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Journal Cover Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
  [SJR: 1.041]   [H-I: 70]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0981-9428
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • Phenotyping two tomato genotypes with different nitrogen use efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Maria Rosa Abenavoli, Caterina Longo, Antonio Lupini, Anthony J. Miller, Fabrizio Araniti, Francesco Mercati, Maria P. Princi, Francesco Sunseri
      Nitrogen (N) supply usually limits crop production and optimizing N-use efficiency (NUE) to minimize fertilizer loss is important. NUE is a complex trait that can be dissected into crop N uptake from the soil (NUpE) and N utilization (NUtE). We compared NUE in 14 genotypes of three week old tomatoes grown in sand or hydroponic culture supplied with nitrate (NO3 −). Culture method influenced measured NUE for some cultivars, but Regina Ostuni (RO) and UC82 were consistently identified as high and low NUE genotypes. To identify why these genotypes had contrasting NUE some traits were compared growing under 0.1 and 5 mM NO3 − supply. UC82 showed greater root 15NO3 − influx at low and high supply, and stronger SlNRT2.1/NAR2.1 transporter expression under low supply when compared with RO. Conversely, RO showed a higher total root length and thickness compared to UC82. Compared with UC82, RO showed higher shoot SlNRT2.3 expression and NO3 − storage at high supply, but similar NO3 − reductase activity. After N-starvation, root cell electrical potentials of RO were significantly more negative than UC82, but nitrate elicited similar responses in both root types. Overall for UC82 and RO, NUtE may play a greater role than NUpE for improved NUE.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • The Reaumuria trigyna leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (RtLDOX) gene
           complements anthocyanidin synthesis and increases the salt tolerance
           potential of a transgenic Arabidopsis LDOX mutant
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Huirong Zhang, Chao Du, Yan Wang, Jia Wang, Linlin Zheng, Yingchun Wang
      Reaumuria trigyna is a typical, native desert halophyte that grows under extreme conditions in Inner Mongolia. In a previous transcriptomic profiling analysis, flavonoid pathway-related genes in R. trigyna showed significant differences in transcript abundance under salt stress. Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, EC 1.14.11.19) is one of three dioxygenases in the flavonoid pathway that catalyzes the formation of anthocyanidins from leucoanthocyanidins. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of R. trigyna LDOX (RtLDOX), and found RtLDOX recombinant protein was able to replace flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H, EC 1.14.11.9), another dioxygenase in the flavonoid pathway, to convert naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in vitro. R. trigyna LDOX can complement the Arabidopsis LDOX mutant transparent testa11 (tt11-11), which has reduced proanthocyanin (PA) and anthocyanin levels in seeds, to accumulate these two compounds. Thus, RtLDOX acts as a multifunctional dioxygenase to effect the synthesis of PA and anthocyanins and can perform F3H dioxygenase activities in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The RtLDOX promoter harbored many cis-acting elements that might be recognized and bound by transcription factors related to stress response. RtLDOX expression was strongly increased under salt stress, and RtLDOX transgenic Arabidopsis mutant under NaCl stress accumulated the content of flavonoids leading to an increased antioxidant activities and plant biomass. These results suggest that RtLDOX as a multifunctional dioxygenase in flavonoid biosynthesis involves in enhancing plant response to NaCl stress.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and
           photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Yanan Xu, Iskander M. Ibrahim, Patricia J. Harvey
      The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis and respiration. Results show CCAP 19/30 regulated cell volume when growing under light/dark cycles: cell volume increased in the light and decreased in the dark, and these changes corresponded to changes in cellular glycerol content. The decrease in cell volume in the dark was independent of cell division and biological clock and was regulated by the photoperiod of the light/dark cycle. When the light intensity was increased to above 1000 μmol photons m−2 s−1, cells displayed evidence of photodamage. However, these cells also maintained the maximum level of photosynthesis efficiency and respiration possible, and the growth rate increased as light intensity increased. Significantly, the intracellular glycerol content also increased, >2-fold compared to the content in light intensity of 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1, but there was no commensurate increase in the pool size of carotenoids. These data suggest that in CCAP 19/30 glycerol stabilized the photosynthetic apparatus for maximum performance in high light intensities, a role normally attributed to carotenoids.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a 10-epi-junenol synthase
           from Inula hupehensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Jun-Bo Gou, Zhen-Qiu Li, Chang-Fu Li, Fang-Fang Chen, Shi-You Lv, Yan-Sheng Zhang
      Junenol based-eudesmanolides have been detected in many compositae plant species and were reported to exhibit various pharmacological activities. So far, the gene encoding junenol synthase has never been isolated. Here we report the molecular cloning and functional analysis of a 10-epi-junenol synthase from Inula hupehensis (designated IhsTPS1). IhsTPS1 converts the substrate farnesyl diphosphate into multiple sesquiterpenes with the product 10-epi-junenol being predominant. The transcript levels of IhsTPS1 correlate well with the accumulation pattern of 10-epi-junenol in I. hupehensis organs, supporting its biochemical roles in vivo.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves
           of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen
           species
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): María Victoria Salomon, Rebeca Purpora, Rubén Bottini, Patricia Piccoli
      It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Regulation of biosynthesis and emission of volatile
           phenylpropanoids/benzenoids in petunia× hybrida flowers by
           multi-factors of circadian clock, light, and temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sihua Cheng, Xiumin Fu, Xin Mei, Ying Zhou, Bing Du, Naoharu Watanabe, Ziyin Yang
      Floral volatile phenylpropanoids and benzenoids (VPBs) play important ecological functions and have potential economic applications. Little is known about how multi-factors in integration regulate the formation and emission of floral VPBs. In the present study, we investigated effects of multi factors including endogenous circadian clock, light, and temperature on the formation and emission of VPBs, which are major volatiles in flowers of Petunia× hybrida cv. ‘Mitchell Diploid’. Endogenous circadian clock was proposed as the most important factor regulating rhythmic emission of VPBs and expressions of structural genes involved in the upstream biosynthetic pathway of VPBs, but did not affect expression levels of structural genes involved in the downstream pathway and VPBs-related regulators. In contrast to light, temperature was a more constant factor affecting emission of VPBs. VPBs emission could be inhibited within a short time by increasing temperature. The information will contribute to our understanding of emission mechanism of floral volatiles.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Cloning and biochemical characterization of indole-3-acetic acid-amino
           acid synthetase PsGH3 from pea
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Maciej Ostrowski, Agnieszka Mierek-Adamska, Dorota Porowińska, Anna Goc, Anna Jakubowska
      Phytohormone conjugation is one of the mechanisms that maintains a proper hormonal homeostasis and that is necessary for the realization of physiological responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases convert indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to IAA-amino acid conjugates by ATP-dependent reactions. IAA-aspartate (IAA-Asp) exists as a predominant amide conjugate of auxin in pea tissues and acts as an intermediate during IAA catabolism. Here we report a novel recombinant indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase in Pisum sativum. In silico analysis shows that amino acid sequence of PsGH3 has the highest homology to Medicago truncatula GH3.3. The recombinant His-tag-PsGH3 fusion protein has been obtained in E. coli cells and is a soluble monomeric polypeptide with molecular mass of 69.18 kDa. The PsGH3 was purified using Ni2+-affinity chromatography and native PAGE. Kinetic analysis indicates that the enzyme strongly prefers IAA and L-aspartate as substrates for conjugation revealing K m ATP  = 0.49 mM, K m L−Asp  = 2.2 mM, and K m IAA  = 0.28 mM. Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) competes with ATP for catalytic site and diminishes the PsGH3 affinity toward ATP approximately 1.11-fold indicating K i  = 8.5 μM. L-Tryptophan acts as an inhibitor of IAA-amido synthesizing activity by competition with L-aspartate. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) hydrolyzing pyrophosphate to two phosphate ions, potentiates IAA-Asp synthetase activity of PsGH3. Our results demonstrate that PsGH3 is a novel enzyme that is involved in auxin metabolism in pea seeds.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Application of self-organising maps towards segmentation of soybean
           samples by determination of amino acids concentration
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Lívia Ramazzoti Chanan Silva, Karina Gomes Angilelli, Hágata Cremasco, Érica Signori Romagnoli, Olívio Fernandes Galão, Dionisio Borsato, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso Moraes, José Marcos Gontijo Mandarino
      Soybeans are widely used both for human nutrition and animal feed, since they are an important source of protein, and they also provide components such as phytosterols, isoflavones, and amino acids. In this study, were determined the concentrations of the amino acids lysine, histidine, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine present in 14 samples of conventional soybeans and 6 transgenic, cultivated in two cities of the state of Paraná, Londrina and Ponta Grossa. The results were tabulated and presented to a self-organising map for segmentation according planting regions and conventional or transgenic varieties. A network with 7000 training epochs and a 10 × 10 topology was used, and it proved appropriate in the segmentation of the samples using the data analysed. The weight maps provided by the network, showed that all the amino acids were important in targeting the samples, especially isoleucine. Three clusters were formed, one with only Ponta Grossa samples (including transgenic (PGT) and common (PGC)), a second group with Londrina transgenic (LT) samples and the third with Londrina common (LC) samples.


