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Journal Cover International Journal of Project Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0263-7863
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2571 journals]   [SJR: 0.99]   [H-I: 58]
  • Project management learning: Key dimensions and saliency from student
           experiences
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Udechukwu Ojiako , Maxwell Chipulu , Melanie Ashleigh , Terry Williams
      Drawing upon literature, this study seeks to understand what the key dimensions of student experiences of project management learning are and what saliences students attach to such dimensions. Data is obtained from a sample of management and engineering students studying project management across four universities in the United Kingdom. We employ multidimensional scaling to extract the salience placed by students on the key dimensions. The results of the data analysis suggest that there are six dimensions of student experiences of project management. We also find that students attach markedly different levels of salience to these dimensions based on a number of demographic factors. More specifically, in terms of salience, we found that gender had the strongest relationship while prior experience of project management had the weakest. The implications of our findings are discussed from the perspective of andragogical congruence (compatibility) in teaching and learning.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • The project manager and the organisation's long-term competence goal
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Rolf Medina , Alicia Medina
      This paper presents empirical results from a study that aims to increase our understanding of the project manager's involvement in competence management in larger Swedish project-oriented organisations. Projects are today the predominant way of performing work. Organisations are also paying more attention to competence as competitive advantage. However, the logical interrelated connection between these two fields is still not understood. This study adopted a post-positivistic perspective starting with a qualitative step with in-depth interviews followed by a quantitative web survey. The major contributions are the framework that constitutes human resource management (HRM) competence management practices related to projects followed by the importance of project managers' involvement in the company's long-term goal in terms of competence. For researchers, these findings contribute to integrating project management into the HRM field. For practitioners, there is a need to review the project manager's participation in competence management.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Knowledge formation and learning in the management of projects: A problem
           solving perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Terence Ahern , Brian Leavy , P.J. Byrne
      In contrast to traditional projects, which are assumed to be fully specified and then executed with little learning anticipated, complex projects cannot be fully specified at the outset and require continuous learning over their life cycles. Nevertheless, the key role of knowledge formation and learning in managing complex projects is under-developed for expanding project capability boundaries to include knowledge uncertainty and indeterminacy. Drawing inspiration from Karl Weick's enactivist ideas and an empirical study of two organizations that developed project capability for complex projects, the paper develops an integrated view of projects and project management that is grounded in problem solving learning and organizing. More specifically, a project is reconceptualized as ‘a mode of organizing to accomplish a temporary undertaking’ with intrinsic learning. This perspective views complex projects under knowledge uncertainty as learning organizations, with implications for project management theory and practice.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Managing projects with distributed and embedded knowledge through
           interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Petra M. Bosch-Sijtsema , Lars-Henrik Henriksson
      In project-based industries studies show difficulties in extracting, distributing and applying embedded and practice knowledge across structural and organisational boundaries. We focus on interorganisational projects consisting of distributed and embedded knowledge. Interaction becomes important in order to cooperate and share interorganisational and distributed knowledge. The aim of the research is to explore how sharing and generating practice based and distributed knowledge occurs through interaction in interorganisational projects and how this is managed. The study focuses on the design phase and relates traditional design practices to concurrent design practices. In the study we observed six cases of design meetings in the construction and oil and gas industry and performed 31 interviews. The paper contributes with the following: (1) understanding and visualisation of interaction patterns, (2) insight in use of various forms of interaction, and (3) ways of managing distributed and embedded knowledge through interaction.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Governance performance in complex environment: The case of a major
           transformation in a university hospital
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Monique Aubry , Marie-Claire Richer , Mélanie Lavoie-Tremblay
      Project-based organisations have emerged as new forms of organisation in the last few decades. However, hierarchy persists. Both serve their own purpose, but entail different sets of values. This is particularly true in relation to the contribution of project management to organisational performance. The competing values framework has been used to highlight different sets of values and preferences underlying the evaluation of PMO performance and emphasizes the competing aspect. The research adopted a participatory action research approach in a university hospital where a major organisational transformation is taking place. Findings reveal the existence of paradoxes between the executives and the PMO regarding the PMO performance and show how these paradoxes evolved over time. This sheds light not only on the paradoxes, but also on the dynamic process related to performance evaluation within a transformation project.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Systems Engineering to improve the governance in complex project
           environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Giorgio Locatelli , Mauro Mancini , Erika Romano
      Projects delivered in complex environments are often late, over-budget and provide fewer benefits than what were originally expected. Systems Engineering is the emerging paradigm in complex project environments to transform the governance from “project based” to “system based” and thereby increase the chance of holistic success. Systems Engineering is a multidisciplinary approach to enable the successful delivery of systems in complex environments through a comprehensive set of approaches, techniques and tools, initially developed in the USA after the Second World War. This paper focuses on how Systems Engineering can transform the governance from “project governance” to “system governance”, improving the performance of projects delivered in a complex environment. This paper presents Systems Engineering tools and techniques focusing, in particular, on the most relevant for project management, project governance and stakeholder management. At the end it provides a rich research agenda for further studies.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • A conceptualization of knowledge governance in project-based organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Sofia Pemsel , Anna Wiewiora , Ralf Müller , Monique Aubry , Kerry Brown
      This paper conceptualizes and defines knowledge governance (KG) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Two key contributions towards a multi-faceted view of KG and an understanding of KG in PBOs are advanced, as distinguished from knowledge management and organizational learning concepts. The conceptual framework addresses macro- and micro-level elements of KG and their interaction. Our definition of KG in PBOs highlights the contingent nature of KG processes in relation to their organizational context. These contributions provide a novel platform for understanding KG in PBOs.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project
