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Journal Cover Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0981-9428
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Carotenoid profiling, in silico analysis and transcript profiling of
           miRNAs targeting carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes in different
           developmental tissues of tomato
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Archana Koul, Sneha Yogindran, Deepak Sharma, Sanjana Kaul, Manchikatla Venkat Rajam, Manoj K. Dhar
      Carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is one of the highly significant and very well elucidated secondary metabolic pathways in plants. microRNAs are the potential regulators, widely known for playing a pivotal role in the regulation of various biological as well as metabolic processes. miRNAs may assist in the metabolic engineering of the secondary metabolites for the production of elite genotypes with increased biomass and content of various metabolites. miRNA mediated regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes has not been elucidated so far. To illustrate the potential regulatory role of miRNAs in carotenoid biosynthesis, transcript profiling of the known miRNAs and their possible target carotenoid genes was undertaken at eight different developmental stages of tomato, using stem-loop PCR approach combined with quantitative RT-PCR. The inter-relationship amongst carotenoid content, biosynthetic genes and miRNAs was studied in depth. Comparative expression profiles of miRNA and target genes showed variable expression in different tissues studied. The expression level of miRNAs and their target carotenoid genes displayed similar pattern in the vegetative tissues as compared to the reproductive ones, viz. fruit (different stages), indicating the possibility of regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis at various stages of fruit development. This was later confirmed by the HPLC analysis of the carotenoids. The present study has further enhanced the understanding of regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The identified miRNAs can be employed to manipulate the biosynthesis of different carotenoids, through metabolic engineering for the production of lycopene rich tomatoes.


      PubDate: 2016-08-23T05:41:16Z
       
  • Influence of Se concentrations and species in hydroponic cultures on Se
           uptake, translocation and assimilation in non-accumulator ryegrass
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Antoine Versini, Pamela Di Tullo, Emmanuel Aubry, Maïté Bueno, Yves Thiry, Florence Pannier, Maryse Castrec-Rouelle
      The success of biofortification and phytoremediation practices, addressing Se deficiency and Se pollution issues, hinges crucially on the fate of selenium in the plant media in response to uptake, translocation and assimilation processes. We investigate the fate of selenium in root and shoot compartments after 3 and 6 weeks of experiment using a total of 128 plants grown in hydroponic solution supplied with 0.2, 2, 5, 20 and 100 mg L−1 of selenium in the form of selenite, selenate and a mixture of both species. Selenate-treated plants exhibited higher root-to-shoot Se translocation and total Se uptake than selenite-treated plants. Plants took advantage of the selenate mobility and presumably of the storage capacity of leaf vacuoles to circumvent selenium toxicity within the plant. Surprisingly, 28% of selenate was found in shoots of selenite-treated plants, questioning the ability of plants to oxidize selenite into selenate. Selenomethionine and methylated organo-selenium amounted to 30% and 8% respectively in shoots and 35% and 9% in roots of the identified Se, suggesting that selenium metabolization occurred concomitantly in root and shoot plant compartments and demonstrating that non-accumulator plants can synthesize notable quantities of precursor compound for volatilization. The present study demonstrated that non-accumulator plants can develop the same strategies as hyper-accumulator plants to limit selenium toxicity. When both selenate and selenite were supplied together, plants used selenate in a storage pathway and selenite in an assimilation pathway. Plants might thereby benefit from mixed supplies of selenite and selenate by saving enzymes and energy required for selenate reduction.


      PubDate: 2016-08-13T20:25:12Z
       
  • Arabidopsis Polyamine oxidase-2 uORF is required for downstream
           translational regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): María de la Luz Guerrero-González, María Azucena Ortega-Amaro, Margarita Juárez-Montiel, Juan Francisco Jiménez-Bremont
      In eukaryotic mRNAs, small upstream open reading frames (uORFs) located in the 5′-untranslated region control the translation of the downstream main ORF. Polyamine oxidase (PAO) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of higher polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and therefore contribute to the maintenance of intracellular polyamine content and to the regulation of physiological processes through their catabolic products. Recently, we reported that the Arabidopsis thaliana Polyamine Oxidase 2 (AtPAO2) is post-transcriptionally regulated by its 5′-UTR region through an uORF. In the present study, we analyzed whether the translation of the uORF is needed for the translational repression of the main ORF, and whether the inactivation of the uORF had an effect on the translational control mediated by polyamines. To this aim, we generated diverse single mutations in the uORF sequence; these mutant 5′-UTRs were fused to the GUS reporter gene, and tested in onion monolayer cells and A. thaliana transgenic seedlings. Removal of the start codon or introduction of a premature stop codon in the AtPAO2 uORF sequence abolished the negative regulation of the GUS expression exerted by the wild-type AtPAO2 uORF. An artificial uORF (32 amino acids in length) generated by the addition of a single nucleotide in AtPAO2 uORF proved to be less repressive than the wild-type uORF. Thus, our findings suggest that translation of the AtPAO2 uORF is necessary for the translational repression of the main ORF.


