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Journal Cover International Journal of Project Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0263-7863
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2575 journals]   [SJR: 0.99]   [H-I: 58]
  • Project managers and the journey from good to great: The benefits of
           investment in project management training and education
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jalal Ramazani , George Jergeas
      There is a gap between what education providers are offering and what is needed to deal with projects in today's complex work environment. This paper explores how education and training institutions can educate and prepare great project managers for the future by evaluating project management development from the perspective of working project managers. The authors report on a qualitative study of project managers working in the oil and gas sector in Calgary. This paper formulates three main areas which educational institutions should consider in developing and preparing future project managers: 1) developing critical thinking for dealing with complexity, 2) developing softer parameters of managing projects, especially interpersonal skills and leadership as opposed to just technical skills, and 3) preparing project managers to be engaged within the context of real life projects. The authors argue that the education and training systems must do more to prepare project managers on their journey from good to great.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Differences in decision-making criteria towards the return on marketing
           investment: A project business perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hedley Smyth , Laurence Lecoeuvre
      Assessing the value of marketing to a business remains a thorny issue in theory and practice. Decision-making at the finance–marketing interface is under-researched, particularly for project businesses. Confronted by demands of accountability concerning the allocation of resources to meet competitive pressures, the paper examines the quality and extent of dialogue in investment decision-making. The return on investment (ROI) and marketing-specific investment (ROMI) are important factors at the marketing–finance interface. ROMI/ROI is examined from quantitative and qualitative viewpoints. The empirical evidence shows that short-term financial criteria dominate and are misaligned to long-term performance of project businesses and business units. Marketing investment in relation to project markets poses a particularly challenging environment. Client lifetime value and programme data sets for ROMI coupled with qualitative decision-making offer ways forward with constructive dialogue at the finance–marketing interface. The paper concludes with detailed recommendations for research and practice.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Is strategy implemented by projects? Disturbing evidence in the State
           of NSW
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Raymond Young , Jamie Grant
      This research has replicated an earlier study examining the effectiveness of project investment frameworks and provided a second case showing that in a normal environment (using private sector managerial techniques) projects contribute little to the realisation of strategic goals. The replication has implications for both the public and private sectors. A promising new finding is that ‘in some environments (with stable strategies and central oversight) projects make some contribution to the realisation of strategic goals’. However the contribution is smaller than expected and more research is required to explore how projects can contribute more to strategy.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • What's in it for me? Using expectancy theory and climate to explain
           stakeholder participation, its direction and intensity
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Russell L. Purvis , Thomas J. Zagenczyk , Gordon E. McCray
      Expectancy theory explains motivation on the degree to which an effort is perceived to lead to performance, performance leads to rewards, and the rewards offered are desirable. In this article, we draw on expectancy theory along with psychological and organizational climate research to understand whether and to what degree stakeholders will participate in the implementation of project management systems and complimentary software technologies. We contend that psychological and organizational climate influence perceptions relevant to expectancy, that in turn determine: a) whether or not stakeholders will participate in a project, b) whether they will help or harm the project, and c) whether a stakeholder is motivated to complete these actions. Data for the article is from three in-depth case studies. Results support that stakeholders assess the direction and strength of the psychological climate and that their assessments shape their motivation to participate in active support, token support, or counter-implementation actions.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Identifying organizational variables affecting project management office
           characteristics and analyzing their correlations in the Iranian
           project-oriented organizations of the construction industry
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): M. Parchami Jalal , S. Matin Koosha
      Today, applying project management knowledge by project oriented organizations for optimal use of resource and increasing productivity is inevitable. An organizational entity generally called “Project Management Office” can be responsible for project management knowledge and systematic developer of it which can centralize and coordinate management of those projects under its domain. Since organizations have different contextual and structural dimensions, we expect different project management offices in terms of their structural and functional characteristics. This article is searching for variables in the context of organizations in construction industry which have significant relationships with project management offices' characteristics. So that by analyzing these relations we can design and implement more efficient project management offices. Finally, from 29 organizational context variables which had been thought to have decisive impact on project management offices' characteristics only 9 variables had significant impact on them in which this paper focuses on.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • A three-step design science approach to develop a novel human
           resource-planning framework in projects: the cases of construction
           projects in USA, Europe, and Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mehrdokht Pournader , Amin Akhavan Tabassi , Peter Baloh
