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Journal Cover Diabetes & Metabolism
  [SJR: 1.252]   [H-I: 70]   [69 followers]  Follow
    
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   ISSN (Print) 1262-3636
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Continuous positive airway pressure improves sleep quality, but not
           glycaemic control, in patients with poorly controlled long-standing type 2
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Torrella, I. Castells, G. Gimenez-Perez, A. Recasens, M. Miquel, O. Simó, E. Barbeta, G. Sampol


      PubDate: 2017-10-10T23:47:25Z
       
  • Hypoglycaemia causes both daytime and nighttime QTc interval prolongation
           in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): K. Makrilakis, C. Stathi, I. Vlahodimitris, S. Kalopita, P. Thomakos, P. Konstantopoulos, D. Perrea, N. Katsilambros, S. Liatis


      PubDate: 2017-10-10T23:47:25Z
       
  • Glycated albumin predicts the development of early diabetic nephropathy in
           patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): J.E. Jun, K.Y. Hur, Y.-B. Lee, S.-E. Lee, S.-M. Jin, M.-K. Lee, J.H. Kim


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • ‘Treatment-resistant’ type 2 diabetes: Which definition for
           clinical practice'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): A.J. Scheen


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Impact of glucose-lowering therapies on risk of stroke in type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): F. Bonnet, A.J. Scheen
      Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of stroke compared with people without diabetes. However, the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on risk of ischaemic stroke in T2D have been less extensively investigated than in coronary heart disease. Some evidence, including the UKPDS, has suggested a reduced risk of stroke with metformin, although the number of studies is limited. Inhibition of the KATP channels increases ischaemic brain lesions in animals. This is in agreement with a recent meta-analysis showing an increased risk of stroke with sulphonylureas vs. various comparators as both mono- and combination therapy. Pioglitazone can prevent recurrence of stroke in patients with previous stroke, as already shown in PROactive, although results are less clear for first strokes. As for DPP-4 inhibitors, there was a non-significant trend towards benefit for stroke, whereas a possible increased risk of stroke with SGLT2 inhibitors—and in particular, empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial—has been suggested and requires clarification. Experimental results support a potential protective effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists against stroke that has, at least in part, been translated to clinical benefits in T2D patients in the LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 trials. Further interventional studies are now warranted to confirm the effects of glucose-lowering agents on risk of stroke in patients with T2D. In summary, the effects of antidiabetic drugs on risk of stroke appear to be heterogeneous, with some therapies (pioglitazone, GLP-1 receptor agonists) conferring possible protection against ischaemic stroke, other classes showing a neutral impact (DPP-4 inhibitors, insulin) and some glucose-lowering agents being associated with an increased risk of stroke (sulphonylureas, possibly SGLT2 inhibitors, high-dose insulin in the presence of insulin resistance).