      PubDate: 2016-08-13T20:25:12Z
       
  • In vitro assessment of physiological changes of watermelon (Citrullus
           lanatus) upon iron oxide nanoparticles exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Yunqiang Wang, Jing Hu, Zhaoyi Dai, Junli Li, Jin Huang
      With the rapid development of nanotechnology, developing nano iron fertilizer is an important strategy to alleviate Fe deficiency and elevate Fe fertilization effect in agricultural applications. In this study, watermelon seedlings were grown in soil amended with iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) at different concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100 mg/L). The content of soluble sugar and protein, content of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes of watermelon leaves were determined in five successive weeks to evaluate the physiological changes of watermelon plants after γ-Fe2O3 NPs exposure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicated that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter root cell of watermelon. Results showed that 20 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs didn't cause any oxidative stress on watermelon and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs could increase soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll content in the growth of plants. In addition, 50 and 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs caused oxidative stress on watermelon leaves, but this NP-induced stress was removed with the growth of watermelon. It is noteworthy that we found γ-Fe2O3 NPs might possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The variation trend of physiological parameters was correlated with the nutritional requirements of plants. It can be concluded that γ-Fe2O3 NPs at proper concentrations have the ability to improve iron deficiency chlorosis and promote the growth of watermelon plants. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first holistic study focusing on the impact of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in long-term experiment of watermelon plants.


      PubDate: 2016-08-13T20:25:12Z
       
  • First insights into the diversity and functional properties of chitinases
           of the latex of Calotropis procera
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Cleverson D.T. Freitas, Carolina A. Viana, Ilka M. Vasconcelos, Frederico B.B. Moreno, José V. Lima-Filho, Hermogenes D. Oliveira, Renato A. Moreira, Ana Cristina O. Monteiro-Moreira, Márcio V. Ramos
      Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) found in the latex of Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were studied. The proteins were homogeneously obtained after two ion exchange chromatography steps. Most proteins were identified individually in 15 spots on 2-D gel electrophoresis with isoelectric points ranging from 4.6 to 6.0 and molecular masses extending from 27 to 30 kDa. Additionally, 66 kDa proteins were identified as chitinases in SDS-PAGE. Their identities were further confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the tryptic digests of each spot and MS analysis of the non-digested proteins. Positive reaction for Schiff's reagent suggested the proteins are glycosylated. The chitinases exhibited high catalytic activity toward to colloidal chitin at pH 5.0, and this activity underwent decay in the presence of increasing amounts of reducing agent dithiothreitol. Spore germination and hyphae growth of two phytopathogenic fungi were inhibited only marginally by the chitinases but were affected differently. This suggested a complex relationship might exist between the specificity of the proteins toward the fungal species. The chitinases showed potent insecticidal activity against the Bruchidae Callosobruchus maculatus, drastically reducing survival, larval weight and adult emergence. It is concluded that closely related chitinases are present in the latex of C. procera, and the first experimental evidence suggests these proteins are involved more efficiently in defence strategies against insects rather than fungi.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T20:25:12Z
       
  • Preharvest ultraviolet-C irradiation: Influence on physicochemical
           parameters associated with strawberry fruit quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Zhichun Xie, Jinshuan Fan, Marie Thérèse Charles, Denis Charlebois, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Daniel Rolland, Dominique Roussel, Zhimin Zhang
      Postharvest ultraviolet-C (UV-C) hormesis has been shown effective for the treatment of the edible part of several horticultural crops such as strawberry fruit; however, there is a lack of information on its potential preharvest impact. In the present study three strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. ‘Albion’, ‘Charlotte’ and ‘Seascape’) were exposed to UV-C during two growth seasons for a period of three weeks. Treatment begins when the first flowers were wide open and fruits at commercial maturity were harvested within one week after UV treatment. The physicochemical quality parameters of the fruits harvested from the treated plants were compared to those of the fruits of the untreated control plants. Preharvest UV-C treatment tended to increase fruit firmness in all cultivars with significant differences declared only for ‘Albion’ and ‘Seascape’ in season 2. Fruits from treated plants were generally redder but a significant difference was observed only for cultivar ‘Charlotte’ in the second growing season. Other color attributes were not affected by UV-C, neither were organic acids, simple sugars, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and pH, although in most cases slight decreases were noticed. Cultivar and growing season were the factors that mostly influenced on the parameters under study. The present study show that cumulative preharvest UV-C treatment of 3.6 kJ m−2 did not adversely affected important strawberry quality parameters.


