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Journal Cover Diabetes & Metabolism
  [SJR: 1.252]   [H-I: 70]   [62 followers]  Follow
    
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   ISSN (Print) 1262-3636
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3040 journals]
  • Comparison of two techniques of adiponectin assay, ELISA and
           immunoturbidimetry: Should we move towards standardization?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Fellahi, L. Béraud, G. Marlin, C. Vigouroux, J. Warszawski, J. Capeau, J.-P. Bastard


      PubDate: 2017-01-16T09:28:24Z
       
  • An extended fatty liver index to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): K. Kantartzis, I. Rettig, H. Staiger, J. Machann, F. Schick, L. Scheja, A. Gastaldelli, E. Bugianesi, A. Peter, M.B. Schulze, A. Fritsche, H.-U. Häring, N. Stefan
      Background In clinical practice, there is a strong interest in non-invasive markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our hypothesis was that the fold-change in plasma triglycerides (TG) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (fold-change TGOGTT) in concert with blood glucose and lipid parameters, and the rs738409 C>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PNPLA3 might improve the power of the widely used fatty liver index (FLI) to predict NAFLD. Methods The liver fat content of 330 subjects was quantified by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Blood parameters were measured during fasting and after a 2-h OGTT. A subgroup of 213 subjects underwent these measurements before and after 9 months of a lifestyle intervention. Results The fold-change TGOGTT was closely associated with liver fat content (r =0.51, P <0.0001), but had less power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.75) than the FLI (AUROC=0.79). Not only was the fold-change TGOGTT independently associated with liver fat content and NAFLD, but so also were the 2-h blood glucose level and rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3. In fact, a novel index (extended FLI) generated from these and the usual FLI parameters considerably increased its power to predict NAFLD (AUROC=0.79–0.86). The extended FLI also increased the power to predict changes in liver fat content with a lifestyle intervention (n =213; standardized beta coefficient: 0.23–0.29). Conclusion This study has provided novel data confirming that the OGTT-derived fold-change TGOGTT and 2-h glucose level, together with the rs738409 C>G SNP in PNPLA3, allow calculation of an extended FLI that considerably improves its power to predict NAFLD.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T09:28:24Z
       
  • Branched-chain amino acids are associated with odd-chain fatty acids in
           normoglycaemic individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Al-Majdoub, N. Geidenstam, A. Ali, M. Ridderstråle, P. Storm, L. Groop, L. Bennet, P. Spégel


      PubDate: 2017-01-16T09:28:24Z
       
  • Clinical parameters affecting dapagliflozin response in patients with type
           2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): J.-Y. Lee, G. Kim, S.R. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, B.-W. Lee, B.-S. Cha, E.S. Kang


      PubDate: 2017-01-16T09:28:24Z
       
  • Inhibition or deletion of 11β-HSD1 does not increase angiogenesis in
           ischemic retinopathy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): C.T. Davidson, A.R. Dover, C.M. McVicar, R. Megaw, J.V. Glenn, P.W.F. Hadoke, A.W. Stitt, B.R. Walker


      PubDate: 2017-01-16T09:28:24Z
       
  • Estrogen-related receptor γ gene (ESRRG) rs1890552 A>G polymorphism in
           a Korean population: Association with urinary prostaglandin F2α
           concentration and impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed type 2
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Kim, M. Kim, H.J. Yoo, R. Yun, S.-H. Lee, J.H. Lee


      PubDate: 2016-12-30T07:36:46Z
       
  • Factors associated with reaching or not reaching target HbA1c after
           initiation of basal or premixed insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A.J. Scheen, H. Schmitt, H.H. Jiang, T. Ivanyi
      Aims To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as basal hyperglycaemia, vs postprandial hyperglycaemia (PHG) before and after initiation of a basal or premixed insulin regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This post-hoc analysis of insulin-naïve patients in the DURABLE study randomised to receive either insulin glargine or insulin lispro mix 25 evaluated the percentages of patients achieving a target HbA1c of <7.0% (<53mmol/mol) per baseline HbA1c quartiles, and the effect of each insulin regimen on the relative contributions of PHG and FHG to overall hyperglycaemia. Results Patients had comparable demographic characteristics and similar HbA1c and FHG values at baseline in each HbA1c quartile regardless of whether they reached the target HbA1c. The higher the HbA1c quartile, the greater was the decrease in HbA1c, but also the smaller the percentage of patients achieving the target HbA1c. HbA1c and FHG decreased more in patients reaching the target, resulting in significantly lower values at endpoint in all baseline HbA1c quartiles with either insulin treatment. Patients not achieving the target HbA1c had slightly higher insulin doses, but lower total hypoglycaemia rates. Conclusion Smaller decreases in FHG were associated with not reaching the target HbA1c, suggesting a need to increase basal or premixed insulin doses to achieve targeted fasting plasma glucose and improve patient response before introducing more intensive prandial insulin regimens.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T07:07:01Z
       
