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Journal Cover Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
  [SJR: 1.041]   [H-I: 70]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0981-9428
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Short-term UV-B radiation affects photosynthetic performance and
           antioxidant gene expression in highbush blueberry leaves
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Patricio Acevedo, Rodrigo Loyola, Patricio Arce-Johnson, Miren Alberdi, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
      The impact of increased artificial UV-B radiation on photosynthetic performance, antioxidant and SOD activities and molecular antioxidant metabolism responses in leaves of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta and Bluegold) genotypes was studied. Plants were grown in a solid substrate and exposed to 0, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.19 W m−2 of biologically-effective UV-B irradiance for 0–72 h. Our findings show that net photosynthesis (Pn) decreased significantly in Bluegold, accompanied by a reduction in the effective quantum yield (ФPSII) and electron transport rate (ETR), especially at the highest UV-B irradiation. On the other hand, Brigitta showed a better photosynthetic performance, as well as a clear increment in the antioxidant activity response that could be associated with increased superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the early hours of induced UV-B stress in all treatments. At the molecular level, the expression of the three antioxidant genes evaluated in both genotypes had a similar tendency. However, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) expression was significantly increased (6-fold) in Bluegold compared to Brigitta. Thus, the reduction of Pn concomitant with a lower photochemical performance and a reduced response of antioxidant metabolism suggest that the Bluegold genotype is more sensitive to UV-B radiation, while Brigitta appears to tolerate better moderate UV-B irradiance in a short-term experiment.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T01:54:40Z
       
  • The differential expression of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] WRKY
           genes in response to water deficit
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Letícia Pereira Dias, Luisa Abruzzi de Oliveira-Busatto, Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini
      Drought is today, and perhaps even more in the future, the main challenge for grain crops, resulting in a drastic yield reduction. Thus, it is of great interest to obtain soybean genotypes tolerant to water deficit. The drought tolerance trait is difficult to obtain through classical breeding due to its polygenic basis. In this context, genetic engineering is presented as a way to achieve this attribute. The ability to modulate the expression of many genes placed the transcription factors as promising biotechnological targets to develop stress tolerant cultivars. The WRKY proteins form a large family of transcription factors that are involved in important physiological and biochemical processes in plants, including the response to water deficit. In this study, the expression pattern determined by qPCR showed that, GmWRKY6, GmWRKY46, GmWRKY56, GmWRKY106 and GmWRKY149 genes are differentially expressed between a drought tolerant and a susceptible soybean genotype in water stress conditions. The in silico promoter and coexpression analysis indicate that these genes act in a stress physiological background.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T01:54:40Z
       
  • Metabolomic analysis reveals the relationship between AZI1 and sugar
           signaling in systemic acquired resistance of Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Xiao-Yan Wang, Dian-Zhen Li, Qi Li, Yan-Qin Ma, Jing-Wen Yao, Xuan Huang, Zi-Qin Xu
      The function of AZI1 in systemic acquired resistance of Arabidopsis was confirmed by investigation of the phenotypic features of wild-type Col-0, AZI1 T-DNA knockout and AZI1 overexpressing plants after infection with virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae. Real-time quantitative PCR and Northern blotting analyses showed that the transcript abundances of PR genes increased significantly in local and systemic leaves of wild-type Col-0 and AZI1 overexpressing plants challenged with avirulent P. syringae, whereas the mRNA accumulation of PR genes was obviously attenuated in local and systemic leaves of AZI1 T-DNA knockout plants after localized infiltration with avirulent Psm avrRpm1. The changes of metabolomic profiles in distal leaves of three types of materials infected with avirulent P. syringae were determined by 1H NMR spectrometry and data mining showed that the soluble carbonhydrates might function as signal substances in the systemic immunity of Arabidopsis. At the same time, the expression of the sugar signaling genes in local and distal leaves after infection of avirulent P. syringae was compared. As a result, it was found that the transcript abundances of sugar signaling genes, including SUS1, SUS2, SUS3, SUS6, SUT1, HXK1, HXK2, SNRK1.2, ERD6, TPS1, TOR, SNRK1.1, SNRK1.3 and bZIP11, were obviously changed in distal leaves of different materials with the modulated AZI1 activities, indicating sugar-related genes are involved in regulation of the systemic immunity mediated by AZI1. These results also illustrated that the immune system associated with sugar molecules probably was an important part of the systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis.


      PubDate: 2016-06-24T01:54:40Z
       
  • Oxidative stress in spring barley and common radish exposed to quaternary
           ammonium salts with hexafluorophosphate anion
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Robert Biczak, Arkadiusz Telesiński, Barbara Pawłowska
      Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), including ionic liquids (ILs), constitute a huge group of substances, which due to their desirable physical and chemical properties still attracts great interest in many industrial sectors. An increased concentration of this compound in the environment may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and may pose a potential threat to all organisms, including terrestrial higher plants. The present study demonstrates the interaction of three QAS with PF6 − anions – tetramethylammonium [TMA][PF6], tetrabutylammonium [TBA][PF6], and tetrahexylammonium [THA][PF6] hexafluorophosphates – and its impact on the physiological and biochemical changes in spring barley seedlings and common radish plants. A similar study was also carried out by introducing the inorganic salt – ammonium hexafluorophosphate [A][PF6] to the soil; the results showed the soil became highly toxic to both plants. All the salts used led to significant changes in the metabolism of both spring barley and common radish which can be evidenced, for example, by a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), and total chlorophyll (Chla + b), as well as carotenoids (Car). The decrease in assimilation pigments was linearly correlated with an increasing concentration of QAS in the soil. QAS and [A][PF6] led to the formation of oxidative stress in both experimental plants, as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in their cells and the changes in H2O2 level. In response to stress, the plants synthesized enzymatic free radicals (ROS) scavengers that lead to changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as significantly increased peroxidase (POD) activity. A decrease in the content of assimilation pigments and an increased POD activity are the most reliable indices of oxidative stress, and concurrently the signs of premature plants aging. Common radish proved to be more resistant to the presence of QAS in the soil compared to spring barley.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:22:11Z
       
  • Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion
           (Allium cepa)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Piotr Rozpądek, Maria Rąpała-Kozik, Katarzyna Wężowicz, Anna Grandin, Stefan Karlsson, Rafał Ważny, Teresa Anielska, Katarzyna Turnau
      Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:22:11Z
       
  • Protein synthesis is the most sensitive process when potassium is
           substituted by sodium in the nutrition of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Franziska Faust, Sven Schubert
      Potassium ions (K+) and sodium ions (Na+) share many physical and chemical similarities. However, their interchangeability in plant nutrition is restricted. Substitution studies showed that K+ can be replaced by Na+ to a large extent in the nutrition of Beta vulgaris L. However, the extent of substitution without negative impacts is not unlimited. The aim of the present study was to identify the process which is most sensitive during the substitution of K+ by Na+ in nutrition of young sugar beet plants. We focused on transpiration, growth, and net protein synthesis. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. With transfer of seedlings into nutrient solution, plants were cultivated in different substitution treatments. For all treatments the sum of K+ and Na+ (applied as chloride) was fixed to 4 mM. The extent of substitution of K+ by Na+ in the nutrient solution was varied from low (0.25% substitution: 3.99 mM K+, 0.01 mM Na+) to almost complete substitution (99.75% substitution: 0.01 mM K+, 3.99 mM Na+). The supply of 3.99 mM K+ in 0.25% substitution treatment guaranteed the absence of K+ deficiency. Transpiration was not affected by the substitution. Growth was inhibited at a substitution level of 99.75%. Net protein synthesis was already affected at a substitution level of 97.50% (0.10 mM K+, 3.90 mM Na+). Hence, net protein synthesis was most sensitive to the substitution and limited the extent of substitution of K+ by Na+ in the nutrition of young sugar beet plants.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:22:11Z
       
  • Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is
           related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Asier Largo-Gosens, María de Castro, Ana Alonso-Simón, Penélope García-Angulo, José L. Acebes, Antonio Encina, Jesús M. Álvarez
      The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:22:11Z
       
  • Gibberellins regulate the stem elongation rate without affecting the
           mature plant height of a quick development mutant of winter wheat
           (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ning Zhang, Yong-Dun Xie, Hui-Jun Guo, Lin-Shu Zhao, Hong-Chun Xiong, Jia-Yu Gu, Jun-Hui Li, Fu-Quan Kong, Li Sui, Zi-Wei Zhao, Shi-Rong Zhao, Lu-Xiang Liu
      Gibberellin (GA) is essential for determining plant height. Alteration of GA content or GA signaling results in a dwarf or slender phenotype. Here, we characterized a novel wheat mutant, quick development (qd), in which GA regulates stem elongation but does not affect mature plant height. qd and wild-type plants did not exhibit phenotypic differences at the seedling stage. From jointing to heading stage, qd plants were taller than wild-type plants due to elongated cells. However, wild-type and qd plants were the same height at heading. Unlike wild-type plants, qd plants were sensitive to exogenous GA due to mutation of Rht-B1. With continuous GA stimulation, qd seedlings and adult plants were taller than wild-type. Thus, the GA content of qd plants might differ from that of wild-type during the growth process. Analysis of GA biosynthetic gene expression verified this hypothesis and showed that TaKAO, which is involved in catalyzing the early steps of GA biosynthesis, was differentially expressed in qd plants compared with wild-type. The bioactive GA associated gene TaGA20ox was downregulated in qd plants during the late growth stages. Measurements of endogenous GA content were consistent with the gene-expression analysis results. Consistent with the GA content variation, the first three basal internodes were longer and the last two internodes were shorter in qd than in wild-type plants. The qd mutant might be useful in dissecting the mechanism by which GA regulates stem-growing process, and it may be serve as a GA responsive semi-dwarf germplasm in breeding programs.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:22:11Z
       
  • Physiological characterization and true-to-typeness evaluation of
           in vitro and ex vitro seedlings of Pinus elliottii: A
           contribution to breeding programs
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sandra Nunes, Conceição Santos, José Moutinho-Pereira, Carlos Correia, Helena Oliveira, José Miguel Ferreira de Oliveira, Vanessa Tolentino Pereira, Tânia Almeida, Liliana Marum, Maria Celeste Dias
      Pinus elliottii var. elliottii is a pine species with enormous economic value particularly for timber and resin industries, and is subject of high pressure for genetic improvement and cloning elite genotypes. We have recently developed a robust micropropagation protocol for this species. Plantlets performance needs to be evaluated to validate this protocol for further mass propagation. Micropropagated plantlets and seed-derived plants with similar age and shoot length were compared regarding photosynthesis, carbohydrates and pigments content, water status, DNA content and cell cycle dynamics. Micropropagated plantlets had an overall physiological performance similar to seed-derived plants. In particular, except for the transpiration rate (E), CO2 assimilation rate (A) and total soluble sugars (TSS) content, no major differences between plantlets and seedlings in terms of relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll a fluorescence and pigments content were found. Genetic fidelity analyses support that the micropropagation protocol neither induce DNA content changes nor alterations in cell cycle dynamics.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T09:03:18Z
       
  • RNA interference of the nicotine demethylase gene CYP82E4v1 reduces
           nornicotine content and enhances Myzus persicae resistance in Nicotiana
           tabacum L
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Dan Zhao, Li-Jun Qin, De-Gang Zhao
      The CYP82E4v1 gene was identified to encode nicotine demethylase, which catalyzed the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine. In this study, we constructed CYP82E4v1-RNAi vector and genetically transformed tobacco variety K326. The determination results of nicotine and nornicotine content via HPLC demonstrated that there was significant increase of nicotine content and reduction of nornicotine content in transgenic plants compared with those in wild-type plants. Exogenous application of IAA or GA3 could reduce the nicotine content in tobaccos, while ABA or 6-BA could increase the content of nicotine. And the more significant difference of nicotine content change in transgenic plants. Aphid-inoculation experiment demonstrated the number of aphid population in transgenic plants was significantly lower than wild-type plants at 12 d after aphid-inoculation. Meanwhile, the activity of AOEs and PAL in transgenic and wild-type tobacco plants after aphid-inoculation was measured. At 3 d after aphid-inoculation, both AOEs and PAL activity were significantly higher than controls, including wild-type plants with aphid-inoculation and transgenic plants with mock-inoculation. Also, the relative expression of these genes involved in salicylic acid/jasmonic acid (SA/JA) signaling pathways was analyzed at different stages after aphid-inoculation and the results demonstrated that there was significantly higher expression of JA-induced LOX gene in both transgenic and wild-type plants inoculated by aphid than the non-inoculated ones while no significant difference in the expression of SA-induced PR-1a gene among them was found, which indicated the JA-mediated resistance response was activated during aphid infestation. Moreover, although the expression level of BGL (another JA-induced gene) was less significant between the two inoculated tobaccos, it was significantly higher than the plant without inoculation, which was 1.4 and 2.2 folds higher than the non-inoculated controls respectively. To sum up, the improvement of aphid-resistance in transgenic tobaccos was based on nicotine accumulation which might cause nerve and antifeed toxicity and JA-mediated resistance response by enhancing the activities of AOEs and PAL.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T09:03:18Z
       
  • Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates
           from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum
           lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): M. Scagliola, Y. Pii, T. Mimmo, S. Cesco, P. Ricciuti, C. Crecchio
      Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T09:03:18Z
       
  • Chilling temperature stimulates growth, gene over-expression and
           podophyllotoxin biosynthesis in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): De Long Yang, Ping Sun, Meng Fei Li
      Podophyllotoxin (PPT) and its derivatives, isolated from the rhizome of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (P. hexandrum), are typically used in clinical settings for anti-cancer and anti-virus treatments. Empirical studies have verified that P. hexandrum had stronger tolerance to chilling, due to involving PPT accumulation in rhizome induced by cold stress. However, the cold-adaptive mechanism and its association with PPT accumulation at a molecular level in P. hexandrum are still limited. In this study, the morpho-physiological traits related to plant growth, PPT accumulation and key gene expressions controlling PPT biosynthesis were assessed by exposing P. hexandrum seedlings to different temperatures (4 °C and 10 °C as chilling stress and 22 °C as the control). The results showed that chilling significantly increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and plant biomass, whereas it greatly decreased transpiration rates and intercellular CO2 concentration. Compared to the control, the chilling treatments under 4 °C and 10 °C conditions induced a 5.00- and 3.33-fold increase in PPT contents, respectively. The mRNA expressions of six key genes were also up-regulated by chilling stresses. The findings are useful in understanding the molecular basis of P. hexandrum response to chilling.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T09:03:18Z
       