           governance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Eric G. Too , Patrick Weaver
      For an organization to create optimal value from its investment in projects there must be a clear link between the outputs created by the projects and the requirements of the organization's business strategy. This means that organizations that have a structure in place for aligning the project deliverables with their organizational goals will be better placed to realize their investment in projects, and achieve the value defined by their business strategies. This paper examines existing research, ideas and concepts of project governance and enterprise project management, and offers a framework to build on current theory development and practice. Synthesizing existing literature of project/program management, governance and portfolio management, this paper proposes four key elements to improve the performance of projects and hence create value for organizations. These four elements are (1) portfolio management: focused on selecting the right projects and programs to support the organization's strategy, and terminating ones that no longer contribute to the business success of the organization; (2) project sponsorship: providing the direct link between the executive and the project or program manager, focused on the whole project lifecycle; (3) Project Management Office (PMO): providing oversight and strategic reporting capabilities; (4) projects and program support: the effective support and management of projects and programs are the measures of an effective governance system. The purpose of the framework described in this paper is to provide guidance to organizations in the development of effective project governance to optimize the management of projects.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • What is project governance and what are its origins?
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Tuomas Ahola , Inkeri Ruuska , Karlos Artto , Jaakko Kujala
      Although there is an ever-increasing discussion on governance in recent project research, the concept of project governance and its main origins remains ambiguous. In this paper, we examine project governance literature and contrast it to general governance literature published outside the domain of project research. Our analysis revealed the existence of two distinct and relatively independent streams of research. One of these streams addresses project governance as a phenomenon external to any specific project, while the other views project governance as internal to a specific project. Our results further indicate that while project governance literature bases most of its argumentation on established project research it also, to a significant extent, draws from the transaction cost economics literature. Based on our findings, we argue that there exists considerable potential for bridging project governance literature and general governance literature further.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Multi-level project governance: Trends and opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Christopher Biesenthal , Ralf Wilden
      Project governance is important in ensuring successful project delivery. In this article we conduct a systematic investigation of previous research to provide a content-driven review of the literature, and to provide future research direction. We use the textual data mining software Leximancer to identify dominant concepts and themes underlying project governance research. Our findings indicate that agency and stakeholder theories have been adapted to the project governance context to a greater extent than other theories. Furthermore, we find differences in project governance research, published in project management journals compared to general management, IT and engineering journals. We conclude the paper by presenting a framework that links governance theories to the multiple organizational levels relevant to project governance.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Organizational enablers for governance and governmentality of projects: A
           literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Ralf Müller , Sofia Pemsel , Jingting Shao
      This study identifies the organizational enablers for governance in the realm of projects. We first conceptualize organizational enablers as comprising of process facilitators and discursive abilities, each with its own factors and mechanisms. Then we apply this concept to the literature on project governance, governance of projects and governmentality. Outcomes indicate that governance is enabled through different forms of flexibility at different levels of governance, institutional setup and authority at the project level, flexible structures and mindsets of people at the organizational level, and through development of self-responsible, self-organizing people for governmentality in project settings. Questions for future research are indicated.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Operationalizing governance categories of projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Ralf Müller , Laurence Lecoeuvre
      This study operationalizes an existing concept for the categorization of governance approaches for projects. For that the concept's four governance paradigms, based on the overlay of the shareholder–stakeholder orientation with the behavior–outcome control of a project's parent organization are measured. The measurement dimensions were derived from the intersection of governance and organization theory with project management theory, thereby addressing those areas of corporate governance and organizational control that extend into projects. The application of the measurement construct, its validity and reliability are tested through a world-wide questionnaire with 478 responses. Analysis of the responses shows the differences in governance structures for projects by country, project size, and project type. The results are important for managers developing governance structures and academics developing governance theories.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • The transformative effect of top management governance choices on project
           team identity and relationship with the organization — An agency and
           stewardship approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Aurélie Toivonen , Petri U. Toivonen
      This study focuses on the relationship and identity changes within and between a project team and its organization following top management intervention in the context of a large international construction project. The study follows the project-as-practice orientation, examining the actions and behaviors of the project team through participant ethnography in the “praxis” of the project site over its entire duration. The longitudinal case allows the examination of the way the transition process established a new governance culture undermining the initial trust-based one and changed it from a virtual absence of mechanisms toward far more potent mechanisms of control, monitoring, and punishment. Simultaneously, the initial stewardship relationships and collectivist identity of the project team shifted toward agency relationships and individualistic identity. The triggers for the transformation process were identified as CEO succession, project failure, top management intervention driven changes in governance mechanisms, and perception of organizational betrayal of the project team.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Complex project management as complex problem solving: A distributed
           knowledge management perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Terence Ahern , Brian Leavy , P.J. Byrne
      Traditional project management (PM) privileges planning and downplays the role of learning even in more complex projects. In contrast, this paper draws inspiration from two organisations that were found to have developed complex PM expertise as a form of complex problem solving (CPS), a practice with implicit learning because complex projects are unable to be completely specified in advance (Hayek, 1945). Central to this view of complex project management as a form of complex problem solving is the governance challenge of knowledge management under uncertainty. This paper proposes that the distributed coordination mechanism which both organisations evolved for this contingency can best be characterised as a ‘common will of mutual interest’, a self-organising process that was fostered around project goals and paced by the project life cycle (Kogut and Zander, 1992). The implications for theory, research, and practice in complex PM knowledge management are examined.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Cost overrun in the Malaysian construction industry projects: A deeper