  • The vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D are not related to either
           glucose metabolism or insulin action in obese women
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): K.W. ter Horst, R.I. Versteeg, P.W. Gilijamse, M.T. Ackermans, A.C. Heijboer, J.A. Romijn, S.E. la Fleur, R. Trinko, R.J. DiLeone, M.J. Serlie
      Aim Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed to be involved in obesity-induced metabolic disease. However, data on the relationship between 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and insulin resistance have been inconsistent, and few studies have investigated the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D). This study aimed to determine the relationship between circulating levels of both 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and direct measures of glucose metabolism and insulin action in obese women. Methods Serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and glucose metabolism and tissue-specific insulin action, as assessed in the basal state and during a two-step euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp study with [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion, were measured in 37 morbidly obese women (age: 43±10 years; body mass index: 44±6kg/m2). Results Sixteen subjects had circulating 25(OH)D levels<50nmol/L, consistent with vitamin D deficiency, and 21 had normal 25(OH)D levels. There were no differences in either baseline characteristics or parameters of glucose metabolism and insulin action between the groups. Serum 25(OH)D, but not 1,25(OH)2D, was negatively correlated with both body mass index (r =−0.42, P =0.01) and total body fat (r =−0.46, P <0.01). Neither 25(OH)D nor 1,25(OH)2D levels were related to any measured metabolic parameters, including fasting glucose, fasting insulin, basal endogenous glucose production, and hepatic, adipose-tissue and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Obesity was associated with lower levels of circulating 25(OH)D, but not with the hormonally active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D. Neither 25(OH)D nor 1,25(OH)2D were related to glucose metabolism and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in obese women, suggesting that vitamin D does not play a major role in obesity-related insulin resistance.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin
           resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): A. Zielińska, R. Maciulewski, K. Siewko, A. Popławska-Kita, D. Lipińska, G. Kozłowska, M. Górska, M. Szelachowska
      Aim Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Methods Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n =45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Results Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q1 =1.16, Q3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q1 =0.96, Q3 =2.21]ng/mL; P <0.05 and 1.23 [Q1 =0.85, Q3 =2.14]ng/mL; P <0.01, respectively). The T3 median concentration of betatrophin was the lowest of all trimesters, and significantly lower than at 3MPP (1.23 [Q1 =0.85, Q3 =2.14]ng/mL vs 1.49 [Q1 =1.06, Q3 =2.60]ng/mL; P <0.01, respectively). At 3MPP, the level of betatrophin was similar to that of HW (1.47 [Q1 =0.89, Q3 =2.67]ng/mL). HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β index scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q1 =1.66, Q3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q1 =185.49, Q3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q1 =1.12, Q3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q1 =62.73, Q3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q1 =1.02, Q3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q1 =74.20, Q3 =111.47], respectively). Conclusion Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • High-intensity interval training reduces abdominal fat mass in
           postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): F. Maillard, S. Rousset, B. Pereira, A. Traore, P. de Pradel Del Amaze, Y. Boirie, M. Duclos, N. Boisseau
      Aim This study compared the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for 16 weeks on whole-body and abdominal fat mass (FM) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Seventeen women (69±1 years; BMI: 31±1kg.m−2) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT [60×(8s at 77–85% HRmax, 12s of active recovery)] or MICT (40min at 55–60% of their individual HRR) cycling program for 16 weeks, 2 days/week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure whole-body and regional FM content, including abdominal adiposity and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose and HbA1c levels were measured. Levels of nutritional intake and physical activity were evaluated by 7-day self-reports. Results Dietary energy (caloric) intake, physical activity level and total body mass did not vary in either group from the beginning to the end of the training intervention. Overall, total FM decreased and total fat-free mass significantly increased over time (by around 2–3%). Total FM reduction at the end of the intervention was not significantly different between groups. However, significant loss of total abdominal (−8.3±2.2%) and visceral (−24.2±7.7%) FM was observed only with HIIT. Time effects were noted for HbA1c and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. Conclusion With no concomitant caloric restriction, an HIIT program in postmenopausal women with T2D (twice a week for 16 weeks) appeared to be more effective for reducing central obesity than MICT, and could be proposed as an alternative exercise training program for this population.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Effectiveness of the multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management
           Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) for diabetic