      Developing a comprehensive human resource (HR)-planning framework that corresponds to the variety of HR-related issues has seldom been observed in existing project management literature. The present study applies a three-step design science approach to introduce a holistic HR-planning framework. The rigor and relevance cycles in this approach address the HR-related issues in projects and the shortcomings of the literature associated with developing a thorough HR-planning framework. Subsequently, the proposed framework is being validated by an exploratory study undertaken at Parsons Brinckerhoff (USA) and BISOL Group (EU). Next, in line with the guidelines of the design cycle for justifying the use of the framework, a survey is conducted on the collected data from 110 Iranian experts in the construction industry. Using Partial Least Squares for analyzing the data, the outcomes indicate that ‘Empowerment/Training’ could significantly improve the performance of HRs in projects. The results also confirm the substantial impact of ‘Quality Assessment’ on the constructs included the HR-planning framework. Furthermore, ‘Networking Management’, ‘Delegating’, and ‘Reward/Compensation’ are prioritized as the subsequent influential constructs for effective HR management practices.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Precursors to engaged leaders in virtual project teams
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Josh Iorio , John E. Taylor
      Virtual project teams are becoming common organizational structures because firms seek to leverage geographically distributed, specialized knowledge to execute work. Performance in virtual teams can be increased through effective leadership. Although a growing body of research exists that identifies how effective leaders engage in interactions with their teams, we know less about how to strategically identify candidates for leadership positions who have high potential to become engaged leaders. Our research fills this gap by exploring how prior experiences can be used to predict engagement in interactions associated with effective leadership. Our research is based on analysis of 20 graduate students in four simulated virtual project teams executing a construction design and planning task. Results suggest that in virtual teams, engagement is conditioned by the technological context in which the work is executed. Our findings have implications for existing leadership training programs and contribute to theories about the appropriateness of shared leadership models for virtual project teams.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Explaining over-requirement in software development projects: An
           experimental investigation of behavioral effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ofira Shmueli , Nava Pliskin , Lior Fink
      One of the major risks associated with software development is related to the phenomenon of over-requirement. Also known as over-specification and gold-plating, over-requirement is manifested when a product or a service is specified beyond the actual needs of the customer or the market. In the software development context, we argue in this work that over-requirement is due partially to the emotional involvement of developers with the software features they specify. Similar involvement has been demonstrated for physical items as a result of the endowment, IKEA, and I-designed-it-myself behavioral effects, when people come to overvalue items they possess or self-create. To explore these behavioral effects and the interactions among them in the context of software development, we conducted an experiment in which over 200 participants were asked to specify a nice-to-have software feature. Our results confirm the existence of these behavioral effects in software development and their influence on over-requirement. The findings contribute to theory by explaining the over-requirement phenomenon and by providing insights into behavioral effects in the context of software development. Also practically relevant, the findings can alert managers of software projects to the over-requirement risk evoked by the behavioral effects explored in this study.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • When planned IS/IT project benefits are not realized: a study of
           inhibitors and facilitators to benefits realization
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Crispin R. Coombs
      IS/IT evaluations reveal that many organizations fail to realize planned benefits from their IS/IT projects. Benefits management researchers argue that organizational change is necessary for the delivery of IS/IT project benefits. However, existing IS/IT evaluation methods adopt a narrow quantitative focus on costs and benefits and fail to consider the organizational dimension. This study brings together the concepts of benefits management and IS/IT evaluation using the Cranfield Benefits Dependency Network (BDN) as a diagnostic tool to examine an underperforming IS/IT project. The analysis revealed that planned benefits had not been realized because of a lack of attention to technical and organizational facilitators and inhibitors associated with IT-enabled organizational change.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Understanding pre-contractual transaction costs for Public–Private
           Partnership infrastructure projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Steven De Schepper , Elvira Haezendonck , Michaël Dooms
      While public entities are still increasingly interested in Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs), we recently observe increasing reluctance from private partners to engage in PPP-bidding. Up-front costs that PPP bidders make, are considered too high compared to the bidding chances, and may result in less bidders in the future. In this paper, we empirically analyze transaction costs of PPPs in the pre-contractual stage and compare these to similar costs borne by private partners for traditional public procurement. Statistical analyses based on sample of 172 public infrastructure projects enable the estimation of the pre-contractual cost burden. Based on the study results, suggestions are made to lower these costs or to improve the cost position of the private sector, in order to safeguard the competitive setting of the PPP market.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Project risk as identity threat: explaining the development and
           consequences of risk discourse in an infrastructure project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Annemiek Van Os , Freek Van Berkel , Dick De Gilder , Cathy Van Dyck , Peter Groenewegen