           insight
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Zayyana Shehu , Intan Rohani Endut , Akintola Akintoye , Gary D. Holt
      The construction industry drives economic growth and development in Malaysia, but unfortunately, its projects often suffer from cost overruns (that is, negative cost variance such that final project cost exceeds contract sum). This can lead to conflict and litigation, or in the extreme, projects may even be abandoned. To better understand this phenomenon, a questionnaire survey of Malaysian quantity-surveying consultants was undertaken to obtain project characteristics and cost performance data, in relation to a sample of 359 recently completed construction projects. Data were analysed in terms of project financial outturn based on: contract values; project sector; type of project; procurement route; nature of projects; and tendering method used. The findings offer stakeholders descriptive statistical cost performance information in relation to these characteristics. These statistics will support first-order project management decision-making within Malaysia particularly; and internationally more generally, with a view to helping minimise project cost variance in the future.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Modeling contractors' project selection and markup decisions influenced by
           eminence
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Ali Shafahi , Ali Haghani
      To be successful in a competitive environment, contractors have to prepare their bids wisely. The two main decisions they have to make are the project selection decision and the markup selection decision. This paper proposes a new optimization model that combines these two main decisions. It also takes into account the importance of eminence and previous works as the most important non-monetary evaluation criterion used by owners for evaluating bids. These factors combined with the two decisions make this model complex and nonlinear. To solve this model, a customized Genetic Algorithm is developed. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the result of the model is compared to the results of conventional models that only consider bidding markups. The comparison shows that considering eminence can increase the expected profit of the contractor to more than 25% under some evaluation criteria mindsets of the owner.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Understanding the impact of risks on performance in internal and
           outsourced information technology projects: The role of strategic
           importance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 8
      Author(s): Shan Liu , Lin Wang
      Successfully managing the risks of information technology projects continues to be a central problem for organizations regardless of whether the project is outsourced or not. While a plethora of studies has examined the effects of risks on performance, majority fail to distinguish the sourcing characteristics of the projects investigated. Furthermore, little is known about the joint effects of strategic importance and the risk on system performance across internal and outsourced projects. Based on data collected from 77 internal projects and 51 outsourced projects, we find that social subsystem and project management risks are negatively associated with system performance in both internal and outsourced projects. However, technical subsystem risk negatively affects performance only in internal projects. While social subsystem risk exerts greater influence on system performance in outsourced projects than in internal projects, the technical subsystem risk has greater effect on performance in internal than that in outsourced projects. Moreover, the effect of project management risk is not different in both types of projects. In addition, strategic importance moderates the relationship between risks and performance. The negative impact of risks on performance is greater in projects that are more strategic. Strategies are proposed to reduce the complexity and potential conflicts inherent to strategic projects because these characteristics may amplify a risk's impact.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Construction and evaluation framework for a real-life project database
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Jordy Batselier , Mario Vanhoucke
      In this paper, a real-life project database is created, outranking the existing empirical databases from project management literature in both size and diversity. To ensure the quality of the added project data, a database construction and evaluation framework based on the so-called project cards is developed. These project cards incorporate the concepts of dynamic scheduling and introduce two novel evaluation measures for the authenticity of project data. Furthermore, an overview of the constructed database leads to statements on the difference between planned and actual project performance and on the earned value management (EVM) forecasting accuracy. Moreover, the database is publicly available and can thus become the basis for many future studies related to project management, of which a few are suggested in this paper. To further support these studies, the database will continuously be extended utilizing the project cards. Furthermore, the project cards can also serve didactical purposes.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Systemic analysis of the critical dimensions of project management that
           impact test and evaluation program outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Arekhandia Patrick Eigbe , Brian J. Sauser , Wilson Felder
      It is generally believed that adopting standard organizational project management (PM) practices enhances the capability of organizations to achieve program success and customer satisfaction. We asked what specific dimensions of PM practices have been most helpful to project and program managers of Test and Evaluation (T&E). This paper focuses on T&E PM within the Federal Aviation Administration, an agency of the US government. The objective was to identify the critical dimensions of PM that contribute to successful T&E execution and determine how these critical dimensions could be unified with technical processes to achieve customer satisfaction. By combining the expressive abilities of the Boardman Soft Systems Methodology with a case study approach, we identified a set of critical dimensions and created a conceptual model that unifies PM practices with T&E processes. We concluded with a set of critical project management practices that have impact for a T&E organization.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • Adoption of project management practices: The impact on international
           development projects of non-governmental organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Ruggero Golini , Matteo Kalchschmidt , Paolo Landoni
      International Development (ID) projects carried out by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are considered one of the pillars for providing assistance to developing countries, but these projects are reported to have high failure rates and their performance is often considered not satisfactory. Only recently researchers started to consider project management (PM) practices as possible remedy for the poor performance of ID projects. Following this direction, we have conducted a large-scale survey among project managers working for NGOs and dealing with ID projects to assess the extent of adoption of methodologies and tools. Moreover, this study assesses the impact of the PM practices on project performance. We present an analysis and discussion of the evidence from this international survey administered to almost 500 project managers. The results indicate different levels of maturity in the adoption of PM tools that are related to project success in both the short and long term.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T19:05:30Z
       