      PubDate: 2016-08-08T20:07:14Z
       
  • Rhizobial strains exert a major effect on the amino acid composition of
           alfalfa nodules under NaCl stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Annick Bertrand, Marie Bipfubusa, Catherine Dhont, François-P. Chalifour, Pascal Drouin, Chantal J. Beauchamp
      Specific amino acids have protective functions in plants under stress conditions. This study assessed the effects of rhizobial strains on the amino acid composition in alfalfa under salt stress. Two alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L. cv Apica and salt-tolerant cv Halo) in association with two Sinorhizobium meliloti strains with contrasting growth under salt stress (strain A2 and salt-tolerant strain Rm1521) were exposed to different levels of NaCl (0, 20, 40, 80 or 160 mM NaCl) under controlled conditions. We compared root and shoot biomasses, as well as root:shoot ratio for each association under these conditions as indicators of the salt tolerance of the symbiosis. Amino acid concentrations were analyzed in nodules, leaves and roots. The total concentration of free amino acids in nodules was mostly rhizobial-strain dependent while in leaves and roots it was mostly responsive to salt stress. For both cultivars, total and individual concentrations of amino acids including asparagine, proline, glutamine, aspartate, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), histidine and ornithine were higher in Rm1521 nodules than in A2 nodules. Conversely, lysine and methionine were more abundant in A2 nodules than in Rm1521 nodules. Proline, glutamine, arginine, GABA and histidine substantially accumulated in salt-stressed nodules, suggesting an enhanced production of amino acids associated with osmoregulation, N storage or energy metabolism to counteract salt stress. Combining the salt-tolerant strain Rm1521 and the salt-tolerant cultivar Halo enhanced the root:shoot ratios and amino acid concentrations involved in plant protection which could be in part responsible for the enhancement of salt tolerance in alfalfa.


      PubDate: 2016-08-08T20:07:14Z
       
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107




      PubDate: 2016-08-08T20:07:14Z
       
  • Cold stress affects H+-ATPase and phospholipase D activity in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Carlo Muzi, Lorenzo Camoni, Sabina Visconti, Patrizia Aducci
      Low temperature is an environmental stress that greatly influences plant performance and distribution. Plants exposed to cold stress exhibit modifications of plasma membrane physical properties that can affect their functionality. Here it is reported the effect of low temperature exposure of Arabidopsis plants on the activity of phospholipase D and H+-ATPase, the master enzyme located at the plasma membrane. The H+-ATPase activity was differently affected, depending on the length of cold stress imposed. In particular, an exposure to 4 °C for 6 h determined the strong inhibition of the H+-ATPase activity, that correlates with a reduced association with the regulatory 14-3-3 proteins. A longer exposure first caused the full recovery of the enzymatic activity followed by a significant activation, in accordance with both the increased association with 14-3-3 proteins and induction of H+-ATPase gene transcription. Different time lengths of cold stress treatment were also shown to strongly stimulate the phospholipase D activity and affect the phosphatidic acid levels of the plasma membranes. Our results suggest a functional correlation between the activity of phospholipase D and H+-ATPase mediated by phosphatidic acid release during the cold stress response.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T07:12:21Z
       