           microvascular complications: A population-based cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): F. Jiao, C.S.C. Fung, Y.F. Wan, S.M. McGhee, C.K.H. Wong, D. Dai, R. Kwok, C.L.K. Lam
      Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) in reducing the risks of microvascular complications. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted with 29,670 propensity-score-matched RAMP-DM participants and diabetes patients under the usual primary care (14,835 in each group). Study endpoints were the first occurrence of any diabetic microvascular complications, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy/preproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR/prePDR), sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) or blindness, nephropathy, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), neuropathy and lower-limb ulcers or amputation. Log-rank tests and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regressions were employed to estimate between-group differences in incidences of study endpoints. Results After a median follow-up of 36 months with>41,000 person-years in each group, RAMP-DM participants had a lower incidence of microvascular complications (760 vs 935; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66–0.81; P <0.001) and lower incidences of all specific microvascular complications except neuropathy (adjusted HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.61–1.45; P =0.778). Adjusted HRs for the RAMP-DM vs control group for ESRD, STDR or blindness, and lower-limb ulcers or amputation were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.24–0.69; P <0.001), 0.55 (95% CI: 0.39–0.78; P =0.001) and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.30–0.80; P =0.005), respectively. Conclusion The RAMP-DM intervention was associated with lower incidences of all microvascular complications except neuropathy over a 3-year follow-up. These encouraging results constitute evidence that structured risk assessment and risk-stratified management provided by a multidisciplinary team is effective for reducing microvascular complications in diabetes patients. Clinical trial registry NCT02034695, www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Impaired RBC deformability is associated with diabetic retinopathy in
           patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): J.S. Moon, J.H. Kim, J.H. Kim, I.R. Park, J.H. Lee, H.J. Kim, J. Lee, Y.K. Kim, J.S. Yoon, K.C. Won, H.W. Lee
      Aim Red blood cell (RBC) deformability, the ability of RBCs to change shape under stress, is known to be decreased in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, as yet little is known of the association between RBC deformability and diabetic complications in T2D. For this reason, this study has investigated the association between RBC deformability and diabetic complications. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 452 T2D patients were initially enrolled. RBC deformability was measured using a microfluidic ektacytometer and expressed as an elongation index at 3Pa (EI@3Pa, %). Results A final total of 373 patients (mean age: 60.04±11.93 years; males: 201) were included in the study. When categorized into quartiles of RBC deformability, the lower EI@3Pa groups had higher glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy compared with the higher quartiles (P <0.05 for trend). In particular, the EI@3Pa was significantly lower in patients with retinopathy than in those without retinopathy (30.53±1.95 vs 31.20±1.53, P =0.001). Between the lowest EI@3Pa quartile (Q1) to the highest (Q4, reference), the odds ratio (OR) for Q1 was 2.81 (95% CI: 1.21–6.49, P =0.004 for trend), after adjusting for age, gender, presence of hypertension and smoking, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and triglycerides. Conclusion In terms of diabetic complications, the lowest EI@3Pa group was closely associated with only the risk of diabetic retinopathy in our study. These results suggest that RBC deformability might be contributory to the development of the microvascular complication.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Postpartum IGF-I and IGFBP-2 levels are prospectively associated with the
           development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes
           mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): M. Lappas, D. Jinks, A. Shub, J.C. Willcox, H.M. Georgiou, M. Permezel
      Aims Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In the general population, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels 12weeks following a GDM pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 levels were measured in 98 normal glucose tolerant women, 12weeks following an index GDM pregnancy using enzyme immunoassay. Women were assessed for up to 10years for the development of overt type 2 diabetes. Results Among the 98 women with previous GDM, 21 (21%) developed diabetes during the median follow-up period of 8.5years. After adjusting for age and BMI, IGF-I and IGFBP-2 were significantly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. In a clinical model of prediction of type 2 diabetes that included age, BMI, pregnancy fasting glucose and postnatal fasting glucose, the addition of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 resulted in an improvement in the net reclassification index of 17.8%. Conclusions High postpartum IGF-I and low postpartum IGFBP-2 levels are a significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with a previous history of GDM. This is the first report that identifies IGF-I and IGFBP-2 as a potential biomarker for the prediction of type 2 diabetes in women with a history of GDM.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Effect of maternal body mass index and weight gain in women with
           gestational diabetes on the incidence of large-for-gestational-age infants
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): M.J. Santos, V. Fernandes, O. Marques, M.L. Pereira


