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Journal Cover Diabetes & Metabolism
  [SJR: 1.252]   [H-I: 70]   [62 followers]  Follow
    
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   ISSN (Print) 1262-3636
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Tailoring nutrient sequence and content to improve glucose tolerance: Why
           and how to do it
    • Authors: L. Monnier; F. Bonnet; C. Colette
      Pages: 211 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): L. Monnier, F. Bonnet, C. Colette


      PubDate: 2016-05-14T04:05:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Adverse effects of weight loss: Are persistent organic pollutants a
           potential culprit'
    • Authors: M. Cheikh Rouhou; A.D. Karelis; D.H. St-Pierre; L. Lamontagne
      Pages: 215 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Cheikh Rouhou, A.D. Karelis, D.H. St-Pierre, L. Lamontagne
      Health professionals commonly recommend weight loss to individuals with obesity. However, unexpected adverse health effects after a weight-loss program have been reported in several studies. The factors that could explain this phenomenon are currently poorly understood. However, one potential factor that has emerged is persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Due to their lipophilic nature, POPs are known to accumulate in the adipose tissue and their concentrations are found to be higher in obese individuals than lean subjects. There is evidence to suggest that weight loss induces a significant increase in POPs levels in the bloodstream. Furthermore, the increases in plasma POPs levels after weight loss are even greater with an intensive weight loss. Thus, a critical question that remains unresolved is whether POPs released from the adipose tissue to the bloodstream during intensive weight loss could increase the risk of cardiometabolic disturbances. In turn, the accumulation of POPs released in response to an intensive weight loss may impair energy metabolism and stimulate a subsequent weight regain. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide insights about the role of POPs on cardiometabolic risk factors during weight loss and weight regain that could potentially explain, at least in part, the adverse effects observed in certain weight-loss studies. We will also discuss the potential synergistic or antagonistic POPs-dependent risks following weight-loss programs. Ultimately, this may lead in establishing new therapeutic boundaries to minimize potential health hazards related to weight loss.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:37:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Reappraisal of the diuretic effect of empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG
           OUTCOME trial: Comparison with classic diuretics
    • Authors: A.J. Scheen
      Pages: 224 - 233
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A.J. Scheen
      Aims Empagliflozin, a sodium–glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and antecedents of cardiovascular disease. This effect was attributed to a diuretic (haemodynamic) rather than metabolic (antiatherogenic) effect. The aim of this review is to offer arguments that either support or challenge this ‘diuretic hypothesis’. Methods The literature was scrutinized to: (1) examine the diuretic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors vs. hydrochlorothiazide as the reference diuretic; (2) analyze the effects of classic diuretics on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in diabetic patients; and (3) reconsider some of the specific analyses of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial possibly related to a diuretic effect. Results The diuretic effect of empagliflozin has so far been poorly investigated, although SGLT2 inhibitors have actions distinct from those of classic diuretics. The effects of thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular and overall mortality have been limited in diabetic patients with hypertension, whereas the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in subgroups of diabetic patients with heart failure were more impressive, but still largely inferior to those reported in EMPA-REG, where relative reductions in mortality with empagliflozin were observed in diabetic patients with or without heart failure, arterial hypertension, renal impairment or diuretic background therapy. Conclusion Although the diuretic hypothesis was put forward to explain the remarkable reduction in mortality with empagliflozin in EMPA-REG, the available results do not support a major contribution of this mechanism, unless the specific diuretic effect of SGLT2 inhibitors turns out to be markedly different from those of classic diuretics.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T08:02:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid
           profiles in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled trial
    • Authors: M. Karamali; F. Dadkhah; M. Sadrkhanlou; M. Jamilian; S. Ahmadi; M. Tajabadi-Ebrahimi; P. Jafari; Z. Asemi
      Pages: 234 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Karamali, F. Dadkhah, M. Sadrkhanlou, M. Jamilian, S. Ahmadi, M. Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, P. Jafari, Z. Asemi
      Background To our knowledge, data on the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are scarce. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in GDM patients. Methods Sixty pregnant women with GDM, primigravida and aged 18–40years, were divided into two groups to receive either probiotic capsules (n =30) or a matching placebo (n =30) in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The patients in the probiotic group took a daily capsule that contained three viable freeze-dried strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus (2×109 CFU/g), L. casei (2×109 CFU/g) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (2×109 CFU/g) for 6weeks. The placebo group took capsules filled with cellulose for the same time period. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study to quantify the relevant markers. Results After 6weeks of intervention, probiotic supplementation vs a placebo resulted in significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (−9.2±9.2mg/dL vs +1.1±12.2mg/dL, P <0.001), serum insulin levels (−0.8±3.1μIU/mL vs +4.5±10.6μIU/mL, P =0.01), homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) for insulin resistance (−0.4±0.9 vs +1.1±2.5, P =0.003) and HOMA for β-cell function (+1.1±9.8 vs +18.0±42.5, P =0.03), and a significant increase in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.007±0.01 vs −0.01±0.02, P =0.007). In addition, significant decreases in serum triglycerides (−1.6±59.4mg/dL vs +27.1±37.9mg/dL, P =0.03) and VLDL cholesterol concentrations (−0.3±11.9mg/dL vs +5.4±7.6mg/dL, P =0.03) were seen following supplementation with the probiotics compared with the placebo. However, no significant changes in other lipid profiles were seen with the intervention. Conclusion Overall, the results of our study have demonstrated that taking probiotic supplements for 6weeks in patients with GDM had beneficial effects on glycaemic control, triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol concentrations, although there was no effect on other lipid profiles.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T05:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42, No. 4 (2016)
       