  • International journal of project management special issue on
           “classics in megaproject management” call for papers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Bent Flyvbjerg



      PubDate: 2014-10-03T18:53:09Z
       
  • A Heideggerian paradigm for project management: Breaking free of the
           disciplinary matrix and its Cartesian ontology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Bronte van der Hoorn , Stephen J. Whitty
      The purpose of this paper is to identify the new insights that emerge if key concepts in Heidegger's magnum opus Being and Time are applied to the phenomena of projects and their management. A theoretical approach is adopted with an introduction being provided to key Being and Time concepts, followed by the application of these concepts to the phenomena of projects and their management. A particular focus is on the relevance of Heidegger's ontology in underpinning the exploration of the ‘lived experience’ of project management and the disclosing of the actuality of project phenomena. It is found that key concepts in Heidegger's Being and Time (such as temporality, modes of being, being-in-the-world, dealing and the they) provide insights into various aspects of project management. The significance of such findings is demonstrated through a reconceptualisation of projects; and differentiation between, and reconceptualisation of project management versus project managing.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-10-03T18:53:09Z
       
  • Environmental and social challenges for urban subway construction: An
           empirical study in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Xiaolong Xue , Ruixue Zhang , Xiaoling Zhang , Rebecca Jing Yang , Hong Li
      With rapid urban development in China, investments on subway projects are increasing. Although the type of projects can relieve transportation pressure in cities and make citizen's life easier, it raises many environmental and social problems during the construction process, in particular, problems about residents' daily life. Therefore, it is necessary to identify key environmental and social impacts of urban subway constructions and adjust construction programs and urban transportation programs to reduce negative impacts on citizen's daily life during construction. This paper analyzes the key factors for measuring environmental and social influences of subway construction and their interrelationships by using structural equation modeling (SEM) method. Four major impact factors are identified, namely, the impact on residents' travel, transportation, environment and daily life. Then some suggestions are made accordingly. These findings can be used as references for governments, contractors and other parties to develop more rational construction programs to minimize negative impacts of subway construction in urban development.


      PubDate: 2014-09-28T18:35:48Z
       
  • A review of analytical models, approaches and decision support tools in
           project monitoring and control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Öncü Hazır
      This paper reviews the problems, approaches and analytical models on project control systems and discusses the possible research extensions. We focused on literature in Earned Value Analysis (EVA), optimization tools, and the design of decision support systems (DSS) that will contribute to helping project managers in planning and controlling under uncertain project environments. The review reveals that further research is essential to develop analytical models using EVA metrics to forecast project performance. It also suggests that DSS should be model driven, function as early warning systems and should be integrated to commercial project management software.


      PubDate: 2014-09-28T18:35:48Z
       
  • Conceptualising uncertainty in safety-critical projects: A practitioner
           perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Fiona C. Saunders , Andrew W. Gale , Andrew H. Sherry
      In safety-critical organisations such as civil-nuclear and aerospace, managing uncertainty is of particular importance as the consequences of failure can be potentially catastrophic. The challenge facing project managers in these complex, socio-technical environments is how to better understand the sources of project uncertainty and how to navigate a path through them in pursuit of successful project outcomes. This exploratory study analyses the literature on the management of uncertainty in projects using Söderlund's (2011) seven schools of thought on project management. Additionally it draws on interviews with project management practitioners from several large-scale projects in civil-nuclear and aerospace companies in the United Kingdom to posit the “uncertainty kaleidoscope” as a means of understanding the sources of uncertainty in safety-critical projects and identifies four conceptual approaches that may be adopted by project managers to attenuate the impact of uncertainty on the delivery of successful project outcomes.


      PubDate: 2014-09-28T18:35:48Z
       
  • Stakeholder management studies in mega construction projects: A review and
           future directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Ka Yan Mok , Geoffrey Qiping Shen , Jing Yang
      The complex and uncertain nature of mega construction projects (MCP) require an effective stakeholder management (SM) approach to accommodate conflicting stakeholder interests. Previous reviews regarding SM in construction sector are generic as their attentions have been placed on relatively small scale projects. A systematic review on SM studies in relation to MCP seems to be lacking. This paper analyzes the latest research development of this domain by reviewing selected articles published from 1997 to 2014. Four major research topics are identified: “stakeholder interests and influences”, “stakeholder management process”, “stakeholder analysis methods” and “stakeholder engagement”. This study reveals that SM approaches in MCP are subject to national context of the project, indicating a need to identify the impact of national culture on this discipline. Moreover, traditional stakeholder analysis techniques are widely adopted in MCP notwithstanding their weaknesses; therefore a social network approach for managing stakeholder interrelationships in these projects is needed.


