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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 2801 journals)

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Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.433, h-index: 65)
Transportation Research Part B: Methodological     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 3.306, h-index: 70)
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.943, h-index: 55)
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.255, h-index: 44)
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.155, h-index: 52)
Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.016, h-index: 43)
Transportation Research Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Trastornos Adictivos     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.132, h-index: 4)
Travel Behaviour and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.554, h-index: 23)
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 12)
Trends in Biochemical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 11.198, h-index: 210)
Trends in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.859, h-index: 142)
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, h-index: 74)
Trends in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 10.198, h-index: 177)
Trends in Cognitive Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 88, SJR: 11.395, h-index: 179)
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 163, SJR: 10.524, h-index: 214)
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 5.254, h-index: 108)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Trends in Food Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.189, h-index: 104)
Trends in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 9.354, h-index: 170)
Trends in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 7.5, h-index: 171)
Trends in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 5.211, h-index: 132)
Trends in Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 5.948, h-index: 119)
Trends in Neurosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 10.184, h-index: 217)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.886, h-index: 104)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 5.392, h-index: 162)
Trends in Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 7.209, h-index: 163)
Trials in Vaccinology     Open Access  
Tribology and Interface Engineering Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Tribology Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.512, h-index: 64)
Tribology Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Tsinghua Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.179, h-index: 18)
Tuberculosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.729, h-index: 61)
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.687, h-index: 41)
Tzu Chi Medical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 7)
Ultramicroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.818, h-index: 80)
Ultrasonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.702, h-index: 56)
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.469, h-index: 68)
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.939, h-index: 91)
UMK Procedia     Open Access  
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.482, h-index: 29)
Urologic Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.85, h-index: 60)
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Urological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.155, h-index: 2)
Urology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.299, h-index: 136)
Urology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urology Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Utilities Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.546, h-index: 25)
Vaccine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.715, h-index: 126)
Vacunas     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.144, h-index: 5)
Vacuum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 53)
Value in Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.433, h-index: 54)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.281, h-index: 68)
Vehicular Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 20)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.899, h-index: 41)
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.014, h-index: 43)
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.804, h-index: 67)
Veterinary J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.005, h-index: 63)
Veterinary Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.425, h-index: 84)
Veterinary Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.229, h-index: 81)
Vibrational Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.52, h-index: 47)
Video J. and Encyclopedia of GI Endoscopy     Open Access  
Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.784, h-index: 135)
Virology Reports     Open Access  
Virus Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.291, h-index: 78)
Vision Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.432, h-index: 113)
Vitamins & Hormones     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.891, h-index: 52)
Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.88, h-index: 71)
Waste Management Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Water Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.026, h-index: 174)
Water Resources and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources and Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Water Resources and Rural Development     Hybrid Journal  
Water Science : The National Water Research Center J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Water Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wave Motion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.675, h-index: 38)
Wavelet Analysis and Its Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Wear     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.371, h-index: 92)
Weather and Climate Extremes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.131, h-index: 49)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wine Economics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Woman : Psychosomatic Gynaecology and Obstetrics     Hybrid Journal  
Women and Birth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.584, h-index: 13)
Women's Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.237, h-index: 35)
Women's Studies Intl. Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.378, h-index: 29)
World Crop Pests     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 1.472, h-index: 94)
World Neurosurgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.585, h-index: 64)
World Patent Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.347, h-index: 19)
World Pumps     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.104, h-index: 10)
World Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Wound Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.264, h-index: 19)
Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.76, h-index: 18)
Zeszyty Naukowe Wielkopolskiego Centrum Onkologii     Full-text available via subscription  
Zoologischer Anzeiger - A J. of Comparative Zoology     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.56, h-index: 26)

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Journal Cover Diabetes & Metabolism
  [SJR: 0.971]   [H-I: 62]   [52 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1262-3636
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the EMPA-REG
           OUTCOME trial: A critical analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): André J. Scheen



      PubDate: 2016-02-12T14:22:31Z
       
  • Seasonality and temperature effects on fasting plasma glucose: A
           population-based longitudinal study in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Li, Y. Zhou, G. Williams, J.J.K. Jaakkola, C. Ou, S. Chen, T. Yao, T. Qin, S. Wu, Y. Guo
      Aims To examine the seasonality and effects of temperature on levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Methods We collected health data from the Kailuan cohort study. FPG, blood pressure and individual information including age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, drinking habit, physical activities, income, work type, education level, and history of diabetes, were collected for each participant. Daily weather conditions were collected during the study period of 2006–2011. A total of 49,417 participants who had three times of health examination were included to the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models were used to examine the effects of temperature and seasonality on FPG levels, while controlling for potential confounders. Results FPG level was higher in winter and spring than that in autumn and summer. For all participants, the FPG winter level increased 0.31mmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28–0.33mmol/L] in comparison with autumn. The association between temperature and FPG levels was U-shaped. For all participants, the change in FPG levels associated with extreme cold temperature (−6.7°C), moderate cold temperature (2.4°C), moderate hot temperature (23.7°C), and with extreme hot temperature (28.1°C), in comparison with threshold (18.1°C) were 0.12mmol/L (95% CI: 0.10–0.14mmol/L), 0.10 (95% CI: 0.09–0.12mmol/L), 0.06 (95% CI: 0.04–0.08mmol/L), and 0.12mmol/L (95% CI: 0.08–0.16mmol/L), respectively. Conclusion The findings suggest that there may be strong relationships between FPG levels and season and ambient temperature. In particular, there were higher FPG levels in the winter and at extreme cold and hot temperatures.