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Associations between a fetal imprinted gene allele score and late
           pregnancy maternal glucose concentrations
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): C.J. Petry, K. Mooslehner, P. Prentice, M.G. Hayes, M. Nodzenski, D.M. Scholtens, I.A. Hughes, C.L. Acerini, K.K. Ong, W.L. Lowe, D.B. Dunger
      Aim We hypothesised that some of the genetic risk for gestational diabetes (GDM) is due to the fetal genome affecting maternal glucose concentrations. Previously, we found associations between fetal IGF2 gene variants and maternal glucose concentrations in late pregnancy. Methods In the present study, we tested associations between SNP alleles from 15 fetal imprinted genes and maternal glucose concentrations in late pregnancy in the Cambridge Baby Growth and Wellbeing cohorts (1160 DNA trios). Results Four fetal SNP alleles with the strongest univariate associations: paternally-transmitted IGF2 rs10770125 (P-value=2×10–4) and INS rs2585 (P-value=7×10–4), and maternally-transmitted KCNQ1(OT1) rs231841 (P-value=1×10–3) and KCNQ1(OT1) rs7929804 (P-value=4×10–3), were used to construct a composite fetal imprinted gene allele score which was associated with maternal glucose concentrations (P-value=4.3×10–6, n =981, r2 =2.0%) and GDM prevalence (odds ratio per allele 1.44 (1.15, 1.80), P-value=1×10–3, n =89 cases and 899 controls). Meta-analysis of the associations including data from 1367 Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study participants confirmed the paternally-transmitted fetal IGF2/INS SNP associations (rs10770125, P-value=3.2×10–8, rs2585, P-value=3.6×10–5) and the composite fetal imprinted gene allele score association (P-value=1.3×10–8), but not the maternally-transmitted fetal KCNQ1(OT1) associations (rs231841, P-value=0.4; rs7929804, P-value=0.2). Conclusion This study suggests that polymorphic variation in fetal imprinted genes, particularly in the IGF2/INS region, contribute a small but significant part to the risk of raised late pregnancy maternal glucose concentrations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Less liver fibrosis in metabolically healthy compared with metabolically
           unhealthy obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): Y. Gutiérrez-Grobe, E. Juárez-Hernández, B.A. Sánchez-Jiménez, M.H. Uribe-Ramos, M.H. Ramos-Ostos, M. Uribe, N.C. Chávez-Tapia
      Aim This cross-sectional study evaluated liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and compared the characteristics of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) patients. Methods The study was nested within a randomized clinical trial (RCT) and included obese patients with NAFLD, as determined by liver ultrasonography. Fibrosis was assessed by transient elastography, and AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and NAFLD score. Patients were compared according to obesity phenotype using various accepted criteria. Results The RCT included 1024 patients with NAFLD, of whom 428 (41.7%) were included in the present study. The prevalence of MHO ranged from 1.2% to 63%, depending on the criteria used. According to various criteria for metabolic health, obese patients had less liver fibrosis. MHO patients, as defined by all criteria, showed a significantly lower prevalence of advanced liver fibrosis (F3–F4) than MUHO on transient elastography (16.5% vs. 28%, respectively; P ≤0.05). Conclusion MUHO patients are at higher risk of liver fibrosis and, therefore, the identification of obese patients with ‘healthy’ characteristics is imperative as their entire clinical work-ups are likely to differ.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Maternal and paternal family history of diabetes in second-degree
           relatives and metabolic outcomes at age 5–6 years: The ABCD Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): A.J.J.M. Oostvogels, C.P. Landstra, L. Britsemmer, R. Lodewijkx, K. Stronks, T.J. Roseboom, T.G.M. Vrijkotte
      Aim To investigate whether children with a family history of diabetes (FHD) in second-degree relatives (grandparents, aunts/uncles) are at increased risk of developing obesity and diabetes, and whether the risk differs between maternal or paternal transmission. Methods In the multiethnic population-based cohort Amsterdam-Born Children and Their Development (ABCD) Study, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR), fat percentage (fat%), fasting glucose and C-peptide in 5- or 6-year-old children with no second-degree FHD (n =2226) were compared with children with maternal-only (n =353), paternal-only (n =281) or both maternal and paternal (n =164) second-degree FHD. Children of diabetic mothers or fathers were excluded. Results None of the children in any of our FHD categories differed in body composition after adjusting for maternal, paternal and childhood lifestyle covariates. However, children with both maternal and paternal second-degree FHD had increased C-peptide levels (0.03nmol, 95% CI: 0.01–0.05) compared with those in the other three study groups. Results were similar when analyses were restricted to only the Dutch children. Conclusion Children with FHD in second-degree relatives on both maternal and paternal sides already have higher C-peptide levels at an early age. This might be the result of a double burden of a shared obesogenic lifestyle, or of more diverse diabetogenic genes compared to children without FHD or with only FHD in one side of the family. In any case, second-degree FHD could be used as a public-health screening tool to identify children at risk of adverse metabolic outcomes and of possible future disease.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Association between earlier age at natural menopause and risk of diabetes
           in middle-aged and older Chinese women: The Dongfeng–Tongji cohort study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): L. Shen, L. Song, H. Li, B. Liu, X. Zheng, L. Zhang, J. Yuan, Y. Liang, Y. Wang
      Aim Age at menopause is associated with cardiovascular disease, but little is known of its relationship with diabetes, and previous findings are controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between earlier menopause (at age ≤45 years) and the prevalence of diabetes in the Chinese population. Methods A total of 16,299 postmenopausal women, aged 42.0–94.3 years, who completed the study questionnaires, underwent medical examinations and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. Participants self-reported their age at menopause and were then divided into three age groups (≤45, 46–52, ≥53years). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Of the study participants, 2811 (17.2%) had diabetes. The average age at menopause was 49.5±3.3 years. For each 1-year delay in menopausal age, the presence of diabetes was reduced by 2% (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Compared with those whose menopausal age was 46–52 years, the OR for diabetes was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.03–1.39) for those with an earlier menopausal age (≤45years). Conclusion Our findings suggest that earlier menopause may be independently associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. Future prospective studies are needed to verify this relationship.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Multicentre randomized controlled trial with sensor-augmented pump vs
           multiple daily injections in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes in
           China: Time to reach target glucose
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): W. Gu, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, W. Deng, X. Ran, L. Chen, D. Zhu, J. Yang, J. Shin, S.W. Lee, T.L. Cordero, Y. Mu
      Aim Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) technology, which combines continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM), has been available for several years in China. In this study, the time required to reach predefined glycaemic targets with SAP vs multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy was compared in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Adults (aged 18–65 years) with T2DM treated with insulin and admitted to hospital for glucose management were randomized to either SAP (Medtronic MiniMed™ Paradigm™ 722 system) or MDI with blinded CGM (Medtronic MiniMed CGMS System Gold™) for a 2-week period. Glycaemic targets were defined as three preprandial measurements between 80 and 130mg/dL (4.4 and 7.2mmol/L) and three 2-h postprandial measurements between 80 and 180mg/dL (4.4 and 10.0mmol/L) within the same day. Results When data from 81 patients (40 SAP, 41 MDI) were analysed, 21 patients using SAP therapy, compared with six using MDI therapy, achieved their glycaemic targets within 3 days, and their time to reach their glucose targets was significantly shorter (3.7±1.1 vs 6.3±3.1 days for MDI; P <0.001), while three MDI patients failed to reach glycaemic targets within 14 days. SAP vs MDI patients experienced significantly less hypoglycaemia [sensor glucose<50mg/dL (2.8mmol/L): 0.04% vs 0.32%, respectively; P <0.05] and significantly less hyperglycaemia [sensor glucose>180mg/dL (10mmol/L): 21.56% vs 35.03%, respectively; P <0.05]. Conclusion SAP vs MDI therapy in hospitalized patients with T2DM significantly reduced the time required to achieve glycaemic targets, and such systems may be a cost-effective way to improve glucose control and reduce hospital stays in T2DM patients.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Increased fibrosis and angiogenesis in subcutaneous gluteal adipose tissue
           in nascent metabolic syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): I. Jialal, B. Adams-Huet, A. Major, S. Devaraj
      Aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is globally a common disorder that predisposes to both diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a paucity of data on fibrosis and angiogenesis in adipose tissue (AT) in patients with nascent MetS uncomplicated by diabetes or CVD. Hence, we assayed various indices of fibrosis and angiogenesis in subcutaneous AT (SAT). Methods In both patients with MetS and matched controls, we determined fibrosis and the densities of CD31, VEGF and Angiopoietin (Angio) 2 and 1 by immunohistochemistry in gluteal SAT. Results The fibrosis score was significantly increased in SAT of Met S. Also, both CD31 and VEGF densities were significantly increased. Surprisingly, Angio-2 was not increased and the ratio of Angio2:1 was decreased. Both indices of fibrosis and angiogenesis correlated with biomediators of inflammation. Conclusions In conclusion, we report increased fibrosis and paradoxical increased angiogenesis in gluteal SAT and speculate that the increased angiogenesis is a protective mechanism in mitigating further adipose tissue dysregulation in this depot.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Psychosocial determinants of non-adherence to antidiabetic drug treatment:
           A prospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): L. Guénette, A. Zongo, L. Guillaumie, S. Lauzier, L. Blais, J.-P. Grégoire, J. Moisan


