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Journal Cover   International Journal of Project Management
  [SJR: 1.092]   [H-I: 67]   [34 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-7863
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2588 journals]
  • Learning between projects: More than sending messages in bottles
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Andreas Hartmann , André Dorée
      Although learning from projects has gained much importance in research and practice, progress in understanding and improving inter-project learning appears to be slight. We argue that the adoption of a sender/receiver approach limits the learning effectiveness in project-based organisations. Drawing upon the notion of learning as a social activity embedded in an organisational context, we develop the argument that learning from projects takes place within projects rooted in the historical, organisational and cultural context of previous and current projects. We underpin our argument with results from a multiple-case study on learning in construction organisations. We show that learning cannot be segregated from immediate practice and occurs when individuals engage in project work. Particularly the orientation towards project goals and project-overarching ambitions or trajectories can serve as contextual binder for learning in and between projects.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Examining the factors influencing cross-project knowledge transfer: An
           empirical study of IT services firms in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dali Zhao , Meiyun Zuo , Xuefei (Nancy) Deng
      Despite the significance of the knowledge initiatives at project level, our understanding of knowledge transfer between projects and of its influencing factors remains limited. Drawing on knowledge transfer and project management literature, we develop a theoretical model positing that cross-project knowledge transfer is influenced by project teams' transfer capabilities, project teams' relationship, project task context and project team context. We adopt mixed methods and empirically test the model in the context of Chinese IT services firms. Our data analysis reveals that cross-project knowledge transfer is affected differently by the capabilities of and governance efforts by the source and recipient teams. Our study concludes that project-based organizations and project managers will be able to better manage the complexity of cross-project knowledge transfer if they simultaneously consider the multiple dimensions of factors underlying the complex knowledge transfer process and be mindful of the source and recipient of knowledge in the project setting.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Developing a systemic lessons learned knowledge model for organisational
           learning through projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Stephen Duffield , S. Jonathan Whitty
      A significant challenge for government and business project organisations is to ensure that lessons are learned and that mistakes of the past are not repeated. Both knowledge and project management literature suggests that in practice lessons learned processes rarely happen, and when it does it is concerned with lessons identification rather than organisational learning. There are limited practical models for general management to use to conceptualise what organisational learning is and therefore how to enable it. However, aspects of health care, nuclear power, rail, and aviation organisations have successfully implemented organisational learning by way of the Swiss cheese model for safety and systemic failures. This paper proposes an adaptation of the Swiss cheese model to enable project organisations to conceptualise how they learn from past project experiences and distribute successful project know-how across an organisational network of elements such as individual learning, culture, social, technology, process and infrastructure.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • The integration of project management and organizational change management
           is now a necessity
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Henry A. Hornstein
      Project management processes and the training of new project managers (PM) must consider the impact of organizational change on the success and failure of project implementations. The case for requiring project managers to be conversant with organizational change management (OCM) is made by the author by reviewing supportive literature. In addition, PM certifying agencies like PMI and IPMA are strongly encouraged to include education on OCM to the certification process for new PMs.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Plans versus people: Comparing knowledge management approaches in
           IT-enabled business projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Andrew Gemino , Blaize Horner Reich , Chris Sauer
      This paper evaluates the impact of two approaches to knowledge management in projects — one focused on aligning project documents (“the Plan-based approach”) and another focused on developing shared understanding between different teams within a project (“the People-based approach”). A theoretical model and hypotheses are proposed and explored using data from a survey of 212 IT-enabled business projects. Results indicate that the people-based approach is more strongly influential on a project's success in securing business benefits. Although the plan-based approach is less influential, it does positively influence business benefit attainment and also supports the people-based approach. Thus, attaining shared understanding within the project team and aligning key documents are both important goals for a project's knowledge management strategy.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Rethinking project management: A structured literature review with a
           critical look at the brave new world
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Per Svejvig , Peter Andersen
      This paper presents the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management (RPM) literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition takes a critical look at this brave new world. Through the analysis, a total of 6 overarching categories emerged: contextualization, social and political aspects, rethinking practice, complexity and uncertainty, actuality of projects and broader conceptualization. These categories cover a broad range of different contributions with diverse and alternative perspectives on project management. The early RPM literature dates back to the 1980s, while the majority was published in 2006 onwards, and the research stream appears to be still active. A critical look at this brave new world exhibits the overall challenge for RPM to become much more diffused and accepted.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Improvisation in project management: A praxeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Louis Klein , Christopher Biesenthal , Erlend Dehlin