      This paper explores the role of social identity threat in risk discourse in an infrastructure project, and the consequences risk discourse has for cooperation between stakeholders. We show that risks posed a threat to the identity of the project team, resulting in a discourse focused on attributing responsibility for risks to outsiders and that polarized their relations with stakeholders. Consequently, the project team tried to eliminate risk by withholding information from the stakeholders they regarded responsible for inflicting risks on the project. This exacerbated intergroup relations and led to conflict. Given that social identity processes affect the way stakeholders discuss and handle risks, these findings are relevant for the design of risk management systems in projects.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Learning between projects: More than sending messages in bottles
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Andreas Hartmann , André Dorée
      Although learning from projects has gained much importance in research and practice, progress in understanding and improving inter-project learning appears to be slight. We argue that the adoption of a sender/receiver approach limits the learning effectiveness in project-based organisations. Drawing upon the notion of learning as a social activity embedded in an organisational context, we develop the argument that learning from projects takes place within projects rooted in the historical, organisational and cultural context of previous and current projects. We underpin our argument with results from a multiple-case study on learning in construction organisations. We show that learning cannot be segregated from immediate practice and occurs when individuals engage in project work. Particularly the orientation towards project goals and project-overarching ambitions or trajectories can serve as contextual binder for learning in and between projects.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Project benefit management: A conceptual framework of target benefit
           formulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ying-Yi Chih , Ofer Zwikael
      Successful realization of project benefits is strongly associated with organizational performance. Formulating project target benefits is regarded as the first and critical step in the benefit management process. In this study, we drew upon relevant theories and conducted in-depth interviews with senior managers in Australia to develop a conceptual framework of project target benefit formulation and corresponding propositions. Our findings highlight the important role of project target benefits in funding decision-making and suggest seven criteria for their appraisal (strategic fit, target value, measurability, realism, target date, accountability and comprehensiveness) and four constructs which improve the formulated target benefits (a formal benefit formulation process, senior executive leadership, senior executive supports, and public service motivation). These findings extend the current literature on project benefit management by providing a holistic view on how project target benefits should be formulated and appraised.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Developing a systemic lessons learned knowledge model for organisational
           learning through projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Stephen Duffield , S. Jonathan Whitty
      A significant challenge for government and business project organisations is to ensure that lessons are learned and that mistakes of the past are not repeated. Both knowledge and project management literature suggests that in practice lessons learned processes rarely happen, and when it does it is concerned with lessons identification rather than organisational learning. There are limited practical models for general management to use to conceptualise what organisational learning is and therefore how to enable it. However, aspects of health care, nuclear power, rail, and aviation organisations have successfully implemented organisational learning by way of the Swiss cheese model for safety and systemic failures. This paper proposes an adaptation of the Swiss cheese model to enable project organisations to conceptualise how they learn from past project experiences and distribute successful project know-how across an organisational network of elements such as individual learning, culture, social, technology, process and infrastructure.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Examining the factors influencing cross-project knowledge transfer: An
           empirical study of IT services firms in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dali Zhao , Meiyun Zuo , Xuefei (Nancy) Deng
      Despite the significance of the knowledge initiatives at project level, our understanding of knowledge transfer between projects and of its influencing factors remains limited. Drawing on knowledge transfer and project management literature, we develop a theoretical model positing that cross-project knowledge transfer is influenced by project teams' transfer capabilities, project teams' relationship, project task context and project team context. We adopt mixed methods and empirically test the model in the context of Chinese IT services firms. Our data analysis reveals that cross-project knowledge transfer is affected differently by the capabilities of and governance efforts by the source and recipient teams. Our study concludes that project-based organizations and project managers will be able to better manage the complexity of cross-project knowledge transfer if they simultaneously consider the multiple dimensions of factors underlying the complex knowledge transfer process and be mindful of the source and recipient of knowledge in the project setting.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Framing value management for creative projects: An expansive perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Thomas Gillier , Sophie Hooge , Gérald Piat
      Questions have been raised about the relevance of Value Management (VM) for creative projects. Such project embraces new fields of knowledge in terms of technologies, markets and business models. At the start of the project, the members do not know the value that would be finally delivered: the value is not determined ex-ante but it is designed during the project. Based on the analysis of a creative project regarding future electric vehicles at Renault, our VM framework considers three elements: (1) the value to be managed is the new knowledge and the concepts of new products/services, (2) the value of a creative project is managed by controlling the distance between the new knowledge/new concepts and the dominant design (i.e. main products and business model), (3) the value created is beneficial to both the project stakeholders and the actors of surrounding ecosystems.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Proposal of a Special Issue for International Journal of Project
           Management Special theme on: "Advances in Building Information Modeling
           (BIM) for Construction Projects"
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Xiangyu Wang , Mauro Mancini , Madhav Nepal , Heap-Yih Chong , Martin Skitmore , Raymond Issa



