we distinguish between project capabilities at the operational and dynamic capabilities at the strategic levels, arguing that firms depend on identifiable dynamic capabilities (e.g. portfolio management techniques) to know when and how to maintain current project capabilities and when to modify or replace them depending on the conditions encountered. Third, we suggest that the relationship between dynamic and project capabilities is reciprocal, recursive and mutually reinforcing. In this reciprocal relationship, the emergence of new or declining project capabilities provides indications for the strategic priorities, behaviours and future deployment of an organisation's dynamic capabilities.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Reflections
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Peter W.G. Morris
      This paper reflects on the other papers published in this Festschrift for Peter Morris. It does so from Peter’s personal perspectives on the discipline of managing projects. It begins by discussing the role of scholarship in shaping the discipline. It emphasizes the importance of the front-end and relates this to the semantic difficulties associated with the term 'project'. The centrality of people and culture in general is noted. Types of knowledge and learning are discussed especially with regard to professionalism. Governance and the value of the owner’s role are noted. The developing impact of ICT, Operations and Agile are discussed. The benefits of a historical perspective on the discipline are proposed and prospects for the future are outlined, particularly with regard to climate change.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • The unsettling of “settled science:” The past and future of
           the management of projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jeffrey K. Pinto, Graham Winch
      As part of the development of his Management of Projects (MoP) perspective, Peter Morris identified a broader, more comprehensive understanding of the principal project management activities and interfaces required for project success. In advancing the MoP framework, Morris offered a wide-ranging critique of the philosophy behind PMI's execution-based model, as developed through their body of knowledge (PMBoK). This paper addresses some of the streams of research that have been influenced by the MoP perspective and how they have “unsettled” research focused on tools and techniques, and normative best practice which we dub the “settled science” of project management. We suggest that it is time to reconsider these research streams in light of Morris' MoP framework, identifying some of the key areas that future research can pursue in reassessing what we think we know about project-based research and key project interfaces.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Understanding the professional project manager: Cosmopolitans, locals and
           identity work
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Damian E. Hodgson, Steve Paton
      An abiding concern and mission in the work of Peter Morris over many years has been to develop project management as a profession, with particular concern to bridge the rift between abstract theory and practice (cf. Morris 2006; 2011; 2013). That this is necessary reflects project management's status as a new ‘expert occupation’ (Reed, 1996), built primarily upon a specific set of competencies seen as applicable to a range of activities across industries. As the field has grown, project management practice has been increasingly standardised as practitioners have been ‘credentialised’ with a standard set of competencies, while being employed in an increasingly diverse variety of workplaces. As a result, many project managers rely upon both local ‘familiarity’ and domain knowledge of company and industry, and at the same time a formal global ‘competence’ in the practice of project management. In this paper, we seek to explore this duality, examining how project managers rely in part on the authority and expertise of the profession and in part upon technical expertise and industry/organisational experience to perform their role, and how these two are reconciled. Drawing on thirty nine semi-structured interviews in an industry where project management is established and ‘mature’, we adopt Gouldner's (1958) cosmopolitan and local typologies to understand how project managers orientate themselves in relation to the two main institutions that dominate their employment. It further indicates that this binary distinction is complicated by a number of contradictions which project managers must make sense of in construction of a valid identity. Some project managers draw heavily on the cosmopolitan discourse, others draw on the localist discourse, but the majority seek to articulate positions which integrate both. In constructing the intermediate orientations project managers are implicitly challenging the utility of the concept of portable bodies of knowledge and universal methodologies. This questions the strategy of professionalism for this occupation and indeed opens a wider debate about the efficacy of new ‘corporate professionalism'. Further this research implies that both professional bodies and employers need to understand how to navigate these discourses. This reveals dual challenges. For the professions the challenge is to convince locals to become cosmopolitans by adopting the trappings of professionalism but without contesting too far the sovereignty of the corporation as employer. For corporations, the challenge is to capture the broad expertise of the cosmopolitan without compromising their affiliation to their employer. Ironically both institutions are complicit, often working together to meet different ends. Finally this research suggests that project management is rich in identity work and that this may provide an important lens to analyse the ongoing evolution of the wider management professions, specifically in relation to the compromises that professionalism brings to this particular form of expert labour.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Institutional development, divergence and change in the discipline of
           project management
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mike Bresnen
      Inspired by Peter Morris's major contribution to the field of project management, this paper takes up some of the challenges facing the development of the discipline of project management which are so eloquently articulated in Reconstructing Project Management (2013). Drawing upon insights from theory and research on communities of practice, forms of knowledge production, processes of structuration and institutionalisation, it highlights the diversity and complexity in the field of project management practice, theory and research and harnesses these ideas to highlight the opportunities and tensions this diversity creates. In considering the implications for the institutionalisation of project management as a professional body of knowledge and academic discipline, the argument is developed that there is not only great value to be gained by pursuing these lines of enquiry further, but also that there it is important to acknowledge diversity within the field and encourage criticality in perspective.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Managing change in the delivery of complex projects: Configuration
           management, asset information and ‘big data’