      Project management is complex and therefore a fruitful ground for creative, spontaneous and intuitive applications of particular theories to meet the stated objectives in a constantly changing environment. This form of work is defined as improvisation, which describes a pragmatic approach of applying existing theories in novel ways to deliver a successful project. The combination of a solid theoretical knowledge base and improvisational practices is our approach to conceptualise a praxeology of resilient project management. A praxeological mindset is well suited to improve our current understanding of project management towards a more resilient meta-theory of project management that is able to address complexity. This paper contributes to the current debates in project management, as it develops a foundation for bridging theory and practice. Providing sound, practice-related theories stimulates fruitful debate between the various professions of the project-management community, which will help the field to further mature and grow.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Innovative approaches in project management research
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ralf Müller , Jonas Söderlund



      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • What is a good project manager? An Aristotelian perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Christophe Bredillet , Stephane Tywoniak , Ravikiran Dwivedula
      The purpose of this paper is to take a critical look at the question “what is a competent project manager?” and bring some fresh added-value insights. This leads us to analyze the definitions, and assessment approaches of project manager competence. Three major standards as prescribed by PMI, IPMA, and GAPPS are considered for review from an attribute-based and performance-based approach and from a deontological and consequentialist ethics perspectives. Two fundamental tensions are identified: an ethical tension between the standards and the related competence assessment frameworks and a tension between attribute and performance-based approaches. Aristotelian ethical and practical philosophy is brought in to reconcile these differences. Considering ethics of character that rises beyond the normative deontological and consequentialist perspectives is suggested. Taking the mediating role of praxis and phrónêsis between theory and practice into consideration is advocated to resolve the tension between performance and attribute-based approaches to competence assessment.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Call for Papers - Public policy and projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 2
      Author(s): Graham M. Winch , Joe Sanderson



      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • The effects of project characteristics on adopting relational transaction
           strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Yan Ning , Florence Yean Yng Ling
      The objective of this study is to investigate whether project complicatedness and the chances of recurring exchanges influence the adoption of relational transactions in public construction projects. A structured questionnaire was administrated in Singapore. The Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyze the data. The statistical results show that: (1) the level of project complicatedness has a positive correlation with the preservation of relationships, cooperation between contracting parties and procedural flexibility; and (2) the chances of recurring exchanges are positively correlated with harmonization between contracting parties, cooperation between contracting parties and procedural flexibility. The quantitative results were complemented by qualitative evidence from eight in-depth interviews, which validated that both the level of project complicatedness and the chances of recurring exchanges have influence on the adoption of relational transaction practices. This study contributes to knowledge by presenting empirically that project characteristics influence the adoption of relational transactions.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Project to improve knowledge management and key business results through
           the EFQM excellence model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Arturo Calvo-Mora , Antonio Navarro-García , Rafael Periañez-Cristobal
      There is a growing interest in knowledge management as a strategic weapon, although the debate continues over which are the most effective models for its implementation. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyse the potential of the EFQM Excellence Model to design and implement a knowledge management project (KMP) which improves the key results of the business. To reach the objective, a sample was used which consisted of 225 companies with experience in EFQM evaluations. The partial least squares structural equation modelling approach was used to test the model. The results show how the EFQM Excellence Model can be a valid framework upon which to implement a KMP. In addition, the use of process methodology and the involvement of suppliers and partners are key factors for KMP to have a significant impact on the key results of the business.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Opening the black box of project management: Does World Bank project
           supervision influence project impact?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Lavagnon A. Ika
      While the World Bank supervises projects, we do not know if this supervision influences project impact. Taking a managerial lens and, hence, moving away from a micro-economic lens, this research shifts the focus from how much effort is spent on project supervision to what makes it successful. Thus, the research looks inside the “black box” of project supervision and specifically examines the perceptions of World Bank project supervisors. Based on a sample of 178 projects and using structural equation modeling, we show that project supervision's critical success factors (CSFs) include design, monitoring, coordination, and training but by far design and monitoring are the prominent ones. Moreover, we find that project supervision positively influences project management success, but may not influence project impact. Since supervision pays off as it can lead to better project implementation performance, the World Bank should focus more on project planning, context and governance to achieve impact.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Front-end definition of projects: Ten paradoxes and some reflections
           regarding project management and project governance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Knut Samset , Gro Holst Volden