      PubDate: 2014-09-22T18:15:44Z
       
  • Does team stability mediate the relationship between leadership and team
           learning? An empirical study among Dutch project teams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Chantal M.J.H. Savelsbergh , Rob F. Poell , Beatrice I.J.M. van der Heijden
      An exploratory field study was conducted among 30 project teams in the sectors of building and utilities, engineering and construction, infrastructure, and area decontamination and development in the Netherlands. It examined the influence of leadership on team learning behaviors and included team stability as a potential mediator, all analyzed at the team level using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that both person-oriented and task-oriented leadership behaviors were directly and positively related to team learning. Team stability did not mediate the relationship between leadership and team learning; however, a strong direct relationship between team stability and team learning was found. These findings have implications for interventions by all stakeholders of project teams (i.e., team members, project managers, and supervisors) aimed at increasing team learning. Suggestions are presented for leadership practices that stimulate project team learning behaviors.


      PubDate: 2014-09-18T17:59:14Z
       
  • Identification and analyses of hidden transaction costs in project dispute
           resolutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Wenxue Lu , Lihan Zhang , Jing Pan
      The hidden transaction costs in project dispute resolutions exert an important influence on the decisions about dispute settlement. In order to obtain the variables and their importance rankings, we firstly developed a thirteen-variable framework of the hidden transaction costs through a literature review and semi-structured interviews. Then we conducted a questionnaire survey to collect the importance of each variable. Based on the results, it is possible to group these variables into five factors – reputation, cooperation and trust, emotion, time, and execution of judgments – by factor analysis. Lack of future cooperation and contractors' reputation damage are the two most important variables, while for owners, project delay is the most severe hidden transaction cost. The findings provide construction practitioners with a deep understanding of the potential hidden loss. Therefore, they will resolve disputes more rationally.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-13T17:42:28Z
       
  • Human resource management practices and project success, a moderating role
           of Islamic Work Ethics in Pakistani project-based organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Adeel Sabir Khan , Farooq Rasheed
      Research on the relationship amongst “HR practices” and perceived “project success” in project-based Pakistani organizations is stimulating. Islam deliberates on ethics as a vital factor in day to day life. This study builds direct and moderating hypotheses for the relationship between four selected HR practices (Employees Recruitment & Selection, Employees Training & Development, Employees Performance Appraisals and Employees Compensation System), “project success” (PS) and “Islamic Work Ethics” (IWE) in project-based Pakistani organizations. The hypotheses have been confirmed using survey data collected from “4” major cities of the country using cross sectional design. The findings suggest that less “ETD” all other three HR practices influence PS in project-based Pakistani organizations; moreover, they reveal moderating effects of IWE only on the relationship between practice of “Employees Recruitment & Selection” and PS as perceived by employees in the organizations. The significance, implications and limitations of results have also been deliberated for further research.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-09-13T17:42:28Z
       
  • Governing projects under complexity: theory and practice in project
           management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Tyrone S. Pitsis , Shankar Sankaran , Siegfried Gudergan , Stewart R. Clegg
      In this paper we argue that the fledgling field of project and program governance has the potential to make a major scholarly and practical contribution. One that not only has the potential to mainstream project management within the broader business and management field, but to also cement its place as a dominant voice in the successful governance of the strategic intentions of organizations, societies, and nations. With this argument in mind three themes organize present discussion in this issue of International Journal of Project Management: the first concerns how we should make sense of governance, something that is clarified through a review of the current state of play in the literature; the second theme comprises papers that report research conducted on governance in projects, using insights from surveys, case studies and other systematic forms of empirical observation. The third theme focuses on theoretical models of governance, ranging from distributed knowledge management and learning perspectives on project governance to systems engineering approaches. While we do not claim that this issue is exhaustive, we do believe it provides a sign post about the current state of play, and the potential future of governance in project and program management as a mainstream domain of research, theory and practice.


      PubDate: 2014-09-13T17:42:28Z
       
  • An exploratory study of understanding project risk management from the
           perspective of national culture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Junying Liu , Fanye Meng , Richard Fellows
      Cultural influence is unavoidable in construction projects and a clear understanding of it is vital for successful risk management. This study aims to explore how culture influences contractors' risk management. A case study method is selected including four projects in China, Poland and Singapore. Data are collected through interviews and archival documents. Major risks are identified and risk management in each case is discussed in the context of Hofstede's theory. A conceptual framework is proposed to reveal the link between culture and risk management. The findings show that project risks are perceived and managed differently in different national cultures. It is indicated that IDV and UAI are the foci of attention, beyond the contributions of PDI, LTO and MAS, and that contractors' knowledge of the host country's national culture influences their risk management behaviors. Having such information is of great importance to improve international contractors' risk management practice.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T17:30:57Z
       