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jennifer Whyte, Angelos Stasis, Carmel Lindkvist
      As we enter an era of ‘big data’, asset information is becoming a deliverable of complex projects. Prior research suggests digital technologies enable rapid, flexible forms of project organizing. This research analyses practices of managing change in Airbus, CERN and Crossrail, through desk-based review, interviews, visits and a cross-case workshop. These organizations deliver complex projects, rely on digital technologies to manage large data-sets; and use configuration management, a systems engineering approach with mid-20th century origins, to establish and maintain integrity. In them, configuration management has become more, rather than less, important. Asset information is structured, with change managed through digital systems, using relatively hierarchical, asynchronous and sequential processes. The paper contributes by uncovering limits to flexibility in complex projects where integrity is important. Challenges of managing change are discussed, considering the evolving nature of configuration management; potential use of analytics on complex projects; and implications for research and practice.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Owner project capabilities for infrastructure development: A review and
           development of the “strong owner” concept
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Graham Winch, Roine Leiringer
      Research on the management of major projects is one of the main themes of Peter Morris' work. We address this theme in the context of transportation infrastructure projects and focus in particular on the contribution of the “strong owner” to project performance. After defining the strong owner concept, we will suggest that the theoretical literature on dynamic capabilities can be the source of deeper insight into the strong owner and will thereby develop the concept of owner project capabilities. The paper will then present a framework generated from a review of the existing literature complemented by pilot empirical research which provides the basis for a research agenda on the role of the owner of the infrastructure assets in achieving high performance on transportation infrastructure projects. In discussion, the paper suggests that the framework developed is applicable to a wider variety of major projects and programmes.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • From the front end of projects to the back end of operations: Managing
           projects for value creation throughout the system lifecycle
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Karlos Artto, Tuomas Ahola, Valtteri Vartiainen
      Morris (2013) calls for value creation for project stakeholders using project outcomes. This is an attempt to link the front end of the system lifecycle – the project phase – to the back end, i.e. the operations phase. Little is however known about how value creation occurs through developing project outcomes which have the capacity to continue value-creating activities even decades after a project is completed. We establish that projects are multi-organizational systems which transit from the project phase to the operations phase in system lifecycles, and we use the systems view to analyze value creation mechanisms within the system lifecycle. We carry out empirical research into the lifecycle of a shopping center. Four distinct value-enhancing integration mechanisms in the operations of this multi-organizational system are identified, and propositions for four new project management approaches that create value during the project and have long-term value-enhancing impacts in the operations phase are derived.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Taming the ‘trolls’: Major public projects in the making
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ole Jonny Klakegg, Terry Williams, Asmamaw Tadege Shiferaw
      Major projects are not yet sufficiently understood, and practices in project governance and project management do not yet reflect the current state of knowledge of large, complex projects. In an attempt to understand the reasons, the authors therefore investigated the latest relevant findings documented in three countries: the UK, Norway, and the Netherlands. Their examination of the effect of implementing governance frameworks for public projects in these countries indicates that efforts to improve major projects are giving rewards: Even if complex public projects, the ‘trolls’, become more challenging, efforts to ‘tame’ them are improving. The results of the study show that project planning has improved and cost overruns are reduced. However, recent observations indicate that the effect may wear off remarkably quickly. Hence, the need for continuous improvement and change is prominent. There are fundamental limitations in the use of formal systems as they cannot detect all problems and there are limitations to humans' ability in terms of optimism bias that cannot be eliminated.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Front-end definition of projects: Ten paradoxes and some reflections
           regarding project management and project governance
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Knut Samset, Gro Holst Volden
      The importance of the front-end decision-making phase in securing projects long-term success is being increasingly recognized. This area is underrepresented in the literature, but there are several key themes that run throughout, identifying key issues or difficulties during this stage. Clearly, a key to successful projects lies in the choice of concept. This paper presents some findings from the work of the Concept research programme on front-end management and governance of major public investment projects in Norway. It is based on studies that explore strengths and weaknesses in the processes of analysis and decision-making during the early phase before the final choice of conceptual solution is made, and the extent to which projects under study are (or are likely to be) relevant and effective in relation to needs and priorities in society. It concludes that there are frequent deficiencies in these processes, and that the potential for improvements is huge.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Sensemaking in the cross-cultural contexts of projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Richard Fellows, Anita Liu
      Projects are increasingly cross-cultural and complex, both technically and relationally. The diversity of participants enhances differences in perceptions and understanding of meaning of the variety of signals (such as drawings and messages); often, the consequence is reduced performance and conflictual situations. Appreciation of such differences and of how people make sense of their worlds enables participants to appreciate the views of others and so, mitigate potential problems. Hence, a review of sensemaking literature is undertaken regarding individual and collective sensemaking, cultural schemas and the impact of cultural sensemaking on cross-culture international alliances, together with examination of application to contexts of construction, such as project realisation process and construction innovation. Conclusions advocate practical changes to secure heedful sensemaking towards improving relationships on projects and both process and product performance.