      PubDate: 2016-02-12T14:22:31Z
       
  • Weight loss at a high cost: Orlistat-induced late-onset severe kidney
           disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): B. Buysschaert, S. Aydin, J. Morelle, M.P. Hermans, M. Jadoul, N. Demoulin
      Aim This report describes a case of kidney failure secondary to orlistat, a lipase inhibitor commonly used in the treatment of obesity. Case report An 80-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who was being treated with orlistat developed rapidly progressive kidney failure. Low-grade albuminuria argued against diabetic nephropathy. Renal biopsy showed tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with numerous calcium oxalate crystals. Enteric hyperoxaluria was attributed to the orlistat treatment. The latter was stopped and the patient received calcium supplements. Six months after orlistat withdrawal, oxaluria was normalized and kidney function stabilized. Conclusion Oxalate nephropathy may result from hyperoxaluria secondary to orlistat treatment. This suggests that kidney function and oxaluria be closely monitored in patients taking orlistat.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • Fasting hyperinsulinaemia and 2-h glycaemia predict coronary heart disease
           in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): S. Faghihi-Kashani, F. Bonnet, N. Hafezi-Nejad, B. Heidari, A. Aghajani Nargesi, S. Sheikhbahaei, M. Ebadi, A. Esteghamati
      Aim Patients with diabetes are at greater risk of cardiovascular events. Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinaemia are both related to an increased cardiovascular risk, but whether IR predicts coronary heart disease (CHD) independently of other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a topic of considerable controversy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prospective relationship of fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h post-load glucose (2hPG) load with CHD incidence among such patients. Methods A total of 2607 patients with T2D were enrolled in a community-dwelling cohort and followed for an average of 7.2 years. Conventional CHD risk factors, FPG, 2hPG, fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR index were measured at baseline. Cox regression hazard ratios (HRs) were used to assess CHD risk. Results A total of 299 ‘hard’ CHD events were registered (in 114 women and 185 men). Increasing levels of fasting insulinaemia were positively associated with CHD incidence. This correlation persisted after controlling for gender, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, medication use and HbA1c [HR for each increase in quartile (fully adjusted model): 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06–1.32); P <0.01]. 2hPG showed a non-linear association with incident CHD [HR of highest vs lowest quartile: 1.64 (95% CI: 1.03–2.61)]. Fasting glycaemia was not associated with CHD risk, whereas HOMA-IR had a direct and independent correlation with CHD risk [HR for each one-quartile increase: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.07–1.34); P <0.01]. Conclusion Fasting insulin levels are positively associated with incidence of CHD in T2D. Furthermore, 2hPG appears to be a significant predictor of incident CHD independently of other risk factors, including HbA1c. These findings suggest that strategies targeting the reduction of insulinaemia and post-load glycaemia may be useful for preventing cardiovascular complications.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • Efficacy of dual-hormone artificial pancreas to alleviate the
           carbohydrate-counting burden of type 1 diabetes: A randomized crossover
           trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): V. Gingras, R. Rabasa-Lhoret, V. Messier, M. Ladouceur, L. Legault, A. Haidar
      Aim Carbohydrate-counting is a complex task for many patients with type 1 diabetes. This study examined whether an artificial pancreas, delivering insulin and glucagon based on glucose sensor readings, could alleviate the burden of carbohydrate-counting without degrading glucose control. Methods Twelve adults were recruited into a randomized, three-way, crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier No. NCT01930097). Participants were admitted on three occasions from 7AM to 9PM and consumed a low-carbohydrate breakfast (women: 30g; men: 50g), a medium-carbohydrate dinner (women: 50g; men: 70g) and a high-carbohydrate lunch (women: 90g; men: 120g). At each visit, glucose levels were randomly regulated by: (1) conventional pump therapy; (2) an artificial pancreas (AP) accompanied by prandial boluses, matching the meal's carbohydrate content based on insulin-to-carbohydrate ratios (AP with carbohydrate-counting); or (3) an AP accompanied by prandial boluses based on qualitative categorization (regular or large) of meal size (AP without carbohydrate-counting). Results The AP without carbohydrate-counting achieved similar incremental AUC values compared with carbohydrate-counting after the low- (P =0.54) and medium- (P =0.38) carbohydrate meals, but yielded higher post-meal excursions after the high-carbohydrate meal (P =0.004). The AP with and without carbohydrate-counting yielded similar mean glucose levels (8.2±2.1mmol/L vs. 8.4±1.7mmol/L; P =0.52), and both strategies resulted in lower mean glucose compared with conventional pump therapy (9.6±2.0mmol/L; P =0.02 and P =0.03, respectively). Conclusion The AP with qualitative categorization of meal size could alleviate the burden of carbohydrate-counting without compromising glucose control, although more categories of meal sizes are probably needed to effectively control higher-carbohydrate meals.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • Pregnancy adverse outcomes related to pregravid body mass index and
           gestational weight gain, according to the presence or not of gestational
           diabetes mellitus: A retrospective observational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): E. Cosson, C. Cussac-Pillegand, A. Benbara, I. Pharisien, M.T. Nguyen, S. Chiheb, P. Valensi, L. Carbillon
      Aim This study retrospectively evaluated the complications associated with prepregnancy overweight (OW) or obesity (OB) and gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with or without universally screened and treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods A total of 15,551 non-Asian women without pregravid diabetes or hypertension who delivered singleton babies (2002–2010) were classified according to GDM (13.5%), pregestational body mass index (BMI; normal range: 18.5–24.9kg/m2), OW (26.2%), OB (13.9%; BMI≥30kg/m2) and GWG (<7kg: 32%; 7–11.5kg: 37%; 11.6–16kg: 23%;>16kg: 8%). Main outcome measures were large/small for gestational age (LGA/SGA), caesarean section, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and shoulder dystocia. Results GDM was associated with more LGA babies [Odds Ratio (OR): 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.85–2.43], caesarean section (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.34–1.65) and preeclampsia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.21–2.09). OW/OB and GWG were associated with LGA infants whatever the GDM status, and with SGA babies only in women without GDM. LGA status was independently associated with GWG in women with GDM (11.6–16kg: OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.49–2.03 and>16kg OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.83–4.13 vs 7–11.5kg) and in women without GDM (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.54–2.97 or OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.68–4.17, respectively), and with BMI only in women without GDM (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00–1.24, per 10kg/m2). SGA status was independently associated with OW (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77–0.98), OB (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72–0.98) and GWG<7kg (1.14, 95% CI: 1.01–1.29) only in women without GDM. Conclusion In our European cohort and considering the triumvirate of GDM, BMI and GWG, GDM was the main contributor to caesarean section and preeclampsia. OW/OB and GWG contributed to LGA and SGA infants mainly in women without GDM.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • High-sensitivity C-reactive protein does not improve the differential
           diagnosis of HNF1A–MODY and familial young-onset type 2 diabetes: A
           grey zone analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): C. Bellanné-Chantelot, J. Coste, C. Ciangura, M. Fonfrède, C. Saint-Martin, C. Bouché, E. Sonnet, R. Valéro, D.-J. Lévy, D. Dubois-Laforgue, J. Timsit
      Aim Low plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) have been suggested to differentiate hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha–maturity-onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A–MODY) from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Yet, differential diagnosis of HNF1A–MODY and familial young-onset type 2 diabetes (F-YT2D) remains a difficult challenge. Thus, this study assessed the added value of hs-CRP to distinguish between the two conditions. Methods This prospective multicentre study included 143 HNF1A–MODY patients, 310 patients with a clinical history suggestive of HNF1A–MODY, but not confirmed genetically (F-YT2D), and 215 patients with T2D. The ability of models, including clinical characteristics and hs-CRP to predict HNF1A–MODY was analyzed, using the area of the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and a grey zone approach was used to evaluate these models in clinical practice. Results Median hs-CRP values were lower in HNF1A–MODY (0.25mg/L) than in F-YT2D (1.14mg/L) and T2D (1.70mg/L) patients. Clinical parameters were sufficient to differentiate HNF1A–MODY from classical T2D (AUROC: 0.99). AUROC analyses to distinguish HNF1A–MODY from F-YT2D were 0.82 for clinical features and 0.87 after including hs-CRP. For the grey zone analysis, the lower boundary was set to miss<1.5% of true positives in non-tested subjects, while the upper boundary was set to perform 50% of genetic tests in individuals with no HNF1A mutation. On comparing HNF1A–MODY with F-YT2D, 65% of patients were classified in between these categories – in the zone of diagnostic uncertainty – even after adding hs-CRP to clinical parameters. Conclusion hs-CRP does not improve the differential diagnosis of HNF1A–MODY and F-YT2D.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • Lower-extremity arterial revascularization: Is there any evidence for
           diabetic foot ulcer-healing?
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): J. Vouillarmet, O. Bourron, J. Gaudric, P. Lermusiaux, A. Millon, A. Hartemann
      The presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important consideration in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. Indeed, arteriopathy is a major factor in delayed healing and the increased risk of amputation. Revascularization is commonly performed in patients with critical limb ischaemia (CLI) and diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), but also in patients with less severe arteriopathy. The ulcer-healing rate obtained after revascularization ranges from 46% to 91% at 1 year and appears to be improved compared to patients without revascularization. However, in those studies, healing was often a secondary criterion, and there was no description of the initial wound or its management. Furthermore, specific alterations associated with diabetes, such as microcirculation disorders, abnormal angiogenesis and glycation of proteins, can alter healing and the benefits of revascularization. In this review, critical assessment of data from the literature was performed on the relationship between PAD, revascularization and healing of DFUs. Also, the impact of diabetes on the effectiveness of revascularization was analyzed and potential new therapeutic targets described.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • Urinary and genital infections in patients with diabetes: How to diagnose
           and how to treat
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): P. Njomnang Soh, F. Vidal, E. Huyghe, P. Gourdy, J.M. Halimi, B. Bouhanick
      Diabetes is a predisposing factor for urinary tract and genital infections in both women and men. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors constitute a novel therapeutic class indicated for type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, and are already on the market in a few countries in Europe. They decrease glycaemia mainly by enhancing glucose excretion in urine by reducing renal glucose reabsorption via the action of SGLT2 in the kidneys. In general, they are well tolerated, but their mode of action results in specific side effects as well as an increased risk of genital (vulvovaginitis and balanitis) and urinary tract infections, for which T2D patients are already at high risk, reported within the first 6 months of treatment. Usually these infectious events are successfully treated with standard therapies, but diabetologists are not accustomed to dealing with them. The aim of this review is to describe the different types of lower urinary tract and genital infections, and the treatment strategies currently available for patients with diabetes.