      PubDate: 2016-05-21T11:08:37Z
       
  • Functional characterization of a Mg2+-dependent O-methyltransferase with
           coumarin as preferred substrate from the liverwort Plagiochasma
           appendiculatum
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Rui-Xue Xu, Shuai Gao, Yu Zhao, Hong-Xiang Lou, Ai-Xia Cheng
      Coumarins (1,2-benzopyrones), which originate via the phenylpropanoid pathway, are found ubiquitously in plants and make an essential contribution to the health of the plant. Some natural coumarins have been used as human therapeutics. However, the details of their biosynthesis are still largely unknown. Scopoletin is derived from either esculetin or feruloyl CoA according to the plant species involved. Here, a gene encoding a O-methyltransferase (PaOMT2) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae) through transcriptome sequencing. The purified recombinant enzyme catalyzed the methylation of esculetin, generating scopoletin and isoscopoletin. Kinetic analysis shows that the construct from the second Met in PaOMT2 had a catalytic efficiency for esculetin (K cat /K m ) of about half that of the full length PaOMT2, while the K m s of two enzymes were similar. The catalytic capacities of the studied protein suggest that two routes to scopoletin might co-exist in liverworts in that the enzyme involved in the methylation process participates in both paths, but especially the route from esculetin. The transient expression of a PaOMT2-GFP fusion in tobacco demonstrated that PaOMT2 is directed to the cytoplasm.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-21T11:08:37Z
       
  • Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.)
           grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Tadeu L. Tiecher, Tales Tiecher, Carlos A. Ceretta, Paulo A.A. Ferreira, Fernando T. Nicoloso, Hilda H. Soriani, Adriele Tassinari, Juçara Terezinha Paranhos, Lessandro De Conti, Gustavo Brunetto
      Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg−1 combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg−1. After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-21T11:08:37Z
       
  • Overexpression of Actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene
           enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ji-Yu Zhang, Sheng-Nan Huang, Gang Wang, Ji-Ping Xuan, Zhong-Ren Guo
      Ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. Here, we cloned a full-length PDC cDNA sequence from kiwifruit, named AdPDC1. We determined the expression of the AdPDC1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the increase of AdPDC1 expression during waterlogging stress was much higher than that during salt, cold, heat and drought stresses. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to waterlogging stress but could not enhance resistance to cold stress at five weeks old seedlings. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis could not enhance resistance to NaCl and mannitol stresses at the stage of seed germination and in early seedlings. These results suggested that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene is required during waterlogging but might not be required during other environmental stresses. Expression of the AdPDC1 gene was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in kiwifruit, and overexpression of the AdPDC1 gene in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and root length under ABA treatment, indicating that ABA might negatively regulate the AdPDC1 gene under waterlogging stress.


      PubDate: 2016-05-16T10:48:02Z
       
  • Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces
           gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Latif Khan, Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Sang-Mo Kang, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
      Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Jin so mi’) seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas endogenous abscisic acid (23.31 ± 2.76 ng) and jasmonic acid (25.51 ± 4.20 ng) were observed to be significantly lower in these inoculated plants than in those treated with exogenous GA3 and water. Results of the present study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 has the ability to produce GAs and that its inoculation in seedlings can be beneficial to rice plants. Broader field trials should be conducted to determine its use as an alternative biofertilizer.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-16T10:48:02Z
       
  • Improved tolerance to post-anthesis drought stress by pre-drought priming
           at vegetative stages in drought-tolerant and -sensitive wheat cultivars
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Muhammad Abid, Zhongwei Tian, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Yang Liu, Yakun Cui, Rizwan Zahoor, Dong Jiang, Tingbo Dai
      Wheat crop endures a considerable penalty of yield reduction to escape the drought events during post-anthesis period. Drought priming under a pre-drought stress can enhance the crop potential to tolerate the subsequent drought stress by triggering a faster and stronger defense mechanism. Towards these understandings, a set of controlled moderate drought stress at 55–60% field capacity (FC) was developed to prime the plants of two wheat cultivars namely Luhan-7 (drought tolerant) and Yangmai-16 (drought sensitive) during tillering (Feekes 2 stage) and jointing (Feekes 6 stage), respectively. The comparative response of primed and non-primed plants, cultivars and priming stages was evaluated by applying a subsequent severe drought stress at 7 days after anthesis. The results showed that primed plants of both cultivars showed higher potential to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress through improved leaf water potential, more chlorophyll, and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase contents, enhanced photosynthesis, better photoprotection and efficient enzymatic antioxidant system leading to less yield reductions. The primed plants of Luhan-7 showed higher capability to adapt the drought stress events than Yangmai-16. The positive effects of drought priming to sustain higher grain yield were pronounced in plants primed at tillering than those primed at jointing. In consequence, upregulated functioning of photosynthetic apparatus and efficient enzymatic antioxidant activities in primed plants indicated their superior potential to alleviate a subsequently occurring drought stress, which contributed to lower yield reductions than non-primed plants. However, genotypic and priming stages differences in response to drought stress also contributed to affect the capability of primed plants to tolerate the post-anthesis drought stress conditions in wheat.