      The importance of the front-end decision-making phase in securing projects long-term success is being increasingly recognized. This area is underrepresented in the literature, but there are several key themes that run throughout, identifying key issues or difficulties during this stage. Clearly, a key to successful projects lies in the choice of concept. This paper presents some findings from the work of the Concept research programme on front-end management and governance of major public investment projects in Norway. It is based on studies that explore strengths and weaknesses in the processes of analysis and decision-making during the early phase before the final choice of conceptual solution is made, and the extent to which projects under study are (or are likely to be) relevant and effective in relation to needs and priorities in society. It concludes that there are frequent deficiencies in these processes, and that the potential for improvements is huge.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Improving and embedding project management practice in organisations
           — A qualitative study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Gabriela Fernandes , Stephen Ward , Madalena Araújo
      This paper describes the results of a qualitative study to develop a framework to help organisations to embed useful project management improvement initiatives (PMIIs), which specifically aimed to identify key PMIIs and key embedding factors, based upon the circumstances encountered in different organisations. While the literature on PM provides some advice about PMIIs, understanding how to facilitate their embedment appears to be limited. However, research reported in the innovation literature provides a useful preliminary set of salient factors. A first attempt at framework conceptualisation based on a literature review was used as a starting point for exploratory empirical research. A series of thirty semi-structured interviews with PM professionals sought to identify additional PMIIs and embedding factors and check its salience. Analysis of the interviews data led to a framework comprising key 15 PMIIs and 26 key embedding factors, grouped into four improving themes and six embedding themes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Environmental and social challenges for urban subway construction: An
           empirical study in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xiaolong Xue , Ruixue Zhang , Xiaoling Zhang , Rebecca Jing Yang , Hong Li
      With rapid urban development in China, investments on subway projects are increasing. Although the type of projects can relieve transportation pressure in cities and make citizen's life easier, it raises many environmental and social problems during the construction process, in particular, problems about residents' daily life. Therefore, it is necessary to identify key environmental and social impacts of urban subway constructions and adjust construction programs and urban transportation programs to reduce negative impacts on citizen's daily life during construction. This paper analyzes the key factors for measuring environmental and social influences of subway construction and their interrelationships by using structural equation modeling (SEM) method. Four major impact factors are identified, namely, the impact on residents' travel, transportation, environment and daily life. Then some suggestions are made accordingly. These findings can be used as references for governments, contractors and other parties to develop more rational construction programs to minimize negative impacts of subway construction in urban development.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Managing collaborative research projects: A synthesis of project
           management literature and directives for future research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Jan vom Brocke , Sonia Lippe
      Collaborative research projects have emerged as a particular form of academia–industry interaction. Over the past ten to fifteen years they have received increasing attention in the project portfolio of public and private organisations as well as in the project management literature. They present specific challenges, demanding of adaptations and adjustments to existing project management approaches. By means of a systematic literature review we provide a comprehensive list of the main challenges associated with these projects, as well as the guidelines, tools & techniques, and conceptual results that have been proposed to overcome them. The findings are synthesised into three main paradoxes, four general management strategies, and two main research streams. Against this background, we propose directives for future research that serve to improve the transfer of scientific knowledge into practice.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Implementing systems thinking to manage risk in public private partnership
           projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): M. Loosemore , E. Cheung
      The complexity of public private partnership (PPP) projects ensures that risks can arise and spread in unpredictable and sometimes catastrophic ways. Systems thinking is often proposed as a potential solution to this problem but has not been widely adopted in practice. To explore the reasons for this, interviews were conducted with sixteen senior construction professionals with experience of PPPs. The results show that the main barriers to the adoption of systems thinking are: conflicts of interest within PPP projects; confrontational contracts; resistance to change; lack of time and resources; perceptions of complexity; unknown legal implications of sharing risk; and external validation of existing risk management practices. It is concluded that in moving to a systems thinking approach, deeply imbedded ontologies, path dependencies, confrontational practices, and traditional linear and reductionist risk management practices will need to be challenged. Five key questions are also proposed for future research in this area.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Barriers against effective responses to early warning signs in projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Sara Haji-Kazemi , Bjørn Andersen , Ole Jonny Klakegg
      It is a major challenge for project organizations to react sufficiently quickly to the identified early warning signs of project problems in order to avoid the occurrence of those problems. This article investigates project and project organization specifications that influence the effectiveness of responses to early warning signs in projects. Based on a survey of Norwegian project managers or leaders' approaches to responding to such signs, this study reveals that there are specific barriers to their ability to respond to identified early warning signs. Barriers may develop due to organizational factors, such as project managers' optimism bias, the normalization of deviance within an organization, and the lack of an outside view. They can also develop due to projects' complexity. The authors elaborate on Ansoff's management model by clarifying the mentality filter in order to better define the procedure whereby obstructions are created.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Quantifying the complexity of transportation projects using the fuzzy
           analytic hierarchy process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): An T. Nguyen , Long D. Nguyen , Long Le-Hoai , Chau N. Dang