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T12:02:52Z
       
  • Resting beta-cells – A functional reserve'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Hara, J.L. Fowler, G.I. Bell, L.H. Philipson
      Pancreatic beta-cells play a pivotal role to synthesize and secrete insulin, as the solo source of the body. Physical as well as functional loss of beta-cells over a certain threshold result in diabetes. While the mechanisms underlying beta-cell loss in various types of diabetes have been extensively studied, less is known about residual beta-cells, found even in autoimmune type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes with a substantial amount. Why have these beta-cells been spared' Some patients with neonatal diabetes have demonstrated the life-changing restoration of functional beta-cells that were inactive for decades but awakened in several weeks following specific treatment. The recent striking outcomes of bariatric surgery in many obese diabetic patients indicate that their beta-cells are likely “preserved” rather than irreversibly lost even in the multifactorial polygenic state that is type 2 diabetes. Collectively, the preservation of residual beta-cells in various diabetic conditions challenges us regarding our understanding of beta-cell death and survival, where their sustenance may stem from the existence of resting beta-cells under physiological conditions. We posit that beta-cells rest and that studies of this normal feature of beta-cells could lead to new approaches for potentially reactivating and preserving beta-cell mass in order to treat diabetes.


      PubDate: 2016-01-28T11:32:03Z
       
  • Contribution of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in
           insulin resistance: Distinct or interrelated roles'
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 5
      Author(s): J. Rieusset
      Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulate numerous cellular processes, and are critical contributors to cellular and whole-body homoeostasis. More important, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress are both closely associated with hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance, thereby playing crucial roles in altered glucose homoeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The accumulated evidence also suggests a potential interrelationship between alterations in both types of organelles, as mitochondrial dysfunction could participate in activation of the unfolded protein response, whereas ER stress could influence mitochondrial function. The fact that mitochondria and the ER are physically and functionally interconnected via mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) supports their interrelated roles in the pathophysiology of T2DM. However, the mechanisms that coordinate the interplay between mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress, and its relevance to the control of glucose homoeostasis, are still unknown. This review evaluates the involvement of mitochondria and ER independently in the development of peripheral insulin resistance, as well as their potential roles in the disruption of organelle crosstalk at MAM interfaces in the alteration of insulin signalling.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Metabolic roles of PGC-1α and its implications for type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 5
      Author(s): A. Besseiche, J.-P. Riveline, J.-F. Gautier, B. Bréant, B. Blondeau
      PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator expressed in brown adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, kidney, skeletal and cardiac muscles, and the brain. This review presents data illustrating how PGC-1α regulates metabolic adaptations and participates in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies in mice have shown that increased PGC-1α expression may be beneficial or deleterious, depending on the tissue: in adipose tissue, it promotes thermogenesis and thus protects against energy overload, such as seen in diabetes and obesity; in muscle, PGC-1α induces a change of phenotype towards oxidative metabolism. In contrast, its role is clearly deleterious in the liver and pancreas, where it induces hepatic glucose production and inhibits insulin secretion, changes that promote diabetes. Previous studies by our group have also demonstrated the role of PGC-1α in the fetal origins of T2D. Overexpression of PGC-1α in β cells during fetal life in mice is sufficient to induce β-cell dysfunction in adults, leading to glucose intolerance. PGC-1α also is associated with glucocorticoid receptors in repressing expression of Pdx1, a key β-cell transcription factor. In conclusion, PGC-1α participates in the onset of diabetes through regulation of major metabolic tissues. Yet, it may not represent a useful target for therapeutic strategies against diabetes as it exerts both beneficial and deleterious actions on glucose homoeostasis, and because PGC-1α modulation is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, its role in cellular adaptation shows that greater comprehension of PGC-1α actions is needed.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Effect of low-dose mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on metabolic
           profile and endothelial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): V. Kanchan, K. Pawan, V. Sudhir, K. Harpreet Singh



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Effects of ethinylestradiol–cyproterone acetate vs.
           pioglitazone–flutamide–metformin on plasma FGF21 levels in
           adolescent girls with androgen excess
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Díaz, J.M. Gallego-Escuredo, F. de Zegher, F. Villarroya, L. Ibáñez