      PubDate: 2016-01-06T08:55:49Z
       
  • Measuring and benchmarking managerial efficiency of project execution
           schedule performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): K. Chandrashekhar Iyer, Partha S. Banerjee
      Though managerial efficiency is considered to be a key driver for successful execution of projects, not much study is reported to measure and benchmark this efficiency. In this study, a basket of 57 projects is selected and configured as Decision Making Units (DMUs) in a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) procedure which is then integrated with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Suitable modifications are made in this DEA-PCA engine to factor in the overall and relative performance of DMUs to measure and rank their managerial efficiency. On the basis of combination of the inputs and managerial efficiency scores, DMUs are then classified using alternative methods of clustering into a five category benchmarking model: “excellent”, “good”, “fair”, “unsatisfactory” and “poor”. Distinguishing features of the model and the findings are discussed in representative DMUs that enable practitioners and policy makers to implement the model and objectively institute a multi-sector managerial performance recognition systems.


      PubDate: 2015-12-17T04:50:23Z
       
  • Handling social risks in government-driven mega project: An empirical case
           study from West China
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ze-zhao Liu, Zheng-wei Zhu, Hui-jia Wang, Jie Huang
      The sustainability of project implementation requires the use of effective instruments to cope with the undesirable social risks. Facing group confrontation and conflict around mega project in the past decade, Social Stability Risk Assessment is currently conceived as a managing way to handle social risks by the Chinese government. In this paper, a case study of Jixian Industrial Park project from western China is conducted to explore how to identify specific social risks under the dominance of local government. Response package is further released to prevent, reduce and control the destructive consequences of risks that may occur before or during the project construction. Enlightenments are obtained in the end to provide valuable implications. As a reference example, the research of this paper ushered in a practical framework of social risk management which may be effectively applied in other fields of program implementation.


      PubDate: 2015-12-13T20:43:58Z
       
  • The Project-space Model: Visualising the enablers and constraints for a
           given project
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bronte van der Hoorn
      This paper proposes a tool that can be used by practitioners to identify and represent the enablers to, and constraints on, the progress of a specific project: the Project-space Model. The diagrammatic tool is a response to the limitations of universal “critical success factors” for projects, and the calls for a more tailored and contextualised approach to managing projects. The Project-space Model prototype presented in the article embeds concepts from Heideggerian thinking, complexity science, Gestalt theory, and Lewin's Force Field analysis and life-space model. The tool has a ‘current-space’ and a ‘forecast-space’ and information regarding the enabling and constraining factors is shown through colour, scale and placement of icons within the ‘spaces’. The model is currently being tested through an action research case study. It is anticipated that the model will enable stakeholders to identify where their attention and action is most required in a given project.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-12-13T20:43:58Z
       