      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • A high titre of autoantibody at onset does not predict pancreatic
           beta-cell fate
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): H. Yanai


      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Serum leptin level is associated with glycaemic control in newly diagnosed
           type 2 diabetes patients: A 1-year cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): L. Zhou, X. Cai, Y. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Gong, S. Zhang, Y. Ma, B. Zhang, Y. Liu, M. Li, X. Zhou, Y. Luo, L. Gao, X. Zhang, J. Chen, J. Wu, L. Chen, R. Zhang, Q. Ren, F. Zhang, W. Yang, X. Han, L. Ji


      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Signs of low-grade systemic inflammation in female offspring of women with
           type 1 diabetes: The EPICOM study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): A.B. Boisen, S. Knorr, T.K. Hansen, Z. Vlachova, B. Bytoft, P. Damm, H. Beck-Nielsen, D.M. Jensen, H.J. Møller, C.H. Gravholt


      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Low-dose erythropoietin promotes wound-healing of ulcers in diabetics:
           Evidence from a phase-IIa clinical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): C. Chatzikyrkou, F.H. Bahlmann, N. Sushakova, F.G. Scurt, J. Menne, P. Nawroth, P.R. Mertens, H. Haller


      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Association of circulating total bilirubin with the metabolic syndrome and
           type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational
           evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 6
      Author(s): J. Nano, T. Muka, M. Cepeda, T. Voortman, K. Dhana, A. Brahimaj, A. Dehghan, O.H. Franco
      Objective Emerging evidence suggests that bilirubin levels might be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the nature of the association remains unclear. Design This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the relationship between total plasma bilirubin and the risk of MetS and T2D. Data sources Relevant studies were identified using five databases (Embase, Medline [Ovid], Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Central and Google Scholar), with the last search done on 21 October 2015. Study references were checked and authors contacted to identify additional studies. Study selection Randomized controlled trials, and cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies of adults examining the association between blood bilirubin levels and MetS and T2D were included, irrespective of language and date of publication. and full-text selection was done by two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer available in case of disagreement. Data extraction Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a predesigned data collection form. Main outcomes and measures MetS and T2D. Methods Summary estimates were obtained by random-effects meta-analysis. Results Of the 2313 searched references, 16 observational studies (11 cross-sectional, two prospective, one that was both cross-sectional and prospective, two retrospective and one national survey) met our inclusion criteria. Overall, data were available for 175,911 non-overlapping participants, including 7414 MetS cases and 9406 T2D cases. In the meta-analysis of seven cross-sectional studies, the pooled odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for MetS in a comparison of extreme tertiles of serum bilirubin levels was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.78), whereas no significant association was found for the pooled estimated relative risk between two prospective studies (0.57, 95% CI: 0.11, 2.94). The corresponding estimate was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.87) for T2D from four cross-sectional studies. Conclusion The available evidence, mainly from cross-sectional studies, supports an inverse association of bilirubin levels with adverse metabolic outcomes. Large-scale prospective studies are now needed to establish whether bilirubin levels may be useful in the prevention of MetS and T2D.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Impact of ethnicity and obesity on insulin resistance in two ethnic groups
           at very high risk of type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Hassoun, M. Al-Atrash, M. Alkasim, Z. Dabbous, O. Mujahed, R.A. DeFronzo, A. Jayyousi, M. Zirie, M. Abdul-Ghani


      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and protection against stroke: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): F. Barkas, M. Elisaf, V. Tsimihodimos, H. Milionis
      Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of stroke and an unfavourable outcome following stroke. Apart from pioglitazone, glucose-lowering modalities have not been shown to protect against stroke. Nevertheless, there is evidence from experimental studies of potential neuroprotective effects with dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, especially if treatment starts before stroke. Objective To perform a meta-analysis of available evidence regarding the risk of stroke in individuals taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Methods All available data from prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials involving DPP-4 inhibitors in T2DM patients published up to December 2015 were considered. The included trials reported data on the incidence of stroke with a recruitment rate of at least 100 diabetes patients and a follow-up of at least 12 weeks. Results A total of 19 small randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of gliptins (n =9278), along with three multicentre prospective double-blind placebo-controlled RCTs assessing cardiovascular outcomes as the primary endpoint and involving 36,395 T2DM patients, were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis of the small RCTs showed a non-significant trend towards benefit with DPP-4 inhibitors against stroke [odds ratio (OR): 0.639, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.336–1.212; P =0.170]. In contrast, in the analysis of RCTs reporting on cardiovascular safety, there was no difference in the risk of stroke with gliptin treatment compared with a placebo (OR: 0.996, 95% CI: 0.850–1.166; P =0.958). Conclusion The promising data from experimental studies regarding cardioprotective gliptin-associated effects against stroke were not supported by available data from trials specifically looking at cardiovascular safety.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T05:52:40Z
       
  • Nut consumption is associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes: The
           Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Asghari, Z. Ghorbani, P. Mirmiran, F. Azizi
      Aim Nuts are rich in unsaturated fatty acids as well as other bioactive constituents. The present study investigated the association between nut consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Middle Eastern population. Methods The study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), in which 1984 participants (920 men and 1064 women) free of DM, aged≥20 years, were followed from phase III (2005–2008) to phase V (2011–2014). Dietary data were obtained from valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. Using multiple logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, with adjustments for age, gender, BMI, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, smoking and energy intake. Results Study participants’ means±SD of age and of BMI were 40.1±13.1 years and 27.0±4.8kg/m2, respectively. The median±SE of their total daily consumption of nuts was 1.19±0.11 servings. After 6.2±0.7 years of follow-up, 150 cases of T2DM were confirmed. On comparing those who consumed ≥4 servings/week with those who consumed <1 serving/week, the age-/energy-adjusted OR of incident T2DM for total nut consumption was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.36–1.12; P for trend = 0.03). In a fully adjusted model, nut consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2DM, and the ORs (95% CIs) of risk for those consuming 2–3.99 and ≥4 servings/week of nuts were 0.51 (0.26–0.97) and 0.47 (0.25–0.90), respectively, compared with those consuming <1 serving/week (P <0.001 for trend). Conclusion Our findings suggest that consuming ≥4 servings/week of nuts reduced the risk of T2DM compared with <1 serving/week.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T10:26:57Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Ten-year improvement of insulin resistance and growth
           with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 in a patient with
           insulin receptor mutations resulting in leprechaunism” [Diabetes Metab.
           41 (2015) 331–337]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. de Kerdanet, M. Caron-Debarle, S. Nivot, T. Gaillot, O. Lascols, B. Fremont, M. Bonnaure-Mallet, S. Gie, C. Massart, J. Capeau