  • Nickel tolerance, accumulation and subcellular distribution in the
           halophytes Sesuvium portulacastrum and Cakile maritima
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Emna Fourati, Mariem Wali, Katarina Vogel-Mikuš, Chedly Abdelly, Tahar Ghnaya
      It has been shown that halophytes are able to successfully cope with heavy metal toxicity, suggesting their possible use for remediation of metal contaminated soils. In this work, Ni tolerance and accumulation in two halophytes, Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. and Cakile maritima Scop. was investigated. Seedlings of both species were subjected hydroponically during 21 days to 0, 25, 50, and 100 μM of NiCl2. The growth and photosynthesis parameters revealed that S. portulacastrum tolerates Ni better than C. maritima. The photosynthesis activity, chlorophyll content and photosystem II integrity were less impacted in Ni-treated S. portulacastrum as compared to C. maritima, although, Ni accumulated in higher concentrations in the shoots of S. portulacastrum (1050 μg g−1 DW) than in those of C. maritima (550 μg g−1 DW). The subcellular fractionation of Ni in the shoots of both species showed that C. maritima accumulated about 65% of Ni in the soluble fraction, while 28% was associated with the cell walls. In S. portulacastrum 44% of the total cellular Ni was seen in the soluble fraction and 43% was bound to the cell walls. It can be concluded that S. portulacastrum tolerates Ni better than C. maritima, most probably due to a better ability to sequester Ni in the cell walls, restricting its accumulation in the soluble fraction.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T07:12:21Z
       
  • Interactive effects of phosphorus and Pseudomonas putida on chickpea
           (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes and
           organic acids exudation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Dania Israr, Ghulam Mustafa, Khalid Saifullah Khan, Muhammad Shahzad, Niaz Ahmad, Sajid Masood
      Phosphorus (P) availability in alkaline soils of arid and semi-arid regions is a major constraint for decreased crop productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may enhance plant growth through the increased plant antioxidation activity. Additionally, PGPR may increase nutrient uptake by plants as a result of induced root exudation and rhizosphere acidification. The current study was aimed to investigate combined effects of P and Pesudomonas putida (PGPR) on chickpea growth with reference to antioxidative enzymatic activity and root exudation mediated plant nutrient uptake, particularly P. Half of the seeds were soaked in PGPR solution, whereas others in sterile water and latter sown in soils. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after onset of experiment and analyzed for leaf nutrient contents, antioxidant enzymes activities and organic acids concentrations. Without PGPR, P application (+P) increased various plant growth attributes, plant uptake of P and Ca, soil pH, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations, whereas decreased the leaf POD enzymatic activity as compared to the P-deficiency. PGPR supply both under −P and +P improved the plant growth, plant uptake of N, P, and K, antioxidative activity of SOD and POD enzymes and concentrations of organic acids, whereas reduced the rhizosphere soil pH. Growth enhancement by PGPR supply was related to higher plant antioxidation activity as well as nutrient uptake of chickpea including P as a result of root exudation mediated rhizosphere acidification.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T07:12:21Z
       
  • Phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and
           phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the flesh of fruits
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Robert P. Walker, Andrea Paoletti, Richard C. Leegood, Franco Famiani
      This study determined whether phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) are phosphorylated in the flesh of a range of fruits. This was done by incubating fruit flesh with 32P[P] (where 32P[P] = 32PO4 3−), then PEPCK and PEPC were immunoprecipitated from extracts using specific antisera. The incorporation of 32P[P] into these enzymes was then determined by autoradiography of SDS-PAGE gels. Both enzymes were subject to phosphorylation in vivo in the flesh of grape, tomato, cherry and plum. PEPCK was also subject to phosphorylation in vivo in developing grape seeds. Proteolytic cleavage of PEPCK showed that it was phosphorylated at a site(s) located on its N-terminal extension. Potentially phosphorylation of these enzymes could contribute to the coordinate regulation of their activities in the flesh of fruits and in developing seeds.


      PubDate: 2016-08-04T07:12:21Z
       
  • Effects of growth temperature and carbon dioxide enrichment on soybean
           seed components at different stages of development
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Guangli Xu, Shardendu Singh, Jinyoung Barnaby, Jeffrey Buyer, Vangimalla Reddy, Richard Sicher
      Soybean plants were grown to maturity in controlled environment chambers and at the onset of flowering three temperature treatments were imposed that provided optimum [28/24 °C], low [22/18 °C] or high [36/32 °C] chamber air temperatures. In addition, plants were treated continuously with either 400 or 800 μmol mol−1 CO2. Seeds were harvested at 42, 53, 69 and 95 days after planting (i.e., final maturity). This study quantified 51 metabolites in developing soybean seeds, plus total lipids and proteins were measured at maturity. About 80% of measured soluble carbohydrates, amines and organic acids decreased to low levels in mature seeds, although important exceptions were raffinose, ribose/arabinose, citrate and all eight fatty acids. This suggested that the metabolism of young seeds supported lipid and protein synthesis. A total of 35 and 9 metabolites differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, respectively, and treatment effects were predominately observed on the first and second samplings. However, shikimate, pinitol and oleate were increased by high temperature treatments in mature seeds. The above results indicated that CO2 enrichment primarily altered metabolite levels during the initial stages of seed development and this was likely due to enhanced photosynthate formation in leaves.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T07:12:21Z
       
  • Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative
           real-time PCR studies in Hedera helix L.
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Hua-peng Sun, Fang Li, Qin-mei Ruan, Xiao-hong Zhong
      Reference gene evaluation and selection are necessary steps in gene expression analysis, especially in new plant varieties, through reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Hedera helix L. is an important traditional medicinal plant recorded in European Pharmacopoeia. Research on gene expression in H. helix has not been widely explored, and no RT-qPCR studies have been reported. Thus, it is important and necessary to identify and validate suitable reference genes to for normalizing RT-qPCR results. In our study, 14 candidate protein-coding reference genes were selected. Their expression stability in five tissues (root, stem, leaf, petiole and shoot tip) and under seven abiotic stress conditions (cold, heat, drought, salinity, UV-C irradiation, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate) were evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder. This study is the first to evaluate the stability of reference genes in H. helix. The results show that different reference genes should be chosen for normalization on the basis of various experimental conditions. F-box was more stable than the other selected genes under all analysis conditions except ABA treatment; 40S was the most stable reference gene under ABA treatment; in contrast, EXP and UBQ were the most unstable reference genes. The expressions of HhSE and Hhβ-AS, which are two genes related to the biosynthetic pathway of triterpenoid saponins, were also examined for reference genes in different tissues and under various cold stress conditions. The validation results confirmed the applicability and accuracy of reference genes. Additionally, this study provides a basis for the accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in selecting genes from the genome of H. helix.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T06:30:45Z
       
  • RPN1a negatively regulates ABA signaling in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Dashi Yu, Xiushan Li, Xiaoying Zhao, Changqing Du, Jia Chen, Chiyu Li, Mengsi Sun, Long Wang, Jianzhong Lin, Dongying Tang, Feng Yu, Xuanming Liu
      The 26S proteasome selectively regulates key abscisic acid (ABA) signaling proteins, but the physiological functions and mechanisms of RPN1a (a subunit of the 26S proteasome) in ABA signaling remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression of RPN1a was suppressed by ABA treatment, and that RPN1a protein was expressed abundantly in guard cells. In the presence of ABA, rpn1a mutants showed rapid stomatal closure, low water loss, delayed germination, and inhibited root elongation. In addition, the transcripts of key ABA signaling genes, including ABI5, RD22, RD29A, and RD29B, were upregulated in rpn1a mutant plants in response to ABA. Furthermore, the ABI5 protein level was higher in rpn1a mutants subjected to ABA treatment. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that RPN1a interacts with ABI1. Overall, these findings suggest that RPN1a negatively regulates ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T06:30:45Z
       
  • Osmotic stress alters UV-based oxidative damage tolerance in a heterocyst
           forming cyanobacterium
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Germán Pérez, Soledad Doldán, Paola Scavone, Omar Borsani, Pilar Irisarri
      Cyanobacteria are successful in diverse habitats due to their adaptation strategies. Their mechanisms to cope with individual stresses have been studied. However, the response to combined stress conditions as found in nature remains unclear. With this aim, we studied the dual effect of 24h-osmotic and 3h-UV irradiation on the cyanobacterium Calothrix BI22. Our approach included the study of redox homeostasis, oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species production-consumption processes and photosynthetic activity. Superoxide in vivo determination with confocal image processing showed the highest accumulation under UV. However, no lipoperoxidation occurred due to a high SOD activity. This cyanobacterium was less prepared to cope with the osmotic stress assayed. Under this condition, O2 photoevolution decreased abruptly and oxidative damage was produced by reactive species other than superoxide. In this situation the cellular control of the amount of ROS failed to prevent oxidative damage and photosynthesis was seriously disturbed in spite of maximum quantum photosynthetic efficiency remained unchanged. Calothrix BI22 presented the more severe oxidative damage when both stressors were applied. The osmotic stress disentangled the mechanisms developed by this cyanobacterium to deal with 3h-UV irradiation alone.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T06:30:45Z
       