  • Market positions as perceived by project-based organisations in the
           typical project business segment
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mihály Görög
      Literature on project marketing mainly focuses on those project-based organisations that are able to supply complex systems primarily for government agencies. Thus, current project marketing literature emphasises the central role of the milieu in which both the constructivistic approach and the associated creative offer are of outstanding importance. Although this segment represents a considerable section of the entire project business, it might be considered to be atypical. Most project-based organisations generally operate in a different segment which is referred to as typical. Consequently, the project marketing approaches propagated for complex system suppliers could not be utilised in the typical project business segment. This paper aims to highlight determinants of the market position perceived by project-based organisations in the typical project business segment. Determinants were firstly drawn from project management literature, then a qualitative empirical research was undertaken to provide empirical evidence for the determinants. The research outcomes may provide the basis for applying project marketing more purposefully in typical project-based organisations in accordance with their likely market position.


      PubDate: 2015-12-08T15:18:44Z
       
  • A new orientation to deal with uncertainty in projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Fritz Böhle, Eckhard Heidling, Yvonne Schoper
      This paper argues that uncertainty is a general feature of projects, occurring in technological, organizational, and social contexts. In situations of uncertainty, rational plan-oriented action is only practicable and successful to a limited degree. Based upon empirical research of project work, forms of experience-based action to deal with uncertainty will be presented. This kind of work action has only marginally been investigated by scientific research and has been widely disregarded in practice. This is essentially due to the fact that plan-oriented rational action is a deeply rooted guiding principle for professional work and management in Western cultures and societies. For this reason, this paper first outlines from a sociological perspective that dealing with uncertainty in projects has to be seen in a comprehensive societal context. Thus, a new way to deal with uncertainty requires fundamental re-orientations concerning the understanding and investigation of work and organization. Empirical findings in this field are presented and discussed, and the concept of a dual uncertainty in project work is exposed.