      Transportation projects are increasingly complex. A systematic approach for measuring and evaluating complexity in transportation projects is imperative. Thirty six project complexity factors were identified specifically for transportation construction. Using factor analysis, this study deduced the six components of project complexity, namely sociopolitical, environmental, organizational, infrastructural, technological, and scope complexity. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP) method was employed to determine the weights of the components and parameters of project complexity. Sociopolitical complexity was the most defining component of complexity in transportation construction. A complexity level (CL) was proposed to measure the overall project complexity. The application of the proposed approach was demonstrated in a case study of three transportation projects performed by a heavy construction company. As a quantitative measure CL enables managers to better anticipate potential difficulties in complex transportation projects. As a result, scarce resources will be allocated efficiently among transportation projects in a company’s portfolio.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Intuition in project management and missing links: Analyzing the
           predicating effects of environment and the mediating role of reflexivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Said Elbanna
      The role of an intuitive cognitive style in project planning may be more complex than prior studies have allowed for. Therefore, we used a model of the role of environment in intuition and the relationships between intuition, reflexivity, and project outcomes (measured as project success and speed of completion) in order to examine how environment influences intuition; and whether reflexivity mediates the link between intuition and project outcomes. Our field study incorporates responses from 450 managers representing 410 projects from firms located in the United Arab Emirates. The regression analysis suggests that competition uncertainty and environmental complexity are determinants of intuition; intuition promotes team reflexivity and this in turn enhances project outcomes. These results show that the intuitive approach in planning projects and team reflexivity are complementary foundations for improving different aspects of project performance and, therefore, that models of intuition in project management should incorporate the effects of reflexivity.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Review of studies on the Critical Success Factors for Public–Private
           Partnership (PPP) projects from 1990 to 2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Robert Osei-Kyei , Albert P.C. Chan
      The Critical Success Factors for Public–Private Partnership is a major research interest worldwide therefore this paper aims to methodically review studies on the CSFs for implementing PPP from some selected top tier academic journals from 1990 to 2013 (years inclusive). The search results indicated an increased research interest in the exploration of PPP CSFs since 1990. The mostly identified CSFs are risk allocation and sharing, strong private consortium, political support, community/public support and transparent procurement. It was further noticed that Australia, the U.K., China and Hong Kong have been the countries of focus for most research studies on PPP CSFs. Finally the research approaches adopted are case study, questionnaire survey and mixed methods. The findings revealed provide an overview of CSFs for PPPs in order to enhance future implementations. Moreover a checklist of CSFs for PPPs has been developed, which could be adopted for further empirical studies.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Measuring the complexity of mega construction projects in China—A
           fuzzy analytic network process analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Qinghua He , Lan Luo , Yi Hu , Albert P.C. Chan
      Mega construction projects in China are usually very complicated in nature, thus evaluating and understanding these complexities are critical to the success of these megaprojects. However, empirical studies related to the measurement of the complexity of megaprojects remain lacking. This paper aims to fill this gap by developing a complexity measurement model based on the Shanghai Expo construction project in China using fuzzy analytic network process (FANP). Firstly, a complexity measurement model consisting of 28 factors, which are grouped under six categories, namely, technological, organizational, goal, environmental, cultural and information complexities, is formulated through literature review using the content analysis technique. The model is then refined by a two-round Delphi survey conducted in the case megaproject. Finally, the refined model and suggestions for its application are provided based on the survey results. The model is believed to be beneficial for scholars and serve as reference for professionals in managing megaprojects.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • An exploratory study of understanding project risk management from the
           perspective of national culture
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Junying Liu , Fanye Meng , Richard Fellows
      Cultural influence is unavoidable in construction projects and a clear understanding of it is vital for successful risk management. This study aims to explore how culture influences contractors' risk management. A case study method is selected including four projects in China, Poland and Singapore. Data are collected through interviews and archival documents. Major risks are identified and risk management in each case is discussed in the context of Hofstede's theory. A conceptual framework is proposed to reveal the link between culture and risk management. The findings show that project risks are perceived and managed differently in different national cultures. It is indicated that IDV and UAI are the foci of attention, beyond the contributions of PDI, LTO and MAS, and that contractors' knowledge of the host country's national culture influences their risk management behaviors. Having such information is of great importance to improve international contractors' risk management practice.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Exploring factors of preparing public engagement for large-scale
           development projects via a focus group study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Jingyu Yu , Mei-yung Leung
      Public engagement (PE) is increasingly employed to gauge public opinions and obtain their support on large-scale planning and development projects. Despite its booming development, there is a lack of research on how to prepare PE activities. In order to explore the factors of preparing PE activities in the construction industry, four focus groups were conducted, each including different stakeholders (e.g., PE organizers, construction professionals, interest groups, and local residents). Seven critical factors for preparing PE were identified into 3 main dimensions: (1) social (e.g., governmental support and bottom-up consultation approaches); (2) project (e.g., project characteristics, PE program, and project information and publicity); and (3) stakeholder (e.g., stakeholder identification and representative sampling). Based on the results of focus groups, we propose several practical recommendations to stimulate active engagement and improve performance of PE activities, including developing PE guidelines, preparing project information with appropriate language and formatting, and establishing stakeholder identification methods.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Owner project capabilities for infrastructure development: A review and