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Canagliflozin as a replacement therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes
           not responding to GLP-1 receptor agonists
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): M.D. Garcia de Lucas, J. Olalla Sierra


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Wnt antagonist sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 in gestational diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): A. Catalano, B. Pintaudi, N. Morabito, L. Giunta, S. Loddo, F. Corrado, R. D’Anna, A. Lasco, A. Di Benedetto


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Post-transplantation diabetes: Treatment à la carte'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kanza Benomar, Stéphanie Espiard, Claire Vahe, Kristell Le Mapihan, Arnaud Jannin, Sébastien Dharancy, Marc Hazzan, Marie-Christine Vantyghem


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Augmented CD25 and CD69 expression on circulating CD8+ T cells in type 2
           diabetes mellitus with albuminuria
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): L. Lei, L. Cui, Y. Mao, X. Zhang, Q. Jiang, S. Dong, Y. Wang


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Estrogen-related receptor γ gene (ESRRG) rs1890552 A>G polymorphism in
           a Korean population: Association with urinary prostaglandin F2α
           concentration and impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed type 2
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): M. Kim, M. Kim, H.J. Yoo, R. Yun, S.-H. Lee, J.H. Lee


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Effect of weight loss on heme oxygenase-1 tissue expression
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): C. Ress, A.R. Moschen, V. Thoeni, C.F. Ebenbichler, H. Weiss, C. Molnar, G. Weiss, H. Tilg, S. Kaser


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Predicting severe hypoglycaemia with self-monitoring of blood glucose in
           type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): A. Moutairou, R. Roussel, B. Charbonnel, A. Leye, B. Detournay, K. Mohammedi, L. Potier


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Comparison of two techniques of adiponectin assay, ELISA and
           immunoturbidimetry: Should we move towards standardization'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): S. Fellahi, L. Béraud, G. Marlin, C. Vigouroux, J. Warszawski, J. Capeau, J.-P. Bastard


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Increase in cortisol/ACTH ratio after chronic treatment with liraglutide
           in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 43, Issue 4
      Author(s): S. Kamei, H. Kaneto, A. Tanabe, T. Kinoshita, A. Obata, T. Kimura, H. Hirukawa, F. Tatsumi, M. Shimoda, K. Kohara, Takatoshi Anno, S. Nakanishi, T. Mune, K. Kaku


      PubDate: 2017-10-03T18:43:36Z
       
  • Effects of linagliptin vs. voglibose on daily glucose excursions during
           continuous glucose monitoring of Japanese type 2 diabetes patients
           (L-CGM): A randomized, open-label, two-arm, parallel comparative trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): H. Satoh, T. Ohira, C. Moriya, I. Inoue, S. Kuribayashi, H. Seino, H. Hirai, T. Hiyoshi, H. Watada


      PubDate: 2017-09-27T12:43:15Z
       
  • Impact of body mass index and metabolic phenotypes on coronary artery
           disease according to glucose tolerance status
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): K. Fujihara, Y. Matsubayashi, M. Yamamoto, T. Osawa, M. Ishizawa, M. Kaneko, S. Matsunaga, K. Kato, H. Seida, N. Yamanaka, S. Kodama, H. Sone
      Objective This study aimed to examine the impact of obesity, as defined by body mass index (BMI), and a metabolically unhealthy phenotype on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) according to glucose tolerance status. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study included 123,746 Japanese men aged 18–72years (normal glucose tolerance: 72,047; prediabetes: 39,633; diabetes: 12,066). Obesity was defined as a BMI≥25kg/m2. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as those with one or more of the following conditions: hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and/or low HDL cholesterol. A Cox proportional hazards regression model identified variables related to CAD incidence. Results The prevalences of obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes and diabetes were 21%, 34% and 53%, whereas those for metabolically unhealthy people were 43%, 60% and 79%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a metabolically unhealthy phenotype increases hazard ratios (HRs) for CAD compared with a metabolically healthy phenotype, regardless of glucose tolerance status (normal glucose tolerance: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.32–2.95; prediabetes: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.85–4.55; diabetes: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.18–3.06). HRs for CAD among metabolically unhealthy non-obese diabetes patients and obese diabetes patients with a metabolically unhealthy status were 6.14 (95% CI: 3.94–9.56) and 7.86 (95% CI: 5.21–11.9), respectively, compared with non-obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and without a metabolically unhealthy status. Conclusion A metabolically unhealthy state can associate with CAD independently of obesity across all glucose tolerance stages. Clinicians may need to consider those with at least one or more conditions indicating a metabolically unhealthy state as being at high risk for CAD regardless of glucose tolerance status.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T11:43:21Z
       