      PubDate: 2015-12-03T05:28:55Z
       
  • A financial decision making framework for construction projects based on
           5D Building Information Modeling (BIM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 1
      Author(s): Qiqi Lu, Jongsung Won, Jack C.P. Cheng
      Analyzing cash flows and undertaking project financing are important for contractors in managing construction projects. Traditional methods for cash flow analysis are based on the manual integration of time and cost information. However, the manual integration process can be automated by using five-dimensional building information modeling (5D BIM). Previous studies on 5D BIM have focused on estimating cash outflow rather than cash inflow analysis and project financing. This paper proposes a BIM-based methodology framework for cash flow analysis and project financing. The framework considers contract types and retainage to estimate cash inflow, and cash outflow patterns for equipment, manpower, and materials in order to more accurately measure cash outflow. Project financing scenarios can also be evaluated using the framework. Illustrative examples are demonstrated to validate the proposed framework by considering two what-if scenarios. Results show that the framework can help contractors analyze the cash flow and make appropriate decisions for different design and payment scheme alternatives in construction projects.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Antecedents of project managers' voice behavior: The moderating effect of
           organization-based self-esteem and affective organizational commitment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Bastian Ekrot, Johannes Rank, Hans Georg Gemünden
      Theory and research stress that employee voice behavior (VB; discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or concerns with the intent to improve organizational functioning) positively influences decision making, improvement, and innovation. However, the VB construct has rarely been studied in the specific context of project management. Using a sample of 618 project managers and 154 project portfolio coordinators nested in 154 firms, the main purpose of this study was to analyze a moderated model, in which specific contextual factors interact with individual-level variables to predict project managers' VB. Consistent with our hypotheses derived from self-consistency theory, moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed that idea encouragement, career perspectives, qualification opportunities, and peer collaboration related more positively to VB for project managers with a high level of organization-based self-esteem. For project managers high in affective organizational commitment, we found stronger positive relationships of peer collaboration and idea encouragement with project managers' VB.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Improving the estimation of probability of bidder participation in
           procurement auctions
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez, Martin Skitmore, Eugenio Pellicer, Jimmy H. Gutiérrez-Bahamondes
      Anticipating the number and identity of bidders has significant influence in many theoretical results of the auction itself and bidders' bidding behaviour. This is because when a bidder knows in advance which specific bidders are likely competitors, this knowledge gives a company a head start when setting the bid price. However, despite these competitive implications, most previous studies have focused almost entirely on forecasting the number of bidders and only a few authors have dealt with the identity dimension qualitatively. Using a case study with immediate real-life applications, this paper develops a method for estimating every potential bidder's probability of participating in a future auction as a function of the tender economic size removing the bias caused by the contract size opportunities distribution. This way, a bidder or auctioner will be able to estimate the likelihood of a specific group of key, previously identified bidders in a future tender.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Social responsibilities for the management of megaprojects
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Similarities and contrasts of complexity, uncertainty, risks, and
           resilience in supply chains and temporary multi-organization projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Antônio Márcio Tavares Thomé, Luiz Felipe Scavarda, Annibal Scavarda, Felipe Eduardo Sydio de Souza Thomé
      Although complexity, uncertainty, risk, and resilience are concepts of growing interest, there is a lack of structured synthesis of these concepts and their relationships in supply chain management (SCM) and project management (PM) literatures. This paper addresses this gap through novel tertiary and bibliometric analyses. The tertiary research embraces 22 literature reviews and guides the development of the synthesis framework. The bibliometric analysis includes 1,275 papers and complements the tertiary research with study descriptors, a co-citation, and a static and dynamic/longitudinal co-word network analysis.
      Authors cite each other within the confines of their research area with no cross-fertilization of studies in PM and SCM, despite several commonalities among the areas. Both areas use similar conceptual definitions and there are close resemblances in risk management in SCM and temporary multi-organization (TMOs) projects. Resilience appears as a new topic in SCM but is absent in TMO. A research agenda closes the paper.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Social procurement in UK construction projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Martin Loosemore
      Recent developments in the field of social procurement mean that in the future, firms tendering for major construction and infrastructure projects will need to demonstrate that they are not just efficient in project delivery, but also contribute positively to the communities in which they build. The emerging social enterprise sector represents a potentially innovative and sustainable opportunity to meet this new challenge but is poorly understood and grossly under-represented in the construction industry. Through interviews with twelve leaders of successful social enterprises operating in the construction industry, it is concluded that many changes are needed to traditional procurement practices to grasp this opportunity. These include unbundling work packages, reducing tender compliance burdens, changing traditional perceptions of ‘value’ which revolve around lowest price, incorporating social value requirements into existing subcontracts and challenging the dominant role of supply chain incumbents and ingrained negative stereotypes of the disadvantaged groups which social enterprises employ.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Retaining project management competence — Antecedents and
           consequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 34, Issue 2
      Author(s): Bastian Ekrot, Alexander Kock, Hans Georg Gemünden
      Using a sample of 177 firms with matched dyads of middle managers and senior managers, we developed a model on the antecedents and consequences of project management competence retention (PMCR). Our results reveal that providing project managers formal developmental perspectives in project management, such as a career path or qualification opportunities, as well as establishing a formal lesson learned system both positively relate to PMCR. Moreover, our results show that PMCR is positively associated with average project success of the organization. Finally, our results confirm the substantial importance of average project success for overall business success in project-oriented organizations.


      PubDate: 2015-11-29T14:59:00Z
       
  • Enhancing project benefit realization through integration of line managers
           as project benefit managers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Dorthe Håhr Dupont, Pernille Eskerod
      Many organizations establish projects to undertake change efforts. However, the aimed-for benefits are often difficult to harvest. A viable way to move the field forward may be to address the WHO question related to project benefit realization. A case study was undertaken in the international service organization with multi-site branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the potentials of integrating line managers in a formal role as project benefit managers within a project team for enhancing realization of project benefits. Based on the findings, we claim that line managers as project benefit managers can enhance compliance in project implementation. This is not least due to their detailed knowledge about operational processes. However, the cohesiveness of a project benefit manager’s network as well as the mutual relationship between the project benefit manager and relevant peer managers has an importance for the success of the project benefit managers.