      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Competency mapping in project management: An action research study in an
           engineering company
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Sílvia Mayumi Takey , Marly Monteiro de Carvalho
      The present study proposes a seven-step method for the project management competency map. Additionally, the method helps to evaluate and design evolution trajectories based on organisational experience and challenges. This methodological approach merges literature reviews with qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected in a large Brazilian engineering company through the analysis of documentation, behavioural event interviews, self-assessment surveys and statistical analyses. The proposed method is simple, replicable and insightful for managers across all industries and consists of the following: a description of competence and performance criteria, an assessment process, a diagnosis of the current proficiency level, the identification of competence levels that differentiate professional categories, the establishment of expected profiles, a gap analysis and the association between experience and competency development.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Inside service-intensive projects: Analyzing inbuilt tensions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Ilkka Ojansivu , Kimmo Alajoutsijärvi
      The purpose of this research is to identify typical professional and occupational groups in service-intensive projects, and illustrate the inbuilt tensions among them through the lens of institutional theory. The cases used for the study are a wind turbine business and a content management system project business. Our findings suggest that there are two professional groups (problem solvers, technology developers) and two occupational groups (lead generators, relationship developers) involved in these businesses. More importantly, their intergroup tensions are related to different institutional logics toward the conception of time (project temporality) and prioritization of different aspects of business (primarily commercial or technical issues) that become manifested in stereotypes, perceptions of trust, internal politics and lack of cooperation. Together, we call these institutional logics the project ethos of each group. Our findings contribute to the research on project management by illustrating the organizational challenges of service-intensive projects.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Evolutionary analysis of the collaboration networks within National
           Quality Award Projects of China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Liang Liu , Chuanfeng Han , Weisheng Xu
      Construction organizations are increasingly cooperating in what are often referred to as “collaboration network” that enabled them to share risks, pool resources and explore opportunities to jointly participate in managing large-scale projects. In this study, we construct the so-called inter-contractors' collaboration networks by mapping the electronic database of NQAPC for an 8-year period (2003–2010). In these networks, nodes represent contractors; two contractors are connected by an edge if they have cooperated at least one project. By using a variety of network measures, i.e., giant component, degree distribution, average path length, and clustering coefficient, we aim to descriptively investigate the structural evolution of the collaborations between contractors in the construction industry of China. As network size increases, we find a structural transition in the collaboration community size, the degree follows power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff, the average path length tends to decrease, and the clustering coefficient slightly decreases. Some explanations and a series of construction insights are discussed. The results and methodologies not only would help governors understand the social mechanisms underlie processes of construction industry, but could help contractors choose competent partners by identifying network properties.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Emergent trends and passing fads in project management research: A
           scientometric analysis of changes in the field
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Julien Pollack , Daniel Adler
      This research uses quantitative techniques to reveal trends in project management related research published between 1962 and 2012. The data set for this research includes 94,472 unique records sourced from the Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases. The keywords and abstracts that authors have used to describe their work have been analysed in terms of word frequency, rate of change and the co-occurrence of keywords and abstract terms. This data has been used to construct network maps of the field, depicting the relative association between key topics. Comparisons are made between the frequencies of key terms and rapid changes in the ways that terms are used in the literature to identify emergent trends and passing fads. Amongst other findings, this research has revealed evidence to indicate a change in emphasis in project management research from a technical engineering orientation to one which encompasses a broader organisational perspective.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Toward a model for forming psychological safety climate in construction
           project management
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yuzhong Shen , Martin M. Tuuli , Bo Xia , Tas Yong Koh , Steve Rowlinson
      The nature of construction projects and their delivery exposes participants to accidents and dangers. Safety climate serves as a frame of reference for employees to make sense of safety measures in the workplace and adapt their behaviors. Though safety climate research abounds, fewer efforts are made to investigate the formation of a safety climate. An effort to explore forming psychological safety climate, an operationalization of safety climate at the individual level, is an appropriate starting point. Taking the view that projects are social processes, this paper develops a conceptual framework of forming the psychological safety climate, and provides a preliminary validation. The model suggests that management can create the desired psychological safety climate by efforts from structural, perceptual, interactive, and cultural perspectives. Future empirical research can be built on the model to provide a more comprehensive and coherent picture of the determinants of safety climate.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • The effectiveness of contractual and relational governances in
           construction projects in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ping Lu , Shuping Guo , Lamei Qian , Ping He , Xiaoyan Xu
      Based on the transaction cost economics, this article addresses the effectiveness of contractual and relational governances in improving project performance and restricting opportunism in construction. Ten hypotheses are presented. Using data from construction project in China, we adopt Partial Least Squares (PLS) to test and verify our hypothesis. The results show that the contractual and relational governances are important to improve project performance, and these two factors function as complements rather than substitutes. The contractual governance is more effective in improving performance while relational governance is more powerful in restricting opportunism. The opportunism does not have a direct negative impact on project performance.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Rethinking project management: A structured literature review with a