  • IL-33 receptor ST2 deficiency attenuates renal ischaemia–reperfusion
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Sehnine, M. Ferhat, S. Sena, J.M. Gombert, J.M. Goujon, A. Thierry, G. Touchard, T. Hauet, A. Herbelin, S. Hadjadj
      Aim Kidney hypoxia can predispose to the development of acute and chronic renal failure in diabetes. Ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) causes inflammation, and diabetes is known to exacerbate this inflammatory response in the kidney, whereas alarmin IL-33 could act as an innate immune mediator during kidney IRI. Thus, the present study examined the impact of genetic IL-33 receptor ST2 deficiency (ST2−/−) on renal IRI in euglycaemic and hyperglycaemic mice. Methods Hyperglycaemia was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in adult male C57BL/6JRj wild-type (WT) mice and ST2−/− mice. Unilateral renal IRI was achieved 3months after STZ treatment by left kidney nephrectomy (non-ischaemic control kidney) and clamping of the right renal artery for 32min in STZ- and vehicle-treated animals. At 24h after reperfusion, renal function and injury were determined by levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and histological tubule scores. Also, in a complementary pilot clinical study, soluble ST2 concentrations were compared in diabetics and non-diabetics. Results Urinary albumin was significantly increased in STZ-induced hyperglycaemic mice, regardless of genotypic background. At 24h post-ischaemia, plasma creatinine, BUN and tubular injury were significantly reduced in ST2−/− mice compared with vehicle-treated WT mice, but this protective effect was lost in the STZ-induced hyperglycaemic ST2−/− animals. Plasma concentrations of soluble ST2 were significantly greater in type 2 diabetes patients vs non-diabetics. Conclusion Our data suggest that the IL-33/ST2 pathway exerts differential effects depending on the glucose environment, opening-up new avenues for future research on alarmins and diabetes in ischaemia-related diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T11:43:21Z
       
  • Vitamin D receptor-targeted treatment to prevent pathological
           dedifferentiation of pancreatic β cells under hyperglycaemic stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A. Neelankal John, Z. Iqbal, S. Colley, G. Morahan, M. Makishima, F.-X. Jiang
      Dedifferentiation has been identified as one of the causes of β-cell failure resulting in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study tested whether increasing vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression prevents dedifferentiation of β cells in a high-glucose state in vitro. Culturing a mouse insulinoma cell line (MIN6) in a high-glucose environment decreased VDR expression. However, increased VDR following vitamin D3 (VD3) treatment improved insulin release of early-passage MIN6 and insulin index of db/- (heterozygous) islets to levels seen in normal functional islets. Treatment with VD3, its analogues and derivatives also increased the expression of essential transcription factors, such as Pdx1, MafA and VDR itself, ultimately increasing expression of Ins1 and Ins2, which might protect β cells against dedifferentiation. VD3 agonist lithocholic acid (LCA) propionate was the most potent candidate molecule for protecting against dedifferentiation, and an e-pharmacophore mapping model confirmed that LCA propionate exhibits a stabilizing conformation within the VDR binding site. This study concluded that treating db/+ islets with a VD3 analogue and/or derivatives can increase VDR activity, preventing the pathological dedifferentiation of β cells and the onset of T2D.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T11:43:21Z
       
  • Circulating PCSK9 levels in acute coronary syndrome: Results from the
           PC-SCA-9 prospective study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): B. Cariou, P. Guérin, C. Le May, V. Letocart, L. Arnaud, B. Guyomarch, M. Pichelin, V. Probst
      Background Serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) concentrations have been shown to be positively associated with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but the relationship between PCSK9 and coronary atherosclerosis lesions remains unclear. Objective This study aims to investigate the correlation between serum PCSK9 levels and coronary damage severity in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods In this prospective proof-of-concept study, coronary lesions were assessed using SYNTAX scores. Serum PCSK9 concentrations were measured on admission (Day 0) for ACS by Elisa, and on every day of hospitalization. Spearman's correlations were used to determine the association between PCSK9 levels, SYNTAX score and metabolic parameters. Results A total of 174 patients (mean age: 59±14 years, 79% male) with ACS (on Day 0, 119 patients were not taking statins, but 55 were) were included. After initiation of high-intensity statin therapy, serum PCSK9 concentrations increased significantly, reaching maximum levels on Day 2 (+31% vs. Day 0), and remained stable up to Day 4 (P <0.001, by mixed model). Serum PCSK9 on Day 0 was associated with LDL-C (rho =0.226, P =0.017) and apolipoprotein B (rho =0.282, P =0.005) in the statin-naïve group only, and with triglycerides and non-HDL-C in all groups. More important, PCSK9 levels on Day 0 were positively associated with SYNTAX scores in the statin-naïve group (rho =0.239, P =0.009), but not in the statin-treated group (P =NS). This association was maintained after adjusting for LDL-C (P =0.014) and major CV risk factors (P =0.008). Conclusion Serum PCSK9 levels are positively associated with severity of coronary artery lesions independently of LDL-C concentrations in patients hospitalized for ACS. This reinforces the potential importance of PCSK9 inhibition in the management of ACS.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T00:14:47Z
       