  • Cumulative effect of heterologous AtWRI1 gene expression and endogenous
           BjAGPase gene silencing increases seed lipid content in Indian mustard
           Brassica juncea
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Surajit Bhattacharya, Natasha Das, Mrinal K. Maiti
      The production of vegetable oil in many countries of the world, including India has not been able to keep pace with the increasing requirement, leading to a very large gap in the demand-supply chain. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the yield potential of the oilseed crops so as to enhance the storage lipid productivity. The present study describes a novel metabolic engineering ploy involving the constitutive down-regulation of endogenous ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (BjAGPase) enzyme and the seed-specific expression of WRINKLED1 transcription factor (AtWRI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) with an aim to divert the photosynthetically fixed carbon pool from starch to lipid synthesis in the seeds for the enhanced production of storage lipids in the seeds of transgenic mustard plants. The starch content, in both the vegetative leaf and developing seed tissues of the transgenic B. juncea lines exhibited a reduction by about 45–53% compared to the untransformed control, whereas the soluble sugar content was increased by 2.4 and 1.3-fold in the leaf and developing seed tissues, respectively. Consequently, the transgenic lines showed a significant enhancement in total seed lipid content ranging between 7.5 and 16.9%. The results indicate that the adopted metabolic engineering strategy was successful in significantly increasing the seed oil content. Therefore, findings of our research suggest that the metabolic engineering strategy adopted in this study for shifting the anabolic carbon flux from starch synthesis to lipid biosynthesis can be employed for increasing the storage lipid content of seeds in other plant species.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T09:03:18Z
       
  • Effect of exogenous GA3 and its inhibitor paclobutrazol on floral
           formation, endogenous hormones, and flowering-associated genes in
           ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Songwen Zhang, Dong Zhang, Sheng Fan, Lisha Du, Yawen Shen, Libo Xing, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
      Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old ‘Fuji’ apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction. Moreover, GA3 spraying significantly affected contents of all endogenous hormones and all the genes tested in at least one time points: the content of endogenous GAs was increased instantly and that of ZR was reduced at 44 days after fullbloom (DAF), which might constitute an unfavorable factor for flower formation; MdKO (ent-kaurene oxidase gene) and MdGA20ox (GA20 oxidase gene) were significantly repressed by a high level of GAs through the negative feedback regulation of GA; additionally, the MdSPLs (SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) in this study were all significantly repressed by GA3 but promoted by PAC; the expression of MdFT1/2 (FLOWERING LOCUS T), MdSOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1) and MdAP1 (APETALA1) in GA3-treated buds changed in the same way, and they were repressed at 44 DAF. We suppose that GA3 spraying disrupts the balance between ZR and GAs, and inhibits floral induction, probably by suppressing MdSPLs and the floral integrators in flower induction, which ultimately contributed to inhibiting flower formation.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T09:03:18Z
       
  • Silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticle toxicity in plants: A review of
           current research
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ashley Cox, P. Venkatachalam, Shivendra Sahi, Nilesh Sharma
      Nanoparticles (NPs) have become widely used in recent years for many manufacturing and medical processes. Recent literature suggests that many metallic nanomaterials including those of silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) cause significant toxic effects in animal cell culture and animal models, however, toxicity studies using plant species are limited. This review examines current progress in the understanding of the effect of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on plant species. There are many facets to this ongoing environmental problem. This review addresses the effects of NPs on oxidative stress-related gene expression, genotoxicity, seed germination, and root elongation. It is largely accepted that NP exposure results in the cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to both positive and negative effects on plant growth. However, factors such as NP size, shape, surface coating and concentration vary greatly among studies resulting in conflicting reports of the effect at times. In addition, plant species tend to differ in their reaction to NP exposure, with some showing positive effects of NP augmentation while many others showing detrimental effects. Seed germination studies have shown to be less effective in gauging phytotoxicity, while root elongation studies have shown more promise. Given the large increase in nanomaterial applications in consumer products, agriculture and energy sectors, it is critical to understand their role in the environment and their effects on plant life. A closer look at nanomaterial-driven ecotoxicity is needed. Ecosystem-level studies are required to indicate how these nanomaterials transfer at the critical trophic levels affecting human health and biota.


      PubDate: 2016-06-10T08:35:13Z
       
  • Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the amino acid transporter
           superfamily in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Haoli Ma, Xiaoli Cao, Shandang Shi, Silu Li, Junpeng Gao, Yuling Ma, Qin Zhao, Qin Chen
      Amino acid transporters (AATs) are integral membrane proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of amino acids and play important roles in various physiological processes of plants. However, there has not yet been a genome-wide overview of the StAAT gene family to date and only StAAP1 has been previously studied in potato. In this paper, a total of 72 StAATs were identified using a series of bioinformatics searches and classified into 12 subfamilies based on their phylogenetic relationship with known Arabidopsis and rice AATs. Chromosomal localization revealed their distribution on all 12 chromosomes. Nearly one-third of StAAT genes (23 of 72) were derived from gene duplication, among which tandem duplication made the greatest contribution to the expansion of the StAAT family. Motif analysis showed that the same subfamily had similar conserved motifs in both numbers and varieties. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing data was used to analyze the expression patterns of StAAT genes and was verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of StAAT genes exhibited both abundant and tissue-specific expression patterns, which might be connected to their functional roles in long- and short-distance transport. This study provided a comprehensive survey of the StAAT gene family, and could serve as a theoretical foundation for the further functional identification and utilization of family members.


      PubDate: 2016-06-10T08:35:13Z
       
  • Involvement of ABA- and H2O2-dependent cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate
           dehydrogenase in maintaining redox homeostasis in soybean roots under
           drought stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Huahua Wang, Lidan Yang, Yan Li, Junjie Hou, Junjun Huang, Weihong Liang
      The roles of abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in inducing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) activity and the possible roles of G6PDH in regulating ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle were investigated in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots under drought stress. Drought caused a marked increase of the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities and triggered a rapid ABA and H2O2 accumulation in soybean roots. Exogenous ABA or H2O2 treatment elevated the total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, whereas suppressing ABA or H2O2 production inhibited the drought-induced increase in total and cytosolic G6PDH activities, suggesting that ABA and H2O2 are required for drought-induced increase of total G6PDH activity, namely cytosolic G6PDH activity. Furthermore, ABA induced H2O2 production by stimulating NADPH oxidase activity under drought stress. Moreover, drought significantly increased the contents of AsA and GSH and the activities of key enzymes in AsA-GSH cycle, while application of G6PDH inhibitor to seedlings significantly reduced the above effect induced by drought. Taken together, these results indicate that H2O2 acting as a downstream signaling molecule of ABA mediates drought-induced increase in cytosolic G6PDH activity, and that enhanced cytosolic G6PDH activity maintains cellular redox homeostasis by regulating AsA-GSH cycle in soybean roots.


      PubDate: 2016-06-10T08:35:13Z
       
  • Carbon allocation, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant capacity and growth in
           cotton under long-term soil drought during flowering and boll-forming
           period
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Rui Wang, Min Gao, Shu Ji, Shanshan Wang, Yali Meng, Zhiguo Zhou
      Responses of plant to drought largely depend on the intensity, duration and developmental stage at which water stress occurs. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamic of cotton physiology response to different levels sustained soil water deficit during reproductive growth stage at leaf basis. Three levels of steady-state water regimes [soil relative water content (SRWC) maintained at (75 ± 5)%, (60 ± 5)% and (45 ± 5)%] were imposed when the white flowers had opened on the first fruiting position of the 6–7th fruiting branches (FB6-7), which was the first day post anthesis (i.e. 1 DPA) and lasted to 50 DPA. Results showed decreasing SRWC slowed cotton growth on the base of biomass and leaf area. However, carbon metabolites levels were globally increased under drought despite of notably inhibited photosynthesis throughout the treatment period. Clear diurnal pattern of sucrose and starch concentrations was obtained and sucrose levels were evaluated while starch concentration was reduced with decreasing soil water content during a 24-h cycle. Osmotic adjustment (OA) was observed at most of the sampling dates throughout the drought period. K+ was the main contributor to osmotic adjustment (OA) at 10 and 24 DPA then turned out to be amino acid at 38 and 50 DPA. The stressed cotton gradually failed to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) with increasing days post anthesis, primarily due to the permanent decrease in SOD activity. Elevated carbohydrates levels suggest cotton growth was more inhibited by other factors than carbon assimilation. OA and antioxidant could be important protective mechanisms against soil water deficit in this species, and transition of these mechanisms was observed with drought intensity and duration increased.