      PubDate: 2016-05-16T10:48:02Z
       
  • Superoxide generated from the glutathione-mediated reduction of selenite
           damages the iron-sulfur cluster of chloroplastic ferredoxin
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Brian Fisher, Dmitry Yarmolinsky, Salah Abdel-Ghany, Marinus Pilon, Elizabeth A. Pilon-Smits, Moshe Sagi, Doug Van Hoewyk
      Selenium assimilation in plants is facilitated by several enzymes that participate in the transport and assimilation of sulfate. Manipulation of genes that function in sulfur metabolism dramatically affects selenium toxicity and accumulation. However, it has been proposed that selenite is not reduced by sulfite reductase. Instead, selenite can be non-enzymatically reduced by glutathione, generating selenodiglutathione and superoxide. The damaging effects of superoxide on iron-sulfur clusters in cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins are well known. However, it is unknown if superoxide damages chloroplastic iron-sulfur proteins. The goals of this study were twofold: to determine whether decreased activity of sulfite reductase impacts selenium tolerance in Arabidopsis, and to determine if superoxide generated from the glutathione-mediated reduction of selenite damages the iron-sulfur cluster of ferredoxin. Our data demonstrate that knockdown of sulfite reductase in Arabidopsis does not affect selenite tolerance or selenium accumulation. Additionally, we provide in vitro evidence that the non-enzymatic reduction of selenite damages the iron-sulfur cluster of ferredoxin, a plastidial protein that is an essential component of the photosynthetic light reactions. Damage to ferredoxin’s iron-sulfur cluster was associated with formation of apo-ferredoxin and impaired activity. We conclude that if superoxide damages iron-sulfur clusters of ferredoxin in planta, then it might contribute to photosynthetic impairment often associated with abiotic stress, including toxic levels of selenium.


      PubDate: 2016-05-16T10:48:02Z
       
  • Species-specific reversal of stem xylem embolism after a prolonged drought
           correlates to endpoint concentration of soluble sugars
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Tadeja Savi, Valentino Casolo, Jessica Luglio, Stefano Bertuzzi, Patrizia Trifilo’, Maria A. Lo Gullo, Andrea Nardini
      Recent reports on tree mortality associated with anomalous drought and heat have raised interest into processes underlying tree resistance/resilience to water stress. Hydraulic failure and carbon starvation have been proposed as main causes of tree decline, with recent theories treating water and carbon metabolism as interconnected processes. We subjected young plants of two native (Quercus pubescens [Qp] and Prunus mahaleb [Pm]) and two invasive (Robinia pseudoacacia [Rp] and Ailanthus altissima [Aa]) woody angiosperms to a prolonged drought leading to stomatal closure and xylem embolism, to induce carbon starvation and hydraulic failure. At the end of the treatment, plants were measured for embolism rates and NSC content, and re-irrigated to monitor recovery of xylem hydraulics. Data highlight different hydraulic strategies in native vs invasive species under water stress, and provide physiological explanations for species-specific impacts of recent severe droughts. Drought-sensitive species (Qp and Rp) suffered high embolism rates and were unable to completely refill xylem conduits upon restoration of water availability. Species that better survived recent droughts were able to limit embolism build-up (Pm) or efficiently restored hydraulic functionality after irrigation (Aa). Species-specific capacity to reverse xylem embolism correlated to stem-level concentration of soluble carbohydrates, but not to starch content.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Overexpression of rice glutaredoxins (OsGrxs) significantly reduces
           arsenite accumulation by maintaining glutathione pool and modulating
           aquaporins in yeast
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Pankaj Kumar Verma, Shikha Verma, Alok Kumar Meher, Veena Pande, Shekhar Mallick, Amit Kumar Bansiwal, Rudra Deo Tripathi, Om Parkash Dhankher, Debasis Chakrabarty
      Arsenic (As) is an acute poison and class I carcinogen, can cause a serious health risk. Staple crops like rice are the primary source of As contamination in human food. Rice grown on As contaminated areas accumulates higher As in their edible parts. Based on our previous transcriptome data, two rice glutaredoxins (OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1) were identified that showed up-regulated expression during As stress. Here, we report OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 from rice involved in the regulation of intracellular arsenite (AsIII). To elucidate the mechanism of OsGrx mediated As tolerance, both OsGrxs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (Δars) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains (Δycf1, Δacr3). The expression of OsGrxs increased As tolerance in E. coli (Δars) mutant strain (up to 4 mM AsV and up to 0.6 mM AsIII). During AsIII exposure, S. cerevisiae (Δacr3) harboring OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 have lower intracellular AsIII accumulation (up to 30.43% and 24.90%, respectively), compared to vector control. Arsenic accumulation in As-sensitive S. cerevisiae mutant (Δycf1) also reduced significantly on exposure to inorganic As. The expression of OsGrxs in yeast maintained intracellular GSH pool and increased extracellular GSH concentration. Purified OsGrxs displays in vitro GSH-disulfide oxidoreductase, glutathione reductase and arsenate reductase activities. Also, both OsGrxs are involved in AsIII extrusion by altering the Fps1 transcripts in yeast and protect the cell by maintaining cellular GSH pool. Thus, our results strongly suggest that OsGrxs play a crucial role in the maintenance of the intracellular GSH pool and redox status of the cell during both AsV and AsIII stress and might be involved in regulating intracellular AsIII levels by modulation of aquaporin expression and functions.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Spinach 14-3-3 protein interacts with the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and
           nitrate reductase in response to excess nitrate stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Huini Xu, Xiuling Zhao, Chuanlong Guo, Limei Chen, Kunzhi Li
      To investigate the function of 14-3-3 protein in response to excess nitrate stress, a 14-3-3 protein, designated as So14-3-3, was isolated from spinach. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that So14-3-3 belongs to non-ε group of 14-3-3 superfamily. Real time-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that So14-3-3 was induced by excess nitrate stress in spinach roots and leaves. After nitrate treatment, the phosphorylated H+-ATPase and nitrate reductase (NR) increased and decreased respectively. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) suggested that the interaction of So14-3-3 with the phosphorylated H+-ATPase enhanced, but reduced with phosphorylated NR in spinach roots after nitrate treatment. Besides, 5 proteins interacted with So14-3-3 were found by Co-IP and LC-MS/MS analysis. So14-3-3 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced tolerance to nitrate treatment at the germination and young seedlings stage. The transgenic plants showed longer root length, lower malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, protein carbonyl contents, relatively higher soluble sugar and protein contents, than the WT plants after nitrate treatment. The phosphorylation levels of H+-ATPase in transgenic plants were higher than the WT plants after nitrate treatment, whereas NR were lower. Additionally, in transgenic plants, the interaction of So14-3-3 with phosphorylated H+-ATPase and NR increased and decreased more than the WT plants under nitrate stress, leading to higher H+-ATPase and NR activities in transgenic plants. These data suggested that So14-3-3 might be involved in nitrate stress response by interacting with H+-ATPase and NR.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis
           vinifera L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, JiCheng Zhan, Ailing Yan, Lei Sun, Guojun Zhang, Xiaoyue Wang, Jiancheng Ren, Weidong Huang, Haiying Xu
      Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Dissecting stylar responses to self-pollination in wild tomato
           self-compatible and self-incompatible species using comparative proteomics
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Panfeng Zhao, Meng Wang, Lingxia Zhao
      Self-incompatibility (SI), a phenomenon that is widespread among flowering plants (angiosperms), promotes outbreeding, resulting in increased genetic diversity and species survival. SI is also important in establishing intra- or interspecies reproductive barriers, such as those that are evident in the tomato clade, Solanum section Lycopersicon, where they limit the use of wild species inbreeding programs to improve cultivated tomato. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SI are poorly understood in the tomato clade. In this study, an SI (Solanum chilense, LA0130) and a self-compatible (SC, Solanum pimpinellifolium, LA1585) tomato species were chosen to dissect the mechanism of SI formation using a comparative proteomics approach. A total of 635 and 627 protein spots were detected in two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) maps of proteins from the SI and SC species, respectively. In the SC species, 22 differently expressed proteins (DEPs) were detected in SCP versus SCUP (self-pollination versus non-pollination in SC species). Of these, 3 and 18 showed an up-or down-regulated expression in the SCP protein sample, respectively, while only one DEP (MSRA, Solyc03g111720) was exclusively expressed in the SCP sample. In the SI species, 14 DEPs were found between SIP/SIUP, and 5 of these showed higher expression in SIP, whereas two DEPs (MLP-like protein 423-like, gene ID, 460386008 and (ATP synthase subunit alpha, gene ID, Solyc00g042130) were exclusively expressed in SIP or SIUP, respectively. Finally, two S-RNases (gene IDs, 313247946 and 157377662) were exclusively expressed in the SI species. Sequence homology analysis and a gene ontology tool were used to assign the DEPs to the ‘metabolism’, ‘energy’, ‘cytoskeleton dynamics’, ‘protein degradation’, ‘signal transduction’, ‘defence/stress responses’, ‘self-incompatibility’ and ‘unknown’ protein categories. We discuss the putative functions of the DEPs in different biological processes and how these might be associated with the regulation of SI formation in the tomato clade.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Pod removal responsive change in phytohormones and its impact on protein
           degradation and amino acid transport in source leaves of Brassica napus
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Bok-Rye Lee, Qian Zhang, Dong-Won Bae, Tae-Hwan Kim
      To characterize the hormonal regulation of nitrogen remobilization from source to pod filling in Brassica napus, the hormonal level, proteolytic process, and amino acid transport were assessed in mature leaves of pod-removed or control at the early pod-filling stage. Pod (sink) removal decreased salicylic acid (SA), and significantly increased jasmonic acid (JA). The SA/JA ratio decreased with pod removal, accompanied by low degradation of foliar proteins and Rubisco content. A significant decrease in protease activity was observed in pod-removed leaves, confirmed by in-gel staining of protease. Pod removal reduced the expression of four amino acid transporter genes (BnAAP1, BnAAP2, BnAAP4, and BnAAP6) in mature leaves and reduced amino acid loading into phloem. These results indicated that a decrease in SA resulting from pod removal down-regulated nitrogen remobilization accompanied by a decrease in proteolytic activity and amino acid transport in mature leaves at the pod-filling stage.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Changing the content of phenolic compounds as the response of blackcurrant
           (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves after blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi
           Rübs.) infestation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Wojciech Piotrowski, Jan Oszmiański, Aneta Wojdyło, Barbara H. Łabanowska
      Blackcurrant leaf midge (Dasineura tetensi) is one of the most common pests of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the content of phenolic compounds in the leaves damaged by the larvae of this pest. Additionally, susceptibility of different blackcurrant cultivars to the midge attack was investigated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of control and pest-infested blackcurrant leaves were performed using LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and UPLC-PDA-FL systems. A total of 39 types of phenolic compounds were identified in blackcurrant leaf extracts and they included 3 flavan-3-ols, 14 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and 22 flavonols. Feeding of blackcurrant leaf midge on blackcurrant leaves lowered the content of leaf polyphenolic compounds. The greatest differences in polyphenolics between control and infected leaves were observed in ‘Ruben’, ‘Fariegh’, ‘Foxendown’, ‘Ores’, ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Connan’ and ‘Tisel’ cultivars that were probably highly susceptible to the pest attack. In the other cultivars: ‘Ben Finlay’, ‘Polares’, ‘Tiben’, and ‘Gofert’ the differences in phenolics content were less pronounced, so they were probably less susceptible to D. tetensi attack. Plant polyphenolic compounds was strongly involved in pathogen-plant interaction, and their accumulation significantly decreased as a result of the pathogen attack.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:20:13Z
       
  • Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence
           parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Saeid Hazrati, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres-Sanavy, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Silvana Nicola
      Aloe vera L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. In order to determine the effects of light intensity and water deficit stress on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and pigments of A. vera, a split-plot in time experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a research greenhouse. The factorial combination of three light intensities (50, 75 and 100% of sunlight) and four irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 20, 40, 60 and 80% of soil water content) were considered as main factors. Sampling time was considered as sub factor. The first, second and third samplings were performed 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the highest light intensity and the severe water stress decreased maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)/Fm, quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII), Chl and photochemical quenching (qP) but increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), minimum fluorescence (F0) and Anthocyanin (Anth). Additionally, the highest Fm, Fv/Fm, ФPSII and qP and the lowest NPQ and F0 were observed when 50% of sunlight was blocked and irrigation was done after 40% soil water depletion. Irradiance of full sunlight and water deficit stress let to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced quantum yield of PSII, ФPSII, and qP, as well as higher NPQ. Thus, chlorophyll florescence measurements provide valuable physiological data. Close to half of total solar radiation and irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water content were selected as the most efficient treatments.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Salt tolerance function of the novel C2H2-type zinc finger protein TaZNF
           in wheat
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Xiaoli Ma, Wenji Liang, Peihan Gu, Zhanjing Huang
      The expression profile chip of the wheat salt-tolerant mutant RH8706-49 was investigated under salt stress in our laboratory. Results revealed a novel gene induced by salt stress with unknown functions. The gene was named as TaZNF (Triticum aestivum predicted Dof zinc finger protein) because it contains the zf-Dof superfamily and was deposited in GenBank (accession no. KF307327). Further analysis showed that TaZNF significantly improved the salt-tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. Various physiological indices of the transgenic plant were improved compared with those of the control after salt stress. Non-invasive micro-test (NMT) detection showed that the root tip of transgenic Arabidopsis significantly expressed Na+ excretion. TaZNF is mainly localized in the nucleus and exhibited transcriptional activity. Hence, this protein was considered a transcription factor. The TaZNF upstream promoter was then cloned and was found to contain three salts, one jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), and several ABA-responsive elements. The GUS staining and quantitative results of different tissues in the full-length promoter in the transgenic plants showed that the promoter was not tissue specific. The promoter activity in the root, leaf, and flower was enhanced after induction by salt stress. Moreover, GUS staining and quantitative measurement of GUS activity showed that the promoter sequence contained the positive regulatory element of salt and MeJA after their respective elements were mutated in the full-length promoter. RNA-Seq result showed that 2727 genes were differentially expressed; most of these genes were involved in the metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathway.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Molecular characterization of tocopherol biosynthetic genes in sweetpotato
           that respond to stress and activate the tocopherol production in tobacco
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Chang Yoon Ji, Yun-Hee Kim, Ho Soo Kim, Qingbo Ke, Gun-Woo Kim, Sung-Chul Park, Haeng-Soon Lee, Jae Cheol Jeong, Sang-Soo Kwak
      Tocopherol (vitamin E) is a chloroplast lipid that is presumed to be involved in the plant response to oxidative stress. In this study, we isolated and characterized five tocopherol biosynthetic genes from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) plants, including genes encoding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (IbHPPD), homogentisate phytyltransferase (IbHPT), 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinol methyltransferase (IbMPBQ MT), tocopherol cyclase (IbTC) and γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (IbTMT). Fluorescence microscope analysis indicated that four proteins localized into the chloroplast, whereas IbHPPD observed in the nuclear. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes varied in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. All five genes were highly expressed in leaf tissues, whereas IbHPPD and IbHPT were highly expressed in the thick roots. The expression patterns of these five genes significantly differed in response to PEG, NaCl and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. IbHPPD was strongly induced following PEG and H2O2 treatment and IbHPT was strongly induced following PEG treatment, whereas IbMPBQ MT and IbTC were highly expressed following NaCl treatment. Upon infection of the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, the expression of IbHPPD increased sharply in sweetpotato leaves, whereas the expression of the other genes was reduced or unchanged. Additionally, transient expression of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes in tobacco (Nicotiana bentamiana) leaves resulted in increased transcript levels of the transgenes expressions and tocopherol production. Therefore, our results suggested that the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes of sweetpotato play roles in the stress defense response as transcriptional regulators of the tocopherol production.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Biochemical characterization of plant Rad52 protein from rice (Oryza
           sativa)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Anuradha Nair, Rachna Agarwal, Rajani Kant Chittela
      DNA damage in living cells is repaired by two main pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Of all the genes promoting HR, Rad52 (Radiation sensitive 52) is an important gene which is found to be highly conserved across different species. It was believed that RAD52 is absent in plant systems until lately. However, recent genetic studies have shown the presence of RAD52 homologues in plants. Rad52 homologues in plant systems have not yet been characterized biochemically. In the current study, we bring out the biochemical properties of rice Rad52-2a protein. OsRad52-2a was over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and the protein was purified. The identity of purified OsRad52-2a protein was confirmed via peptide mass fingerprinting. Gel filtration and native PAGE analysis indicated that the OsRad52-2a protein in its native state probably formed an undecameric structure. Purified OsRad52-2a protein showed binding to single stranded DNA, double stranded DNA. Protein also mediated the renaturation of complementary single strands into duplex DNA in both agarose gel and FRET based assays. Put together, OsRad52-2a forms oligomeric structures and binds to ssDNA/dsDNA for mediating an important function like renaturation during homologous recombination. This study represents the first report on biochemical properties of OsRad52-2a protein from important crop like rice. This information will help in dissecting the recombination and repair machinery in plant systems.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Identification of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of
           microRNAs and mRNAs in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under drought
           stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Daniela Cassol, Fernanda P. Cruz, Kauê Espindola, Amanda Mangeon, Caroline Müller, Marcelo Ehlers Loureiro, Régis L. Corrêa, Gilberto Sachetto-Martins
      Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most powerful and sensitive techniques to the study of gene expression. Several factors influence RT-qPCR performance though, including the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. While the selection of appropriate reference genes is crucial for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, no suitable reference genes have been previously identified in castor bean under drought stress. In this study, the expression stability of eleven mRNAs, thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs) and one small nuclear RNA were analyzed in roots and leaves across different levels of water deficit. Three different algorithms were employed to analyze the RT-qPCR data, and the resulting outputs were merged using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. Our analysis indicated that the Elongation factor 1-beta (EF1B), Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and ADP-ribosylation factor (ADP) ranked as the best candidates across diverse samples submitted to different levels of drought conditions. EF1B and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and EF1B and SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (SKIP16) were found as the most suitable reference genes for expression analysis in roots and leaves, respectively. In addition, miRNAs miR168, miR160 and miR397 were selected as optimal reference genes across all tissues and treatments. miR168 and miR156 were recommended as reference for roots, while miR168 and miR160 were recommended for leaves. Together, our results constitute the first attempt to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in castor bean under drought stress.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Effect of tris(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonate) iron(III) complexes on iron
           uptake and storage in soybean (Glycine max L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Carla S. Santos, Susana M.P. Carvalho, Andreia Leite, Tânia Moniz, Mariana Roriz, António O.S.S. Rangel, Maria Rangel, Marta W. Vasconcelos
      Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a serious environmental problem affecting the growth of several crops in the world. The application of synthetic Fe(III) chelates is still one of the most common measures to correct IDC and the search for more effective Fe chelates remains an important issue. Herein, we propose a tris(3-hydroxy-4-pyridinonate) iron(III) complex, Fe(mpp)3, as an IDC corrector. Different morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were assessed as a first step towards understanding its mode of action, compared with that of the commercial fertilizer FeEDDHA. Plants treated with the pyridinone iron(III) complexes were significantly greener and had increased biomass. The total Fe content was measured using ICP-OES and plants treated with pyridinone complexes accumulated about 50% more Fe than those treated with the commercial chelate. In particular, plants supplied with compound Fe(mpp)3 were able to translocate iron from the roots to the shoots and did not elicit the expression of the Fe-stress related genes FRO2 and IRT1. These results suggest that 3,4-HPO iron(III) chelates could be a potential new class of plant fertilizing agents.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Arti Sharma, Adil Hussain, Bong-Gyu Mun, Qari Muhammad Imran, Noreen Falak, Sang-Uk Lee, Jae Young Kim, Jeum Kyu Hong, Gary John Loake, Asad Ali, Byung-Wook Yun
      Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.)
           is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Moses Kwame Aidoo, Eyal Bdolach, Aaron Fait, Naftali Lazarovitch, Shimon Rachmilevitch
      Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in
           apple
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ying Zhang, Xiangpeng Shi, Baohua Li, Qingming Zhang, Wenxing Liang, Caixia Wang
      Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. ‘Gala’) and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1–1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in ‘Gala’ apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in ‘Gala’ apple leaves.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Histo-chemical and biochemical analysis reveals association of er1
           mediated powdery mildew resistance and redox balance in pea
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Chinmayee Mohapatra, Ramesh Chand, Sudhir Navathe, Sandeep Sharma
      Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi is one of the important diseases responsible for heavy yield losses in pea crop worldwide. The most effective method of controlling the disease is the use of resistant varieties. The resistance to powdery mildew in pea is recessive and governed by a single gene er1. The objective of present study is to investigate if er1 mediated powdery mildew resistance is associated with changes in the redox status of the pea plant. 16 pea genotypes were screened for powdery mildew resistance in field condition for two years and, also, analyzed for the presence/absence of er1 gene. Histochemical analysis with DAB and NBT staining indicates accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in surrounding area of powdery mildew infection which was higher in susceptible genotypes as compared to resistant genotypes. A biochemical study revealed that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, enzymes involved in scavenging ROS, was increased in, both, resistant and susceptible genotypes after powdery mildew infection. However, both enzymes level was always higher in resistant than susceptible genotypes throughout time course of infection. Moreover, irrespective of any treatment, the total phenol (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly high and low in resistant genotypes, respectively. The powdery mildew infection elevated the MDA content but decreased the total phenol in pea genotypes. Statistical analysis showed a strong positive correlation between AUDPC and MDA; however, a negative correlation was observed between AUDPC and SOD, CAT and TP. Heritability of antioxidant was also high. The study identified few novel genotypes resistant to powdery mildew infection that carried the er1 gene and provided further clue that er1 mediated defense response utilizes antioxidant machinery to confer powdery mildew resistance in pea.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Promoting scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic Atropa belladonna plants
           with pmt and h6h overexpression under field conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ke Xia, Xiaoqiang Liu, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Wei Qiang, Jianjun Guo, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
      Atropa belladonna is one of the most important plant sources for producing pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids (TAs). T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, in which putrescine N-methyltransferase (EC. 2.1.1.53) from Nicotiana tabacum (NtPMT) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (EC. 1.14.11.14) from Hyoscyamus niger (HnH6H) were overexpressed, were established to investigate TA biosynthesis and distribution in ripe fruits, leaves, stems, primary roots and secondary roots under field conditions. Both NtPMT and HnH6H were detected at the transcriptional level in transgenic plants, whereas they were not detected in wild-type plants. The transgenes did not influence the root-specific expression patterns of endogenous TA biosynthetic genes in A. belladonna. All four endogenous TA biosynthetic genes (AbPMT, AbTRI, AbCYP80F1 and AbH6H) had the highest/exclusive expression levels in secondary roots, suggesting that TAs were mainly synthesized in secondary roots. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna showed an impressive scopolamine-rich chemotype that greatly improved the pharmaceutical value of A. belladonna. The higher efficiency of hyoscyamine conversion was found in aerial than in underground parts. In aerial parts of transgenic plants, hyoscyamine was totally converted to downstream alkaloids, especially scopolamine. Hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine were detected in underground parts, but scopolamine and anisodamine were more abundant than hyoscyamine. The exclusively higher levels of anisodamine in roots suggested that it might be difficult for its translocation from root to aerial organs. T1 progeny of transgenic A. belladonna, which produces scopolamine at very high levels (2.94–5.13 mg g−1) in field conditions, can provide more valuable plant materials for scopolamine production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Salinity induced physiological and biochemical changes in the freshly
           separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ravindra Kumar Yadav, Keshawanand Tripathi, Pramod Wasudeo Ramteke, Eldho Varghese, Gerard Abraham
      Freshly separated cyanobionts of Azolla microphylla and Azolla caroliniana plants exposed to salinity showed decline in the cellular constituents such as chlorophyll (23.1 and 38.9%) and protein (12.9 and 19.3%). However, an increase in the carotenoid and sugar content was observed. Exposure to salinity stress reduced the heterocyst frequency (35.4 and 57.2%) and nitrogenase activity (37.7 and 46.3%) of the cyanobionts. Increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase (50.6 and 11.5%), ascorbate peroxidase (63.7 and 57.9%), catalase (94.2 and 22.5%) as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant proline (18.8 and 13.3%) was also observed in response to salinity. The cyanobionts exhibited significant increase in the intracellular Na+ level and reduced intracellular K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratio in response to salinity. The results demonstrate the adverse impact of salinity on the freshly separated cyanobionts as similar to free living cyanobacteria. These results may be helpful in the critical evaluation of salinity tolerance mechanism of the cyanobiont and its interaction with the host.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Physiological and biochemical mechanisms preventing Cd-toxicity in the
           hyperaccumulator Atriplex halimus L.
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Mohammed Mesnoua, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo, José María Barcia-Piedras, Jesús Alberto Pérez-Romero, Brahim Lotmani, Susana Redondo-Gómez
      The xero-halophyte Atriplex halimus L., recently described as Cd-hyperaccumulator, was examined to determine Cd toxicity threshold and the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1350 μM on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange, photosynthetic pigment concentrations and antioxidative enzyme activities of A. halimus. Cadmium, calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and zinc concentrations were also analyzed. Plants of A. halimus were not able to survive at 1350 μM Cd and the upper tolerance limit was recorded at 650 μM Cd; although chlorosis was observed from 200 μM Cd. Cadmium accumulation increased with increase in Cd supply, reaching maxima of 0.77 and 4.65 mg g−1 dry weight in shoots and roots, respectively, at 650 μM Cd. Dry mass, shoot length, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, pigments contents and chlorophyll fluorescence were significantly reduced by increasing Cd concentration. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC1.11.1.6) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPx; EC1.11.1.7) were significantly induced by Cd. Exposures to Cd caused also a significant decrease in P contents in roots, Mg and Mn contents in shoots and Fe and K contents in roots and shoots and had no effect on Ca, Na and Zn contents. The tolerance of A. halimus to Cd stress might be related with its capacity to avoid the translocation of great amounts of Cd in its aboveground tissues and higher activities of enzymatic antioxidants in the leaf.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Temporal and spatial variations on accumulation of nomilin and limonin in
           the pummelos
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Fusheng Wang, Xiaohan Yu, Xiaona Liu, Wanxia Shen, Shiping Zhu, Xiaochun Zhao
      Limonoids are the important secondary metabolites in the citrus. In this study, the accumulation of limonoids at different fruit developmental stages and distribution among different genotypes, tissues and developmental stages were investigated in 12 pummelo varieties. The large variations on limonoids concentration were found among different varieties, which ranged from 233.78 mg/kg FW to 4090.41 mg/kg FW in the seeds at full color stage of the fruit. Classification of pummelos based on the limonoids content divided 12 varieties into three groups. It was matched well with the geographic origination of the pummelo varieties, suggesting that the accumulation of limonoids was mainly determined by the genotype of the pummelo. Accumulation of the limonoids in different tissues was highly variable, and in a tissue specific fashion. The trend of the change on the levels of nomilin and limonin in the seeds and segment membrane were corresponded to the physiological development of the fruit. The rapid accumulation of nomilin and limonoids was observed from the physiological ripening of the seeds. It suggested that physiological maturation of the seeds is a key point that the seeds accelerate the accumulation of nomilin and limonin. In most of pummelo varieties, 10% color break of the fruit was a phenotypic landmark associated with the maximum level of nomilin accumulated in the seeds.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Untargeted MS-based small metabolite identification from the plant leaves
           and stems of Impatiens balsamina
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Lee Suan Chua
      The identification of plant metabolites is very important for the understanding of plant physiology including plant growth, development and defense mechanism, particularly for herbal medicinal plants. The metabolite profile could possibly be used for future drug discovery since the pharmacological activities of the indigenous herbs have been proven for centuries. An untargeted mass spectrometric approach was used to identify metabolites from the leaves and stems of Impatiens balsamina using LC-DAD-MS/MS. The putative compounds are mostly from the groups of phenolic, organic and amino acids which are essential for plant growth and as intermediates for other compounds. Alanine appeared to be the main amino acid in the plant because many alanine derived metabolites were detected. There are also several secondary metabolites from the groups of benzopyrones, benzofuranones, naphthoquinones, alkaloids and flavonoids. The widely reported bioactive components such as kaempferol, quercetin and their glycosylated, lawsone and its derivatives were detected in this study. The results also revealed that aqueous methanol could extract flavonoids better than water, and mostly, flavonoids were detected from the leaf samples. The score plots of component analysis show that there is a minor variance in the metabolite profiles of water and aqueous methanolic extracts with 21.5 and 30.5% of the total variance for the first principal component at the positive and negative ion modes, respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Impact of exogenous GABA treatments on endogenous GABA metabolism in
           anthurium cut flowers in response to postharvest chilling temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Morteza Soleimani Aghdam, Roohangiz Naderi, Abbasali Jannatizadeh, Mesbah Babalar, Mohammad Ali Askari Sarcheshmeh, Mojtaba Zamani Faradonbe