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Impaired day-to-day activities worsened but diabetes control improved
           self-rated health: The UK diabetes survey, 2006
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6
      Author(s): I. Shiue



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Multiple autoantibodies at onset do not accurately predict long-term
           pancreatic beta-cell fate in a 13-year-old obese child with immediate
           insulin-requiring diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): L. Marchand, M. Nicolino, N. Fabien, B.O. Roep, C. Thivolet



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Effect of canagliflozin on liver function tests in patients with type 2
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): L.A. Leiter, T. Forst, D. Polidori, D.A. Balis, J. Xie, S. Sha
      Aims To report changes in liver function tests observed with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, across phase 3 studies in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to examine the relationship between changes in liver function tests and the weight loss and glycaemic improvements observed with canagliflozin. Methods Data were pooled from four 26-week, placebo-controlled studies of canagliflozin 100 and 300mg (n =2313) and two 52-week, active-controlled studies of canagliflozin 300mg versus sitagliptin 100mg (n =1488). Analysis of covariance was performed to determine the contribution of changes in body weight and HbA1c to the changes in liver function tests. Results Reductions in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, and increases in bilirubin were seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300mg versus placebo (nominal P <0.001 for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase [both doses]; P <0.001 for alkaline phosphatase and P =0.015 for bilirubin [canagliflozin 300mg only]) at week 26 and with canagliflozin 300mg versus sitagliptin 100mg (nominal P <0.001 for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and bilirubin, and P <0.01 for alkaline phosphatase) at week 52. Few patients met predefined limits of change criteria for liver function tests, and none met Hy's law criteria. In both populations, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase reductions were fully explained by HbA1c and body weight reductions. Conclusions Canagliflozin provided improvements in liver function tests versus either placebo or sitagliptin treatments that were fully explained by the combined effects of HbA1c and body weight reductions with canagliflozin.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Low early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) activity in human subcutaneous adipose
           tissue is linked to a pernicious metabolic profile
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6
      Author(s): P. Petrus, N. Mejhert, H. Gao, J. Bäckdahl, E. Arner, P. Arner, M. Rydén
      Aim Recently, in both human and murine white adipose tissue (WAT), transcription factor early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) has been shown to regulate adipocyte differentiation, adipose morphology and triglyceride hydrolysis (lipolysis). This study investigated whether EBF1 expression and biological activity in WAT is related to different metabolic parameters. Methods In this cross-sectional study of abdominal subcutaneous WAT, EBF1 protein levels were examined in 18 non-obese subjects, while biological activity was determined in 56 obese and non-obese subjects. Results were assessed by anthropometric measures and blood pressure as well as by plasma lipid levels and insulin sensitivity. Results EBF1 protein levels were negatively associated with waist circumference (r =−0.56; P =0.015), but not with body mass index (BMI) or body fat (P =0.10–0.29). Biological activity of EBF1 correlated negatively with plasma triglycerides (r =−0.46; P =0.0005) and plasma insulin (r =−0.39; P =0.0027), but positively with plasma HDL cholesterol (r =0.48; P =0.0002) and insulin sensitivity, as assessed by intravenous insulin tolerance test (r =0.64; P <0.0001). These relationships, except for plasma insulin, remained statistically significant after adjusting for BMI and adipose morphology. EBF1 activity was not associated with age, systolic/diastolic blood pressure or total plasma cholesterol (P =0.17–0.48). In contrast to EBF1 activity, after adjusting for BMI, EBF1 mRNA levels displayed only an association with plasma triglycerides. Conclusion Low EBF1 protein expression and activity in abdominal subcutaneous WAT is a BMI-independent marker for several traits associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, whether EBF1 constitutes a novel treatment target remains to be demonstrated.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Long-term impact of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes on social life,
           quality of life and sexuality
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6
      Author(s): H. Mellerio, S. Guilmin-Crépon, P. Jacquin, M. Labéguerie, C. Lévy-Marchal, C. Alberti
      Aim This study describes the socio-professional outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sexuality of adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods The study participants (n =388), recruited from a nationwide registry (age: 28.5±3.1 years; T1D duration: 17.0±2.7 years), completed a questionnaire (198 items); the results were compared with the French general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and Z scores matched for age, gender and period with/without education levels and patterns of family life. Linear regression models also investigated correlates of SF-36 Physical (PCS) and Mental Composite Scores (MCS). Results Compared with the French general population, education levels of people with T1D were similar, with 68.6% having at least a high-school diploma or higher (SIR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.93; 1.20), as were also their patterns of family life. Unemployment was higher in T1D women (15.3%, SIR: 1.50, 1.00; 2.05), but not in T1D men (8.6%, SIR: 0.96, 0.51; 1.57). Social discrimination was more common (SIR: 5.64, 4.64; 6.62), and frequency of daily alcohol consumption was higher (SIR: men, 3.34, 2.38; 4.54; women, 6.53, 4.57; 12.99). PCS and MCS were decreased moderately (mean±SD: 52.0±7.5; mean Z score: −0.2, 95% CI: −0.3; −0.1) and substantially (mean±SD: 42.1±12.4; mean Z score: −0.7, −0.8; −0.6), respectively. Fatigue and abandoning sports were predictive of a lower HRQOL. Both men and women were more frequently dissatisfied with their sex life. Prevalence of sexual problems was higher in women (SIR for: dysorgasmia, 1.91, 1.21–2.88; decreased/loss of desire: 2.11, 1.35–3.08), but similar in men. Participants with T1D-related complications had preserved social outcomes, but altered HRQOL. Conclusion Young adults with T1D have satisfactory social participation. However, their higher alcohol consumption, lower MCS and frequent dissatisfaction with sexuality suggest a heavy impact of the disease on morale, especially in women. Improving the everyday well-being of these young adults represents a key challenge for diabetes healthcare.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Pleiotropic effects of insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonists: Potential
           benefits of the association
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement 1
      Author(s): B. Cariou
      The combination of basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) is an emerging option for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). GLP-1RAs have been shown to improve glycaemic control with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and to promote body weight loss. However, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) are widely expressed in extrapancreatic tissues and could sustain pleiotropic actions of GLP-1RAs beyond glycaemic control. The underlying molecular mechanisms maintaining these extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 are complex, and involve GLP-1R signalling in both the brain and several peripheral tissues. The present review focuses specifically on the role of GLP-1RAs in the cardiovascular system and liver. Preclinical data in rodents and pilot studies in humans suggest that GLP-1RAs may have potential beneficial effects on heart function, blood pressure, postprandial lipaemia, liver steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Long-term studies are now warranted to determine the safety and clinical relevance of the association between insulin and GLP-1RAs in T2D.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Options for intensification of basal insulin in type 2 diabetes: Premeal
           insulin or short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement 1
      Author(s): P. Darmon, D. Raccah