  • Sustained effects of a protein and lipid preload on glucose tolerance in
           type 2 diabetes patients
    • Authors: D. Tricò; E. Filice; S. Baldi; S. Frascerra; A. Mari; A. Natali
      Pages: 242 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 4
      Author(s): D. Tricò, E. Filice, S. Baldi, S. Frascerra, A. Mari, A. Natali
      Background Small amounts of nutrients given as a ‘preload’ can reduce post-meal hyperglycaemic peaks in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients by activating a number of mechanisms involved in glucose homoeostasis. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether this positive effect extends to the late absorptive phase and to identify the main mechanisms involved. Material and methods Eight well-controlled T2D patients, aged 40–70 years, were randomized to consume a ‘preload’ of either water or non-glucidic nutrients (50g of Parmesan cheese, one boiled egg) 30min before a 300-min oral glucose tolerance test. Results After the nutrient preload, significant reductions were observed in peak glucose (−49%; P <0.02), total plasma glucose (iAUC: −28%; P <0.03), exogenous glucose (iAUC: −30%; P <0.03) and insulin clearance (−28%; P <0.04), with enhancement of insulin secretion (iAUC: +22%; P <0.003). These effects were associated with higher plasma levels of GLP-1 (iAUC: +463%; P <0.002), GIP (iAUC: +152%; P <0.0003) and glucagon (iAUC: +144%; P <0.0002). Conclusion In T2D patients, a protein and lipid preload improves glucose tolerance throughout the whole post-absorptive phase mainly by reducing the appearance of oral glucose, and improving both beta-cell function and insulin bioavailability.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T21:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.03.004
       
  • Effect of insulin analogues on frequency of non-severe hypoglycaemia in
           patients with type 1 diabetes prone to severe hypoglycaemia: The HypoAna
           trial
    • Authors: R.M. Agesen; P.L. Kristensen; H. Beck-Nielsen; K. Nørgaard; H. Perrild; J.S. Christiansen; T. Jensen; P. Hougaard; H.H. Parving; B. Thorsteinsson; L. Tarnow; U. Pedersen-Bjergaard
      Pages: 249 - 255
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 4
      Author(s): R.M. Agesen, P.L. Kristensen, H. Beck-Nielsen, K. Nørgaard, H. Perrild, J.S. Christiansen, T. Jensen, P. Hougaard, H.H. Parving, B. Thorsteinsson, L. Tarnow, U. Pedersen-Bjergaard
      Aim Insulin analogues reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia compared with human insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and minor hypoglycaemia problems. The HypoAna trial showed that, in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycaemia, treatment based on insulin analogues reduces the risk of severe hypoglycaemia. The present study aims to assess whether this also applies to non-severe hypoglycaemia events during the day and at night. Methods This 2-year investigator-initiated multicentre, prospective, randomized, open, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial involved patients with T1D and at least two episodes of severe hypoglycaemia during the previous year. Using a balanced crossover design, patients were randomized to basal–bolus therapy based on analogue (detemir/aspart) or human (NPH/regular) insulins. A total of 114 participants were included. Endpoints were the number of severe hypoglycaemic events and non-severe events, including documented symptomatic and asymptomatic episodes occurring during the day and at night (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00346996). Results Analogue-based treatment resulted in a 6% (2–10%; P =0.0025) overall relative risk reduction of non-severe hypoglycaemia. This was due to a 39% (32–46%; P <0.0001) reduction of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia, seen for both symptomatic (48% [36–57%]; P <0.0001) and asymptomatic (28% [14–39%]; P =0.0004) nocturnal hypoglycaemia episodes. No clinically significant differences in hypoglycaemia occurrence were observed between the insulin regimens during the day. The time needed to treat one patient with insulin analogues to avoid one episode (TNT1) of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia was approximately 3 months. Conclusion In T1D patients prone to severe hypoglycaemia, treatment with analogue insulin reduced the risk of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia compared with human insulin.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T21:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.03.001
       
  • Bone mineral density is associated with left ventricular diastolic
           function in men with type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: R.-T. Wang; H.-T. Liu; Y.-L. Zhao; N. Li; T. Liu; X. Kong; K.-J. Yu
      Pages: 256 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 4
      Author(s): R.-T. Wang, H.-T. Liu, Y.-L. Zhao, N. Li, T. Liu, X. Kong, K.-J. Yu
      Aims Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with chronic heart failure and cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, low bone mineral density (BMD) predicts incident heart failure. Abnormal diastolic function reflects early changes in cardiac function and plays a key role in the development of heart failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between BMD with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in men with T2DM. Methods In all, 344 men with T2DM and 331 age-matched control subjects were enrolled. BMD measurements were performed. LV diastolic function and structure were assessed by echocardiographic evaluation. Results BMD was lower in men with T2DM than in controls. There were significant differences in the level of parameters reflecting cardiac structure and LV diastolic function between two groups. Moreover, LV diastolic function and structure parameters also showed significant differences as BMD reduced in T2DM group. BMD at femoral neck was correlated with LV diastolic function parameters in T2DM after adjusting for confounding factors. Multivariable logistic analysis revealed that osteopenia and osteoporosis were associated with diastolic dysfunction compared to the control in men with T2DM. However, no association between BMD and LV diastolic function was found in subjects without T2DM. Conclusion Osteoporosis may be an independent factor for LV diastolic dysfunction in men with T2DM. Our data suggested that early detection of abnormal BMD should warrant for early search of undetected LV diastolic dysfunction in diabetic men.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T21:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.02.001
       
  • Nut consumption is associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes: The
           Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Asghari, Z. Ghorbani, P. Mirmiran, F. Azizi
      Aim Nuts are rich in unsaturated fatty acids as well as other bioactive constituents. The present study investigated the association between nut consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Middle Eastern population. Methods The study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), in which 1984 participants (920 men and 1064 women) free of DM, aged≥20 years, were followed from phase III (2005–2008) to phase V (2011–2014). Dietary data were obtained from valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. Using multiple logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, with adjustments for age, gender, BMI, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, smoking and energy intake. Results Study participants’ means±SD of age and of BMI were 40.1±13.1 years and 27.0±4.8kg/m2, respectively. The median±SE of their total daily consumption of nuts was 1.19±0.11 servings. After 6.2±0.7 years of follow-up, 150 cases of T2DM were confirmed. On comparing those who consumed ≥4 servings/week with those who consumed <1 serving/week, the age-/energy-adjusted OR of incident T2DM for total nut consumption was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.36–1.12; P for trend = 0.03). In a fully adjusted model, nut consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2DM, and the ORs (95% CIs) of risk for those consuming 2–3.99 and ≥4 servings/week of nuts were 0.51 (0.26–0.97) and 0.47 (0.25–0.90), respectively, compared with those consuming <1 serving/week (P <0.001 for trend). Conclusion Our findings suggest that consuming ≥4 servings/week of nuts reduced the risk of T2DM compared with <1 serving/week.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T10:26:57Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Ten-year improvement of insulin resistance and growth
           with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 in a patient with
           insulin receptor mutations resulting in leprechaunism” [Diabetes Metab.
           41 (2015) 331–337]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. de Kerdanet, M. Caron-Debarle, S. Nivot, T. Gaillot, O. Lascols, B. Fremont, M. Bonnaure-Mallet, S. Gie, C. Massart, J. Capeau