           critical look at the brave new world
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Per Svejvig , Peter Andersen
      This paper presents the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management (RPM) literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition takes a critical look at this brave new world. Through the analysis, a total of 6 overarching categories emerged: contextualization, social and political aspects, rethinking practice, complexity and uncertainty, actuality of projects and broader conceptualization. These categories cover a broad range of different contributions with diverse and alternative perspectives on project management. The early RPM literature dates back to the 1980s, while the majority was published in 2006 onwards, and the research stream appears to be still active. A critical look at this brave new world exhibits the overall challenge for RPM to become much more diffused and accepted.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Plans versus people: Comparing knowledge management approaches in
           IT-enabled business projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Andrew Gemino , Blaize Horner Reich , Chris Sauer
      This paper evaluates the impact of two approaches to knowledge management in projects — one focused on aligning project documents (“the Plan-based approach”) and another focused on developing shared understanding between different teams within a project (“the People-based approach”). A theoretical model and hypotheses are proposed and explored using data from a survey of 212 IT-enabled business projects. Results indicate that the people-based approach is more strongly influential on a project's success in securing business benefits. Although the plan-based approach is less influential, it does positively influence business benefit attainment and also supports the people-based approach. Thus, attaining shared understanding within the project team and aligning key documents are both important goals for a project's knowledge management strategy.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • The governance of public–private partnerships in sports
           infrastructure: Interfering complexities in Belgium
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Martijn van den Hurk , Koen Verhoest
      Although public–private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure development has gained foothold in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) over time, dissimilar results are evident and the controversy around PPP remains. This paper investigates the contradictory achievements of the Flemish Sports Infrastructure Program. It shows that the form of governance as applied by the Flemish Government was inadequate and led to interferences of political, multi-actor, and technical complexities, which in turn compromised the performance of the Program. A mismatch is revealed between the complicated governance approach and the relatively straightforward infrastructures that were developed, hence the argument that a better sense of contingency is required in future PPP programs. Moreover, governments across the globe are recommended to think twice before embarking on PPP programs which include bundled procurement and mandating agreements: severe complexities are likely to emerge and convincing evidence on the merits of bundling and mandating has not yet been delivered. 2 2 This text is based on research conducted within the frame of the Policy Research Center on Governmental Organization – Decisive Governance (SBOV III, 2012-2015), funded by the Flemish Government. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and not those of the Flemish Government.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Achieving satisfaction when implementing PPP transportation infrastructure
           projects: a qualitative comparative analysis of the A15 highway DBFM
           project
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Stefan Verweij
      This article investigates how managers in public-private partnership (PPP) projects respond to social or physical events during the implementation of their projects, and which of their responses produce satisfactory outcomes. Multi-value Qualitative Comparative Analysis (mvQCA) was used to examine the events that took place during a large Dutch Design, Build, Finance and Maintain (DBFM) transportation infrastructure project. The analysis found that most events were social in nature. Private managers' responses to these events were internally-oriented and resulted in dissatisfactory outcomes. In contrast, externally-oriented managerial responses were associated with satisfactory outcomes. The article concludes that both public and private managers need to invest sufficiently in stakeholder management resources and capabilities when implementing projects. Although the intention of DBFM contracts is to lower the burden on the government, public managers still play an important role as intermediaries between the contractor and the local stakeholders and this role should not be underestimated.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Ambidexterity in projects: An intellectual capital perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Neil Turner , Harvey Maylor , Juani Swart
      We identify the desirability of simultaneously using knowledge assets both to exploit and explore (ambidexterity) and highlight the significance of this for the project context. We use an intellectual capital perspective and theorise that managing projects draws upon human, social and organisational capital. We examine how this is used by managers, in a qualitative study in technology projects, to explain better how ambidexterity is achieved. Ambidexterity in the use of knowledge assets is shown to exist in the practices of managers but without them necessarily having a conscious strategy for it. We identify the mechanisms by which this happens and note the distinctive role of social capital. We demonstrate the integrative nature of the mechanisms, and how each mechanism can involve the deployment of either single or multiple elements of intellectual capital. In so doing we extend the existing theory to the operational level and demonstrate the utility of this approach.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Successful project portfolio management beyond project selection
           techniques: Understanding the role of structural alignment
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Michael G. Kaiser , Fedi El Arbi , Frederik Ahlemann