  • Total serum bilirubin and 8-year incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: The
           Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): Y.-J. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, B.-J. Park, K.-W. Hong, D.-H. Jung
      Aim In this study, the impact of serum bilirubin on new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean adults was investigated. Methods Data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), a population-based prospective cohort study. The study enrolled 8650 adults (4015 men and 4635 women), aged 40 to 69 years, who underwent a mean follow-up of 8.4 years. The study population was divided into quartiles (Q) of serum bilirubin levels, with cut-off points at 0.46, 0.61 and 0.82mg/dL for men, and 0.35, 0.47 and 0.61mg/dL for women. T2DM was defined based on the following data: fasting blood glucose≥7.0mmol/L, HbA1c level≥6.5% or 2-h plasma glucose≥11.1mmol/L during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Results Over the mean 8.4-year follow-up, 786 participants (9.1%) developed T2DM. Compared with Q1, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for T2DM incidence were 0.52 (0.36–0.74) in men and 0.56 (0.38–0.83) in women aged ≥50 years, respectively, in the highest Q group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. These significant results persisted in those with impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion The results of this study reveal a protective role for serum total bilirubin on new-onset T2DM in Korean men and women. In addition, serum total bilirubin had favourable effects on new-onset T2DM in those with impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T00:14:47Z
       
  • The association between handgrip strength and sleep duration in Japanese
           patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): H. Hamasaki


      PubDate: 2017-09-04T00:14:47Z
       
  • The impact of incident depression on medication adherence in patients with
           type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): C. Lunghi, A. Zongo, J. Moisan, J.-P. Grégoire, L. Guénette
      Background Depression has been correlated with suboptimal adherence to antidiabetic drugs (ADs). Most studies on this topic were cross-sectional; thus, the directionality of this relationship could not be established. The objective of this study was to measure the association between incident depression and AD nonadherence among newly treated patients with diabetes. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study among new AD users using the Quebec public health insurance data. To avoid immortal time bias, we carried out depression diagnosis-time distribution matching by assigning a date of depression diagnosis to individuals without depression. Nonadherence (i.e.,<90% of days covered by≥1 AD) during the year following depression diagnosis (real or assigned date) was the outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses that adjusted for baseline adherence and other confounders were used to estimate the adjusted effect of depression on AD nonadherence. Results Between 2000 and 2006, we identified 3,106 new AD users with a subsequent diagnosis of depression and 70,633 without depression, of which 52% and 49% became non-adherent to AD treatment, respectively. Among patients with depression, 52.0% were considered AD non-adherent in the year after depression diagnosis compared with 49.0% of matched patients without depression. Depression was associated with AD nonadherence after accounting for baseline adherence and other confounders with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.13–1.37). Conclusions The results suggest that depression is an independent risk factor for AD nonadherence. Patients with type 2 diabetes and depression might benefit from adherence-enhancing interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T12:28:33Z
       
  • Comparison of hepatocellular carcinoma risk between patients treated with
           glimepiride and gliclazide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): J.-Y. Lee, G. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, B.-W. Lee, B.-S. Cha, C.M. Nam, E.S. Kang


      PubDate: 2017-08-04T10:40:43Z
       
  • Serum soluble TREM2 is a potential novel biomarker of cognitive impairment
           in Japanese non-obese patients with diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Tanaka, H. Yamakage, S. Masuda, T. Inoue, R. Ohue-Kitano, R. Araki, Y. Matoba, M. Saito, T. Nagaoka, K. Yonezawa, T. Tanaka, M. Suzuki, M. Sawamura, M. Nishimura, S. Odori, H. Wada, K. Kotani, T. Kusakabe, A. Shimatsu, K. Hasegawa, N. Satoh-Asahara


      PubDate: 2017-08-04T10:40:43Z
       
  • Heart rate variability in fetuses of type 1 diabetes pregnancies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): Y. Hamoud, J. de Jonckheere, A. Vambergue, V. Houfflin-Debarge, L. Storme, M. Flocteil, P. Deruelle, C. Garabedian


      PubDate: 2017-08-04T10:40:43Z
       
  • Clinical inertia and its impact on treatment intensification in people
           with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Reach, V. Pechtner, R. Gentilella, A. Corcos, A. Ceriello
      Many people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fail to achieve glycaemic control promptly after diagnosis and do not receive timely treatment intensification. This may be in part due to ‘clinical inertia’, defined as the failure of healthcare providers to initiate or intensify therapy when indicated. Physician-, patient- and healthcare-system-related factors all contribute to clinical inertia. However, decisions that appear to be clinical inertia may, in fact, be only ‘apparent’ clinical inertia and may reflect good clinical practice on behalf of the physician for a specific patient. Delay in treatment intensification can happen at all stages of treatment for people with T2DM, including prescription of lifestyle changes after diagnosis, introduction of pharmacological therapy, use of combination therapy where needed and initiation of insulin. Clinical inertia may contribute to people with T2DM living with suboptimal glycaemic control for many years, with dramatic consequences for the patient in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality, and for public health because of the huge costs associated with uncontrolled T2DM. Because multiple factors can lead to clinical inertia, potential solutions most likely require a combination of approaches involving fundamental changes in medical care. These could include the adoption of a person-centred model of care to account for the complex considerations influencing treatment decisions by patients and physicians. Better patient education about the progressive nature of T2DM and the risks inherent in long-term poor glycaemic control may also reinforce the need for regular treatment reviews, with intensification when required.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T10:20:49Z
       