      PubDate: 2016-11-23T10:26:57Z
       
  • Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of
           prediabetes in adult populations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Meng, H. Yang, X. Bao, Q. Zhang, L. Liu, H. Wu, H. Du, Y. Xia, H. Shi, X. Guo, X. Liu, C. Li, Q. Su, Y. Gu, L. Fang, F. Yu, S. Sun, X. Wang, M. Zhou, Q. Jia, Q. Guo, K. Song, G. Huang, G. Wang, Y. Wu, K. Niu
      Aim To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. Methods This prospective cohort study (n =7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1–7, 95% CI: 3.03–3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. Results The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90–1.40), 1.20 (0.97–1.48), 1.41 (1.14–1.73) and 1.73 (1.41–2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74–1.38), 0.68 (0.48–0.96), 0.84 (0.61–1.15) and 1.07 (0.80–1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Conclusion Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Post-transplantation diabetes: Treatment à la carte?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): Kanza Benomar, Stéphanie Espiard, Claire Vahe, Kristell Le Mapihan, Arnaud Jannin, Sébastien Dharancy, Marc Hazzan, Marie-Christine Vantyghem


      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Serum vitamin A-related metabolite levels are associated with incidence of
           type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Kim, S.H. Jee, M. Kim, H.J. Yoo, M. Kang, J. Kim, J.H. Lee


      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Evolution of subcutaneous adipose tissue fibrosis after bariatric surgery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): K. Chabot, M.-S. Gauthier, P.Y. Garneau, R. Rabasa-Lhoret
      Aim Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Methods Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n =11) or insulin-resistant (n =12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISIMatsuda). Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used for longitudinal evaluation of insulin resistance. Fibrosis was quantified by Masson's trichrome staining on microscopy, and mRNA levels of fibrosis-related genes were examined in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies collected during and 6 months after bariatric surgery (SAT only). Results Despite their similar age, body mass index and fat mass, SAT fibrosis was significantly higher in diabetic vs insulin-sensitive patients (P <0.05), and associated with IR as assessed by both ISIMatsuda (r =−0.417, P =0.038) and HOMA-IR (r =0.464, P =0.007) at baseline, whereas VAT fibrosis was not. Six months after surgery and significant weight loss, fibrosis levels remained unchanged in SAT, although IR was significantly reduced in all groups (P <0.0001). No correlation was found between SAT fibrosis and IR after surgery. Conclusion Overall, these results show a significant but, most likely, transient association between SAT fibrosis and IR in obese humans.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Intellectual disability in patients with MODY due to hepatocyte nuclear
           factor 1B (HNF1B) molecular defects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): D. Dubois-Laforgue, C. Bellanné-Chantelot, P. Charles, A. Jacquette, E. Larger, C. Ciangura, C. Saint-Martin, C. Rastel, B. Keren, J. Timsit


      PubDate: 2016-11-10T09:47:19Z
       
  • Augmented CD25 and CD69 expression on circulating CD8+ T cells in type 2
           diabetes mellitus with albuminuria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): L. Lei, L. Cui, Y. Mao, X. Zhang, Q. Jiang, S. Dong, Y. Wang


      PubDate: 2016-11-10T09:47:19Z
       
  • The autoimmune hypothesis for acute bilateral cataract in type 1
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): D.T. Papadimitriou, C. Bothou, F. Skarmoutsos, T.K. Alexandrides, V. Papaevangelou, A. Papadimitriou


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • A prospective study of leucocyte mitochondrial DNA content and deletion in
           association with the metabolic syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): J.-Y. Kim, J.R. Choi, I.H. Park, J.H. Huh, J.-W. Son, K.W. Kim, K.-S. Park, S.-K. Cha, J.H. Sohn, D.-H. Jung, S.-B. Koh


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Management of diabetes patients during the year prior to initiation of
           dialysis in France
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): P. Tuppin, A. Cuerq, S. Torre, C. Couchoud, A. Fagot-Campagna
      Aim This study looked at the management of diabetes patients during the year prior to the initiation of dialysis. Methods For this observational study, data were extracted from the National Health Insurance database for general-scheme beneficiaries (77% of the French population). Diabetes patients were identified by at least three reimbursements for antidiabetic drugs in 2012, while the initiation of dialysis was identified by specific refunds in 2013. Results Of the 6412 patients initiating dialysis, 37% (n =2378) had diabetes (men: 61%, median age: 71 years, haemodialysis: 92%). Six months prior to dialysis, 68% had filled at least one prescription for insulin, 38% for other antidiabetics (25% glinides, 8% sulphonylureas, 8% metformin, 6% DPP-4 inhibitors), 69% for three or more classes of antihypertensive drugs and 55% for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Within 12 months to 1 month of dialysis, 81% were hospitalized, 28% with a main diagnosis of kidney disease. No nephrologist referral or hospitalization was identified at 6–0 months before dialysis in 6% of patients or in 24% at 12–7 months. One in five patients with diabetes consulted a private endocrinologist within 6 months of dialysis. An arteriovenous fistula was created 1 month before haemodialysis in 43% of patients. Conclusion The quality of preparation for dialysis was variable despite frequent hospitalizations. These data illustrate the need to mobilize patients with diabetes, and for healthcare professionals to more effectively anticipate and coordinate dialysis.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Skin and subcutaneous tissue thickness at insulin injection sites in
           Chinese diabetes patients: Clinical implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): W. Wang, X. Guo, G. Shen, G. Bai, Z. Wei, J. Liu, L. Hirsch, K. Strauss