  • The integration of project management and organizational change management
           is now a necessity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Henry A. Hornstein
      Project management processes and the training of new project managers (PM) must consider the impact of organizational change on the success and failure of project implementations. The case for requiring project managers to be conversant with organizational change management (OCM) is made by the author by reviewing supportive literature. In addition, PM certifying agencies like PMI and IPMA are strongly encouraged to include education on OCM to the certification process for new PMs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-08T17:30:57Z
       
  • Earned readiness management for scheduling, monitoring and evaluating the
           development of complex product systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Romulo Magnaye , Brian Sauser , Peerasit Patanakul , David Nowicki , Wesley Randall
      How should the development of a complex product system (CPS) be managed in a manner that focuses on process milestones, which is responsive to changes in technology and requirements; based on maturity measures; and applied in an interactive manner, in addition to facilitating timely feedback? This is considered to be an important question in project management. Project management tools and techniques have been inadequate for monitoring technology development in a CPS. If the technologies are not properly matured by a specific period of time, the progress of the project can be in detriment. To address this important gap, the objective of this study is to develop a new maturity-focused methodology for scheduling, monitoring and evaluating the development of a system. We present Earned Readiness Management (ERM) for system scheduling, monitoring and evaluation which was developed and validated using a case study. Future research on ERM is also discussed in this paper.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Concession period for PPPs: A win–win model for a fair risk sharing
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Nunzia Carbonara , Nicola Costantino , Roberta Pellegrino
      Public Private Partnership (PPP) is adopted throughout the world for delivering public infrastructure. Despite the worldwide experience has shown that PPP can provide a variety of benefits to the government, to fully gain them several critical aspects related to a PPP project need to be managed, among these the determination of the concession period. This paper provides a methodology to calculate the concession period as the best instant of time that creates a ‘win–win’ solution for both the concessionaire and the government and allows for a fair risk sharing between the two parties. In other words, the concession period is able to satisfy the private and the government by guaranteeing for both parties a minimum profit, and, at the same time, to fairly allocate risks between parties. In order to take into account the uncertainty that affects the PPP projects, the Monte Carlo simulation was used. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model, a Build–Operate–Transfer (BOT) port project in Italy has been used as case study.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Project cost risk analysis: A Bayesian networks approach for modeling
           dependencies between cost items
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Vahid Khodakarami , Abdollah Abdi
      Uncertainty of cost items is an important aspect of complex projects. Cost uncertainty analysis aims to help decision makers to understand and model different factors affecting funding exposure and ultimately estimate the cost of project. The common practice in cost uncertainty analysis includes breaking the project into cost items and probabilistically capturing the uncertainty of each item. Dependencies between these items are important and if not considered properly may influence the accuracy of cost estimation. However these dependencies are seldom examined and there are theoretical and practical obstacles in modeling them. This paper proposes a quantitative assessment framework integrating the inference process of Bayesian networks (BN) to the traditional probabilistic risk analysis. BNs provide a framework for presenting causal relationships and enable probabilistic inference among a set of variables. The new approach explicitly quantifies uncertainty in project cost and also provides an appropriate method for modeling complex relationships in a project, such as common causal factors, formal use of experts' judgments, and learning from data to update previous beliefs and probabilities. The capabilities of the proposed approach are explained by a simple example.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Stakeholder dynamics and responsibilities in Public–Private
           Partnerships: A mixed experience
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Steven De Schepper , Michaël Dooms , Elvira Haezendonck
      Although stakeholder management is seen as one of the main success factors of Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs), to date, limited research has investigated actual stakeholder management in PPPs. After positioning PPP in the current stakeholder management theory, a comparative case study analysis of four PPP infrastructure projects demonstrates the relevance and importance of stakeholder inclusion in PPPs. The case study findings indicate that a PPP makes the stakeholder environment more complex to manage, due to the increasing importance of the stakeholder context and dynamics. Hence, allocating stakeholder responsibilities between the public initiator and private consortium becomes problematic as it goes hand in hand with balancing between reactive and proactive responses to stakeholder claims. In order to cope with the PPP specific stakeholder characteristics, the use of a dynamic dual stakeholder management tool is recommended as well as the identification of governance structures that allow the sharing and division of responsibilities between stakeholders.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Learning from international development projects: Blending Critical
           Project Studies and Critical Development Studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Lavagnon A. Ika , Damian Hodgson
      This article aims at making international development (ID) projects critical. To that end, it shows that project management (PM) in ID has evolved as an offshoot of conventional PM moving like the latter, but at varying speeds, from a traditional approach suited to blueprint projects where tools matter (1960s–1980s); towards eclectic and contingent approaches suited to process projects where people matter the most (1980s–now); and finally pointing towards the potential contribution of a critical perspective which focuses on issues of power (1980s–now). Consequently, it points to a confluence between the Critical Project Studies movement and Critical Development Studies movements. More specifically, it argues that the postdevelopment, the Habermasian, the Foucauldian and the neo-Marxist lenses may be effectively called upon in that scholarship. Thus, it suggests a framework to encourage project actors to reflect on their personal positions in light of the power relations which shape PM in ID.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Adaptive programme management through a balanced performance/strategy
           oriented focus
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Jeroen Rijke , Sebastiaan van Herk , Chris Zevenbergen , Richard Ashley , Marcel Hertogh , Ernst ten Heuvelhof