      PubDate: 2016-11-23T10:26:57Z
       
  • Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of
           prediabetes in adult populations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Meng, H. Yang, X. Bao, Q. Zhang, L. Liu, H. Wu, H. Du, Y. Xia, H. Shi, X. Guo, X. Liu, C. Li, Q. Su, Y. Gu, L. Fang, F. Yu, S. Sun, X. Wang, M. Zhou, Q. Jia, Q. Guo, K. Song, G. Huang, G. Wang, Y. Wu, K. Niu
      Aim To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. Methods This prospective cohort study (n =7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1–7, 95% CI: 3.03–3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. Results The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90–1.40), 1.20 (0.97–1.48), 1.41 (1.14–1.73) and 1.73 (1.41–2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74–1.38), 0.68 (0.48–0.96), 0.84 (0.61–1.15) and 1.07 (0.80–1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Conclusion Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Post-transplantation diabetes: Treatment à la carte?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): Kanza Benomar, Stéphanie Espiard, Claire Vahe, Kristell Le Mapihan, Arnaud Jannin, Sébastien Dharancy, Marc Hazzan, Marie-Christine Vantyghem


      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Serum vitamin A-related metabolite levels are associated with incidence of
           type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Kim, S.H. Jee, M. Kim, H.J. Yoo, M. Kang, J. Kim, J.H. Lee


      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Evolution of subcutaneous adipose tissue fibrosis after bariatric surgery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): K. Chabot, M.-S. Gauthier, P.Y. Garneau, R. Rabasa-Lhoret
      Aim Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. Methods Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n =11) or insulin-resistant (n =12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISIMatsuda). Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used for longitudinal evaluation of insulin resistance. Fibrosis was quantified by Masson's trichrome staining on microscopy, and mRNA levels of fibrosis-related genes were examined in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies collected during and 6 months after bariatric surgery (SAT only). Results Despite their similar age, body mass index and fat mass, SAT fibrosis was significantly higher in diabetic vs insulin-sensitive patients (P <0.05), and associated with IR as assessed by both ISIMatsuda (r =−0.417, P =0.038) and HOMA-IR (r =0.464, P =0.007) at baseline, whereas VAT fibrosis was not. Six months after surgery and significant weight loss, fibrosis levels remained unchanged in SAT, although IR was significantly reduced in all groups (P <0.0001). No correlation was found between SAT fibrosis and IR after surgery. Conclusion Overall, these results show a significant but, most likely, transient association between SAT fibrosis and IR in obese humans.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:01:00Z
       
  • Intellectual disability in patients with MODY due to hepatocyte nuclear
           factor 1B (HNF1B) molecular defects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): D. Dubois-Laforgue, C. Bellanné-Chantelot, P. Charles, A. Jacquette, E. Larger, C. Ciangura, C. Saint-Martin, C. Rastel, B. Keren, J. Timsit


      PubDate: 2016-11-10T09:47:19Z
       
  • Augmented CD25 and CD69 expression on circulating CD8+ T cells in type 2
           diabetes mellitus with albuminuria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): L. Lei, L. Cui, Y. Mao, X. Zhang, Q. Jiang, S. Dong, Y. Wang


      PubDate: 2016-11-10T09:47:19Z
       
  • The autoimmune hypothesis for acute bilateral cataract in type 1
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): D.T. Papadimitriou, C. Bothou, F. Skarmoutsos, T.K. Alexandrides, V. Papaevangelou, A. Papadimitriou


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • A prospective study of leucocyte mitochondrial DNA content and deletion in
           association with the metabolic syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): J.-Y. Kim, J.R. Choi, I.H. Park, J.H. Huh, J.-W. Son, K.W. Kim, K.-S. Park, S.-K. Cha, J.H. Sohn, D.-H. Jung, S.-B. Koh


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Management of diabetes patients during the year prior to initiation of
           dialysis in France
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): P. Tuppin, A. Cuerq, S. Torre, C. Couchoud, A. Fagot-Campagna
      Aim This study looked at the management of diabetes patients during the year prior to the initiation of dialysis. Methods For this observational study, data were extracted from the National Health Insurance database for general-scheme beneficiaries (77% of the French population). Diabetes patients were identified by at least three reimbursements for antidiabetic drugs in 2012, while the initiation of dialysis was identified by specific refunds in 2013. Results Of the 6412 patients initiating dialysis, 37% (n =2378) had diabetes (men: 61%, median age: 71 years, haemodialysis: 92%). Six months prior to dialysis, 68% had filled at least one prescription for insulin, 38% for other antidiabetics (25% glinides, 8% sulphonylureas, 8% metformin, 6% DPP-4 inhibitors), 69% for three or more classes of antihypertensive drugs and 55% for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Within 12 months to 1 month of dialysis, 81% were hospitalized, 28% with a main diagnosis of kidney disease. No nephrologist referral or hospitalization was identified at 6–0 months before dialysis in 6% of patients or in 24% at 12–7 months. One in five patients with diabetes consulted a private endocrinologist within 6 months of dialysis. An arteriovenous fistula was created 1 month before haemodialysis in 43% of patients. Conclusion The quality of preparation for dialysis was variable despite frequent hospitalizations. These data illustrate the need to mobilize patients with diabetes, and for healthcare professionals to more effectively anticipate and coordinate dialysis.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Skin and subcutaneous tissue thickness at insulin injection sites in
           Chinese diabetes patients: Clinical implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): W. Wang, X. Guo, G. Shen, G. Bai, Z. Wei, J. Liu, L. Hirsch, K. Strauss


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Elevated parathyroid hormone predicts high asymmetric dimethylarginine
           (ADMA) concentrations in obese diabetic patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): A.T. Amarasekera, A.L. Sverdlov, J.D. Horowitz, D.T. Ngo


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Visceral adipose tissue dysfunction and mortality among a population-based
           sample of males and females
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): J.C. Brown, M.O. Harhay, M.N. Harhay