      Type 2 diabetes is an evolutive disease with a progressive defect of beta-cell insulin secretion. This characteristic points to a need for treatment that takes into account such a natural history. When oral antidiabetic drugs fail to achieve the patient's target HbA1c level, basal insulin treatment is usually initiated and titrated in association with oral drugs to manage fasting hyperglycaemia. Over a period of time, it is enough to simply achieve the HbA1c target. However, when even a good fasting blood glucose level is no longer sufficient to control overall glycaemia, then prandial treatment must be combined with the titrated basal insulin to deal with the postprandial hyperglycaemia responsible for the elevation of HbA1c. Of the different therapeutic options now available for this, rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) can be used. Rapid-acting insulins can be added either at each meal, achieving full insulin supplementation with a basal-bolus regimen, or at the main meal only as a “basal-plus” regimen. Compared with the full basal-bolus, the basal-plus strategy is associated with fewer injections, yet provides similar efficacy in terms of HbA1c improvement, but with less weight gain and lower hypoglycaemic risk. As for GLP-1 RAs, numerous studies, and especially those using short-acting GLP-1 RAs, have demonstrated more pronounced effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia, good complementary effects with basal insulin, and significant improvement of HbA1c with no weight gain and a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Similarly, direct and indirect comparisons of the use of rapid-acting insulins and GLP-1 RAs to intensify basal insulin have shown comparable efficacy in terms of HbA1c control, but with less weight gain and fewer hypoglycaemic episodes with GLP-1 RAs.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • The metabolic syndrome and cancer: Is the metabolic syndrome useful for
           predicting cancer risk above and beyond its individual components'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6
      Author(s): J. Harding, M. Sooriyakumaran, K.J. Anstey, R. Adams, B. Balkau, T. Briffa, T.M.E. Davis, W.A. Davis, A. Dobson, G.G. Giles, J. Grant, M. Knuiman, M. Luszcz, P. Mitchell, J.A. Pasco, C. Reid, D. Simmons, L. Simons, A. Tonkin, M. Woodward, J.E. Shaw, D.J. Magliano
      Aims The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for cancer. However, it is not known if the MetS confers a greater cancer risk than the sum of its individual components, which components drive the association, or if the MetS predicts future cancer risk. Materials and methods We linked 20,648 participants from the Australian and New Zealand Diabetes and Cancer Collaboration with complete data on the MetS to national cancer registries and used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations of the MetS, the number of positive MetS components, and each of the five MetS components separately with the risk for overall, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) are reported. We assessed predictive ability of the MetS using Harrell's c-statistic. Results The MetS was inversely associated with prostate cancer (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.72-0.99). We found no evidence of an association between the MetS overall, colorectal and breast cancers. For those with five positive MetS components the HR was 1.12 (1.02-1.48) and 2.07 (1.26-3.39) for overall, and colorectal cancer, respectively, compared with those with zero positive MetS components. Greater waist circumference (WC) (1.38; 1.13-1.70) and elevated blood pressure (1.29; 1.01-1.64) were associated with colorectal cancer. Elevated WC and triglycerides were (inversely) associated with prostate cancer. MetS models were only poor to moderate discriminators for all cancer outcomes. Conclusions We show that the MetS is (inversely) associated with prostate cancer, but is not associated with overall, colorectal or breast cancer. Although, persons with five positive components of the MetS are at a 1.2 and 2.1 increased risk for overall and colorectal cancer, respectively, and these associations appear to be driven, largely, by elevated WC and BP. We also demonstrate that the MetS is only a moderate discriminator of cancer risk.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • GLP-1 RAs as compared to prandial insulin after failure of basal insulin
           in type 2 diabetes: lessons from the 4B and Get-Goal DUO 2 trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement 1
      Author(s): F. Porcellati, P. Lucidi, G.B. Bolli, C.G. Fanelli
      The add-on of a prandial (short-acting) GLP-1 RA to basal insulin in subjects with T2DM who fail to control A1C on basal insulin, stems from the physiological principles of post-prandial glucose homeostasis, and it is based on evidence from clinical trials. The 4B and GetGoal DUO 2 studies are the first to establish in head-to-head comparison, the efficacy and safety of short-acting GLP-1 RAs vs prandial insulin, when added-on to basal insulin glargine. In the 4B study (exenatide 2/d vs lispro 3/d) exenatide demonstrated similar efficacy vs lispro in reducing A1C to ~7.2%. However, exenatide reduced also body weight and hypoglycemia incidence as compared to lispro. In GetGoal DUO 2, the head-to-head comparison was between lixisenatide 1/d vs glulisine either 1/d (at the main meal, basal-plus) or 3/d (basal-bolus). Like in 4B, in GetGoal DUO 2 the A1C decreased to similar values with lixisenatide or glulisine 1/d (~7.2%), or glulisine 3/d (~7.0%). Again, as in the 4B, body weight and hypoglycemia incidence were lower with lixisenatide. In both studies a similar percentage of subjects reached the A1C <7.0% on GLP-1 RA or prandial insulin. A higher percentage of subjects reported adverse events on GLP-1 RAs, primarily gastrointestinal related. The studies 4B and GetGoal DUO 2 suggest that after failure of basal insulin in T2DM, the add-on of prandial GLP-1 RA is as effective as prandial insulin in lowering A1C, with added benefits of reducing body weight and risk for hypoglycemia. In addition, the GLP-1 RA + basal insulin is a simpler therapeutic option as compared to basal-plus and basal-bolus regimens.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Ramadan and diabetes: What we see, learn and understand from continuous
           glucose monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6
      Author(s): L. Monnier, A. El Azrak, N. Lessan, D. Rochd, C. Colette, F. Bonnet
      Abstinence from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset characterizes the holy month of Ramadan. For the 50 million Muslims worldwide with diabetes who adhere to this religious fast, the practice results in marked changes in glucose homoeostasis. The sunset meal (Iftar) that breaks the fasting state is followed by exaggerated surges in blood glucose and sustained overnight hyperglycaemia in cases of nocturnal overfeeding. The predawn meal (Suhoor) frequently results in prolonged glucose decay over the daylight hours. These glycaemic disturbances are particularly marked in insulin-treated patients, in those with unsatisfactory diabetes control during the pre-Ramadan period and in patients who are poorly compliant with lifestyle recommendations. Whether such patients should be exempt from the Islamic fast remains an open debate, which might be partially resolved by long-term controlled studies using the technology of continuous glucose monitoring in large populations of patients with diabetes.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Postprandial and basal hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: Contributions to
           overall glucose exposure and diabetic complications
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement 1
      Author(s): L. Monnier, C. Colette
      Both postprandial and fasting (basal) hyperglycaemia contribute to overall hyperglycaemia (ambient hyperglycaemia) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Postprandial glucose is the main contributor in fairly well controlled individuals, whereas basal hyperglycaemia becomes the preponderant contributor in poorly controlled patients. A more generally acceptable description of the contribution of postprandial glucose is to simply say that the absolute impact of postprandial glucose to HbA1c remains constant at approximately 1% across the entire HbA1c spectrum of non-insulin-treated patients with T2D. While epidemiological and pathophysiological studies seem to indicate that excessive postprandial glucose excursions play a role in or are predictors of cardiovascular diseases, there is still currently a lack of clinical evidence that correcting post-meal hyperglycaemia can improve clinical outcomes. However, even in the absence of consensus, there are many reasons for thinking that excessive postprandial glucose might be an independent risk factor for diabetic complications as it contributes to both overall glucose exposure and glycaemic variability, especially in those who have HbA1c levels < 7.5–8%. Given that excessive glucose fluctuations from peaks to nadirs activate oxidative stress, it seems reasonable to consider that a key player in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, according to the latest IDF guidelines, is post-meal glucose, thereby warranting its assessment and treatment when found at abnormally elevated levels. Nevertheless, healthcare professionals should bear in mind that targeting both post-meal and basal plasma glucose, giving equal consideration to both of them, is probably the best strategy for achieving optimal glycaemic control and thus preventing or reducing the risk of diabetic complications.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Editorial board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Basal insulin intensification in type 2 diabetes: a key role for GLP-1
           receptor agonists
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement 1
      Author(s): Pr Bernard Charbonnel