      This paper explores how programme management (as opposed to project management) can contribute to the effective design and delivery of megaprojects. Traditionally, project management is considered to be performance focused and task oriented, whilst programme management entails a more strategic focus. The programme management literature suggests that this can result in tensions between the management of the projects and the programme as a whole. This paper uses the findings of the €2.4billion Room for the River flood protection programme in the Netherlands as a case study, because indicators about its budget, time, quality and stakeholder satisfaction suggest high programme management performance upon completion of the planning and design stage of its 39 river widening projects. Based on a literature review, document analysis and 55 face-to-face interviews, we have analysed how the programme management of the programme contributed to this result. Six attributes for effective programme management that are identified from the project and programme management literature are used to structure the research data. Consecutively, the interactions between project and programme management are analysed. The analysis of Room for the River reveals a combined strategic/performance focus at the level of both programme and project management that enables a collaborative approach between programme and project management. This particularly enables effective stakeholder collaboration, coordination and adaptation of the programme to contextual changes, newly acquired insights and the changing needs of consecutive planning stages, which positively contributes to the performance of the programme as a whole.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • The effects of organizational culture and environmental pressures on IT
           project performance: A moderation perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Vicky Ching Gu , James J. Hoffman , Qing Cao , Marc J. Schniederjans
      In this study we examine the impact of culture and environmental pressures on IT project performance. Specifically, the current study examines four dimensions of organizational culture (i.e., institutional collectivism, results orientation, positive work environment, leadership risk tolerance) and environmental pressures that are competitive and regulatory in nature. Within the context of these variables this study examines the moderating effect of environmental pressures (i.e., levels of competitive and regulatory pressure) on the relationship between organizational culture and IT project performance. The model was empirically tested with data from the United States and China. These two countries were chosen due to their very distinctive characteristics related to organizational resources and environmental factors. Results support the theory that the relationship between organizational culture and IT project performance is moderated by environmental pressures. These results should aid project managers when making decisions pertaining to the designing and carrying out of project management practices.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • The ritualization of transitions in the project life cycle: A study of
           transition rituals in construction projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Leonore van den Ende , Alfons van Marrewijk
      To manage the project life cycle and facilitate transitions, Project Management (PM) research often points to temporal models and structuring devices. However, the social and symbolic facet of transitions in projects remains understudied. Therefore, this research focuses on the ritualization of transitions in projects. Specifically, the aim is to gain insight into the practice and meaning of transition rituals in the project life cycle. To do so we draw from field research in the infrastructure sector where participant-observation was carried out during eight transition rituals in four Dutch construction projects, and 58 interviews were executed with project participants. The contribution to the PM debate on temporary organizing lies in the conceptualization of transition rituals as powerful symbolic and strategic practices in the project life cycle, and in the provision of an overview showcasing how, when and why transition rituals are practiced to facilitate transitions and embed a project in its environment.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • “Drop your boat!”: The discursive co-construction of project
           renewal. The case of the Darwin mountaineering expedition in Patagonia
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Geneviève Neukirch Musca , Caroline Mellet , Gilda Simoni , Frédérique Sitri , Sarah de Vogüé
      When a project faces an unexpected, ambiguous and risky environment, “drop your tools” often comes up against the reluctance of the actors to accept and implement its renewal. Our contribution aims to explore how team members discursively co-construct the sense of their situation and accept to “drop their tools”. Drawing upon a real-time, in situ ethnographic study of a mountaineering expedition in Patagonia, we conducted a discursive analysis of a project renewal episode. Our paper first contributes to shed light on an unexplored phenomenon: the construction and acceptance of “dropping the tools”. Second, we add to the literature on project renewal. Third, we show how team members make sense in real-time of their environment by drawing on four discursive practices (re-wording, reframing, focusing attention, and reaffirming team cohesiveness) in order to construct and accept project renewal.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Stakeholder analysis and engagement in projects: From stakeholder
           relational perspective to stakeholder relational ontology
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Stephanie Missonier , Sabrina Loufrani-Fedida
      This paper investigates the stakeholder analysis and engagement in the field of project management. In response to the limits of prior studies, we propose a relevant conceptual approach by moving from a stakeholder relational perspective, anchored in recent studies on Social Network Theory, to a stakeholder relational ontology, anchored in Actor–Network Theory (ANT). We apply our approach to read and understand a longitudinal case study of an Information System (IS) project. Our most important findings suggest that this approach based on ANT improves stakeholders' analysis of and engagement in a project by shedding light on the dynamic and emergent nature of the relationships, since we demonstrate that the nature, roles, and relations between stakeholders co-evolve with the project's definition and trajectory. Consequently, we can provide project managers with a relevant approach that informs them about what to observe in stakeholder project networks, as well as how and when to observe them.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • “On time and on budget”: Harnessing creativity in large scale
           projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Esther R. Maier , Oana Branzei
      Keeping large scale projects “on time and on budget” is no trivial accomplishment, especially when they rely on creative contributions from multiple individuals and groups that cannot be precisely timed. Simultaneously delivering on all of these aspects requires a flexible and nuanced approach to controls that builds on the discipline instilled in professional practice. We substantiate this insight with 82-day ethnography of a dramatic television series production as it unfolded in real-time. Our analyses reveal three distinct practices enacted by project members to (re)balance creativity within the parameters of the project: 1) analogically linking controls with creative tasks; 2) (in)formally attuning creative tasks to controls as the project unfolds; and 3) (re)allocating scarce resources to realize creative aspirations of the project. Taken together, these practices organically but predictably (re)balance creativity and control in large scale projects.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7