  • Association of handgrip strength with B-type natriuretic peptide levels
           and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): H. Hamasaki


      PubDate: 2017-07-26T10:20:49Z
       
  • Brain atrophy in ageing: Estimating effects of blood glucose levels vs.
           other type 2 diabetes effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): E.I. Walsh, M. Shaw, P. Sachdev, K.J. Anstey, N. Cherbuin


      PubDate: 2017-07-26T10:20:49Z
       
  • Antenatal antipsychotic exposure induces multigenerational and
           gender-specific programming of adiposity and glucose tolerance in adult
           mouse offspring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): E. Courty, P. Gobalakichenane, M. Garcia, A. Muscat, C. Kazakian, T. Ledent, M. Moldes, B. Blondeau, D. Mitanchez, M. Buyse, B. Fève
      Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are well known for their metabolic side effects in humans, including obesity and diabetes. These compounds are maintained during pregnancy to prevent the relapse of psychoses, but they readily diffuse across the placenta to the fetus, as documented with the widely-prescribed drug olanzapine (OLZ). However, observational studies have provided conflicting results on the potential impact of SGAs on fetal growth and body weight, and their effects on metabolic regulation in the offspring. For this reason, our study has tested whether antenatal exposure of CD1 mice to OLZ influenced metabolic outcomes in the offspring of the first (F1) and second (F2) generations. In F1 mice, OLZ antenatal treatment caused a decrease in neonatal body weight in both genders, an effect that persisted throughout life only in male animals. Interestingly, F1 female mice also displayed altered glucose homoeostasis. F2 mice, generated by mating normal males with F1 female mice exposed to OLZ during antenatal life, exhibited higher neonatal body weights which persisted only in F2 female animals. This was associated with expansion of fat mass and a concordant pattern of adipose tissue gene expression. Moreover, male and female F2 mice were glucose-intolerant. Thus, our study has demonstrated that antenatal OLZ exposure induces multigenerational and gender-specific programming of glucose tolerance in the offspring mice as adults, and points to the need for careful monitoring of children exposed to SGAs during pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:11:28Z
       
  • Severe hypoglycaemia is a major predictor of incident diabetic retinopathy
           in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Tanaka, R. Kawasaki, S. Tanaka-Mizuno, S. Iimuro, S. Matsunaga, T. Moriya, S. Ishibashi, S. Katayama, Y. Ohashi, Y. Akanuma, H. Sone, H. Yamashita
      Aim Hypoglycaemia is a common complication in diabetes patients. However, its relationship with retinopathy has not been well documented in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to investigate the associations between hypoglycaemia and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, which was part of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS), adult patients with T2D were recruited at 59 diabetes clinics across Japan. Their history of hypoglycaemia was assessed by standardized self-reported questionnaires. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as having at least one episode with coma requiring an outpatients visit or hospitalization. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incidence and progression of DR over 8 years of follow-up were determined. Results Of 1221 patients without DR, 127 (10.4%) had experienced non-severe hypoglycaemia within the previous year, whereas 10 (0.8%) reported severe hypoglycaemia episodes. During the 8-year follow-up involving 8492 person-years, 329 patients developed DR. In 410 patients with prevalent DR, the adjusted HRs for incident DR were 4.35 (95% CI: 1.98–9.56; P <0.01) and, for progression of DR, 2.29 (95% CI: 0.45–11.78; P =0.32) with severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusion Having a history of severe hypoglycaemia was one of the strongest predictors of incident DR in patients with T2D, with a fourfold increased risk. Identifying patients with greater risks of DR based on their history of hypoglycaemia may help to personalize risk evaluation in patients with diabetes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:11:28Z
       
  • The brown-fat-secreted adipokine neuregulin 4 is decreased in gestational
           diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Kralisch, A. Hoffmann, J. Kratzsch, M. Blüher, M. Stumvoll, M. Fasshauer, T. Ebert
      Aims Neuregulin 4 has recently been recognized as a novel adipokine secreted by brown adipose tissue (BAT), with beneficial effects on murine insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Yet, thus far, neither regulation of neuregulin 4 in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) nor its longitudinal changes in the peripartum period have been elucidated. Methods Circulating neuregulin 4 levels were measured by ELISA in 74 women with GDM and 74 healthy, gestational-age-matched controls. Also, neuregulin 4 was quantified during pregnancy and compared with postpartum levels in a follow-up study of 25 women with previous GDM and 25 healthy control women. Results Women with GDM had lower median serum levels of the novel BAT-secreted adipokine neuregulin 4 (3.0μg/L) compared with healthy (non-GDM) pregnant controls (3.5μg/L; P =0.020), and the area under the glucose curve (AUCGlucose) was an independent and negative predictor of circulating neuregulin 4 (P =0.033). Also, median postpartum serum concentrations of neuregulin 4 (3.2μg/L) were not significantly different from prepartum levels (2.8μg/L; P =0.328). In addition, neuregulin 4 was positively and independently associated with irisin (P =0.009), but not other BAT-secreted adipokines. Conclusion/interpretation Women with GDM have significantly lower circulating neuregulin 4 levels compared with healthy pregnant controls, and the AUCGlucose is negatively and independently associated with neuregulin 4 during pregnancy. Neuregulin 4 is positively correlated with irisin during pregnancy, as well as in a longitudinal fashion. Future studies are now needed to better elucidate the precise pathomechanisms of the regulation of BAT-secreted adipokines during pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T02:11:28Z
       