      Anthurium flowers are susceptible to chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5–20 °C. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway may alleviate chilling stress in horticultural commodities by providing energy (ATP), reducing molecules (NADH), and minimizing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this experiment, the impact of a preharvest spray treatment with 1 mM GABA and postharvest treatment of 5 mM GABA stem-end dipping on GABA shunt pathway activity of anthurium cut flowers (cv. Sirion) in response to cold storage (4 °C for 21 days) was investigated. GABA treatments resulted in lower glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and higher GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activities in flowers during cold storage, which was associated with lower GABA content and coincided with higher ATP content. GABA treatments also enhanced accumulation of endogenous glycine betaine (GB) in flowers during cold storage, as well as higher spathe relative water content (RWC). These findings suggest that GABA treatments may alleviate chilling injury of anthurium cut flowers by enhancing GABA shunt pathway activity leading to provide sufficient ATP and promoting endogenous GB accumulation.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Constitutive expression of the ZmZIP7 in Arabidopsis alters metal
           homeostasis and increases Fe and Zn content
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 106
      Author(s): Suzhen Li, Xiaojin Zhou, Yongfeng Zhao, Hongbo Li, Yuanfeng Liu, Liying Zhu, Jinjie Guo, Yaqun Huang, Wenzhu Yang, Yunliu Fan, Jingtang Chen, Rumei Chen
      Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients for plant growth and development. Zinc-regulated transporters and the iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) are necessary for the homeostatic regulation of these metal micronutrients. In this study, the physiological function of ZmZIP7 which encodes a ZIP family transporter was characterized. We detected the expression profiles of ZmZIP7 in maize, and found that the accumulation of ZmZIP7 in root, stem, leaf, and seed was relatively higher than tassel and young ear. ZmZIP7 overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis lines were generated and the metal contents in transgenic and wild-type (WT) plants were examined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Zinpyr-1 staining. Fe and Zn concentrations were elevated in the roots and shoots of ZmZIP7-overexpressing plants, while only Fe content was elevated in the seeds. We also analyzed the expression profiles of endogenous genes associated with metal homeostasis. Both endogenic Fe-deficiency inducible genes and the genes responsible for Zn and Fe transport and storage were stimulated in ZmZIP7 transgenic plants. In conclusion, ZmZIP7 encodes a functional Zn and Fe transporter, and ectopic overexpression of ZmZIP7 in Arabidopsis stimulate endogenous Fe and Zn uptake mechanisms, thereby facilitating both metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results contribute to improved understanding of ZIP family transporter functions and suggest that ZmZIP7 could be used to enhance Fe levels in grains.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene
           from Artemisia annua L.
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Shuo Xiong, Na Tian, Jinhua Long, Yuhong Chen, Yu Qin, Jinyu Feng, Wenjun Xiao, Shuoqian Liu
      Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe2+. The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • An ethylene and ROS-dependent pathway is involved in low ammonium-induced
           root hair elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Changhua Zhu, Na Yang, Zhengfei Guo, Meng Qian, Lijun Gan
      Root hairs are plastic in response to nutrient supply, but relatively little is known about their development under low ammonium (NH4 +) conditions. This study showed that reducing NH4 + for 3 days in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings resulted in drastic elongation of root hairs. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene and auxin in this process, seedlings were treated with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA, auxin transport inhibitor), 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA, auxin transport inhibitor), p-chlorophenoxy isobutyric acid (PCIB, auxin action inhibitor), aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), or silver ions (Ag+, ethylene perception antagonist) under low NH4 + conditions. Our results showed that TIBA, NPA and PCIB did not inhibit root hair elongation under low NH4 + conditions, while AVG and Ag+ completely inhibited low NH4 +-induced root hair elongation. This suggested that low NH4 +-induced root hair elongation was dependent on the ethylene pathway, but not the auxin pathway. Further genetic studies revealed that root hair elongation in auxin-insensitive mutants was sensitive to low NH4 + treatment, but elongation was less sensitive in ethylene-insensitive mutants than wild-type plants. In addition, low NH4 +-induced root hair elongation was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU, ROS scavenger) inhibited low NH4 +-induced root hair elongation, suggesting that ROS were involved in this process. Moreover, ethylene acted together with ROS to modulate root hair elongation under low NH4 + conditions. These results demonstrate that a signaling pathway involving ethylene and ROS participates in regulation of root hair elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to low NH4 + conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of
           Vitis vinifera ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ bunches
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Aude M. Gourieroux, Bruno P. Holzapfel, Geoffrey R. Scollary, Margaret E. McCully, Martin J. Canny, Suzy Y. Rogiers
      Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • ZmNAC55, a maize stress-responsive NAC transcription factor, confers
           drought resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Hude Mao, Lijuan Yu, Ran Han, Zhanjie Li, Hui Liu
      Abiotic stress has been shown to significantly limit the growth and productivity of crops. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, only little information regarding stress-related NAC genes is available in maize. Here, we cloned a maize NAC transcription factor ZmNAC55 and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression and transactivation assay demonstrated that ZmNAC55 was localized in the nucleus and had transactivation activity. Expression analysis of ZmNAC55 in maize showed that this gene was induced by drought, high salinity and cold stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple stress-related cis-acting elements exist in promoter region of ZmNAC55. Overexpression of ZmNAC55 in Arabidopsis led to hypersensitivity to ABA at the germination stage, but enhanced drought resistence compared to wild-type seedlings. Transcriptome analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes between 35S::ZmNAC55 transgenic and wild-type plants, and many of which are involved in stress response, including twelve qRT–PCR confirmed well-known drought-responsive genes. These results highlight the important role of ZmNAC55 in positive regulates of drought resistence, and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding of drought-tolerant crops.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) response mechanisms in drought stress: Proteomic
           analysis with physiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Zala Kolenc, Dominik Vodnik, Stanislav Mandelc, Branka Javornik, Damijana Kastelec, Andreja Čerenak
      Drought is one of the major environmental devastating stressors that impair the growth and productivity of crop plants. Despite the relevance of drought stress, changes in physiology and resistance mechanisms are not completely understood for certain crops, including hop (Humulus lupulus L.). In this research the drought response of hop was studied using a conventional physiological approach (gas exchange techniques, fluorescence, relative water content measurements) and proteomic analysis (2D-DIGE). Plants of two cultivars (Aurora and Savinjski golding) were exposed to progressive drought in a pot experiment and analysed at different stress stages (mild, moderate and severe). Measurements of relative water content revealed a hydrostable water balance of hop. Photosynthesis was decreased due to stomatal and non-stomatal limitation to the same extent in both cultivars. Of 28 identified differentially abundant proteins, the majority were down regulated and included in photosynthetic (41%) and sugar metabolism (33%). Fifteen % of identified proteins were classified into the nitrogen metabolism, 4% were related to a ROS related pathway and 7% to other functions.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a central role in the response of
           tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants to short and long-term drought
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Simone Landi, Roberta Nurcato, Alessia De Lillo, Marco Lentini, Stefania Grillo, Sergio Esposito
      The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression, occurrence and activity of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH – EC 1.1.1.49), the key-enzyme of the Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway (OPPP), in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Red Setter) exposed to short- and long-term drought stress. For the first time, drought effects have been evaluated in plants under different growth conditions: in hydroponic laboratory system, and in greenhouse pots under controlled conditions; and in open field, in order to evaluate drought response in a representative agricultural environment. Interestingly, changes observed appear strictly associated to the induction of well known stress response mechanisms, such as the increase of proline synthesis, accumulation of chaperone Hsp70, and ascorbate peroxidase. Results show significant increase in total activity of G6PDH, and specifically in expression and occurrence of cytosolic isoform (cy-G6PDH) in plants grown in any cultivation system upon drought. Intriguingly, the results clearly suggest that abscissic acid (ABA) pathway and signaling cascade (protein phosphatase 2C PP2C) could be strictly related to increased G6PDH expression, occurrence and activities. We hypothesized for G6PDH a specific role as one of the main reductants’ suppliers to counteract the effects of drought stress, in the light of converging evidences given by young and adult tomato plants under stress of different duration and intensity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the metacaspase gene
           family in Hevea brasiliensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Hui Liu, Zhi Deng, Jiangshu Chen, Sen Wang, Lili Hao, Dejun Li
      Metacaspases, a family of cysteine proteases, have been suggested to play important roles in programmed cell death (PCD) during plant development and stress responses. To date, no systematic characterization of this gene family has been reported in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the present study, nine metacaspase genes, designated as HbMC1 to HbMC9, were identified from whole-genome sequence of rubber tree. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses suggested that these genes were divided into two types: type I (HbMC1–HBMC7) and type II (HbMC8 and HbMC9). Gene structure analysis demonstrated that type I and type II HbMCs separately contained four and two introns, indicating the conserved exon–intron organization of HbMCs. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HbMCs showed distinct expression patterns in different tissues, suggesting the functional diversity of HbMCs in various tissues during development. Most of the HbMCs were regulated by drought, cold, and salt stress, implying their possible functions in regulating abiotic stress-induced cell death. Of the nine HbMCs, HbMC1, HbMC2, HbMC5, and HbMC8 displayed a significantly higher relative transcript accumulation in barks of tapping panel dryness (TPD) trees compared with healthy trees. In addition, the four genes were up-regulated by ethephon (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indicating their potential involvement in TPD resulting from ET- or JA-induced PCD. In summary, this work provides valuable information for further functional characterization of HbMC genes in rubber tree.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare
           L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Abdallah Oukarroum, Saïd El Madidi, Reto J. Strasser
      The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars.