           development of the “strong owner” concept
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Graham Winch , Roine Leiringer
      Research on the management of major projects is one of the main themes of Peter Morris' work. We address this theme in the context of transportation infrastructure projects and focus in particular on the contribution of the “strong owner” to project performance. After defining the strong owner concept, we will suggest that the theoretical literature on dynamic capabilities can be the source of deeper insight into the strong owner and will thereby develop the concept of owner project capabilities. The paper will then present a framework generated from a review of the existing literature complemented by pilot empirical research which provides the basis for a research agenda on the role of the owner of the infrastructure assets in achieving high performance on transportation infrastructure projects. In discussion, the paper suggests that the framework developed is applicable to a wider variety of major projects and programmes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Performance measurement and the prediction of capital project failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Hong Long Chen
      This paper examines how changes in project-management performance in the execution phase affect project outcomes at completion. While identifying the key determinants of project-management performance is critical, few studies examine the discriminatory power of performance variables for predicting capital project failure at completion. Using 130 capital projects and a longitudinal design, this study develops a performance-measurement model based on changes in project-management performance during the execution phase. Subsequent hierarchical logistic-regression analysis reveals a good explanation of the variation in the failure of capital projects and high classification accuracy. Validating out-of-sample data demonstrates that the optimal model provides a reasonably good overall classification rate of 81.54%. Ultimately, our findings suggest that performance changes in the execution phase explain an important part of project outcomes and, more importantly, are useful predictors for project failure.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Does Agile work? — A quantitative analysis of agile project
           success
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Pedro Serrador , Jeffrey K. Pinto
      The Agile project management methodology has been widely used in recent years as a means to counter the dangers of traditional, front-end planning methods that often lead to downstream development pathologies. Although numerous authors have pointed to the advantages of Agile, with its emphasis on individuals and interactions over processes, customer collaboration over contracts and formal negotiations, and responsiveness over rigid planning, there are, to date, very few large-scale, empirical studies to support the contention that Agile methods can improve the likelihood of project success. Developed originally for software development, it is still predominantly an IT phenomenon. But due to its success it has now spread to non-IT projects. Using a data sample of 1002 projects across multiple industries and countries, we tested the effect of Agile use in organizations on two dimensions of project success: efficiency and overall stakeholder satisfaction against organizational goals. We further examined the moderating effects of variables such as perceived quality of the vision/goals of the project, project complexity, and project team experience. Our findings suggest that Agile methods do have a positive impact on both dimensions of project success. Further, the quality of the vision/goals is a marginally significant moderator of this effect. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Signs to dogma: A Heideggerian view of how artefacts distort the project
           world
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Bronte van der Hoorn , Stephen J. Whitty
      There are a variety of artefacts that are commonly associated with projects and their management. This article uses the Heideggerian concept of signs to disclose the elements of the “lived experience” of project work that are veiled or distorted by these artefacts. The exploration also identifies the elements of the dominant thinking of project management (dogma) that are referred to by these artefacts. The reason for this veiling and distortion is discussed with reference to the linguistics concept of veiled intention. A key implication of these findings is that effort is being expended on these artefacts which reinforce thinking that is not aligned with the “lived experience” of projects. It also indicates the relationship of the dominant project management dogma to the discipline’s artefacts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Social responsibility of major infrastructure projects in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): S.X. Zeng , H.Y. Ma , H. Lin , R.C. Zeng , Vivian W.Y. Tam
      China has implemented a large number of major infrastructure projects (MIPs) over the last three decades. Social responsibility management is crucial for MIPs' sustainable development. What is social responsibility of major infrastructure (MIP-SR)? To answer this question, this article proposes the concept and key issues of major infrastructure projects' social responsibility (MIP-SR) and develops a comprehensive conceptual framework for MIP-SR, which covers three dimensions: (i) project life-cycle dynamics; (ii) stakeholder's heterogeneity and (iii) social responsibility interactivity. The three-dimensional framework provides a systematic framework for MIP-SR's academic research and practical implementation, which in turn promotes the sustainable development of MIPs.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Developing a city-level multi-project management information system for
           Chinese urbanization
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yongkui Li , Yujie Lu , Young Hoon Kwak , Shuang Dong