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Deletion of microRNA miR-146a does not prevent streptozotocin-induced
           murine autoimmune type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): C. Yin, M. Weiland, Z.-M. Miao, C. Li, L. Zhou, Q.-S. Mi


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Skin pigmentation is inversely associated with insulin resistance in
           healthy Japanese women
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): C. Nagata, K. Konish, T. Tamura, K. Wada, M. Hayashi, N. Takeda, K. Yasuda
      Aim As a low-pigment skin type is prevalent in men and women with type 1 diabetes, it is possible that skin pigmentation may be associated with insulin resistance. This study aimed to cross-sectionally examine this association in healthy women. Methods Study participants were 792 Japanese women who attended a health examination and were not taking any medication for diabetes. Skin pigmentation on the inner upper and lower arms and forehead was measured using a Mexameter® skin colorimeter, a narrow-band reflective spectrophotometer. Data are expressed as a melanin index, which quantifies melanin content. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were also measured, and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Information on medical history and lifestyle factors were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire, while data on sun exposure were collected through interviews. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in a subsample of women (n =464). Results Melanin indices at the inner upper and lower arms were significantly and inversely associated with fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, indicators for rater effects, cumulative sun exposure and season at the time of measurement. Additional adjustment for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels did not alter the results. Conclusion These data suggest that skin pigmentation is associated with insulin resistance, and encourage future studies into the potential role of melanin and related factors in glucose homoeostasis.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Osteoprotegerin levels are associated with liver fat and liver markers in
           dysmetabolic adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): M. Monseu, S. Dubois, J. Boursier, C. Aubé, F. Gagnadoux, G. Lefthériotis, P.-H. Ducluzeau
      Aim This study aimed to determine the association between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver fat (LF) content, and other markers of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in dysmetabolic adults. Methods Subjects from the NUMEVOX cohort were included if they fulfilled at least one MetS criterion. They then underwent a thorough metabolic and cardiovascular evaluation, including arterial stiffness, atherosclerotic plaques, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indices and OPG. VAT and LF content were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound examination of arteries and arterial stiffness were recorded, and age- and gender-adjusted paired correlations calculated. Results Body mass index, waist circumference and MRI-derived VAT correlated with OPG, whereas abdominal subcutaneous fat did not. OPG levels were strongly correlated with LF content (r =0.25, P =0.003), liver markers such as alanine aminotransferase (r =0.39, P <0.001) and HOMA-IR index (r =0.39, P <0.0001). Plasma OPG also correlated with arterial stiffness and the number of atherosclerotic sites. Conclusion Plasma OPG levels are positively associated with both liver markers and increased LF content, but not with subcutaneous fat in dysmetabolic men. These findings suggest that elevated OPG levels may play a role in the link between fatty liver disease and enhanced cardiovascular risk.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Exenatide treatment decreases fasting fibroblast growth factor 21 levels
           in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): Y. Hu, J. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Xu, T. Hong, G. Wang
      Aim Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been demonstrated to be a metabolic regulator with beneficial effects. Several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have increased FGF21 levels and decreased expression of FGF receptors, suggesting a state of ‘FGF21 resistance’. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist exenatide on FGF21 levels and other metabolic parameters in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. Methods A total of 100 participants, comprising 47 newly diagnosed T2DM patients and 53 age-matched healthy controls, were recruited. T2DM patients were assigned to 12 weeks of exenatide treatment. Their FGF21 levels and other metabolic parameters were measured before and after exenatide treatment. Results T2DM patients had significantly higher FGF21 levels than the controls. No difference in FGF21 was found between overweight and non-overweight control subgroups. In T2DM patients, exenatide treatment resulted in decreases in BMI, HbA1c, total cholesterol and triglycerides, and also in FGF21 (149.17±81.36 vs 102.17±64.12ng/mL; P <0.01). Homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also decreased [3.02 (2.10–4.63) vs 2.56 (1.80–4.13); P <0.05] while homoeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-B) was significantly higher after treatment [32.30 (17.82–59.42) vs 72.56 (46.63–99.58); P <0.05]. The change in FGF21 (ΔFGF21) was negatively correlated with changes in fasting insulin (Δinsulin, r =−0.306; P <0.05) and C-peptide (ΔC-peptide, r =−0.319; P <0.05) levels. Conclusion Besides the improvement in insulin resistance and recovery of β-cell function, 12 weeks of exenatide treatment may also play a role in lowering FGF21 levels in T2DM patients.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • The association between endostatin and kidney disease and mortality in
           patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): A.C. Carlsson, C.J. Östgren, T. Länne, A. Larsson, F.H. Nystrom, J. Ärnlöv
      Aim Circulating endostatin, a biologically active derivate of collagen XVIII, is considered to be a marker of kidney disease and a risk factor for its related mortality. However, less is known of the role of endostatin in diabetes and the development of diabetic nephropathy. For this reason, our study investigated the associations between circulating endostatin and the prevalence and progression of kidney disease, and its mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods This was a cohort study of 607 patients with T2D (mean age: 61 years, 44% women). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation, was used to assess the patients’ kidney function decline and mortality. Results Of the total study cohort, 20 patients declined by ≥20% in eGFR over 4 years, and 44 died during the follow-up (mean duration: 6.7 years). At baseline, participants with diabetic nephropathy (defined as eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2) and/or microalbuminuria [defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)>3g/mol] had higher median levels of endostatin than those without nephropathy (62.7μg/L vs 57.4μg/L, respectively; P =0.031). In longitudinal analyses adjusted for age, gender, baseline eGFR and ACR, higher endostatin levels were associated with a higher risk of decline (≥20% in eGFR, OR per 1 SD increase: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.13–2.65) and a higher risk of mortality (HR per 1 SD increase: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19–2.07). Conclusion In patients with T2D, circulating endostatin levels can predict the progression of kidney disease and mortality independently of established kidney disease markers. The clinical usefulness of endostatin as a risk marker in such patients merits further studies.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Effects of glycaemic variability on cardiac remodelling after reperfused
           myocardial infarction: Evaluation of streptozotocin-induced diabetic