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Elevated parathyroid hormone predicts high asymmetric dimethylarginine
           (ADMA) concentrations in obese diabetic patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): A.T. Amarasekera, A.L. Sverdlov, J.D. Horowitz, D.T. Ngo


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Visceral adipose tissue dysfunction and mortality among a population-based
           sample of males and females
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): J.C. Brown, M.O. Harhay, M.N. Harhay


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Deletion of microRNA miR-146a does not prevent streptozotocin-induced
           murine autoimmune type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): C. Yin, M. Weiland, Z.-M. Miao, C. Li, L. Zhou, Q.-S. Mi


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Skin pigmentation is inversely associated with insulin resistance in
           healthy Japanese women
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): C. Nagata, K. Konish, T. Tamura, K. Wada, M. Hayashi, N. Takeda, K. Yasuda
      Aim As a low-pigment skin type is prevalent in men and women with type 1 diabetes, it is possible that skin pigmentation may be associated with insulin resistance. This study aimed to cross-sectionally examine this association in healthy women. Methods Study participants were 792 Japanese women who attended a health examination and were not taking any medication for diabetes. Skin pigmentation on the inner upper and lower arms and forehead was measured using a Mexameter® skin colorimeter, a narrow-band reflective spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as a melanin index, which quantifies melanin content. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were also measured, and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Information on medical history and lifestyle factors were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire, while data on sun exposure were collected through interviews. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in a subsample of women (n =464). Results Melanin indices at the inner upper and lower arms were significantly and inversely associated with fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, indicators for rater effects, cumulative sun exposure and season at the time of measurement. Additional adjustment for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels did not alter the results. Conclusion These data suggest that skin pigmentation is associated with insulin resistance, and encourage future studies into the potential role of melanin and related factors in glucose homoeostasis.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Osteoprotegerin levels are associated with liver fat and liver markers in
           dysmetabolic adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): M. Monseu, S. Dubois, J. Boursier, C. Aubé, F. Gagnadoux, G. Lefthériotis, P.-H. Ducluzeau
      Aim This study aimed to determine the association between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver fat (LF) content, and other markers of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in dysmetabolic adults. Methods Subjects from the NUMEVOX cohort were included if they fulfilled at least one MetS criterion. They then underwent a thorough metabolic and cardiovascular evaluation, including arterial stiffness, atherosclerotic plaques, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indices and OPG. VAT and LF content were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound examination of arteries and arterial stiffness were recorded, and age- and gender-adjusted paired correlations calculated. Results Body mass index, waist circumference and MRI-derived VAT correlated with OPG, whereas abdominal subcutaneous fat did not. OPG levels were strongly correlated with LF content (r =0.25, P =0.003), liver markers such as alanine aminotransferase (r =0.39, P <0.001) and HOMA-IR index (r =0.39, P <0.0001). Plasma OPG also correlated with arterial stiffness and the number of atherosclerotic sites. Conclusion Plasma OPG levels are positively associated with both liver markers and increased LF content, but not with subcutaneous fat in dysmetabolic men. These findings suggest that elevated OPG levels may play a role in the link between fatty liver disease and enhanced cardiovascular risk.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Exenatide treatment decreases fasting fibroblast growth factor 21 levels
           in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): Y. Hu, J. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Xu, T. Hong, G. Wang
      Aim Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been demonstrated to be a metabolic regulator with beneficial effects. Several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have increased FGF21 levels and decreased expression of FGF receptors, suggesting a state of ‘FGF21 resistance’. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist exenatide on FGF21 levels and other metabolic parameters in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Methods A total of 100 participants, comprising 47 newly diagnosed T2DM patients and 53 age-matched healthy controls, were recruited. T2DM patients were assigned to 12 weeks of exenatide treatment. Their FGF21 levels and other metabolic parameters were measured before and after exenatide treatment. Results T2DM patients had significantly higher FGF21 levels than the controls. No difference in FGF21 was found between overweight and non-overweight control subgroups. In T2DM patients, exenatide treatment resulted in decreases in BMI, HbA1c, total cholesterol and triglycerides, and also in FGF21 (149.17±81.36 vs 102.17±64.12ng/mL; P <0.01). Homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also decreased [3.02 (2.10–4.63) vs 2.56 (1.80–4.13); P <0.05] while homoeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-B) was significantly higher after treatment [32.30 (17.82–59.42) vs 72.56 (46.63–99.58); P <0.05]. The change in FGF21 (ΔFGF21) was negatively correlated with changes in fasting insulin (Δinsulin, r =−0.306; P <0.05) and C-peptide (ΔC-peptide, r =−0.319; P <0.05) levels. Conclusion Besides the improvement in insulin resistance and recovery of β-cell function, 12 weeks of exenatide treatment may also play a role in lowering FGF21 levels in T2DM patients.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • The association between endostatin and kidney disease and mortality in
           patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): A.C. Carlsson, C.J. Östgren, T. Länne, A. Larsson, F.H. Nystrom, J. Ärnlöv
      Aim Circulating endostatin, a biologically active derivate of collagen XVIII, is considered to be a marker of kidney disease and a risk factor for its related mortality. However, less is known of the role of endostatin in diabetes and the development of diabetic nephropathy. For this reason, our study investigated the associations between circulating endostatin and the prevalence and progression of kidney disease, and its mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods This was a cohort study of 607 patients with T2D (mean age: 61 years, 44% women). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation, was used to assess the patients’ kidney function decline and mortality. Results Of the total study cohort, 20 patients declined by ≥20% in eGFR over 4 years, and 44 died during the follow-up (mean duration: 6.7 years). At baseline, participants with diabetic nephropathy (defined as eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2) and/or microalbuminuria [defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)>3g/mol] had higher median levels of endostatin than those without nephropathy (62.7μg/L vs 57.4μg/L, respectively; P =0.031). In longitudinal analyses adjusted for age, gender, baseline eGFR and ACR, higher endostatin levels were associated with a higher risk of decline (≥20% in eGFR, OR per 1 SD increase: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.13–2.65) and a higher risk of mortality (HR per 1 SD increase: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19–2.07). Conclusion In patients with T2D, circulating endostatin levels can predict the progression of kidney disease and mortality independently of established kidney disease markers. The clinical usefulness of endostatin as a risk marker in such patients merits further studies.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Effects of glycaemic variability on cardiac remodelling after reperfused