      The unprecedented Chinese urbanization leads to massive government-funded construction projects. In most cities, a special project management mode called “Agent Construction Model (ACM)” has been adopted to manage and govern these projects under the same umbrella of administrative standards. The ACM integrates all available government resources to complete the urbanization projects but meanwhile it faces great challenges from overwhelming complex information and information processing. This study presents the development of a city-level multi-project management information system to decompose the information processing complexity in the context of ACM management mode. The complex adaptive system and two specific development techniques—adaptive project framework and modularized functional design method—are introduced for the system development. The system was validated at a typical urbanization city in Changchun, China. This research complements the existing project information system by adopting complexity design principles and it also provides practical value for managing large-scale urbanization projects.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Evaluation on the utility efficiency of metro infrastructure projects in
           China from sustainable development perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Liyin Shen , Liudan Jiao , Bei He , Lanchun Li
      The development of metro infrastructure projects (MIP) has been playing an important role in the economic growth in China through improving urban transportation condition. The economic benefits from MIP in China have been well appreciated. However, concerns on the utility efficiency and the impacts of MIP on social and environmental aspects have been increasingly raised. It is anticipated that a large number of metro infrastructure projects will be built in the near future in China. There is a need for a method to guide the development of MIP towards achieving better utility efficiency and collective benefits between economic, social and environmental dimensions. Previous studies have provided various methods for evaluating economic performance of MIP, but it appears that there is no existing method for studying the utility efficiency of a metro infrastructure project particularly from sustainable development perspective. This paper presents a model for evaluating the utility efficiency of MIP with reference to the Chinese context, which is called utility efficiency evaluation index (UEEI) model. Population of city (POP), length of Metro systems (LEN), annual ridership of Metro systems (RID), ticket price (FAR) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) are selected as the variables for developing the UEEI model. The utility efficiency of the 17 MIPs is analyzed by using the data collected from 17 cities in China.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • PPP application in infrastructure development in China: Institutional
           analysis and implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Shuibo Zhang , Ying Gao , Zhuo Feng , Weizhuo Sun
      Public–private partnership (PPP) has been applied more and more widely for the past two decades. Questions still remain as to how to cultivate a facilitating institutional environment for developing PPP projects success. This paper examines such a question, focusing on the institutional analysis of the Chinese context. A theoretical framework of PPP governance is first developed, identifying the logics and interactions of the differentiating levels in the PPP system. Then, the institutional framework of China is presented with regard to its cultural, legal, and administrative characteristics, as the embeddedness of PPP development. Thereafter, the evolution of Chinese institutions with particular regard to PPP is analyzed. Findings show that changes in the institutional arrangements have to go in tandem with introduction of PPP, and performance of PPP is closely related with its institutional environment. Suggestions are put forward to enhance China’s institutional arrangements for healthy PPP promotion, and the implications for governments and investors in other countries are described.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • On the management of social risks of hydraulic infrastructure projects in
           China: A case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Qian Shi , Yang Liu , Jian Zuo , Ningxia Pan , Guofeng Ma
      With social risk management attracting more attention in China, the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and the State Council released the “Guidance (trial) on Establishing a Sound Social Risk Assessment Mechanism”. It is mandated that all infrastructure projects must pass social risk assessment prior to the project implementation. However, social risk management is in its infancy and has not formed a unified paradigm in China. In this paper, with an aim to explore how to manage social risks of infrastructure projects, particularly during the process of urbanization, a case study was undertaken on the identification of social risks based on an in-depth investigation of a hydraulic project. Related stakeholders were recognized in the first instance, followed by the assessment of social risks based on observations, expert meetings, interviews and discussion forums. Response plans were developed to prevent, mitigate and cope with the potential consequences of social risk events that may occur before or during the implementation process. The findings of this paper may provide a reference to the social risk management of future infrastructures.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Evaluation of the excess revenue sharing ratio in PPP projects using
           principal–agent models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Yinglin Wang , Jicai Liu
      In PPP projects, a reasonable risk-sharing system determines whether project financing will be successful. It is often necessary for the host government to provide investors with certain guarantees that relieve some of the risk shouldered by the private parties in order to attract investment. For instance, a minimum revenue guarantee (MRG) supplied by the government reduces the market risk taken by the investor. Based on the principle that the benefits one receives should be fairly equal to the risks taken, governments have the right to share any excess revenue the investors gain equal to the difference between the actual revenue gained by the investors and the cap of the expected earnings. As a result, an excess revenue sharing ratio has to be determined. This paper integrates the fairness preference theory with the traditional principal–agent model in order to calculate optimal incentives when principals (governments) employ agents (investors) who have fairness preferences. This study shows that sharing ratio of the excess revenue is related to the fairness preferences and the effort cost coefficient of the investors. Furthermore, governments can obtain more expected revenue when hiring investors with higher fairness preferences.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Identification and analyses of hidden transaction costs in project dispute
           resolutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Wenxue Lu , Lihan Zhang , Jing Pan