  • The impact of triglycerides on glucose tolerance: Lipotoxicity revisited
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Seghieri, D. Tricò, A. Natali
      Elevated plasma triglycerides (TGs) are early key features of conditions associated with a dysregulation in glucose metabolism and may predict the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) over time. Although the acute ingestion of lipid, either mixed with or shortly before the meal, is neutral or slightly beneficial on glucose tolerance, a short-term increase in plasma TGs induced by either an i.v. lipid infusion or a high-fat diet produces a deterioration of glucose control. Accordingly, chronic lowering of plasma TGs by fibrates improves glucose homeostasis and may also prevent T2D. The chronic effects of the elevation of dietary lipid intake are less clear, particularly in humans, being the quality of fat probably more important than total fat intake. Although on the bases of the available experimental and clinical evidence it cannot be easily disentangled, with respect to elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) the relative contribution of elevated TGs to glucose homeostasis disregulation seems to be greater and also more plausible. In conclusion, although the association between elevated plasma TGs and impaired glucose tolerance is commonly considered not causative or merely a consequence of NEFA-mediated lipotoxicity, the available data suggest that TGs per se may directly contribute to disorders of glucose metabolism.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T01:27:52Z
       
  • Carbamylation is a competitor of glycation for protein modification in
           vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): C. Nicolas, S. Jaisson, L. Gorisse, F.J. Tessier, C. Niquet-Léridon, P. Jacolot, C. Pietrement, P. Gillery
      Aim Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus are two diseases that accelerate protein molecular ageing through carbamylation and glycation reactions, characterized by the binding of urea-derived isocyanic acid and of sugars on proteins, respectively. These two reactions target the same protein amino groups and, thus, compete with each other. Such competition may arise especially in diabetic patients with nephropathy. This study aimed to evaluate their potential competitive effects in vitro and under conditions reproducing CKD and/or diabetes in vivo. Methods Albumin was incubated in vitro with glucose, urea or cyanate. Carbamylation in vivo was enhanced in normal and diabetic (db/db) mice by either subtotal nephrectomy or cyanate consumption. Homocitrulline, carbamylated haemoglobin and furosine were measured by LC–MS/MS, fructosamine by colorimetric assay and HbA1c by immunological assay. Results Reciprocal inhibition between carbamylation and glycation was observed during albumin incubations in vitro. Besides, 5 weeks after induction of CKD in vivo, plasma homocitrulline concentrations were similar in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice, whereas fructosamine and HbA1c were decreased (−23% and −42%, respectively) in diabetic mice with CKD compared with only diabetic ones. Fructosamine and HbA1c were also decreased in cyanate-spiked water-drinking mice compared with plain water-drinking diabetic mice. Conclusion Carbamylation competes with glycation in vivo, especially under conditions of high glycation. Thus, the classic markers of glycaemic control should be interpreted with caution in diabetic patients with CKD because of this competitive effect.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T01:27:52Z
       
  • Low serum C-reactive protein levels predict 90-day mortality in
           hypoglycaemic patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A. Bonaventura, F. Gallo, F. Carbone, G. Sacchi, L. Liberale, F. Dallegri, D. Maggi, F. Montecucco, R. Cordera


      PubDate: 2017-07-10T01:27:52Z
       
  • Pioglitazone and lung cancer risk in Taiwanese patients with type 2
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): C.-H. Tseng


      PubDate: 2017-07-10T01:27:52Z
       
  • Identification of urine metabolites associated with 5-year changes in
           biomarkers of glucose homoeostasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): N. Friedrich, T. Skaaby, M. Pietzner, K. Budde, B.H. Thuesen, M. Nauck, A. Linneberg
      Aim Metabolomics provides information on pathogenetic mechanisms and targets for interventions, and may improve risk stratification. During the last decade, metabolomics studies were used to gain deeper insight into the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. However, longitudinal metabolomics studies of possible subclinical states of disturbed glucose metabolism are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the associations between baseline urinary metabolites and 5-year changes in continuous markers of glucose homoeostasis, including fasting glucose, HbA1c and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values. Methods Urine metabolites in 3986 participants at both baseline and 5-year follow-up of the population-based Inter99 study were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Linear regression and analyses of covariance models were used to detect associations between urine metabolites and 5-year changes in markers of glucose homoeostasis. Results Higher baseline levels of urinary alanine, betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), creatinine and trimethylamine were associated with an increase in HbA1c from baseline to follow-up. In contrast, formic acid and trigonelline levels were associated with a decrease in HbA1c over time. Analyses of 5-year changes in fasting glucose and HOMA-IR index showed similar findings, with high baseline levels of lactic acid, beta-d-glucose, creatinine, alanine and 1-methylnicotinamide associated with increases in both parameters. Conclusion Several urine metabolites were found to be associated with detrimental longitudinal changes in biomarkers of glucose homoeostasis. The identified metabolites point to mechanisms involving betaine and coffee metabolism as well as the possible influence of the gut microbiome.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:24:07Z
       