      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Enhancement of downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet by the
           G_app7 bioactive compound produced by Ganoderma applanatum
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Sudisha Jogaiah, Hunthrike Shekar Shetty, Shin-ichi Ito, Lam-Son Phan Tran
      Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S. graminicola, as well as the effects of seed treatment with G_app7 on protection of pearl millet from downy mildew. G_app7 consistently demonstrated remarkable effects against S. graminicola by recording significant inhibition of sporangium formation (41.4%), zoospore release (77.5%) and zoospore motility (91%). Analyses of G_app7 compound using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed its close resemblance to metominostrobin, a derivative of strobilurin group of fungicides. Furthermore, the G_app7 was shown to stably maintain the inhibitory effects at different temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. In addition, the anti-oomycete activity of G_app7 was fairly stable for a period of at least 12 months at 4 °C and was only completely lost after being autoclaved. Seed treatment with G_app7 resulted in a significant increase in disease protection (63%) under greenhouse conditions compared with water control. The identification and isolation of this novel and functional anti-oomycete compound from G. applanatum provide a considerable agrochemical importance for plant protection against downy mildew in an environmentally safe and economical manner.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-07T10:01:58Z
       
  • Understanding the physiological effects of UV-C light and exploiting its
           agronomic potential before and after harvest
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Laurent Urban, Florence Charles, Maria Raquel Alcântara de Miranda, Jawad Aarrouf
      There is an abundant literature about the biological and physiological effects of UV-B light and the signaling and metabolic pathways it triggers and influences. Much less is known about UV-C light even though it seems to have a lot of potential for being effective in less time than UV-B light. UV-C light is known since long to exert direct and indirect inhibitory and damaging effects on living cells and is therefore commonly used for disinfection purposes. More recent observations suggest that UV-C light can also be exploited to stimulate the production of health-promoting phytochemicals, to extent shelf life of fruits and vegetables and to stimulate mechanisms of adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Clearly some of these effects may be related to the stimulating effect of UV-C light on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to the stimulation of antioxidant molecules and mechanisms, although UV-C light could also trigger and regulate signaling pathways independently from its effect on the production of ROS. Our review clearly underlines the high potential of UV-C light in agriculture and therefore advocates for more work to be done to improve its efficiency and also to increase our understanding of the way UV-C light is perceived and influences the physiology of plants.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T08:24:18Z
       