      PubDate: 2015-11-16T13:36:03Z
       
  • An ex ante bidding model to assess the incentive creation capability of a
           public–private partnership pipeline
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Dennis De Clerck, Erik Demeulemeester
      The inherent risky nature of public–private partnerships requires contractors to develop expensive project proposals, which is seen as a burden to enter the playing field. It is believed that a pipeline of projects could succeed in triggering contractors' enthusiasm and increasing competition. This paper theoretically assesses whether the pipeline serves as an effective tool to levy this barrier to entry. A theoretical model and a simulation experiment that mimics the tendering process with heterogeneity in the bidders' cost structure are presented. In particular, the impact on the ex ante bid preparation effort willingness and the mark-ups is assessed by heuristically approximating the Bayesian Nash equilibrium. A statistical scenario analysis approves that mark-ups are lower when more projects are included in the pipeline, leading to fiercer price competition and a lower government procurement cost. Nonetheless, the incentive creation with respect to investment efforts is limited according to the experiment.


      PubDate: 2015-11-07T22:19:32Z
       
  • Understanding the complexity of project team member selection through
           agent-based modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Shu-Chien Hsu, Kai-Wei Weng, Qingbin Cui, William Rand
      Previous research has recognized the significance of a team's work capacity and suggested the selection of team members based on individual skills and performance in alignment with task characteristics. However, work teams are complex systems with interdependence between workers and the social environment, and exhibit surprising, nonlinear behavior. This study utilizes Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) to understand the complexity of project team member selection and to examine how the functional diversity of teams and worker interdependence affect team performance in different economic conditions. Data for model validation was collected from 116 construction projects for the period from 2009 to 2011. The results show that teams with higher functional diversity can enhance the overall firm performance when the economy is in a downturn. This study suggests managers using knowledge of worker interdependence to protect higher-performing workers by minimizing disruption of interdependence in team member selection for improving firm performance.


      PubDate: 2015-10-25T18:46:25Z
       
  • Modelling stakeholder-associated risk networks in green building projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Rebecca J. Yang, Patrick X.W. Zou, Jiayuan Wang
      This research aims to model the interactive networks of the risks associated with different stakeholders in green building projects and to gain an understanding of the key risk networks. Case studies of green star accredited office building projects were undertaken in China and Australia. Case data were collected through focused group workshops, face-to-face interviews and desktop studies, and analysed by using social network analysis methods. The results show that while reputation risk is important in both countries, the ethical risk of ‘assessment experience and fairness’ has been highlighted as crucial in the Chinese context. The results further show that government plays an important role in improving the societies' knowledge and awareness on green technology uptake in China. The social network analysis method in this research improves the effectiveness and accuracy of stakeholder and risk analysis by demystifying the social complexity which is usually overlooked in traditional linear risk impact analysis.


      PubDate: 2015-10-25T18:46:25Z
       
  • Do project managers have different perspectives on project management?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Erling S. Andersen
      Do all project managers have the same perspective on project management? This paper argues that project management may be seen from different perspectives. The task perspective means that the project manager focuses on delivering on time, within budget and with specified quality. The organizational perspective implies that the project manager's focus is to support value creation in the receiving organization. The conducted survey reveals that different perspectives prevail among project managers. The implications are of importance. Every project has to decide at the outset which project management perspective shall rule the work of the project.


      PubDate: 2015-10-25T18:46:25Z
       
  • Organizing to avoid project overload: The use and risks of narrowing
           strategies in multi-project practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Tina Karrbom Gustavsson
      While project work can be motivating, stimulating and creative, it can also be frustrating, ambiguous and stressful. Situations of project overload, i.e. situations in which fragmentation, disturbances and disruptions are reoccurring, are common in project-based organizations running many parallel projects. This paper reports findings from an extensive interview study on how project managers and project members working in parallel projects handle project overload by changing their work routines. The results show 1) that project work in practice is organized by using narrowing strategies and 2) that narrowing strategies run the risk of excluding the vital historical and organizational context. The findings have implications for project theory and project practice.