      The hidden transaction costs in project dispute resolutions exert an important influence on the decisions about dispute settlement. In order to obtain the variables and their importance rankings, we firstly developed a thirteen-variable framework of the hidden transaction costs through a literature review and semi-structured interviews. Then we conducted a questionnaire survey to collect the importance of each variable. Based on the results, it is possible to group these variables into five factors – reputation, cooperation and trust, emotion, time, and execution of judgments – by factor analysis. Lack of future cooperation and contractors' reputation damage are the two most important variables, while for owners, project delay is the most severe hidden transaction cost. The findings provide construction practitioners with a deep understanding of the potential hidden loss. Therefore, they will resolve disputes more rationally.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Construction and evaluation framework for a real-life project database
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jordy Batselier , Mario Vanhoucke
      In this paper, a real-life project database is created, outranking the existing empirical databases from project management literature in both size and diversity. To ensure the quality of the added project data, a database construction and evaluation framework based on the so-called project cards is developed. These project cards incorporate the concepts of dynamic scheduling and introduce two novel evaluation measures for the authenticity of project data. Furthermore, an overview of the constructed database leads to statements on the difference between planned and actual project performance and on the earned value management (EVM) forecasting accuracy. Moreover, the database is publicly available and can thus become the basis for many future studies related to project management, of which a few are suggested in this paper. To further support these studies, the database will continuously be extended utilizing the project cards. Furthermore, the project cards can also serve didactical purposes.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Sorting out the essence of owner–contractor collaboration in capital
           project delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mohammad Suprapto , Hans L.M. Bakker , Herman G. Mooi , Wim Moree
      Despite the relatively widespread recognition of relational-based contracting in engineering and construction projects, literature indicates a range of paradoxical issues in practice. This study attempts to reconstruct project practitioner's perspectives regarding the essence of collaborative relationships. Applying Q-methodology, subjective opinions and reflections of 30 project practitioners from 19 owner and engineering-construction firms were systematically analyzed. The result suggests four distinct perspectives towards effective working relationships, namely a) shared team responsibility, b) execution focused team, c) joint capability and structure; and d) senior leadership pair. Across perspectives, all practitioners shared a belief that an effective owner–contractor relationship should be based on affective trust, shared vision, and mutual attitudes such as open and honest communication, solution seeking instead of blaming, and senior management leadership. In contrast to prior research, long-term orientation and contractual functions were perceived to play a relatively limited role in improving owner–contractor relationships.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Evolution of public–private partnership models in American toll road
           development: Learning based on public institutions' risk management
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yin Wang
      Over the past few decades public-private partnership (PPP) models adopted by governments for infrastructure development throughout the world have evolved continuously. This article develops a dynamic framework which argues that PPP models evolve when some of the critical success factors (CSFs) for PPP are changed/improved over time based on project sponsors' risk management. The framework consists of four elements: CSFs for PPP, rising risks due to poorly addressed CSFs, the corresponding risk management to change/improve the CSFs, and consequently changed PPP models. Here, CSFs for PPP contain three aspects: external environment, internal project characteristics, and partnership-related factors. The framework is empirically explored with a multiple-case analysis of six toll roads developed in the United States since the late 1980s. The results demonstrate a two-phase evolution of PPP models in the studied context, confirm the theoretical framework, and find that public institutions' risk management can effectively explain the PPP evolution.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Identification of variables that impact project success in Brazilian
           companies
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Fernando Tobal Berssaneti , Marly Monteiro Carvalho
      This research aims to analyze the relation between project management maturity and the project success. Moreover, the moderating effect of top management support and the assignment of a dedicated project manager were analyzed. The methodological research approach was a survey of 336 professionals in the field of project management conducted in Brazilian organizations. The results show that project management maturity is significantly related to all vertices of the iron triangle (time, cost and technical performance) dimensions of success. However, it is not related to the customer satisfaction dimension. The two moderate variables, top management support and dedicated project manager, have significant impact on the time success dimension but not on customer satisfaction. It suggests focus on efficiency aspects rather than effectiveness aspects.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Adoption of project management practices: The impact on international
           development projects of non-governmental organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ruggero Golini , Matteo Kalchschmidt , Paolo Landoni
      International Development (ID) projects carried out by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are considered one of the pillars for providing assistance to developing countries, but these projects are reported to have high failure rates and their performance is often considered not satisfactory. Only recently researchers started to consider project management (PM) practices as possible remedy for the poor performance of ID projects. Following this direction, we have conducted a large-scale survey among project managers working for NGOs and dealing with ID projects to assess the extent of adoption of methodologies and tools. Moreover, this study assesses the impact of the PM practices on project performance. We present an analysis and discussion of the evidence from this international survey administered to almost 500 project managers. The results indicate different levels of maturity in the adoption of PM tools that are related to project success in both the short and long term.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Construction project control in the UK: Current practice, existing