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Physiological aspects of the combination of insulin and GLP-1 in the
           regulation of blood glucose control
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 41, Issue 6, Supplement 1
      Author(s): B. Ahrén
      Combining insulin with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as glucose-lowering therapy for type 2 diabetes is a promising strategy that has gained considerable interest over the past few years. One advantage of this combination is the complementary mechanistic actions of insulin and GLP-1. Insulin increases glucose utilization and retards hepatic glucose production through direct actions in muscle, adipose tissue and the liver. On the other hand, GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion and retards gastric emptying. Combining these effects results in powerful reductions in both fasting and postprandial glucose through diminished glucose entry into the bloodstream after food consumption, reduced hepatic production of glucose and increased glucose utilization. In addition, GLP-1 receptor agonists induce satiety, leading to decreases in food intakes and body weight, thereby preventing the weight gain often seen with insulin therapy. Clinical trials have verified that these physiological effects as a result of combining insulin with GLP-1 receptor agonists or DPP-4 inhibitors can indeed result in improved glycaemia, with limited risks of hypoglycaemia and weight gain.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Improvement of liver function tests by antidiabetic agents: The need for
           multidirectional analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): B. Vergès, J.-M. Petit, B. Bouillet



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Relationship between vitamin D levels and glucose tolerance in an adult
           population with cystic fibrosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A. Coriati, C. Lehoux Dubois, M. Phaneuf, M. Mailhot, A. Lavoie, Y. Berthiaume, R. Rabasa-Lhoret



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Indicators of iron status are correlated with adiponectin expression in
           adipose tissue of patients with morbid obesity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): F. Pihan-Le Bars, F. Bonnet, O. Loréal, A.-G. Le Loupp, M. Ropert, E. Letessier, X. Prieur, K. Bach, Y. Deugnier, B. Fromenty, B. Cariou
      Aim The aim of this study was to assess interactions between glucose and iron homoeostasis in the adipose tissue (AT) of obese subjects. Methods A total of 46 obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery were recruited into the study. Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were assessed, and biopsies of subcutaneous (SCAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) performed. The mRNA levels of genes involved in iron and glucose homoeostasis were measured in their AT and compared with a pool of control samples. Results Gene expression of hepcidin (HAMP) was significantly increased in the SCAT and VAT of obese patients, while transferrin receptor (TFRC) expression was reduced, compared with non-obese controls, suggesting a higher iron load in obese patients. Also, mRNA levels of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) were decreased in both SCAT and VAT in obese patients, and correlated negatively with hepcidin expression, while adiponectin expression was positively correlated with TFRC expression in both SCAT and VAT. Interestingly, TFRC expression in VAT correlated negatively with several metabolic parameters, such as fasting blood glucose and LDL cholesterol. Conclusion Iron content appears to be increased in the SCAT and VAT of obese patients, and negatively correlated with adiponectin expression, which could be contributing to insulin resistance and the metabolic complications of obesity.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • The new long-acting insulin glargine U300 achieves an early steady
           state with low risk of accumulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): L. Monnier, D.R. Owens, G.B. Bolli



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Carotid extra-medial thickness does not predict adverse cardiovascular
           outcomes in high-risk adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): T.Y. Cai, C. Magnussen, B. Haluska, D.W. Johnson, P.M. Mottram, N. Isbel, D.S. Celermajer, T.H. Marwick, M.R. Skilton



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Perinatal outcome in a Caucasian population with gestational diabetes and
           preexisting diabetes first diagnosed in pregnancy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): F. Corrado, B. Pintaudi, R. D’Anna, A. Santamaria, L. Giunta, A. Di Benedetto
      Aim Our objective was to compare, in a Caucasian population, the perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes diagnosed in the first-trimester of pregnancy with those of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. Methods A retrospective evaluation of maternal and neonatal outcomes was performed for all consecutive pregnancies complicated by gestational or pregestational diabetes that happened between 2005 and 2011. Pregestational diabetes was diagnosed for the first time in pregnancy if the first-trimester fasting glycaemia was≥126mg/dL. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed according to Carpenter–Coustan criteria until May 2010, and then according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) panel criteria modified by the American Diabetes Association. A specific diet, self-monitoring of blood glucose and, if required, insulin treatment were prescribed. Results Overall, 411 pregnant women were considered eligible for the study (379 with gestational diabetes and 32 with pregestational diabetes). Women with pregestational vs. gestational diabetes were diagnosed earlier in pregnancy (11.6±1.0 weeks vs. 25.9±1.7 weeks; P =0.0001), had a higher mean first-trimester fasting glycaemic level (129.5±3.6mg/dL vs. 81.6±10.5mg/dL; P =0.0001), more often had a family history of diabetes (46.9% vs. 25.9%; P =0.02) and more often needed insulin treatment (78.1% vs. 14.0%; P =0.0001). Furthermore, a higher rate of fetal malformations in women with pregestational diabetes was detected (9.4% vs. 1.6%, P =0.02). No other differences in neonatal outcomes were identified. Conclusion In a Caucasian population, the prevalence of fetal malformations and insulin requirements with pregestational diabetes first diagnosed in pregnancy were significantly higher compared with women with gestational diabetes. In any case, glucose impairment in pregnancy needs to be diagnosed in a timely fashion and appropriately treated to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Carbohydrate metabolism improvement after Helicobacter pylori eradication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M.M. Roca-Rodríguez, L. Coín-Aragüez, I. Cornejo-Pareja, J. Alcaide, C. Clu-Fernández, A. Muñoz-Garach, E. Durán-Martín, L. Mora-Navas, A.M. Gómez-Pérez, M. Molina-Vega, C. Díaz-Perdigones, I. Mancha-Doblas, F.J. Tinahones