  • Family history of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and risk of latent autoimmune
           diabetes in adults (LADA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): R. Hjort, L. Alfredsson, T. Andersson, P.-O. Carlsson, V. Grill, L. Groop, M. Martinell, B. Rasouli, P. Storm, T. Tuomi, S. Carlsson
      Background A family history of diabetes (FHD) is a strong predictor of diabetes risk, yet has rarely been investigated in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). This study therefore investigated the risk of LADA and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in relation to FHD, taking into account the type of diabetes in relatives. Methods Data from a population-based study were used, including incident cases of LADA [glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA)-positive, n =378] and T2D (GADA-negative, n =1199), and their matched controls (n =1484). First-degree relatives with disease onset at age<40 years and taking insulin treatment were classified as type 1 diabetes (T1D) or, if otherwise, as T2D. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, gender, BMI, education and smoking. Cases were genotyped for high- and low-risk HLA genotypes. Results Both FHD–T1D (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 3.2–10.3) and FHD–T2D (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5–2.5) were associated with an increased risk of LADA, whereas the risk of T2D was associated with FHD–T2D (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 2.2–3.3), but not FHD–T1D. In LADA patients, FHD–T1D vs FHD–T2D was associated with higher GADA but lower C-peptide levels, lower prevalence of low-risk HLA genotypes (5.0% vs 28.6%, respectively; P =0.038) and a tendency for higher prevalence of high-risk genotypes (90.0% vs 69.1%, respectively; P =0.0576). Conclusion The risk of LADA is substantially increased with FHD–T1D but also, albeit significantly less so, with FHD–T2D. This supports the idea of LADA as a mix of both T1D and T2D, but suggests that the genes related to T1D have greater impact. LADA patients with FHD–T1D had more T1D-like features, emphasizing the heterogeneity of LADA.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:24:07Z
       
  • High efficacy of screening for diabetes and prediabetes in cardiac
           rehabilitation after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The REHABDIAB study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): B. Vergès, B. Patois-Vergès, K. Goueslard, J. Cottenet, A. Nguyen, S. Tatulashvili, M.-C. Blonde, C. Quantin


      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:24:07Z
       
  • Effect of GLP-1 receptor agonist on gastrointestinal tract motility and
           residue rates as evaluated by capsule endoscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): Y. Nakatani, M. Maeda, M. Matsumura, R. Shimizu, N. Banba, Y. Aso, T. Yasu, H. Harasawa
      Aim This study evaluated the effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility and residue rates by examining GI transit time and lumen using capsule endoscopy. Material and methods GI motility and lumen were assessed by capsule endoscopy before and after liraglutide administration in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results Gastric transit time in the group with diabetic neuropathy (DN) was 1:12:36±1:04:30h before liraglutide administration and 0:48:40±0:32:52h after administration (nonsignificant difference, P =0.19). Gastric transit time in the non-DN group was 1:01:30±0:52:59h before administration and 2:33:29±1:37:24h after administration (significant increase, P =0.03). Duodenal and small intestine transit time in the DN group was 4:10:34±0:25:54h before and 6:38:42±3:52:42h after administration (not significant, P =0.09) and, in the non-DN group, 3:51:03±0:53:47h before and 6:45:31±2:41:36h after administration (significant increase, P =0.03). The GI residue rate in the DN group was 32.1±24% before administration and 90.0±9.1% after administration (significant increase, P <0.001), and increased in all patients; in the non-DN group, it was 32.1±35.3% before and 78.3±23.9% after administration (significant increase, P <0.001), and also increased in all patients. Conclusion Liraglutide causes delayed gastric emptying and inhibits duodenal and small intestine motility. However, these GI movement-inhibiting effects may be decreased or absent in patients with DN-associated dysautonomia.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T02:24:07Z
       
  • Glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia with insulin glargine 300U/mL versus
           insulin glargine 100U/mL in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes:
           12-month results from the EDITION 3 trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G.B. Bolli, M.C. Riddle, R.M. Bergenstal, M. Wardecki, H. Goyeau, P.D. Home
      Aim To explore if efficacy and safety findings for insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) versus insulin glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100), observed over 6 months in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes, are maintained after 12 months. Methods EDITION 3 was a phase 3a, randomized, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target study of once-daily Gla-300 versus Gla-100 (target fasting self-monitored plasma glucose, 4.4–5.6mmol/L [80–100mg/dL]). Participants completing the initial 6-month treatment phase continued their previously allocated basal insulin. Results Of 878 participants randomized, 337/439 (77%) and 314/439 (72%) assigned to Gla-300 and Gla-100, respectively, completed 12 months of treatment. Improved glycaemic control was sustained until 12 months in both treatment groups, with similar reductions in HbA1c from baseline to month 12 (difference: −0.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): −0.23 to 0.07] % or −0.9 [−2.5 to 0.8] mmol/mol). Relative risk of experiencing≥1 confirmed (≤3.9mmol/L [≤70mg/dL]) or severe hypoglycaemic event with Gla-300 versus Gla-100 was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.69 to 1.07) at night and 0.92 (0.82 to 1.03) at any time of day. For events with a glycaemic threshold of<3.0mmol/L (<54mg/dL) these numbers were 0.76 (0.49 to 1.19) and 0.66 (0.50 to 0.88). A similar pattern was seen for documented symptomatic events. No between-group differences in adverse events were identified. Conclusion Over 12 months, Gla-300 treatment was as effective as Gla-100 in reducing HbA1c in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes, with lower overall risk of hypoglycaemia at the<3.0mmol/L threshold.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T13:00:48Z
       
 
 
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