      PubDate: 2016-06-10T08:35:13Z
       
  • Lithium toxicity in plants: Reasons, mechanisms and remediation
           possibilities – A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Babar Shahzad, Mohsin Tanveer, Waseem Hassan, Adnan Noor Shah, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Sardar Alam Cheema, Iftikhar Ali
      Lithium (Li) is a naturally occurring element; however, it is one of the non-essential metals for life. Lithium is becoming a serious matter of discussion for the people who do research on trace metals and environmental toxicity in plants. Due to limited information available regarding its mobility from soil to plants, the adverse effects of Li toxicity to plants are still unclear. This article briefly discusses issues around Li, its role and its essentiality in plants and research directions that may assist in inter-disciplinary studies to evaluate the importance of Li’s toxicity. Further, potential remediation approaches will also be highlighted in this review. Briefly, Li influenced the growth of plants in both stimulation and reduction ways, depending on the concentration of Li in growth medium. On the negative side, Li reduces the plant growth by interrupting numerous physiological processes and altering metabolism in plant. The contamination of soil by Li is becoming a serious problem, which might be a threat for crop production in the near future. Additionally, lack of considerable information about the tolerance mechanisms of plants further intensifies the situation. Therefore, future research should emphasize in finding prominent and approachable solutions to minimize the entry of Li from its sources (especially from Li batteries) into the soil and food chain.
      Teaser Lithium (Li) not only reduces but also stimulates plant growth, depending on its concentration in growth medium. Li interferes with numerous physiological and metabolic processes to influence plant growth.

      PubDate: 2016-06-05T00:05:57Z
       
  • Analysis of the carbohydrate-binding-module from Fragaria x ananassa
           α-L-arabinofuranosidase 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): I.N. Sin, M.A. Perini, G.A. Martínez, P.M. Civello
      α-L-arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) are enzymes involved in the catabolism of several cell-wall polysaccharides such as pectins and hemicelluloses, catalyzing the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing α-L-arabinofuranosil residues. Bioinformatic analysis of the aminoacidic sequences of Fragaria x ananassa α-L-arabinofuranosidases predict a putative carbohydrate-binding-module of the family CBM_4_9, associated to a wide range of carbohydrate affinities. In this study, we report the characterization of the binding affinity profile to different cell wall polysaccharides of the putative CBM of α–L-arabinofuranosidase 1 from Fragaria x ananassa (CBM-FaARA1). The sequence encoding for the putative CBM was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resultant recombinant protein was purified from inclusion bodies by a Nickel affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. The refolded recombinant protein was then subjected to binding assays and affinity gel electrophoresis, which indicated its ability to bind cellulose and also high affinity for homogalacturonans.


      PubDate: 2016-06-05T00:05:57Z
       
  • Combined herbicide and saline stress differentially modulates hormonal
           regulation and antioxidant defense system in Oryza sativa cultivars
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Faisal Islam, Basharat Ali, Jian Wang, Muhammad A. Farooq, Rafaqat A. Gill, Shafaqat Ali, Danying Wang, Weijun Zhou
      Plants are simultaneously exposed to a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses in field conditions. Crops respond to the combined stress in a unique way which cannot be understood by extrapolating the results of individual stress. In the present study, effects of individual and combined stress of herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and salinity (NaCl) on two Oryza sativa cultivars (ZJ 88 and XS 134) were investigated. Both herbicide and saline stress affected the plant growth differentially and produced oxidative stress in rice cultivars. Interestingly, the combination of herbicide and salinity showed a significant protection to both rice cultivars by reducing ROS (H2O2, O2 −) and lipid peroxidation through modulation of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX) and non-enzymatic (TSP, sugars, phenolic and proline) antioxidants. In addition, active regulation of transcript levels of genes encoding Na+ and K+ (OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a,b, OsHKT2;1, OsSOS1, OsCNGC1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1) transporter proteins reduced sodium and enhanced potassium accumulation under combined stress, resulted a better growth and ionic homeostasis in both rice cultivars. The production of ABA and IAA was significantly higher in cultivar XS 134 compared to cultivar ZJ 88 under control conditions. However, combined herbicide and saline stress enhanced the accumulation of phytohormones (IAA and ABA) and transcription of ethylene in cultivar ZJ 88, which might be one of the factors responsible for poor salt tolerance in sensitive cultivar. These findings indicated that herbicide application under saline stress confers tolerance to salinity in rice cultivars, likely by reducing oxidative damage, modulating mineral absorption, upgradation of antioxidant defense and by dynamic regulation of key genes involved in Na+ and K+ homeostasis in plants.


      PubDate: 2016-06-05T00:05:57Z
       
  • Photosynthetic adaptation strategy of Ulva prolifera floating on the sea
           surface to environmental changes
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Xinyu Zhao, Xuexi Tang, Huanxin Zhang, Tongfei Qu, Ying Wang
      For 8 consecutive years, a green tide has originated in the southern Yellow Sea and spread to the Qingdao offshore area. The causative species, Ulva prolifera, always forms a very thick thallus mat that is capable of drifting long distances over long periods. During this process, although the thalli face disturbance by complex environmental factors, they maintain high biomass and proliferation. We hypothesized that some form of photosynthetic adaptation strategy must exist to protect the thalli. Therefore, we studied the different photosynthetic response characteristics of the surface and lower layers of the floating thallus mats, and investigated the physiological and molecular-level adaptation mechanisms. The results showed that: (1) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic capability that ensures it can gain sufficient energy to increase its biomass and adapt to long-distance migration. (2) Surface layer thalli adapt to the complex environment by dissipating excess energy via photosynthetic quantum control (energy quenching and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI) to avoid irreversible damage to the photosynthetic system. (3) Lower layer thalli increase their contents of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chlorophyll b (Chl b) and decrease their Chl a/Chl b ratio to improve their ability to use light energy. (4) U. prolifera has strong photosynthetic plasticity and can adapt to frequent exchange between the surface and lower layer environments because of wave disturbance. Pigment component changes, energy quenching, and energy redistribution between PSII/PSI contribute to this photosynthetic plasticity.


      PubDate: 2016-06-05T00:05:57Z
       
  • The role of photorespiration during astaxanthin accumulation in
           Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Chunhui Zhang, Litao Zhang, Jianguo Liu
      Most previous studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on growth and astaxanthin accumulation. However, the relationships between photorespiration and astaxanthin accumulation have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of photorespiration during the process of astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis. During astaxanthin accumulation, the astaxanthin content was reduced significantly when photorespiration was inhibited by its specific inhibitor, carboxymethoxylamine. The inhibition of photorespiration did not change the dry weight, chlorophyll content and OJIP transients during the incubation; however, the inhibition of photorespiration significantly decreased the photochemistry of photosystem II and total photosynthetic O2 evolution capacity. Moreover, the restriction in photorespiration was synchronized with a decrease of astaxanthin accumulation. These results suggest that the photorespiratory pathway in H. pluvialis can accelerate astaxanthin accumulation. We speculate that photorespiration can enhance astaxanthin accumulation in the following ways: (i) photorespiration directly affects the glycerate-3-phosphate (PGA) level, which is intrinsically related to the accumulation of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis; (ii) the photorespiratory pathway indirectly affects the PGA level by effecting the dark reactions of photosynthesis, which then results in the enhancement of astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis.