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Association between multiple skin tags and metabolic syndrome: A
           multicentre cross-sectional study in primary care
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): E.S.Y. Hui, B.H.K. Yip, K.W. Tsang, F.T.T. Lai, K. Kung, S.Y.S. Wong



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Metabolic features associated with positivity to ZnT8 autoantibody in
           sub-Saharan African young-onset diabetes patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A. Mbanya, A. Ngandeu, V. Kamwa, O.T. Donfack, É. Lontchi, R. Leke, J.-C. Mbanya, E. Sobngwi



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Functional gastrointestinal disorders and incidence of type 2 diabetes:
           Evidence from the E3N–EPIC cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Fagherazzi, G. Gusto, B. Balkau, M.-C. Boutron-Ruault, F. Clavel-Chapelon, F. Bonnet
      Objective Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) such as diarrhoea and constipation can reflect intestinal dysfunction, especially with regard to intestinal microbiota, which, in turn, have been associated with chronic conditions, including obesity and insulin resistance. However, little is known of the association between FGID and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Design and methods This analysis aimed to determine the influence of diarrhoea, constipation and alternating bouts of diarrhoea/constipation on T2D risk in 62,683 women from the prospective E3N–EPIC cohort. Results A total of 1795 T2D cases were recorded during follow-up. Compared with women who had normal gastrointestinal transits, women with chronic diarrhoea or alternating diarrhoea/constipation were at increased risk of T2D (HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00–1.65 vs. HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.15–1.52, respectively), whereas women with constipation had a decreased risk (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.57–0.78). There was no interaction between FGID and body mass index for risk of T2D. Also, these associations were independent of dietary habits such as coffee, fruit and vegetable consumption, and even of the use of laxatives and psychotropic drugs. Conclusion The present analysis showed, for the first time, a limited association between FGID and T2D risk in a large prospective cohort, and supports the hypothesis of a relationship between gastrointestinal function and diabetes. The presence of gastrointestinal transit disorders may assist in screening for subjects at higher risk of diabetes beyond the conventional risk factors.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Difficulties describing feelings to others still predicts glycaemic
           control up to 24 months later in children with type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Housiaux, O. Luminet, H. Dorchy



      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Parathyroid hormone is associated with incident diabetes in white, but not
           black adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): J.P. Reis, E. Selvin, J.S. Pankow, E.D. Michos, C.M. Rebholz, P.L. Lutsey
      Objective Accumulating evidence has linked elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) with insulin resistance, beta cell dysfunction and dysglycaemia, however, its role in the development of diabetes is largely unclear, particularly among non-whites. We sought to examine the association of PTH with the incidence of diabetes. Methods We studied 8066 white and 2034 black adults aged 46–70 years at baseline (1990–92) from the ARIC Study with follow-up for incident diabetes ascertained during study visits conducted in 1993–95 and 1996–98. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CIs for diabetes adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were estimated according to PTH measured at baseline. Results PTH was higher among blacks than whites (median [IQR], 43.8 [35.0–55.8] vs. 37.9 [30.4–47.3] pg/mL; P <0.001). During a median follow-up of 6 years, 498 white and 167 black participants developed diabetes. The association of PTH with diabetes varied significantly by race (P-interaction 0.02). PTH was not associated with risk for diabetes among black adults. Among whites, HRs according to quintiles of PTH were 1 (referent), 0.95 (0.71, 1.29), 0.95 (0.70, 1.28), 1.12 (0.84, 1.51), and 1.31 (0.98, 1.76) (P-trend 0.03). When a clinical cut-point for PTH was applied (≥65pg/mL; 5.7% of whites), the HR for diabetes among whites was 1.38 (1.01, 1.88). Results were similar when restricted to participants with normal baseline kidney function. Conclusion In this large, population-based study, elevated PTH was independently associated with risk for diabetes among white, but not black adults. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms that may underlie this differential association of PTH with diabetes across race groups.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • History of diabetes and risk of suicide and accidental death in Japan: The
           Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study, 1990–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): T. Yamauchi, M. Inagaki, N. Yonemoto, M. Iwasaki, T. Akechi, N. Sawada, H. Iso, M. Noda, S. Tsugane
      Aim This study looked at whether a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a higher risk of externally caused death (by suicide and accident), using data for a large population-based prospective cohort from an Asian population. Methods Data collected between 1990 and 2012 from the Japan Public Health Centre-based Prospective Study were analyzed, and Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RR) for external causes of death. Results The population-based cohort comprised 105,408 Japanese residents (49,484 men and 55,924 women; mean age: 51.2 [SD 7.9] years). At baseline, 3250 (6.6%) men and 1648 (3.0%) women had a history of DM. During the follow-up period, 113 external deaths (41 suicides and 72 accidents) were noted among those with a history of DM, with 1304 external deaths (577 suicides and 727 accidents) among those without such a history. A higher risk of external death (men, RR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2–1.8; women, RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.01–2.4) was observed in those with a history of DM. Also, among those aged 40–49 years (RR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–2.7) and 50–59 years (RR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.05–1.9) at baseline, the risk of external death was significantly higher in those with a history of DM. Conclusion Compared with people with no history of DM, those with such a history had a significantly greater risk of externally caused death (particularly accidental deaths) in both genders and in those aged≤59 years at baseline.


      PubDate: 2016-01-22T11:00:12Z
       
  • Hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with type 2
           diabetes – risk factors and associations with
           patient-reported outcomes: The PANORAMA Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): D. Simon, P. de Pablos-Velasco, K.G. Parhofer, L. Gönder-Frederick, I. Duprat Lomon, H. Vandenberghe, E. Eschwège, C. Bradley
      Aim To explore the frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes, their risk factors, and associations with patient-reported outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the PANORAMA cross-sectional study. Methods Five thousand seven hundred and eighty-three patients aged ≥ 40 years with type 2 diabetes duration ≥ 1 year were recruited in nine European countries. Patients reported severe and non-severe hypoglycaemic episodes during the past year at a single study visit. Patient-reported outcomes were measured by the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life, Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaires, Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey-II, and EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale. Results During the previous year, 4.4% of the patients experienced ≥1 severe hypoglycaemic episode; among those without severe hypoglycaemia, 15.7% experienced ≥1 non-severe episode. Patients experiencing any hypoglycaemic episode reported a greater negative impact of diabetes on quality of life, greater fear of hypoglycaemia, less treatment satisfaction and worse health status than those with no episodes. In multivariate analyses hypoglycaemia was significantly associated with longer diabetes duration; presence of microvascular and, to a lesser extent, macrovascular complications; treatment with insulin, glinides or sulfonylureas; and use of self-monitoring blood glucose. Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes, severe hypoglycaemic episodes were not uncommon and one in five experienced some form of hypoglycaemia during the previous year. Hypoglycaemia was associated with more negative patient-reported outcomes. The risk of hypoglycaemia increased with diabetes duration, presence of diabetes-related complications, use of self-monitoring blood glucose, insulin secretagogues, and insulin treatment.