      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Extending project management research: Insights from social theories
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Serghei Floricel , Claudine Bonneau , Monique Aubry , Viviane Sergi
      Our article answers the call for renewing the theoretical bases of project management in order to overcome the problems that stem from the application of methods based on decision-rationality norms, which bracket the complexity of action and interactions in projects. By grounding our reflection in the practice perspective and by adopting Nicolini's (2013) toolkit approach, we suggest ways that could help practitioners and theorists make better sense of aspects that are highly relevant for project management but are usually overlooked. The paper discusses Nicolini's five dimensions of practice and three social theories (activity theory, actor–network theory and structuration theory) to highlight the combinations that are most appropriate and fruitful for addressing various theoretical and practical issues requiring the attention of project management researchers.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • The Last Planner System in China's construction industry — A SWOT
           analysis on implementation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Shang Gao , Sui Pheng Low
      The Last Planner System™ (LPS) is well-documented in the literature, and has sometimes been used to represent lean construction or lean project management. LPS aims to achieve reliable workflow by encouraging foremen to have a sense of ownership of the project programme and to build-in their commitment into it. This study reports on the perceptions of Chinese building professionals of the application of LPS in Chinese construction projects. It reveals that several components of LPS have already taken place in large Chinese construction firms. Further, this study employs a SWOT analysis to examine the possible strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat factors that might have an impact on implementation of LPS in construction projects in China.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Occupational stress and job demand, control and support factors among
           construction project consultants
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management, Volume 32, Issue 7
      Author(s): Paul Bowen , Peter Edwards , Helen Lingard , Keith Cattell
      Occupational stress affects the health and wellbeing of people who work, and the construction industry is recognized as a high-stress working environment. The relationship between job demands, job control, workplace support, and experiences of stress in the South African construction context is investigated, using hierarchical regression, factor analysis and structural equation modeling to explore the strength of thirteen factor relationships with perceived stress. Data were gathered from an on-line questionnaire survey response sample of 676 architects, civil engineers, quantity surveyors, and project and construction managers. Predictors displaying a significant relationship with occupational stress are the presence of work–life imbalance, the need to ‘prove’ oneself, hours worked per week, working to tight deadlines, and support from line managers in difficult situations at work. Existing theories of occupational stress are confirmed but not completely supported. The construction industry should give attention to how the need to work long hours is justified. Organizations should look to improving managerial and collegial support for construction professionals, but be careful in engaging in socializing and project team-building activities. Further research will need to focus more deeply on construction-specific job demand factors; explore why women professionals appear to experience more stress than men; and aim to develop reliable early-warning detection techniques for construction professionals.


      PubDate: 2014-08-02T16:49:35Z
       
  • Project-based and temporary organizing: Reconnecting and rediscovering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Jonas Söderlund , Brian Hobbs , Tuomas Ahola
      In recent years, the linkages between project management and organization theory have become stronger. In an attempt to address this development, this paper analyzes the research on temporary and project-based organizing. It especially discusses the development associated with the EGOS sub-themes on project organizing and the potential avenues for future research. The paper also summarizes the key findings from the included papers in the special issue on project-based and temporary organizing, which is based on papers from the EGOS conference in 2013. One key argument is that project organizing needs to develop along three lines: new empirical contexts, new theoretical/conceptual issues, and new research methodologies.


      PubDate: 2014-07-29T16:48:34Z
       
  • Multiproject lineage management: Bridging project management and
           design-based innovation strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2014
      Source:International Journal of Project Management
      Author(s): Rémi Maniak , Christophe Midler
      Innovation-based strategies are widely recognized as key drivers to maintain competitive advantage. The design and strategic literature underline the possibility of triggering a multiproduct value-expansion dynamic based on the creation of new concepts dynamically twinned with corporate strategy. However, the multiproject-management literature—portfolio, program, and platform—lags behind and remains focused on ex ante coordination, resource allocation and selectionism. Thus, there are still few indications of the processes that stimulate and orient continuous, profitable multiproject creative expansion. Bridging the multiproject-management literature and design theory, we propose a model of multiproject lineage management (MPLM), which focuses on the key processes that drive exploration efforts and shape innovation trajectory. We conduct a multiple longitudinal case analysis in the automobile sector. Based on this analysis, we expose the principles of MPLM, mapping the roles of corporate, program and project management within a global expansion project. Finally, we highlight our contributions to managerial practices and the related literature.


      PubDate: 2014-06-27T15:27:12Z
       
 
 
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