           Wistar rats using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): M. Joubert, J. Hardouin, D. Legallois, K. Blanchart, N. Elie, M. Nowoczyn, P. Croisille, L. Coulbault, C. Bor-Angelier, S. Allouche, A. Manrique
      Aims In addition to hyperglycaemia, glycaemic variability seems to be associated with poor outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. This study explored the impact of glycaemic variability in diabetic Wistar rats subjected to myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. Methods Animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes received insulin either to maintain stable hyperglycaemia (Dh group) or to generate glycaemic variability (Dv). After experimental myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion was surgically induced, 7T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed at weeks 1 (w1) and 3 (w3). Results Twenty-six rats were randomized [sham group (S): n =5; control group (C): n =7; Dh group: n =6; and Dv group: n =8]. The mean amplitude of glucose reflecting glycaemic variability was higher in the Dv than in the Dh group (9.1±2.7mmol/L vs 5.9±1.9mmol/L; P <0.05). CMR assessment at w3 revealed ventricular enlargement in both Dh and Dv groups compared with the C and S groups (end-diastolic volume: 1.60±0.22 and 1.36±0.30mL/kg compared with 1.11±0.13 and 0.87±0.11mL/kg, respectively; P <0.05). Circumferential strain was altered between w1 and w3 in the remote area only in the Dv group, resulting in a lower value in this group than in the S, C and Dh groups (−0.11±0.01 vs −0.17±0.05, −0.15±0.03 and −0.16±0.03, respectively; P <0.05). In addition, at w3, oedema was also higher in the remote area in the Dv than in the C group (18.3±4.9ms vs 14.5±1.7ms, respectively; P <0.05). Conclusion In the context of experimental myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion, our results suggest that glycaemic variability might have a potentially deleterious impact on myocardial outcomes beyond the classical glucose metrics.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Using continuous glucose monitoring to assess contributions of premeal and
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): S.-D. Lin, S.-L. Su, S.-Y. Wang, S.-T. Tu, S.-R. Hsu
      Aim This study aimed to determine the contributions of basal excess glycaemia (BEG) and prandial excess glycaemia (PEG) to overall excess glycaemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients treated with metformin alone. Methods Outpatients with T2D treated with metformin alone (n =46) who underwent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) were divided into tertiles according to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. For each CGM trace, the glucose area under the curve (AUC)>5.5mmol/L was expressed as the AUCoverall, representing overall excess glycaemia. The sum of glucose AUCs above the premeal glucose level at 4h after breakfast, lunch and dinner was expressed as the AUCpeg, representing PEG. The contribution of PEG to overall excess glycaemia was calculated as (AUCpeg/AUCoverall)×100%. The contribution of BEG was calculated as [(AUCoverall −AUCpeg)/AUCoverall]×100%. Factors related to PEG contribution were also analysed. Results BEG constituted more than half the overall excess glycaemia in all HbA1c tertiles. The contribution of PEG was negatively correlated with HbA1c and mean glucose values before each meal. Prebreakfast and predinner glucose values were the dominant factors affecting PEG contribution and was independent of HbA1c. Conclusion In patients treated with metformin alone, BEG was the major contributor to excess glycaemia at HbA1c levels ≥7.7%, while PEG and BEG contributions were similar and stable below this level. For HbA1c levels ≥7.7%, add-on therapy to metformin should preferentially target control of BEG, whereas targeting both BEG and PEG could be of equivalent importance with lower HbA1c levels.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Association between current perceived stress and incident diabetes is
           dependent on occupational status: Evidence from the IPC cohort study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): E. Wiernik, H. Nabi, F. Thomas, B. Pannier, O. Hanon, T. Simon, J.-M. Simon, N. Danchin, F. Limosin, S. Czernichow, C. Lemogne
      Aim The role of stress in the onset of type 2 diabetes is a widespread lay belief, yet observational studies have produced inconsistent results. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between perceived stress and incident diabetes might depend on occupational status (OS). Methods The four-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) was completed at baseline by 22,567 participants in the labour force (16,193 men, 6374 women; mean age: 44.5±9.8 years) who had undergone two health checkups subsidized by the French national healthcare system. All subjects were free from diabetes at baseline, defined as a fasting blood glycaemia≥7mmol/L or the use of antidiabetic drugs. Results After a mean follow-up of 5.3±2.1 years, 527 participants (2.3%) had incident diabetes. After adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural and biomedical risk factors as well as self-rated health, the association between baseline perceived stress and diabetes at follow-up was non-significant for the total study population. However, perceived stress was significantly associated with incident diabetes in participants of low OS [odds ratio (OR) for a five-point increment: 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.90]. In contrast, there was a negative association between perceived stress and diabetes among those of high OS (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41–0.88) and no association within other occupational categories. The interaction between perceived stress and OS was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the association between perceived stress and diabetes onset is dependent on OS. Furthermore, this association does not appear to be explained by the classical risk factors for diabetes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Association between metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with
           type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): L.E. Chapman, A.L. Darling, J.E. Brown
      Aim Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycaemic drug, but it may lower B12 status, which could have important clinical implications. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between metformin use and vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with type 2 diabetes. Methods Electronic database searches were undertaken (1st January 1957–1st July 2013) using the Cochrane library, Scopus, CINAHL, Grey literature databases, Pub Med Central, NICE Clinical Guidelines UK, and ongoing clinical trials. Included studies were of any study design, with data from patients with type 2 diabetes of any age or gender, taking any dose or duration of metformin. Planned primary outcomes were serum vitamin B12 levels, % prevalence or incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency and risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Results Twenty-six papers were included in the review. Ten out of 17 observational studies showed statistically significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 in patients on metformin than not on metformin. Meta-analysis performed on four trials demonstrated a statistically significant overall mean B12 reducing effect of metformin of 57pmol/L [WMD (fixed)=–0.57 (95% CI: –35 to –79pmol/L)] after 6weeks to 3months of use. Conclusion The evidence from this review demonstrates an association between metformin usage and lower levels of vitamin B12 by 57pmol/L, which leads to frank deficiency or borderline status in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that it is prudent to monitor B12 levels in these patients who are at increased risk of deficiency.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • The association between hand grip strength and non-exercise activity
           thermogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): H. Hamasaki, Y. Kawashima, H. Yanai