      PubDate: 2016-06-05T00:05:57Z
       
  • Identification of differentially expressed genes and signalling pathways
           in bark of Hevea brasiliensis seedlings associated with secondary
           laticifer differentiation using gene expression microarray
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Swee Cheng Loh, Gincy P. Thottathil, Ahmad Sofiman Othman
      The natural rubber of Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is the main crop involved in industrial rubber production due to its superior quality. The Hevea bark is commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. The laticifer is well defined in the aspect of morphology; however, only some genes associated with its development have been reported. We successfully induced secondary laticifer in the jasmonic acid (JA)-treated and linolenic acid (LA)-treated Hevea bark but secondary laticifer is not observed in the ethephon (ET)-treated and untreated Hevea bark. In this study, we analysed 27,195 gene models using NimbleGen microarrays based on the Hevea draft genome. 491 filtered differentially expressed (FDE) transcripts that are common to both JA- and LA-treated bark samples but not ET-treated bark samples were identified. In the Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG) analysis, 491 FDE transcripts belong to different functional categories that reflect the diverse processes and pathways involved in laticifer differentiation. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and KOG analysis, the profile of the FDE transcripts suggest that JA- and LA-treated bark samples have a sufficient molecular basis for secondary laticifer differentiation, especially regarding secondary metabolites metabolism. FDE genes in this category are from the cytochrome (CYP) P450 family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) family. The data includes many genes involved in cell division, cell wall synthesis, and cell differentiation. The most abundant transcript in FDE list was SDR65C, reflecting its importance in laticifer differentiation. Using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) as part of annotation and functional prediction, several characterised as well as uncharacterized transcription factors and genes were found in the dataset. Hence, the further characterization of these genes is necessary to unveil their role in laticifer differentiation. This study provides a platform for the further characterization and identification of the key genes involved in secondary laticifer differentiation.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Unsaturated amino acids derived from isoleucine trigger early membrane
           effects on plant cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Gabriel Roblin, Joëlle Laduranty, Janine Bonmort, Mohand Aidene, Jean-François Chollet
      Unsaturated amino acids (UnsAA) have been shown to affect the activity of various biological processes. However, their mode of action has been investigated poorly thus far. We show in this work that 2-amino-3-methyl-4-pentenoic acid (C2) and 2-amino-3-methyl-4-pentynoic acid (C3) structurally derived from isoleucine (Ile) exhibited a multisite action on plant cells. For one, C2 and C3 induced early modifications at the plasma membrane level, as shown by the hyperpolarization monitored by microelectrode implantation in the pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica, indicating that these compounds are able to modify ionic fluxes. In particular, proton (H+) fluxes were modified, as shown by the pH rise monitored in the bathing medium of pulvinar tissues. A component of this effect may be linked to the inhibitory effect observed on the proton pumping and the vanadate-sensitive activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase monitored in plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified from pulvinar tissues of M. pudica and leaf tissues of Beta vulgaris. This effect may explain, in part, the inhibitory effect of the compounds on the uptake capacity of sucrose and valine by B. vulgaris leaf tissues. In contrast, an unexpected action was observed in cell reactions, implicating ion fluxes and water movement. Indeed, the osmocontractile reactions of pulvini induced either by a mechanical shock in M. pudica or by dark and light signals in Cassia fasciculata were increased, indicating that, compared to Ile, these compounds may modify in a specific way the plasma membrane permeability to water and ions.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Response of phytohormones and correlation of SAR signal pathway genes to
           the different resistance levels of grapevine against Plasmopara viticola
           infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Shao-li Liu, Jiao Wu, Pei Zhang, Gerile Hasi, Yu Huang, Jiang Lu, Ya-li Zhang
      Phytohormones play an important role in the process of disease resistance in plants. Here, we investigated which among salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid performs a key role in plant defense after Plasmopara viticola infection in grapevine. We used grapevines possessing different resistance levels against P. viticola infection to study the relationship between the expression of key genes in the related resistance signaling pathways and the level of resistance. We performed high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to estimate the phytohormone contents in grape leaves at different time points after the infection. Furthermore, we performed quantitative analyses of key genes such as EDS1, PAD4, ICS2, PAL, NPR1, TGA1, and PR1 in the systemic acquired resistance pathway by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed an increased variation in the SA content, which was maintained at high levels, after P. viticola infection in plant species exhibiting stronger resistance to the pathogen; this finding highlights the importance of SA in plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, EDS1 and PAD4 expression did not show a positive correlation with disease resistance in grape; however, higher expression of other genes that were analyzed was observed in highly resistant grape varieties. Our results provide insights into the role of phytohormone regulation in the induction and maintenance of plant defense response to pathogens.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Metabolic variations in different citrus rootstock cultivars associated
           with different responses to Huanglongbing
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ute Albrecht, Oliver Fiehn, Kim D. Bowman
      Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of citrus. No resistant cultivars have been identified, although tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids with Citrus that are commonly used as rootstocks. In this study we exploited this tolerance by comparing five different tolerant hybrids with a cultivar that shows pronounced HLB sensitivity to discern potential contributing metabolic factors. Whole leaves of infected and non-infected greenhouse-grown seedlings were extracted and subjected to untargeted GC-TOF MS based metabolomics. After BinBase data filtering, 342 (experiment 1) and 650 (experiment 2) unique metabolites were quantified, of which 122 and 195, respectively, were assigned by chemical structures. The number of metabolites found to be differently regulated in the infected state compared with the non-infected state varied between the cultivars and was largest (166) in the susceptible cultivar Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lowest (3) in the tolerant cultivars US-897 (C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × Poncirus trifoliata) and US-942 (C. reticulata ‘Sunki’ × P. trifoliata) from experiment 2. Tolerance to HLB did not appear to be associated with accumulation of higher amounts of protective metabolites in response to infection. Many metabolites were found in higher concentrations in the tolerant cultivars compared with susceptible Cleopatra mandarin and may play important roles in conferring tolerance to HLB. Lower availability of specific sugars necessary for survival of the pathogen may also be a contributing factor in the decreased disease severity observed for these cultivars.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Phenotyping two tomato genotypes with different nitrogen use efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Maria Rosa Abenavoli, Caterina Longo, Antonio Lupini, Anthony J. Miller, Fabrizio Araniti, Francesco Mercati, Maria P. Princi, Francesco Sunseri
      Nitrogen (N) supply usually limits crop production and optimizing N-use efficiency (NUE) to minimize fertilizer loss is important. NUE is a complex trait that can be dissected into crop N uptake from the soil (NUpE) and N utilization (NUtE). We compared NUE in 14 genotypes of three week old tomatoes grown in sand or hydroponic culture supplied with nitrate (NO3 −). Culture method influenced measured NUE for some cultivars, but Regina Ostuni (RO) and UC82 were consistently identified as high and low NUE genotypes. To identify why these genotypes had contrasting NUE some traits were compared growing under 0.1 and 5 mM NO3 − supply. UC82 showed greater root 15NO3 − influx at low and high supply, and stronger SlNRT2.1/NAR2.1 transporter expression under low supply when compared with RO. Conversely, RO showed a higher total root length and thickness compared to UC82. Compared with UC82, RO showed higher shoot SlNRT2.3 expression and NO3 − storage at high supply, but similar NO3 − reductase activity. After N-starvation, root cell electrical potentials of RO were significantly more negative than UC82, but nitrate elicited similar responses in both root types. Overall for UC82 and RO, NUtE may play a greater role than NUpE for improved NUE.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Regulation of biosynthesis and emission of volatile
           phenylpropanoids/benzenoids in petunia× hybrida flowers by
           multi-factors of circadian clock, light, and temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sihua Cheng, Xiumin Fu, Xin Mei, Ying Zhou, Bing Du, Naoharu Watanabe, Ziyin Yang