           myocardial infarction: Evaluation of streptozotocin-induced diabetic
           Wistar rats using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): M. Joubert, J. Hardouin, D. Legallois, K. Blanchart, N. Elie, M. Nowoczyn, P. Croisille, L. Coulbault, C. Bor-Angelier, S. Allouche, A. Manrique
      Aims In addition to hyperglycaemia, glycaemic variability seems to be associated with poor outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. This study explored the impact of glycaemic variability in diabetic Wistar rats subjected to myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. Methods Animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes received insulin either to maintain stable hyperglycaemia (Dh group) or to generate glycaemic variability (Dv). After experimental myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion was surgically induced, 7T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed at weeks 1 (w1) and 3 (w3). Results Twenty-six rats were randomized [sham group (S): n =5; control group (C): n =7; Dh group: n =6; and Dv group: n =8]. The mean amplitude of glucose reflecting glycaemic variability was higher in the Dv than in the Dh group (9.1±2.7mmol/L vs 5.9±1.9mmol/L; P <0.05). CMR assessment at w3 revealed ventricular enlargement in both Dh and Dv groups compared with the C and S groups (end-diastolic volume: 1.60±0.22 and 1.36±0.30mL/kg compared with 1.11±0.13 and 0.87±0.11mL/kg, respectively; P <0.05). Circumferential strain was altered between w1 and w3 in the remote area only in the Dv group, resulting in a lower value in this group than in the S, C and Dh groups (−0.11±0.01 vs −0.17±0.05, −0.15±0.03 and −0.16±0.03, respectively; P <0.05). In addition, at w3, oedema was also higher in the remote area in the Dv than in the C group (18.3±4.9ms vs 14.5±1.7ms, respectively; P <0.05). Conclusion In the context of experimental myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion, our results suggest that glycaemic variability might have a potentially deleterious impact on myocardial outcomes beyond the classical glucose metrics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Using continuous glucose monitoring to assess contributions of premeal and
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): S.-D. Lin, S.-L. Su, S.-Y. Wang, S.-T. Tu, S.-R. Hsu
      Aim This study aimed to determine the contributions of basal excess glycaemia (BEG) and prandial excess glycaemia (PEG) to overall excess glycaemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients treated with metformin alone. Methods Outpatients with T2D treated with metformin alone (n =46) who underwent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) were divided into tertiles according to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. For each CGM trace, the glucose area under the curve (AUC)>5.5mmol/L was expressed as the AUCoverall, representing overall excess glycaemia. The sum of glucose AUCs above the premeal glucose level at 4h after breakfast, lunch and dinner was expressed as the AUCpeg, representing PEG. The contribution of PEG to overall excess glycaemia was calculated as (AUCpeg/AUCoverall)×100%. The contribution of BEG was calculated as [(AUCoverall −AUCpeg)/AUCoverall]×100%. Factors related to PEG contribution were also analysed. Results BEG constituted more than half the overall excess glycaemia in all HbA1c tertiles. The contribution of PEG was negatively correlated with HbA1c and mean glucose values before each meal. Prebreakfast and predinner glucose values were the dominant factors affecting PEG contribution and was independent of HbA1c. Conclusion In patients treated with metformin alone, BEG was the major contributor to excess glycaemia at HbA1c levels ≥7.7%, while PEG and BEG contributions were similar and stable below this level. For HbA1c levels ≥7.7%, add-on therapy to metformin should preferentially target control of BEG, whereas targeting both BEG and PEG could be of equivalent importance with lower HbA1c levels.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Association between current perceived stress and incident diabetes is
           dependent on occupational status: Evidence from the IPC cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): E. Wiernik, H. Nabi, F. Thomas, B. Pannier, O. Hanon, T. Simon, J.-M. Simon, N. Danchin, F. Limosin, S. Czernichow, C. Lemogne
      Aim The role of stress in the onset of type 2 diabetes is a widespread lay belief, yet observational studies have produced inconsistent results. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between perceived stress and incident diabetes might depend on occupational status (OS). Methods The four-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) was completed at baseline by 22,567 participants in the labour force (16,193 men, 6374 women; mean age: 44.5±9.8 years) who had undergone two health checkups subsidized by the French national healthcare system. All subjects were free from diabetes at baseline, defined as a fasting blood glycaemia≥7mmol/L or the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results After a mean follow-up of 5.3±2.1 years, 527 participants (2.3%) had incident diabetes. After adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural and biomedical risk factors as well as self-rated health, the association between baseline perceived stress and diabetes at follow-up was non-significant for the total study population. However, perceived stress was significantly associated with incident diabetes in participants of low OS [odds ratio (OR) for a five-point increment: 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.90]. In contrast, there was a negative association between perceived stress and diabetes among those of high OS (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41–0.88) and no association within other occupational categories. The interaction between perceived stress and OS was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the association between perceived stress and diabetes onset is dependent on OS. Furthermore, this association does not appear to be explained by the classical risk factors for diabetes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Association between metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with
           type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): L.E. Chapman, A.L. Darling, J.E. Brown
      Aim Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycaemic drug, but it may lower B12 status, which could have important clinical implications. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with type 2 diabetes. Methods Electronic database searches were undertaken (1st January 1957–1st July 2013) using the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, Grey literature databases, Pub Med Central, NICE Clinical Guidelines UK, and ongoing clinical trials. Included studies were of any study design, with data from patients with type 2 diabetes of any age or gender, taking any dose or duration of metformin. Planned primary outcomes were serum vitamin B12 levels, % prevalence or incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Results Twenty-six papers were included in the review. Ten out of 17 observational studies showed statistically significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 in patients on metformin than not on metformin. Meta-analysis performed on four trials demonstrated a statistically significant overall mean B12 reducing effect of metformin of 57pmol/L [WMD (fixed)=–0.57 (95% CI: –35 to –79pmol/L)] after 6weeks to 3months of use. Conclusion The evidence from this review demonstrates an association between metformin usage and lower levels of vitamin B12 by 57pmol/L, which leads to frank deficiency or borderline status in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that it is prudent to monitor B12 levels in these patients who are at increased risk of deficiency.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • The association between hand grip strength and non-exercise activity
           thermogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): H. Hamasaki, Y. Kawashima, H. Yanai