      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Impact of gut microbiota on diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism, Volume 42, Issue 5
      Author(s): G. Blandino, R. Inturri, F. Lazzara, M. Di Rosa, L. Malaguarnera
      Various functions of the gut are regulated by sophisticated interactions among its functional elements, including the gut microbiota. These microorganisms play a crucial role in gastrointestinal mucosa permeability. They control the fermentation and absorption of dietary polysaccharides to produce short-chain fatty acids, which may explain their importance in the regulation of fat accumulation and the subsequent development of obesity-related diseases, suggesting that they are a crucial mediator of obesity and its consequences. In addition, gut bacteria play a crucial role in the host immune system, modulation of inflammatory processes, extraction of energy from the host diet and alterations of human gene expression. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota has been shown to confer a number of health benefits to the host. Simple therapeutic strategies targeted at attenuating the progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are urgently required to prevent or slow the development of diabetes in susceptible individuals. The main objective of this review is to address the pathogenic association between gut microbiota and diabetes, and to explore any novel related therapeutic targets. New insights into the role of the gut microbiota in diabetes could lead to the development of integrated strategies using probiotics to prevent and treat these metabolic disorders.

      PubDate: 2016-11-02T20:21:43Z
       
  • Wnt antagonist sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 in gestational diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A. Catalano, B. Pintaudi, N. Morabito, L. Giunta, S. Loddo, F. Corrado, R. D’Anna, A. Lasco, A. Di Benedetto


      PubDate: 2016-10-27T21:45:15Z
       
  • Increased intestinal permeability as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: A.J. Cox; P. Zhang; D.W. Bowden; B. Devereaux; P.M. Davoren; A.W. Cripps; N.P. West
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A.J. Cox, P. Zhang, D.W. Bowden, B. Devereaux, P.M. Davoren, A.W. Cripps, N.P. West
      Aim Relationships between the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability and inflammation in the context of risk for obesity-associated disease continue to be of interest. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between intestinal permeability and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods A total of 130 individuals with T2D (age: 57.5±6.2 years (mean±SD); BMI: 30.4±3.2; 45% female) and 161 individuals without T2D (age: 37.4±12.5 years; BMI: 25.1±3.9; 65% female) were included in the study. Assessment of intestinal permeability included measurement of circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS-binding protein (LBP) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) concentrations, which were used for calculation of a derived permeability risk score (PRS). Associations between permeability measures and T2D status were assessed using logistic regression models. Results LBP (∼34%, P <0.001), iFABP (∼46%, P <0.001) and the PRS (∼24% P <0.001) were all significantly higher in the T2D affected individuals. Individuals with a PRS in the upper tertile were 5.07 times more likely (CI: 1.72–14.95; P =0.003) to have T2D when models were adjusted for age, sex and BMI. There was a trend towards improved prediction when including the PRS in models containing age, sex and BMI (AUC: 0.954 versus 0.962; P =0.06). Conclusion These data demonstrate differences in measures of intestinal permeability between individuals with and without T2D. The utility of using intestinal permeability measures as a tool for predicting T2D risk in at risk individuals should be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2016-10-12T22:50:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.09.004
       
  • Efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes:
           Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials
    • Authors: M.B. Rehman; B.V. Tudrej; J. Soustre; M. Buisson; P. Archambault; D. Pouchain; H. Vaillant-Roussel; F. Gueyffier; J.-L. Faillie; M.-C. Perault-Pochat; C. Cornu; R. Boussageon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M.B. Rehman, B.V. Tudrej, J. Soustre, M. Buisson, P. Archambault, D. Pouchain, H. Vaillant-Roussel, F. Gueyffier, J.-L. Faillie, M.-C. Perault-Pochat, C. Cornu, R. Boussageon
      Background Guidelines for type 2 diabetes (T2D) recommend reducing HbA1c through lifestyle interventions and glucose-lowering drugs (metformin, then combination with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors [DPP-4Is] among other glucose-lowering drugs). However, no double-blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) compared with placebo has so far demonstrated that DDP-4Is reduce micro- and macrovascular complications in T2D. Moreover, the safety of DPP-4Is (with increased heart failure and acute pancreatitis) remains controversial. Methods A systematic review of the literature (PubMed, Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL] and https://clinicaltrials.gov), including all RCTs vs placebo published up to May 2015 and the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS), published June 2015, was performed. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and death from cardiovascular causes; secondary endpoints were macrovascular and microvascular events. Safety endpoints were acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, serious adverse events and severe hypoglycaemia. Results A total of 36 double-blind RCTs were included, allowing analyses of 54,664 patients. There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality (RR=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.95–1.12), cardiovascular mortality (RR=1.02, 95% CI=0.92–1.12), myocardial infarction (RR=0.98, 95% CI=0.89–1.08), strokes (RR=1.02, 95% CI=0.88–1.17), renal failure (RR=1.06, 95% CI=0.88–1.27), severe hypoglycaemia (RR=1.14, 95% CI=0.95–1.36) and pancreatic cancer (RR=0.54, 95% CI=0.28–1.04) with the use of DPP-4Is. However, DDP-4Is were associated with an increased risk of heart failure (RR=1.13, 95% CI=1.01–1.26) and of acute pancreatitis (RR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03–2.39). Conclusion There is no significant evidence of short-term efficacy of DPP-4Is on either morbidity/mortality or macro-/microvascular complications in T2D. However, there are warning signs concerning heart failure and acute pancreatitis. This suggests a great need for additional relevant studies in future.

      PubDate: 2016-10-12T22:50:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.09.005
       
  • Increase in resting heart rate over 2 years predicts incidence of
           diabetes: A 10-year prospective study
    • Authors: G. Kim; Y.-h. Lee; J.Y. Jeon; H. Bang; B.-W. Lee; E.S. Kang; I.-K. Lee; B.-S. Cha; C.S. Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): G. Kim, Y.-h. Lee, J.Y. Jeon, H. Bang, B.-W. Lee, E.S. Kang, I.-K. Lee, B.-S. Cha, C.S. Kim
      Objective The association between resting heart rate (RHR) and the development of diabetes has yet to be fully elucidated, and the relationship between changes in RHR and incidence of diabetes also remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the association between changes in RHR over 2 years and the risk of diabetes. Methods A total of 7416 adults without diabetes were included. All had participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a community-based, 10-year prospective study in which RHR was measured at baseline and 2 years later. Incident diabetes was defined as fasting blood glucose ≥126mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose ≥200mg/dL during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test or current use of diabetes medication. The relative risk of diabetes associated with the 2-year change in RHR was calculated using Cox models. Results During the 10-year follow-up, 1444 (19.5%) developed diabetes. Compared with RHR increases <5 beats per minute (bpm) over 2 years, increases >10bpm were significantly associated with development of diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.60), even after adjusting for glycometabolic parameters and baseline RHR. This significant association was attenuated in people who exercised regularly (P =0.650), but remained significant in those not doing any regular exercise (P =0.010). Conclusion An increase in RHR over a 2-year follow-up period is significantly associated with a risk of diabetes, independently of baseline RHR and glycometabolic parameters. Further investigations into ways to control RHR as a potential preventative measure against the development of diabetes are now needed.