      Project portfolio management (PPM) is a commonly employed technique to align a project portfolio with strategic goals. Prior research has mainly regarded PPM as a methodology to optimize the overall benefit of a project portfolio. While adequate project selection techniques are certainly important, we argue that successful PPM – and consequently effective strategy implementation – depends on an organization's structural alignment with the needs of PPM. Based on three cases in the German construction industry, we study the effects of fundamental strategic changes on the project selection and organizational structure. From our case analysis, we develop a substantive theory to explain how the criteria, used by a company to choose and evaluate its projects, influence the company's structure through the information requirements created by such criteria. To assess whether our theory is in line with accepted schools of thought on organizational design, we integrate it with existing organizational theories. Our contribution is twofold. First, we offer a substantive theory that integrates strategy implementation, organizational information processing, and structural adaptation. Second, we introduce a new antecedent of successful PPM, namely structural alignment, thus introducing a new perspective on PPM beyond mere project selection techniques.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Agile portfolio management: An empirical perspective on the practice in
           use
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Christoph Johann Stettina , Jeannette Hörz
      Agile project management methods revolutionized the way how software projects are executed and organized. The question, however, on how to enable agility outside of individual projects and help larger organizations to compete with small entrepreneurial companies requires further attention. As a possible perspective, project portfolio management provides a global view on resources and their distribution across individual projects according to strategic choices. Based on 30 interviews conducted in 14 large European organizations this study contributes to the understanding of agile project management methods applied in IT project portfolios. First, we empirically identify the domains of practice. Then, guided by literature and our data we discuss the characteristics and implications of the agile portfolio management practice in our case organizations.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Facilitating organizational ambidexterity through the complementary use of
           projects and programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sergio Pellegrinelli , Ruth Murray-Webster , Neil Turner
      Creating and sustaining competitive advantage demands that firms both exploit knowledge and capabilities efficiently, and explore ways to innovate and respond flexibly. The study of this dual capability, ambidexterity, has become increasingly prevalent as organizations struggle to address rapidly changing environments. This paper draws upon longitudinal case research into a business transformation to study how organizational ambidexterity was achieved and sustained through the complementary use of programs and projects. In particular, a strategic, emergent approach to the management of the transformation program created flexibility, while the projects embedded in the program were managed to ensure the consistent, reliable and efficient delivery of new products, operating changes and key capabilities. In combining, but not conflating, these management approaches the organization responded successfully to discontinuous changes, and out-performed competitors. This paper adds to our knowledge of how ambidexterity works in practice and the use of projects and programs for implementing strategic change.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Analysing the organizational factors of project complexity using
           structural equation modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sheheryar Mohsin Qureshi , ChangWook Kang
      The advancements in the field of project management have driven researchers to take heed of numerous issues related with evaluating and managing complexity in projects, which demonstrates the evident significance of the subject. Among several key factors, organizational factors make up a large portion of project complexity as previous research confirms. While several project complexity measures do exist, every measure has its limit and evaluates project complexity from its own criteria. Furthermore, existing literature lacks modelling of these organizational factors to explore the interrelationships among them. This study aims to identify and model these factors to assist project managers in handling organizational factors of project complexity in a more regulated fashion. The model is developed using structural equation modelling technique. Findings include the noticeable effect of project size on project complexity as well as other factors. Positive effects of project variety and the interdependencies on project complexity are also observed.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Competencies of project managers in international NGOs: Perceptions of
           practitioners
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sophie Brière , Denis Proulx , Olga Navaro Flores , Mélissa Laporte
      In international development, despite the professionalization on NGOs of the numerous projects carried out, very few studies address the competencies of project managers in non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as opposite to the significant body of studies conducted for private sector projects. This article presents findings from an exploratory study aimed at identifying competencies of international development project managers and how these competencies are used in projects. A survey conducted with international development project managers in NGOs show the very specific situation they have to deal with and the significant change in meaning for project management capacities, considering their very particular environment. Here, human competencies take a new meaning for people who manage projects with limited support, limited resources and a double client system, where they need to satisfy a client donor while respecting local populations which needs are not always compatible with donors' vision.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Improvisation in project management: A praxeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Louis Klein , Christopher Biesenthal , Erlend Dehlin
      Project management is complex and therefore a fruitful ground for creative, spontaneous and intuitive applications of particular theories to meet the stated objectives in a constantly changing environment. This form of work is defined as improvisation, which describes a pragmatic approach of applying existing theories in novel ways to deliver a successful project. The combination of a solid theoretical knowledge base and improvisational practices is our approach to conceptualise a praxeology of resilient project management. A praxeological mindset is well suited to improve our current understanding of project management towards a more resilient meta-theory of project management that is able to address complexity. This paper contributes to the current debates in project management, as it develops a foundation for bridging theory and practice. Providing sound, practice-related theories stimulates fruitful debate between the various professions of the project-management community, which will help the field to further mature and grow.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Innovative approaches in project management research
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ralf Müller , Jonas Söderlund