      Floral volatile phenylpropanoids and benzenoids (VPBs) play important ecological functions and have potential economic applications. Little is known about how multi-factors in integration regulate the formation and emission of floral VPBs. In the present study, we investigated effects of multi factors including endogenous circadian clock, light, and temperature on the formation and emission of VPBs, which are major volatiles in flowers of Petunia× hybrida cv. ‘Mitchell Diploid’. Endogenous circadian clock was proposed as the most important factor regulating rhythmic emission of VPBs and expressions of structural genes involved in the upstream biosynthetic pathway of VPBs, but did not affect expression levels of structural genes involved in the downstream pathway and VPBs-related regulators. In contrast to light, temperature was a more constant factor affecting emission of VPBs. VPBs emission could be inhibited within a short time by increasing temperature. The information will contribute to our understanding of emission mechanism of floral volatiles.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Cloning and biochemical characterization of indole-3-acetic acid-amino
           acid synthetase PsGH3 from pea
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Maciej Ostrowski, Agnieszka Mierek-Adamska, Dorota Porowińska, Anna Goc, Anna Jakubowska
      Phytohormone conjugation is one of the mechanisms that maintains a proper hormonal homeostasis and that is necessary for the realization of physiological responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases convert indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to IAA-amino acid conjugates by ATP-dependent reactions. IAA-aspartate (IAA-Asp) exists as a predominant amide conjugate of auxin in pea tissues and acts as an intermediate during IAA catabolism. Here we report a novel recombinant indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase in Pisum sativum. In silico analysis shows that amino acid sequence of PsGH3 has the highest homology to Medicago truncatula GH3.3. The recombinant His-tag-PsGH3 fusion protein has been obtained in E. coli cells and is a soluble monomeric polypeptide with molecular mass of 69.18 kDa. The PsGH3 was purified using Ni2+-affinity chromatography and native PAGE. Kinetic analysis indicates that the enzyme strongly prefers IAA and L-aspartate as substrates for conjugation revealing K m ATP  = 0.49 mM, K m L−Asp  = 2.2 mM, and K m IAA  = 0.28 mM. Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) competes with ATP for catalytic site and diminishes the PsGH3 affinity toward ATP approximately 1.11-fold indicating K i  = 8.5 μM. L-Tryptophan acts as an inhibitor of IAA-amido synthesizing activity by competition with L-aspartate. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) hydrolyzing pyrophosphate to two phosphate ions, potentiates IAA-Asp synthetase activity of PsGH3. Our results demonstrate that PsGH3 is a novel enzyme that is involved in auxin metabolism in pea seeds.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis
           vinifera L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, JiCheng Zhan, Ailing Yan, Lei Sun, Guojun Zhang, Xiaoyue Wang, Jiancheng Ren, Weidong Huang, Haiying Xu
      Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Pod removal responsive change in phytohormones and its impact on protein
           degradation and amino acid transport in source leaves of Brassica napus
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Bok-Rye Lee, Qian Zhang, Dong-Won Bae, Tae-Hwan Kim
      To characterize the hormonal regulation of nitrogen remobilization from source to pod filling in Brassica napus, the hormonal level, proteolytic process, and amino acid transport were assessed in mature leaves of pod-removed or control at the early pod-filling stage. Pod (sink) removal decreased salicylic acid (SA), and significantly increased jasmonic acid (JA). The SA/JA ratio decreased with pod removal, accompanied by low degradation of foliar proteins and Rubisco content. A significant decrease in protease activity was observed in pod-removed leaves, confirmed by in-gel staining of protease. Pod removal reduced the expression of four amino acid transporter genes (BnAAP1, BnAAP2, BnAAP4, and BnAAP6) in mature leaves and reduced amino acid loading into phloem. These results indicated that a decrease in SA resulting from pod removal down-regulated nitrogen remobilization accompanied by a decrease in proteolytic activity and amino acid transport in mature leaves at the pod-filling stage.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Changing the content of phenolic compounds as the response of blackcurrant
           (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves after blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi
           Rübs.) infestation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Wojciech Piotrowski, Jan Oszmiański, Aneta Wojdyło, Barbara H. Łabanowska
      Blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi) is one of the most common pests of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the content of phenolic compounds in the leaves damaged by the larvae of this pest. Additionally, susceptibility of different blackcurrant cultivars to the midge attack was investigated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of control and pest-infested blackcurrant leaves were performed using LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and UPLC-PDA-FL systems. A total of 39 types of phenolic compounds were identified in blackcurrant leaf extracts and they included 3 flavan-3-ols, 14 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and 22 flavonols. Feeding of blackcurrant leaf midge on blackcurrant leaves lowered the content of leaf polyphenolic compounds. The greatest differences in polyphenolics between control and infected leaves were observed in ‘Ruben’, ‘Fariegh’, ‘Foxendown’, ‘Ores’, ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Connan’ and ‘Tisel’ cultivars that were probably highly susceptible to the pest attack. In the other cultivars: ‘Ben Finlay’, ‘Polares’, ‘Tiben’, and ‘Gofert’ the differences in phenolics content were less pronounced, so they were probably less susceptible to D. tetensi attack. Plant polyphenolic compounds was strongly involved in pathogen-plant interaction, and their accumulation significantly decreased as a result of the pathogen attack.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence
           parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Saeid Hazrati, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Silvana Nicola
      Aloe vera L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. In order to determine the effects of light intensity and water deficit stress on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and pigments of A. vera, a split-plot in time experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a research greenhouse. The factorial combination of three light intensities (50, 75 and 100% of sunlight) and four irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 20, 40, 60 and 80% of soil water content) were considered as main factors. Sampling time was considered as sub factor. The first, second and third samplings were performed 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the highest light intensity and the severe water stress decreased maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)/Fm, quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII), Chl and photochemical quenching (qP) but increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), minimum fluorescence (F0) and Anthocyanin (Anth). Additionally, the highest Fm, Fv/Fm, ФPSII and qP and the lowest NPQ and F0 were observed when 50% of sunlight was blocked and irrigation was done after 40% soil water depletion. Irradiance of full sunlight and water deficit stress let to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced quantum yield of PSII, ФPSII, and qP, as well as higher NPQ. Thus, chlorophyll florescence measurements provide valuable physiological data. Close to half of total solar radiation and irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water content were selected as the most efficient treatments.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Salt tolerance function of the novel C2H2-type zinc finger protein TaZNF
           in wheat
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Xiaoli Ma, Wenji Liang, Peihan Gu, Zhanjing Huang
      The expression profile chip of the wheat salt-tolerant mutant RH8706-49 was investigated under salt stress in our laboratory. Results revealed a novel gene induced by salt stress with unknown functions. The gene was named as TaZNF (Triticum aestivum predicted Dof zinc finger protein) because it contains the zf-Dof superfamily and was deposited in GenBank (accession no. KF307327). Further analysis showed that TaZNF significantly improved the salt-tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. Various physiological indices of the transgenic plant were improved compared with those of the control after salt stress. Non-invasive micro-test (NMT) detection showed that the root tip of transgenic Arabidopsis significantly expressed Na+ excretion. TaZNF is mainly localized in the nucleus and exhibited transcriptional activity. Hence, this protein was considered a transcription factor. The TaZNF upstream promoter was then cloned and was found to contain three salts, one jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), and several ABA-responsive elements. The GUS staining and quantitative results of different tissues in the full-length promoter in the transgenic plants showed that the promoter was not tissue specific. The promoter activity in the root, leaf, and flower was enhanced after induction by salt stress. Moreover, GUS staining and quantitative measurement of GUS activity showed that the promoter sequence contained the positive regulatory element of salt and MeJA after their respective elements were mutated in the full-length promoter. RNA-Seq result showed that 2727 genes were differentially expressed; most of these genes were involved in the metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathway.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Molecular characterization of tocopherol biosynthetic genes in sweetpotato