      PubDate: 2016-10-12T22:50:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.09.002
       
  • Impact of glucose tolerance status on the development of coronary artery
           disease among working-age men
    • Authors: K. Fujihara; R. Igarashi; M. Yamamoto; M. Ishizawa; Y. Matsubayasi; S. Matsunaga; K. Kato; C. Ito; M. Koishi; N. Yamanaka; S. Kodama; H. Sone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): K. Fujihara, R. Igarashi, M. Yamamoto, M. Ishizawa, Y. Matsubayasi, S. Matsunaga, K. Kato, C. Ito, M. Koishi, N. Yamanaka, S. Kodama, H. Sone
      Aims To examine the impact of glucose tolerance status on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) in working-age men in Japan. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study included 111,621 men aged 31–60 years [63,558 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT); 37,126 with prediabetes; 10,937 with diabetes]. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to identify variables related to the incidence of CAD. Results Multivariate analysis showed that, compared with NGT, diabetes increased the risk of CAD by 17.3 times (95% CI: 6.36–47.0) at ages 31–40 years, by 2.74 times (95% CI: 1.85–4.05) at ages 41–50 years and by 2.47 times (95% CI: 1.69–3.59) at ages 51–60 years. The HRs for CAD in men with diabetes aged 31–40 equaled that of men with NGT aged 51–60 [18.2 (7.15–46.4) and 19.4 (8.28–45.4), respectively]. Conclusion The impact of diabetes on CAD was markedly greater in men aged 31–40 years compared with those aged 41–60 years.

      PubDate: 2016-10-06T21:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.09.001
       
  • Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of long duration
    • Authors: E. Seelig; K. Timper; C. Falconnier; R. Stoeckli; S. Bilz; R. Oram; T.J. McDonald; M.Y. Donath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): E. Seelig, K. Timper, C. Falconnier, R. Stoeckli, S. Bilz, R. Oram, T.J. McDonald, M.Y. Donath


      PubDate: 2016-10-06T21:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.08.005
       
  • Link between nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and infected
           diabetic foot ulcers
    • Authors: C. Dunyach-Remy; C. Courtais-Coulon; C. DeMattei; N. Jourdan; S. Schuldiner; A. Sultan; C. Carrière; S. Alonso; A. Sotto; J.-P. Lavigne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): C. Dunyach-Remy, C. Courtais-Coulon, C. DeMattei, N. Jourdan, S. Schuldiner, A. Sultan, C. Carrière, S. Alonso, A. Sotto, J.-P. Lavigne
      Aims Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in diabetic patients may be a risk factor for diabetic foot lesion infections. The aims of this study were to compare the genotypic profiles of S. aureus strains isolated from nares and diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) using microarray technology. Methods Patients were included if they were admitted for diabetic foot infection (DFI) at any of three diabetology departments of Montpellier and Nîmes University Hospitals between 1 September 2010 to 30 June 2012. All S. aureus isolates were analyzed using oligonucleotides arrays; S. aureus resistance and virulence genes were determined and each isolate was affiliated to a clonal complex. Results The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage among the 276 included patients was 39.5% (n =109), while 36.6% (n =101) had S. aureus at both sites (nares and foot wounds) and, of these patients, 65.3% of patients harboured the same strain at both sites. In addition, the spread of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST398 clone in DFI and its tropism for bone were also further confirmed. Conclusion These findings appear to provide new arguments in favour of the systematic detection of nasal S. aureus carriage to anticipate the management of DFI.

      PubDate: 2016-10-06T21:25:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.09.003
       
  • One-year metreleptin therapy decreases PCSK9 serum levels in diabetic
           patients with monogenic lipodystrophy syndromes
    • Authors: C. Vatier; L. Arnaud; X. Prieur; B. Guyomarch; C. Le May; E. Bigot; M. Pichelin; A. Daguenel; M.-C. Vantyghem; J.-F. Gautier; C. Vigouroux; B. Cariou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): C. Vatier, L. Arnaud, X. Prieur, B. Guyomarch, C. Le May, E. Bigot, M. Pichelin, A. Daguenel, M.-C. Vantyghem, J.-F. Gautier, C. Vigouroux, B. Cariou


      PubDate: 2016-09-30T21:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.08.004
       
  • Oral hygiene behaviours and tooth-loss assessment in patients with
           diabetes: A report from a diabetology centre in Belgium
    • Authors: Buysschaert Tshongo; Muhindo Alexopoulou Rahelic Reychler Preumont
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Buysschaert, C. Tshongo Muhindo, O. Alexopoulou, D. Rahelic, H. Reychler, V. Preumont


      PubDate: 2016-09-30T21:19:32Z
       
  • Glucagon-secretion inhibition using somatostatin: An old hormone for the
           treatment of diabetes-associated pancreatectomy
    • Authors: J.-P. Riveline; P. Boudou; B. Blondeau; J.-F. Gautier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): J.-P. Riveline, P. Boudou, B. Blondeau, J.-F. Gautier


      PubDate: 2016-09-24T21:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.08.002
       
  • Short-term effect of severe hypoglycaemia on glycaemic control in the
           Diabetes Control and Complications Trial
    • Authors: A. Moutairou; R. Roussel; B. Charbonnel; R. El Boustany; A. Nicolas; A. Leye; K. Mohammedi; M. Marre; B. Detournay; L. Potier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): A. Moutairou, R. Roussel, B. Charbonnel, R. El Boustany, A. Nicolas, A. Leye, K. Mohammedi, M. Marre, B. Detournay, L. Potier


      PubDate: 2016-09-24T21:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.08.001
       