      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • What is a good project manager? An Aristotelian perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Christophe Bredillet , Stephane Tywoniak , Ravikiran Dwivedula
      The purpose of this paper is to take a critical look at the question “what is a competent project manager?” and bring some fresh added-value insights. This leads us to analyze the definitions, and assessment approaches of project manager competence. Three major standards as prescribed by PMI, IPMA, and GAPPS are considered for review from an attribute-based and performance-based approach and from a deontological and consequentialist ethics perspectives. Two fundamental tensions are identified: an ethical tension between the standards and the related competence assessment frameworks and a tension between attribute and performance-based approaches. Aristotelian ethical and practical philosophy is brought in to reconcile these differences. Considering ethics of character that rises beyond the normative deontological and consequentialist perspectives is suggested. Taking the mediating role of praxis and phrónêsis between theory and practice into consideration is advocated to resolve the tension between performance and attribute-based approaches to competence assessment.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • “It worked for manufacturing…!” Operations strategy in
           project-based operations
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Harvey Maylor , Neil Turner , Ruth Murray-Webster
      This paper describes the application of an Operations Strategy (OS) approach to project-based operations (PBOs), defined as low to medium volume and medium to high variety operations. The OS approach has been extensively and beneficially used in high and medium volume operations. By examining the development of OS from its genesis in manufacturing operations, we identify four aspects of the OS approach — strategic intent, focus, fit and resource configuration. These elevate the discussion of how to configure resources to gain competitive advantage from PBOs, to the level of business leaders. The four aspects are then analysed in greater detail, with a view to determining the adaptations required for application in a PBO. The results of this engaged study indicate that the approach delivered significant new insight for the organisation involved in the study. The contributions of this paper are identified for both practice and theory. For practice we demonstrate an alternative to a reliance on standards and process compliance to an opportunity to gain competitive advantage from PBOs. For theory, we have extended OS into PBOs and provide a basis for future theory testing. We conclude that there is a significant opportunity for further practical and theory development through using an OS perspective.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Knowledge lost: Challenges in changing project manager between sales and
           implementation in software projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Paula Savolainen , Jarmo J. Ahonen
      The knowledge acquired during the sales phase of a software development project is very important for supplier firms. However, the knowledge that a project manager has acquired before the project starts, and during the sales phase, is not necessarily available when the project is starting. We draw theoretically on the project marketing cycle and emphasize a discontinuity in the project marketing cycle between the preceding phases of the project and the project implementation phase. Our study revealed an ignored phenomenon that is an inherent part of supplier firms. The phenomenon originates from funnel-like sales processes and volatile projects' situations, which force supplier firms to select a project manager other than the one who was involved in the case during the sales phase. This creates a knowledge management challenge in supplier firms. Our study contributes to project management research, studying management of a project in a project business context, and reveals a knowledge management challenge in supplier firms.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Trust as a predictor of innovation network ties in project teams
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rahmat Shazi , Nicole Gillespie , John Steen
      We examine the influence of trust on the formation of social network ties for the idea generation and idea realisation stages of innovation. Drawing on data from 153 employees working in project teams at two firms, we find two dimensions of trustworthiness, Ability and Benevolence, predict tie formation for both idea generation and idea realisation, whereas Integrity predicts tie formation for idea generation only. Moderation analyses across both firms and stages of innovation reveal that a lack of benevolence makes ability largely irrelevant as a criterion for choosing a partner for innovation activities, whereas high benevolence increases the extent to which ability influences partner choice. Additionally, a lack of integrity makes ability either irrelevant or a negative criterion for partner section. Overall the results suggest that people need to perceive others as benevolent and not lacking in integrity in order to seek out their skills and knowledge for innovation in project teams.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Assessing the effect of requirement definition and management on
           performance outcomes: Role of interpersonal conflict, product advantage
           and project type
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li-Ren Yang , Jieh-Haur Chen , Xing-Liang Wang
      Early planning in many cases is not performed well in new product development (NPD). Most NPD literature has focused more on the product rather than on the development process (Funk, 1992). Thus, the primary purpose of this research was to investigate the relationships among requirement definition and management (RDM) practice, interpersonal conflict, product advantage, and NPD performance in terms of project and market performance. The structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to validate the research model. The results suggest that RDM practice in terms of RDM implementation process and training & improvement is associated with requirement quality and stability. The findings also indicate that the number of groups moderates the relationship between requirement quality & stability and project performance.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Benefits Realisation Management and its influence on project success and
           on the execution of business strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 1
      Author(s): Carlos Eduardo Martins Serra , Martin Kunc
      Business strategies, which imply organisational change, usually require the development of projects, e.g. IT projects. However, organisations fail in implementing their strategies even though they employ project, programme and portfolio management techniques. Benefits Realisation Management (BRM) is a set of processes structured to close the gap between strategy planning and execution by ensuring the implementation of the most valuable initiatives. However, there is no empirical evidence of its effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a survey to practitioners in Brazil, United Kingdom and United States evaluating the impact of BRM practices on project success rate. Our results show BRM practices being positive predictors to project success on the creation of strategic value for the business. Therefore, these results suggest that BRM practices can be effective to support the successful execution of business strategies.