           problems and recommendations for future improvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yakubu Olawale , Ming Sun
      The aim of this study is to address the main deficiencies with the prevailing project cost and time control practices for construction projects in the UK. A questionnaire survey was carried out with 250 top companies followed by in-depth interviews with 15 experienced practitioners from these companies in order to gain further insights of the identified problems, and their experience of good practice on how these problems can be tackled. On the basis of these interviews and syntheses with literature, a list of 65 good practice recommendations have been developed for the key project control tasks: planning, monitoring, reporting and analysing. The Delphi method was then used, with the participation of a panel of 8 practitioner experts, to evaluate these improvement recommendations and to establish their degree of relevance. After two rounds of Delphi, these recommendations are put forward as “critical”, “important”, or “helpful” measures for improving project control practice.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Measurement model of project complexity for large-scale projects from task
           and organization perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yunbo Lu , Lan Luo , Hongli Wang , Yun Le , Qian Shi
      Large-scale projects have grown in size, quantity, and complexity; thus, measuring project complexity has become an integral part of project management. This study used the task and organization (TO) perspective to propose a measurement model of project complexity through hidden work that reflected the dynamic “emerging” effect of influencing factors on project complexity. TO measures were identified and mapped with attribute settings of ProjectSim software. The proposed TO measurement method was then expressed as hidden workload divided by direct workload. Overall, 12 hypotheses on the relationship between TO measures and hidden workload were put forth. The Shanghai World Expo construction project was chosen to test the synchronous relationship between hidden workload and project complexity as well as to validate the proposed method. The measurement method could truly reflect the project complexity and therefore can be used to manage the complexity of large-scale projects.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Evolutionary analysis of the collaboration networks within National
           Quality Award Projects of China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Liang Liu , Chuanfeng Han , Weisheng Xu
      Construction organizations are increasingly cooperating in what are often referred to as “collaboration network” that enabled them to share risks, pool resources and explore opportunities to jointly participate in managing large-scale projects. In this study, we construct the so-called inter-contractors' collaboration networks by mapping the electronic database of NQAPC for an 8-year period (2003–2010). In these networks, nodes represent contractors; two contractors are connected by an edge if they have cooperated at least one project. By using a variety of network measures, i.e., giant component, degree distribution, average path length, and clustering coefficient, we aim to descriptively investigate the structural evolution of the collaborations between contractors in the construction industry of China. As network size increases, we find a structural transition in the collaboration community size, the degree follows power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff, the average path length tends to decrease, and the clustering coefficient slightly decreases. Some explanations and a series of construction insights are discussed. The results and methodologies not only would help governors understand the social mechanisms underlie processes of construction industry, but could help contractors choose competent partners by identifying network properties.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Research on the phenomenon of asymmetric information in construction
           projects — The case of China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Pengcheng Xiang , Xiaosen Huo , Liyin Shen
      From the perspective of information economics, asymmetric information leads to opportunistic behavior, which is the primary cause of loss and risk in the construction market. This research studies on the probability and impacts of asymmetric information phenomena systematically and focuses on information asymmetry among owners, contractors and supervisors. This is conducted by inviting construction industry participants in China to evaluate asymmetric information phenomena in project management by questionnaires. The evaluation includes two stages, i.e. bidding stage and performance stage. Risk significant index is used to identify the key asymmetric information phenomena. “Owner's financial condition” and “Owner's ability to pay progress payments” gains the highest score in these two stages respectively. The research helps to distinguish the primary and secondary order of asymmetric information phenomena and improves the efficiency of project management. Principal participants may use it as a reference to prevent and reduce the uncertainty and risk in project management.


      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Call for Papers - Special theme on: Advances in Building Information
           Modeling (BIM) for Construction Projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Xiangyu Wang , Mauro Mancini , Madhav Nepal , Heap-Yih Chong , Martin Skitmore , Raymond Issa



      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Management of Infrastructure Projects for Urbanization in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Liyin Shen , Qian Shi



      PubDate: 2015-03-20T07:21:10Z
       
  • Risk-bearing capacity as a new dimension to the analysis of project
           governance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Chen-Yu Chang
      Project governance has been recognized as a critical factor to the success of project delivery in practice. Accordingly, this research aims to demonstrate that the notion of risk-bearing capacity (RBC) can be drawn upon as a new dimension to the analysis and design of project governance. An effort is made to link this concept with the definitions of governance employed within the literature of transaction cost economics and corporate governance. The RBC approach distinguishes itself from extant views of project governance through its ability to quantitatively integrate organizational (e.g., delivery system), contractual (e.g., risk-sharing ratio) and financial (e.g., insurance cover) measures. This novel approach provides an avenue for incorporating the project's historical construction and operating data into the design of project governance; an advantage with the potential to exponentially increase as a torrent of digital data is made available through the deployment of emergent information technologies (e.g. building information modelling).


      PubDate: 2015-03-11T23:15:05Z
       
 
 
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