      PubDate: 2015-10-25T18:46:25Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2015-10-25T18:46:25Z
       
  • Influence of managerial control on performance in medical information
           system projects: The moderating role of organizational environment and
           team risks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Shan Liu, Lin Wang
      The relationship between managerial control and performance has been extensively investigated in literature. However, in the context of medical information systems (IS) projects, this topic has received little attention. Furthermore, the integrated effects of organizational environment and team risks, as well as managerial controls on the performance of medical IS projects have never been examined. The present study attempts to bridge these gaps using data on 195 medical IS projects from 160 hospitals. Our empirical results demonstrate that behavior, outcome, and clan controls positively affect the performance of medical IS projects. By contrast, self-control is insignificantly related to performance. This finding reveals that in medical IS projects, the effectiveness of managerial controls varies. Not all control modes significantly influence the performance of medical IS projects. Effective control modes should therefore be prioritized over ineffective control modes for such complex projects. Moreover, organizational environment and team risks diminish the effects of behavior, outcome and clan controls on performance in medical IS projects, which implies that project performance relies on the integrative influence of controls and risks, and the exercise of control should consider the mitigation of risks from both client and development team sides in medical IS projects.


      PubDate: 2015-10-25T18:46:25Z
       
  • Enhancing engineer–procure–construct project performance by
           partnering in international markets: Perspective from Chinese construction
           companies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Lei Du, Wenzhe Tang, Chunna Liu, Shuli Wang, Tengfei Wang, Wenxin Shen, Min Huang, Yongzhi Zhou
      The engineer–procure–construct (EPC) approach has been increasingly adopted in international markets, in which contractors need to have adequate capabilities in effectively dealing with a wide range of risks in a complex environment that consists of various stakeholders. Many researchers have embraced the strategy of partnering to integrate diverse project delivery activities by meeting the needs of all project participants. However, limited research has addressed the cause–effect relationships among partnering, risk management, and organizational capability on how performance improvements can be generated from them on a holistic view. This study systematically investigates the causal relationships among these themes by establishing and testing a conceptual model. With the support of data collected from Chinese contractors with experience in delivering EPC projects by questionnaire, interview, and a case study, the results provide empirical evidences on contractors' partnering application degree, strength, and weakness of organizational capabilities, overall picture of risk management, and project performance level, which form a sound basis for contractors' decision making during project implementation. This study further reveals that partnering can not only directly facilitate organizational capability and risk management but also exert its influence on risk management through enhanced organizational capability, thereby improving project performance. The above insights suggest research and practical emphases on combining risk management with partnering principles to assist in both intra- and inter-organizational activities, and contractors' appropriate linking with involved stakeholders to obtain necessary resources and effectively transfer them for successfully delivering international EPC projects.


      PubDate: 2015-10-11T21:11:48Z
       
  • An integrative framework for managing project issues across stakeholder
           groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Marjolein A.G. van Offenbeek, Janita F.J. Vos
      The stakeholders and the issues associated with a project are different concepts but closely interconnected. Despite this, the project stakeholder management literature falls short in analyzing the linkages between the stakeholders and the issues they bring. This paper develops a multilayered stakeholder–issue framework that makes the connections between stakeholders and issues explicit with the aim of helping project managers analyze and prioritize the issues that stakeholders confront them with. The framework's usability is preliminary evaluated through a case study of a multi-stakeholder implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) system in an institutionalized hospital environment. The framework enables a coherent assessment of stakeholders' issues. Using the case study, we discuss how such an assessment could improve the management of stakeholders' issues and their influence on a project's progress and outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-10-11T21:11:48Z
       
  • Earned value project management: Improving the predictive power of planned
           value
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Hong Long Chen, Wei Tong Chen, Ying Lien Lin
      Earned value project management (EVPM) is an effective tool for managing project performance. However, most studies on extensions and applications of EVPM concentrate on improving final cost and duration estimates rather than improving upon the use of planned value (PV) to predict earned value (EV) and actual cost value (AC). This study proposes a straightforward modeling method for improving the predictive power of PV before executing a project. By using this modeling method, this study develops EV and AC forecasting models for four case projects. Out-of-sample forecasting validation using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) demonstrates that the proposed method improves forecasting accuracy by an average of 23.66% and 17.39%, respectively, for EV and AC. This improvement on PV's predictive power prior to project execution provides management with more reliable predictive information about EV and AC performance, allowing for effective proactive action to ensure favorable performance outcomes.


      PubDate: 2015-10-11T21:11:48Z
       
 
 
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