  • Photosynthetic responses to phytoplasma infection in Chinese jujube
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Zhiguo Liu, Jin Zhao, Mengjun Liu
      Phytoplasma is one of the most devastating plant pathogens. Jujube witches' broom (JWB) is a typical and highly fatal phytoplasma disease of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), which is widely cultivated in Asia. To further elucidate the mechanism of plant-phytoplasma interaction, we first compared the effects of phytoplasma infection on photosynthetic pigments and activities between a JWB-resistant cultivar (Xingguang) and a susceptible cultivar (Pozao). Total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were significantly decreased in the susceptible cultivar at later stages of infection, but were remarkably increased in the resistant cultivar at the earlier stages. Compared to uninfected plant, a significant decrease in the main photochemical parameters (F v /F m , Φ PSII and qP) was recorded at the initial stages of infection in the resistant cultivar, but occurred at later stages in the susceptible cultivar. Meanwhile, the qRT-PCR results of four key photosynthesis-related genes (ZjGluTR, ZjCBP, ZjRubisco and ZjRCA2) demonstrated that the expression patterns were similar in uninfected cultivars, but up-regulated in resistant cultivar and down-regulated in the susceptible one at 12 wks after grafting inoculation. Collectively, our data indicated that the resistant cultivar ‘Xingguang’ undergoes a decrease in initial stage (inhibiting phytoplasma multiplication) and then a rapid enhancement of photosynthetic activity (helping jujube recovery) in response to phytoplasma infection, while the susceptible cultivar ‘Pozao’ displays a later decrease in photosynthetic activity. The novel photosynthetic response pattern of the resistant cultivar may contribute to its stronger immunity to phytoplasma infection, which provides new insights into plant-phytoplasma interactions.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T08:24:18Z
       
  • Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted
           cucumber seedlings
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 105
      Author(s): Qing Xu, Shi-Rong Guo, Lin Li, Ya-Hong An, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun
      Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth.


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T08:24:18Z
       
 
 
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