      PubDate: 2015-10-11T10:31:32Z
       
  • Effects of a very low-calorie diet on insulin sensitivity and insulin
           secretion in overweight/obese and lean type 2 diabetes patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): C. Liu, C. Li, J. Chen, Y. Liu, Q. Cheng, X. Xiang, G. Chen



      PubDate: 2015-10-08T09:52:45Z
       
  • Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose
           tissue: A review of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): L. Bahler, R.J. Molenaars, H.J. Verberne, F. Holleman
      Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to convert calories into heat rather than storing them. Therefore, activated BAT could be a potential target in the battle against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the role of the autonomic nervous system in the activation of human BAT. Although the number of studies focusing on BAT in humans is limited, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in BAT activation is evident. Metabolic BAT activity can be visualized with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, whereas sympathetic activation of BAT can be visualized with nuclear-medicine techniques using different radiopharmaceuticals. Also, interruption of the sympathetic nerves leading to BAT activation diminishes sympathetic stimulation, resulting in reduced metabolic BAT activity. Furthermore, both β- and α-adrenoceptors might be important in the stimulation process of BAT, as pretreatment with propranolol or α-adrenoceptor blockade also diminishes BAT activity. In contrast, high catecholamine levels are known to activate and recruit BAT. There are several interventional studies in which BAT was successfully inhibited, whereas only one interventional study aiming to activate BAT resulted in the intended outcome. Most studies have focused on the SNS for activating BAT, although the parasympathetic nervous system might also be a target of interest. To better define the possible role of BAT in strategies to combat the obesity epidemic, it seems likely that future studies focusing on both histology and imaging are essential for identifying the factors and receptors critical for activation of human BAT.


      PubDate: 2015-09-30T08:14:11Z
       
  • Indication, organization, practical implementation and interpretation
           guidelines for retrospective CGM recording: A French position statement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Joubert, S. Baillot-Rudoni, B. Catargi, G. Charpentier, A. Esvant, S. Franc, B. Guerci, I. Guilhem, V. Melki, E. Merlen, A. Penfornis, E. Renard, J.P. Riveline, P. Schaepelynck, A. Sola-Gazagnes, H. Hanaire
      Aim The benefits of retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (retroCGM) recording have been widely explored in clinical studies, and many diabetes physicians routinely use this examination. However, the method of interpretation of CGM recordings has never been precisely described. Method An expert French panel of physicians met for two days to discuss several aspects of retroCGM use and to produce a position statement. Results The guidelines cover the indications for retroCGM, the general organization and practical implementation of CGM recordings, a description of the different devices available and guidelines for the interpretation of retroCGM recordings. Conclusion This consensus document should help clinicians in the proper use of retroCGM.


      PubDate: 2015-08-11T04:22:55Z
       
  • Review of heart failure treatment in type 2 diabetes patients: It's
           at least as effective as in non-diabetic patients!
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): N. Girerd, F. Zannad, P. Rossignol
      Our society is currently facing an epidemic of diabetes and heart failure. Historically, certain cardiology treatments, mainly beta-blockers, have been considered ‘dangerous’ in diabetic patients, but the time has come for personalized medicine to be applied in the field of cardiology, especially in heart failure (HF). To determine whether HF treatment should be individualized according to diabetes status, this review of the available randomized evidence was carried out, with special emphasis on treatment-effect modification in relation to diabetes. Based on a large body of evidence in the literature, our review concludes that HF treatment should be the same for diabetic and non-diabetic patients. In concurrence, international guidelines now strongly advocate the use of HF drugs, including beta-blockers, in diabetic HF patients. The benefit of HF treatment is at least as favourable in such patients as in non-diabetic patients on a relative basis. Given the higher risk of events in diabetics, this could translate to an even greater absolute impact of HF treatment in these patients, which should further encourage caregivers to more aggressively manage HF in diabetic patients. To this end, non-cardiologists, including general practitioners and endocrinologists/diabetologists who treat diabetic HF patients, should be considered part of the HF drug optimalization process, including the referral of patients to specialized centres for possible implantable cardiac defibrillators and/or cardiac resynchronization indication assessment.


      PubDate: 2015-08-07T04:12:33Z
       
  • Alcohol and disease prevention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Testino , S. Leone , P. Borro



      PubDate: 2015-07-09T16:14:32Z
       
  • Association between thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies and insulin
           resistance in euthyroid individuals: A population-based cohort
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2015
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A. Amouzegar , E. Kazemian , S. Gharibzadeh , L. Mehran , M. Tohidi , F. Azizi
      Aim The association between insulin resistance and thyroid function in euthyroid subjects has not yet been clarified. This study aimed to investigate the association between thyroid function within the normal reference range and insulin resistance in participants of the Tehran Thyroid Study (TTS). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the TTS. Of 5786subjects aged≥20 years, 2758euthyroid subjects free of thyroid disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease, and not taking steroids and lipid-lowering agents, were included. Serum concentrations of free thyroxine (FT4) and TSH were measured. The homoeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to evaluate IR. Results On linear regression analysis, a negative association was found between serum FT4 levels and HOMA-IR in the model with age, smoking and physical activity (B=−0.09, P <0.001) and in the WC-adjusted model with age, smoking and physical activity for men (B=−0.06, P <0.01). In addition, there was a positive association between serum TSH levels and HOMA-IR in both models [with age, smoking and physical activity (B=0.07, P =0.006), and age, smoking, physical activity and adjusted for WC (B=0.05, P =0.01)] that was not more significant on logistic regression analysis. In women, neither serum FT4 nor TSH levels were associated with HOMA-IR; the prevalence of IR decreased from 27.2 to 19.1 with increasing tertiles of FT4 only in men (P =0.01). No significant differences were observed in HOMA-IR and its components between thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)-negative and -positive groups. Also, it was found that metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects had higher levels of TSH than individuals who were MONW (metabolically obese but normal weight; P <0.01). Conclusion Low FT4 was independently associated with IR in healthy euthyroid Iranian men.


      PubDate: 2015-06-06T07:10:22Z
       
 
 
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