      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Call for Papers - Public policy and projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Graham M. Winch , Joe Sanderson



      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2014-12-18T06:30:06Z
       
  • International journal of project management special issue on
           “classics in megaproject management” call for papers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Bent Flyvbjerg



      PubDate: 2014-10-03T18:53:09Z
       
  • Conceptualising uncertainty in safety-critical projects: A practitioner
           perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Fiona C. Saunders , Andrew W. Gale , Andrew H. Sherry
      In safety-critical organisations such as civil-nuclear and aerospace, managing uncertainty is of particular importance as the consequences of failure can be potentially catastrophic. The challenge facing project managers in these complex, socio-technical environments is how to better understand the sources of project uncertainty and how to navigate a path through them in pursuit of successful project outcomes. This exploratory study analyses the literature on the management of uncertainty in projects using Söderlund's (2011) seven schools of thought on project management. Additionally it draws on interviews with project management practitioners from several large-scale projects in civil-nuclear and aerospace companies in the United Kingdom to posit the “uncertainty kaleidoscope” as a means of understanding the sources of uncertainty in safety-critical projects and identifies four conceptual approaches that may be adopted by project managers to attenuate the impact of uncertainty on the delivery of successful project outcomes.


      PubDate: 2014-09-28T18:35:48Z
       
  • Stakeholder management studies in mega construction projects: A review and
           future directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Ka Yan Mok , Geoffrey Qiping Shen , Jing Yang
      The complex and uncertain nature of mega construction projects (MCP) require an effective stakeholder management (SM) approach to accommodate conflicting stakeholder interests. Previous reviews regarding SM in construction sector are generic as their attentions have been placed on relatively small scale projects. A systematic review on SM studies in relation to MCP seems to be lacking. This paper analyzes the latest research development of this domain by reviewing selected articles published from 1997 to 2014. Four major research topics are identified: “stakeholder interests and influences”, “stakeholder management process”, “stakeholder analysis methods” and “stakeholder engagement”. This study reveals that SM approaches in MCP are subject to national context of the project, indicating a need to identify the impact of national culture on this discipline. Moreover, traditional stakeholder analysis techniques are widely adopted in MCP notwithstanding their weaknesses; therefore a social network approach for managing stakeholder interrelationships in these projects is needed.


      PubDate: 2014-09-22T18:15:44Z
       
  • Does team stability mediate the relationship between leadership and team
           learning? An empirical study among Dutch project teams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Chantal M.J.H. Savelsbergh , Rob F. Poell , Beatrice I.J.M. van der Heijden
      An exploratory field study was conducted among 30 project teams in the sectors of building and utilities, engineering and construction, infrastructure, and area decontamination and development in the Netherlands. It examined the influence of leadership on team learning behaviors and included team stability as a potential mediator, all analyzed at the team level using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that both person-oriented and task-oriented leadership behaviors were directly and positively related to team learning. Team stability did not mediate the relationship between leadership and team learning; however, a strong direct relationship between team stability and team learning was found. These findings have implications for interventions by all stakeholders of project teams (i.e., team members, project managers, and supervisors) aimed at increasing team learning. Suggestions are presented for leadership practices that stimulate project team learning behaviors.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T17:59:14Z
       
  • Human resource management practices and project success, a moderating role
           of Islamic Work Ethics in Pakistani project-based organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Adeel Sabir Khan , Farooq Rasheed
      Research on the relationship amongst “HR practices” and perceived “project success” in project-based Pakistani organizations is stimulating. Islam deliberates on ethics as a vital factor in day to day life. This study builds direct and moderating hypotheses for the relationship between four selected HR practices (Employees Recruitment & Selection, Employees Training & Development, Employees Performance Appraisals and Employees Compensation System), “project success” (PS) and “Islamic Work Ethics” (IWE) in project-based Pakistani organizations. The hypotheses have been confirmed using survey data collected from “4” major cities of the country using cross sectional design. The findings suggest that less “ETD” all other three HR practices influence PS in project-based Pakistani organizations; moreover, they reveal moderating effects of IWE only on the relationship between practice of “Employees Recruitment & Selection” and PS as perceived by employees in the organizations. The significance, implications and limitations of results have also been deliberated for further research.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-13T17:42:28Z
       
  • The integration of project management and organizational change management
           is now a necessity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Henry A. Hornstein
      Project management processes and the training of new project managers (PM) must consider the impact of organizational change on the success and failure of project implementations. The case for requiring project managers to be conversant with organizational change management (OCM) is made by the author by reviewing supportive literature. In addition, PM certifying agencies like PMI and IPMA are strongly encouraged to include education on OCM to the certification process for new PMs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T17:30:57Z
       
 
 
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