           that respond to stress and activate the tocopherol production in tobacco
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Chang Yoon Ji, Yun-Hee Kim, Ho Soo Kim, Qingbo Ke, Gun-Woo Kim, Sung-Chul Park, Haeng-Soon Lee, Jae Cheol Jeong, Sang-Soo Kwak
      Tocopherol (vitamin E) is a chloroplast lipid that is presumed to be involved in the plant response to oxidative stress. In this study, we isolated and characterized five tocopherol biosynthetic genes from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) plants, including genes encoding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (IbHPPD), homogentisate phytyltransferase (IbHPT), 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinol methyltransferase (IbMPBQ MT), tocopherol cyclase (IbTC) and γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (IbTMT). Fluorescence microscope analysis indicated that four proteins localized into the chloroplast, whereas IbHPPD observed in the nuclear. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes varied in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. All five genes were highly expressed in leaf tissues, whereas IbHPPD and IbHPT were highly expressed in the thick roots. The expression patterns of these five genes significantly differed in response to PEG, NaCl and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. IbHPPD was strongly induced following PEG and H2O2 treatment and IbHPT was strongly induced following PEG treatment, whereas IbMPBQ MT and IbTC were highly expressed following NaCl treatment. Upon infection of the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, the expression of IbHPPD increased sharply in sweetpotato leaves, whereas the expression of the other genes was reduced or unchanged. Additionally, transient expression of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes in tobacco (Nicotiana bentamiana) leaves resulted in increased transcript levels of the transgenes expressions and tocopherol production. Therefore, our results suggested that the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes of sweetpotato play roles in the stress defense response as transcriptional regulators of the tocopherol production.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Biochemical characterization of plant Rad52 protein from rice (Oryza
           sativa)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Anuradha Nair, Rachna Agarwal, Rajani Kant Chittela
      DNA damage in living cells is repaired by two main pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Of all the genes promoting HR, Rad52 (Radiation sensitive 52) is an important gene which is found to be highly conserved across different species. It was believed that RAD52 is absent in plant systems until lately. However, recent genetic studies have shown the presence of RAD52 homologues in plants. Rad52 homologues in plant systems have not yet been characterized biochemically. In the current study, we bring out the biochemical properties of rice Rad52-2a protein. OsRad52-2a was over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and the protein was purified. The identity of purified OsRad52-2a protein was confirmed via peptide mass fingerprinting. Gel filtration and native PAGE analysis indicated that the OsRad52-2a protein in its native state probably formed an undecameric structure. Purified OsRad52-2a protein showed binding to single stranded DNA, double stranded DNA. Protein also mediated the renaturation of complementary single strands into duplex DNA in both agarose gel and FRET based assays. Put together, OsRad52-2a forms oligomeric structures and binds to ssDNA/dsDNA for mediating an important function like renaturation during homologous recombination. This study represents the first report on biochemical properties of OsRad52-2a protein from important crop like rice. This information will help in dissecting the recombination and repair machinery in plant systems.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of
           microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought
           stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Daniela Cassol, Fernanda P. Cruz, Kauê Espindola, Amanda Mangeon, Caroline Müller, Marcelo Ehlers Loureiro, Régis L. Corrêa, Gilberto Sachetto-Martins
      Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Effect of tris(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonate) iron(III) complexes on iron
           uptake and storage in soybean (Glycine max L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Carla S. Santos, Susana M.P. Carvalho, Andreia Leite, Tânia Moniz, Mariana Roriz, António O.S.S. Rangel, Maria Rangel, Marta W. Vasconcelos
      Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a serious environmental problem affecting the growth of several crops in the world. The application of synthetic Fe(III) chelates is still one of the most common measures to correct IDC and the search for more effective Fe chelates remains an important issue. Herein, we propose a tris(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonate) iron(III) complex, Fe(mpp)3, as an IDC corrector. Different morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were assessed as a first step towards understanding its mode of action, compared with that of the commercial fertilizer FeEDDHA. Plants treated with the pyridinone iron(III) complexes were significantly greener and had increased biomass. The total Fe content was measured using ICP-OES and plants treated with pyridinone complexes accumulated about 50% more Fe than those treated with the commercial chelate. In particular, plants supplied with compound Fe(mpp)3 were able to translocate iron from the roots to the shoots and did not elicit the expression of the Fe-stress related genes FRO2 and IRT1. These results suggest that 3,4-HPO iron(III) chelates could be a potential new class of plant fertilizing agents.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Arti Sharma, Adil Hussain, Bong-Gyu Mun, Qari Muhammad Imran, Noreen Falak, Sang-Uk Lee, Jae Young Kim, Jeum Kyu Hong, Gary John Loake, Asad Ali, Byung-Wook Yun
      Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.)
           is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Moses Kwame Aidoo, Eyal Bdolach, Aaron Fait, Naftali Lazarovitch, Shimon Rachmilevitch
      Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in
           apple
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ying Zhang, Xiangpeng Shi, Baohua Li, Qingming Zhang, Wenxing Liang, Caixia Wang
      Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. ‘Gala’) and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1–1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in ‘Gala’ apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in ‘Gala’ apple leaves.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Histo-chemical and biochemical analysis reveals association of er1
           mediated powdery mildew resistance and redox balance in pea
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Chinmayee Mohapatra, Ramesh Chand, Sudhir Navathe, Sandeep Sharma
      Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is one of the important diseases responsible for heavy yield losses in pea crop worldwide. The most effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties. The resistance to powdery mildew in pea is recessive and governed by a single gene er1. The objective of present study is to investigate if er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance is associated with changes in the redox status of the pea plant. 16 pea genotypes were screened for powdery mildew resistance in field condition for two years and, also, analyzed for the presence/absence of er1 gene. Histochemical analysis with DAB and NBT staining indicates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in surrounding area of powdery mildew infection which was higher in susceptible genotypes as compared to resistant genotypes. A biochemical study revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, enzymes involved in scavenging ROS, was increased in, both, resistant and susceptible genotypes after powdery mildew infection. However, both enzymes level was always higher in resistant than susceptible genotypes throughout time course of infection. Moreover, irrespective of any treatment, the total phenol (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high and low in resistant genotypes, respectively. The powdery mildew infection elevated the MDA content but decreased the total phenol in pea genotypes. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between AUDPC and MDA; however, a negative correlation was observed between AUDPC and SOD, CAT and TP. Heritability of antioxidant was also high. The study identified few novel genotypes resistant to powdery mildew infection that carried the er1 gene and provided further clue that er1 mediated defense response utilizes antioxidant machinery to confer powdery mildew resistance in pea.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Promoting scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic Atropa belladonna plants
           with pmt and h6h overexpression under field conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ke Xia, Xiaoqiang Liu, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Wei Qiang, Jianjun Guo, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