  • Usefulness of the plasma glucose concentration-to-HbA1c ratio in
           predicting clinical outcomes during acute illness with extreme
           hyperglycaemia
    • Authors: Y.-W. Su; C.-Y. Hsu; Y.-W. Guo; H.-S. Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): Y.-W. Su, C.-Y. Hsu, Y.-W. Guo, H.-S. Chen
      Aims To evaluate the correlation between the plasma glucose-to-glycated haemoglobin ratio (GAR) and clinical outcome during acute illness. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study enrolled 661 patients who visited the emergency department of our hospital between 1 July 2008 and 30 September 2010 with plasma glucose concentrations>500mg/dL. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, white blood cells, neutrophils, haematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, liver function and plasma glucose concentration were recorded at the initial presentation to the emergency department. Data on glycated haemoglobin over the preceding 6 months were reviewed from our hospital database. The glucose-to-HbA1c ratio (GAR) was calculated as the plasma glucose concentration divided by glycated haemoglobin. Results The GAR of those who died was significantly higher than that of the survivors (81.0±25.9 vs 67.6±25.0; P <0.001). There was a trend towards a higher 90-day mortality rate in patients with higher GARs (log-rank test P <0.0001 for trend). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the GAR was significantly related to 90-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 standard deviation [SD] change: 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.63; P <0.001), but not to plasma glucose (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.70–1.13; P =0.328). Rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilator use were also higher in those with higher GARs. Conclusion GAR independently predicted 90-day mortality, ICU admission and use of mechanical ventilation. It was also a better predictor of patient outcomes than plasma glucose alone in patients with extremely high glucose levels.

      PubDate: 2016-09-24T21:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.036
       
  • Consensus statement on the management of dyslipidaemias in adults
    • Authors: S. Béliard; F. Bonnet; B. Bouhanick; E. Bruckert; B. Cariou; S. Charrière; V. Durlach; P. Moulin; R. Valéro; B. Vergès
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Béliard, F. Bonnet, B. Bouhanick, E. Bruckert, B. Cariou, S. Charrière, V. Durlach, P. Moulin, R. Valéro, B. Vergès


      PubDate: 2016-09-20T21:11:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.033
       
  • Family history of diabetes and the risk of coronary heart disease in
           people with or without type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: M. Afarideh; S. Noshad; A. Ghajar; Z. Aryan; E. Khajeh; S. Hosseini Shirvani; F. Bonnet; A. Esteghamati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): M. Afarideh, S. Noshad, A. Ghajar, Z. Aryan, E. Khajeh, S. Hosseini Shirvani, F. Bonnet, A. Esteghamati


      PubDate: 2016-09-20T21:11:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.032
       
  • Low adiponectin levels at baseline and decreasing adiponectin levels over
           10 years of follow-up predict risk of the metabolic syndrome
    • Authors: S. Lindberg; J.S. Jensen; M. Bjerre; J. Frystyk; A. Flyvbjerg; J. Jeppesen; R. Mogelvang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Lindberg, J.S. Jensen, M. Bjerre, J. Frystyk, A. Flyvbjerg, J. Jeppesen, R. Mogelvang
      Aim Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and may play a key role in the interplay between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, this large population-based cohort investigated whether adiponectin at baseline and/or a decrease in adiponectin during follow-up is associated prospectively with the risk of incident MetS. Methods Using a prospective study design, the development of MetS was examined in 1134 healthy participants from the community. Plasma adiponectin was measured at study entry and again after a median follow-up of 9.4 years (IQR: 9.2–9.7). During follow-up, 187 participants developed MetS, and 439 presented with at least two components of MetS. Results During follow-up, adiponectin decreased in participants who developed MetS, whereas adiponectin was increased in those who did not develop MetS (P <0.001). Those with low adiponectin levels (quartile 1) at baseline had an increased risk of developing MetS (OR: 2.92, 2.08–6.97; P <0.001) compared with those with high levels (quartile 4). After adjusting for confounding variables, low adiponectin levels at baseline remained independently associated with MetS (OR: 2.24, 1.11–4.52; P =0.017). Similarly, participants with a decrease in adiponectin during follow-up also had an increased risk of MetS (OR: 2.96, 2.09–4.18; P <0.001). This association persisted after multivariable adjustments, including for baseline adiponectin (OR: 4.37, 2.77–6.97; P <0.001). Finally, adiponectin levels at follow-up were inversely associated with an increase in the number of components of MetS (P <0.001); geometric mean adiponectin levels were 9.5mg/L (95% CI: 9.0–10.0) for participants with no components vs 7.0mg/L (95% CI: 6.3–7.9) for those with four to five components. Conclusions/interpretation Low plasma adiponectin levels at baseline and decreasing adiponectin levels during follow-up are both associated with an increased risk of MetS.

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T21:06:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.027
       
  • Impaired development and dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells in
           type 2 diabetic mice
    • Authors: S. Tsukada; H. Masuda; S.Y. Jung; J. Yun; S. Kang; D.Y. Kim; J.H. Park; S.T. Ji; S.-M. Kwon; T. Asahara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016
      Source:Diabetes & Metabolism
      Author(s): S. Tsukada, H. Masuda, S.Y. Jung, J. Yun, S. Kang, D.Y. Kim, J.H. Park, S.T. Ji, S.-M. Kwon, T. Asahara
      Aim Dysfunction of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been shown to affect the development of microvascular diseases in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the development and mechanical dysfunction of EPCs in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods The colony-forming capacity of EPCs and differentiation potential of bone marrow (BM) c-Kit(+)/Sca-I(+) lineage-negative mononuclear cells (KSL) were examined in T2D mice, db/db mice and KKAy mice, using EPC colony-forming assay (EPC-CFA). Results T2D mice had fewer BM stem/progenitor cells, and proliferation of KSL was lowest in the BM of db/db mice. In T2D mice, the frequency of large colony-forming units (CFUs) derived from BM-KSL was highly reduced, indicating dysfunction of differentiation into mature EPCs. Only a small number of BM-derived progenitors [CD34(+) KSL cells], which contribute to the supply of EPCs for postnatal neovascularization, was also found. Furthermore, in terms of their plasticity to transdifferentiate into various cell types, BM-KSL exhibited a greater potential to differentiate into granulocyte macrophages (GMs) than into other cell types. Conclusion T2D affected EPC colony formation and differentiation of stem cells to mature EPCs or haematopoietic cells. These data suggest opposing regulatory mechanisms for differentiation into mature EPCs and GMs in T2D mice.

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T21:06:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.07.034
       
 
 
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