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Impact of gut microbiota on diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): G. Blandino, R. Inturri, F. Lazzara, M. Di Rosa, L. Malaguarnera
      Various functions of the gut are regulated by sophisticated interactions among its functional elements, including the gut microbiota. These microorganisms play a crucial role in gastrointestinal mucosa permeability. They control the fermentation and absorption of dietary polysaccharides to produce short-chain fatty acids, which may explain their importance in the regulation of fat accumulation and the subsequent development of obesity-related diseases, suggesting that they are a crucial mediator of obesity and its consequences. In addition, gut bacteria play a crucial role in the host immune system, modulation of inflammatory processes, extraction of energy from the host diet and alterations of human gene expression. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota has been shown to confer a number of health benefits to the host. Simple therapeutic strategies targeted at attenuating the progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are urgently required to prevent or slow the development of diabetes in susceptible individuals. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association between gut microbiota and diabetes, and to explore any novel related therapeutic targets. New insights into the role of the gut microbiota in diabetes could lead to the development of integrated strategies using probiotics to prevent and treat these metabolic disorders.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of long duration
    • Authors: E. Seelig; K. Timper; C. Falconnier; R. Stoeckli; S. Bilz; R. Oram; T.J. McDonald; M.Y. Donath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): E. Seelig, K. Timper, C. Falconnier, R. Stoeckli, S. Bilz, R. Oram, T.J. McDonald, M.Y. Donath


      PubDate: 2016-10-06T21:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.08.005
       
  • Consensus statement on the management of dyslipidaemias in adults
    • Authors: S. Béliard; F. Bonnet; B. Bouhanick; E. Bruckert; B. Cariou; S. Charrière; V. Durlach; P. Moulin; R. Valéro; B. Vergès
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Béliard, F. Bonnet, B. Bouhanick, E. Bruckert, B. Cariou, S. Charrière, V. Durlach, P. Moulin, R. Valéro, B. Vergès


      PubDate: 2016-09-20T21:11:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.033
       
 
 
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