      Atropa belladonna is one of the most important plant sources for producing pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, in which putrescine N-methyltransferase (EC. 2.1.1.53) from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPMT) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (EC. 1.14.11.14) from Hyoscyamus niger (HnH6H) were overexpressed, were established to investigate TA biosynthesis and distribution in ripe fruits, leaves, stems, primary roots and secondary roots under field conditions. Both NtPMT and HnH6H were detected at the transcriptional level in transgenic plants, whereas they were not detected in wild-type plants. The transgenes did not influence the root-specific expression patterns of endogenous TA biosynthetic genes in A. belladonna. All four endogenous TA biosynthetic genes (AbPMT, AbTRI, AbCYP80F1 and AbH6H) had the highest/exclusive expression levels in secondary roots, suggesting that TAs were mainly synthesized in secondary roots. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna showed an impressive scopolamine-rich chemotype that greatly improved the pharmaceutical value of A. belladonna. The higher efficiency of hyoscyamine conversion was found in aerial than in underground parts. In aerial parts of transgenic plants, hyoscyamine was totally converted to downstream alkaloids, especially scopolamine. Hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine were detected in underground parts, but scopolamine and anisodamine were more abundant than hyoscyamine. The exclusively higher levels of anisodamine in roots suggested that it might be difficult for its translocation from root to aerial organs. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, which produces scopolamine at very high levels (2.94–5.13 mg g−1) in field conditions, can provide more valuable plant materials for scopolamine production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Salinity induced physiological and biochemical changes in the freshly
           separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ravindra Kumar Yadav, Keshawanand Tripathi, Pramod Wasudeo Ramteke, Eldho Varghese, Gerard Abraham
      Freshly separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana plants exposed to salinity showed decline in the cellular constituents such as chlorophyll (23.1 and 38.9%) and protein (12.9 and 19.3%). However, an increase in the carotenoid and sugar content was observed. Exposure to salinity stress reduced the heterocyst frequency (35.4 and 57.2%) and nitrogenase activity (37.7 and 46.3%) of the cyanobionts. Increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase (50.6 and 11.5%), ascorbate peroxidase (63.7 and 57.9%), catalase (94.2 and 22.5%) as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant proline (18.8 and 13.3%) was also observed in response to salinity. The cyanobionts exhibited significant increase in the intracellular Na+ level and reduced intracellular K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratio in response to salinity. The results demonstrate the adverse impact of salinity on the freshly separated cyanobionts as similar to free living cyanobacteria. These results may be helpful in the critical evaluation of salinity tolerance mechanism of the cyanobiont and its interaction with the host.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Physiological and biochemical mechanisms preventing Cd-toxicity in the
           hyperaccumulator Atriplex halimus L.
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Mohammed Mesnoua, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo, José María Barcia-Piedras, Jesús Alberto Pérez-Romero, Brahim Lotmani, Susana Redondo-Gómez
      The xero-halophyte Atriplex halimus L., recently described as Cd-hyperaccumulator, was examined to determine Cd toxicity threshold and the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1350 μM on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigment concentrations and antioxidative enzyme activities of A. halimus. Cadmium, calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and zinc concentrations were also analyzed. Plants of A. halimus were not able to survive at 1350 μM Cd and the upper tolerance limit was recorded at 650 μM Cd; although chlorosis was observed from 200 μM Cd. Cadmium accumulation increased with increase in Cd supply, reaching maxima of 0.77 and 4.65 mg g−1 dry weight in shoots and roots, respectively, at 650 μM Cd. Dry mass, shoot length, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, pigments contents and chlorophyll fluorescence were significantly reduced by increasing Cd concentration. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC1.11.1.6) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPx; EC1.11.1.7) were significantly induced by Cd. Exposures to Cd caused also a significant decrease in P contents in roots, Mg and Mn contents in shoots and Fe and K contents in roots and shoots and had no effect on Ca, Na and Zn contents. The tolerance of A. halimus to Cd stress might be related with its capacity to avoid the translocation of great amounts of Cd in its aboveground tissues and higher activities of enzymatic antioxidants in the leaf.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Temporal and spatial variations on accumulation of nomilin and limonin in
           the pummelos
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Fusheng Wang, Xiaohan Yu, Xiaona Liu, Wanxia Shen, Shiping Zhu, Xiaochun Zhao
      Limonoids are the important secondary metabolites in the citrus. In this study, the accumulation of limonoids at different fruit developmental stages and distribution among different genotypes, tissues and developmental stages were investigated in 12 pummelo varieties. The large variations on limonoids concentration were found among different varieties, which ranged from 233.78 mg/kg FW to 4090.41 mg/kg FW in the seeds at full color stage of the fruit. Classification of pummelos based on the limonoids content divided 12 varieties into three groups. It was matched well with the geographic origination of the pummelo varieties, suggesting that the accumulation of limonoids was mainly determined by the genotype of the pummelo. Accumulation of the limonoids in different tissues was highly variable, and in a tissue specific fashion. The trend of the change on the levels of nomilin and limonin in the seeds and segment membrane were corresponded to the physiological development of the fruit. The rapid accumulation of nomilin and limonoids was observed from the physiological ripening of the seeds. It suggested that physiological maturation of the seeds is a key point that the seeds accelerate the accumulation of nomilin and limonin. In most of pummelo varieties, 10% color break of the fruit was a phenotypic landmark associated with the maximum level of nomilin accumulated in the seeds.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Untargeted MS-based small metabolite identification from the plant leaves
           and stems of Impatiens balsamina
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Lee Suan Chua
      The identification of plant metabolites is very important for the understanding of plant physiology including plant growth, development and defense mechanism, particularly for herbal medicinal plants. The metabolite profile could possibly be used for future drug discovery since the pharmacological activities of the indigenous herbs have been proven for centuries. An untargeted mass spectrometric approach was used to identify metabolites from the leaves and stems of Impatiens balsamina using LC-DAD-MS/MS. The putative compounds are mostly from the groups of phenolic, organic and amino acids which are essential for plant growth and as intermediates for other compounds. Alanine appeared to be the main amino acid in the plant because many alanine derived metabolites were detected. There are also several secondary metabolites from the groups of benzopyrones, benzofuranones, naphthoquinones, alkaloids and flavonoids. The widely reported bioactive components such as kaempferol, quercetin and their glycosylated, lawsone and its derivatives were detected in this study. The results also revealed that aqueous methanol could extract flavonoids better than water, and mostly, flavonoids were detected from the leaf samples. The score plots of component analysis show that there is a minor variance in the metabolite profiles of water and aqueous methanolic extracts with 21.5 and 30.5% of the total variance for the first principal component at the positive and negative ion modes, respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in
           anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Morteza Soleimani Aghdam, Roohangiz Naderi, Abbasali Jannatizadeh, Mesbah Babalar, Mohammad Ali Askari Sarcheshmeh, Mojtaba Zamani Faradonbe
      Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5–20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Constitutive expression of the ZmZIP7 in Arabidopsis alters metal
           homeostasis and increases Fe and Zn content
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Suzhen Li, Xiaojin Zhou, Yongfeng Zhao, Hongbo Li, Yuanfeng Liu, Liying Zhu, Jinjie Guo, Yaqun Huang, Wenzhu Yang, Yunliu Fan, Jingtang Chen, Rumei Chen
      Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients for plant growth and development. Zinc-regulated transporters and the iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) are necessary for the homeostatic regulation of these metal micronutrients. In this study, the physiological function of ZmZIP7 which encodes a ZIP family transporter was characterized. We detected the expression profiles of ZmZIP7 in maize, and found that the accumulation of ZmZIP7 in root, stem, leaf, and seed was relatively higher than tassel and young ear. ZmZIP7 overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis lines were generated and the metal contents in transgenic and wild-type (WT) plants were examined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Zinpyr-1 staining. Fe and Zn concentrations were elevated in the roots and shoots of ZmZIP7-overexpressing plants, while only Fe content was elevated in the seeds. We also analyzed the expression profiles of endogenous genes associated with metal homeostasis. Both endogenic Fe-deficiency inducible genes and the genes responsible for Zn and Fe transport and storage were stimulated in ZmZIP7 transgenic plants. In conclusion, ZmZIP7 encodes a functional Zn and Fe transporter, and ectopic overexpression of ZmZIP7 in Arabidopsis stimulate endogenous Fe and Zn uptake mechanisms, thereby facilitating both metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results contribute to improved understanding of ZIP family transporter functions and suggest that ZmZIP7 could be used to enhance Fe levels in grains.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
 
 
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