  • Comparison of polyamine metabolism in tomato plants exposed to different
           concentrations of salicylic acid under light or dark conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Zoltán Takács, Péter Poór, Irma Tari
      In this study the effect of exogenous 0.1 mM and 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) treatments were investigated on polyamine (PA) metabolism in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Ailsa Craig) leaves in illuminated or dark environments. The former proved to be sublethal and the latter lethal concentration for tomato leaf tissues. While PA biosynthetic genes, arginine- and ornitine decarboxylases or spermidine- and spermine synthases were highly up-regulated by 1 mM SA, the enzymes participating in PA catabolism, diamine- (DAOs, EC 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidases (PAOs, EC 1.5.3.3) displayed higher transcript abundance and enzyme activity at 0.1 mM SA. As a result, putrescine and spermine content but not that of spermidine increased after 1 mM SA application, which proved to be higher in the dark than in the light. H2O2 content produced on the effect of 1 mM SA was significantly higher than at 0.1 mM SA in the light. Since there was no coincidence between H2O2 accumulation and terminal PA catabolism, reactive oxygen species produced by photosynthesis and by other sources had more pronounced effect on H2O2 generation at tissue level than DAOs and PAOs. Accordingly, H2O2 in the absence of NO accumulation contributed to the initiation of defence reactions after 0.1 mM SA treatment, while high SA concentration generated simultaneous increase in H2O2 and NO production in the light, which induced cell death within 24 h in illuminated leaves. However, the appearance of necrotic lesions was delayed in the absence of NO if these plants were kept in darkness.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T06:30:45Z
       
  • Genome-wide analysis of the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) gene
           family and functional characterization of FBA7 in tomato
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Bingbing Cai, Qiang Li, Yongchao Xu, Long Yang, Huangai Bi, Xizhen Ai
      Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is a key enzyme in plants that is involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the Calvin cycle. FBA genes play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses and also regulate growth and development. Despite the importance of FBA genes, little is known about it in tomato. In this study, we identified 8 FBA genes in tomato and classified them into 2 subgroups based on a phylogenetic tree, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Five (SlFBA1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and three (SlFBA6, 7, and 8) SlFBA proteins were predicted to be localized in chloroplasts and cytoplasm, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of FBAs from tomato, Arabidopsis, rice, and other organisms suggested that SlFBA shared the highest protein homology with FBAs from other plants. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental duplication events contributed to the expansion of the tomato FBA family. The expression profiles revealed that all SlFBAs were involved in the response to low and high temperature stresses. SlFBA7 overexpression increased the expression and activities of other main enzymes in Calvin cycle, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), seed size and stem diameter. SlFBA7 overexpression enhanced tolerances in seed germination under suboptimal temperature stresses. Taken together, comprehensive analyses of SlFBAs would provide a basis for understanding of evolution and function of SlFBA family.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T06:30:45Z
       
  • Molecular cloning and functional characterization of DkMATE1 involved in
           proanthocyanidin precursor transport in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)
           fruit
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Sichao Yang, Yun Jiang, Liqing Xu, Katsuhiro Shiratake, Zhengrong Luo, Qinglin Zhang
      Persimmon fruits accumulate a large amount of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in “tannin cells” during development that cause the sensation of astringency due to coagulation of oral proteins. Pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA) is a spontaneous mutant persimmon phenotype that loses its astringency naturally on the tree at maturity; while the more common non-PCNA fruits remain rich in PAs until they are fully ripened. Here, we isolated a DkMATE1 gene encoding a Multidrug And Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) family protein from the Chinese PCNA (C-PCNA) ‘Eshi 1’. Expression patterns of DkMATE1 were positively correlated with the accumulation of PAs in different types of persimmons fruits during fruit development. An analysis of the inferred amino acid sequences and phylogenetic relationships indicated that DkMATE1 is a putative PA precursor transporter, and subcellular localization assays revealed that DkMATE1 is localized in the vacuolar membrane. Ectopic expression of the DkMATE1 in Arabidopsis tt12 mutant supported that DkMATE1 could complement its biological function in transporting epicatechin 3′-O-glucoside as a PAs precursor from the cytoplasm to vacuole. Furthermore, the transient over-expression and silencing of DkMATE1 in ‘Mopanshi’ persimmon leaves resulted in a significant increase and a decrease in PA content, respectively. The analysis of cis-elements in DkMATE1 promoter regions indicated that DkMATE1 might be regulated by DkMYB4, another well-known structural gene in persimmon. Overall, our results show that DkMATE1 may be an essential PA precursor membrane transporter that plays an important role in PA biosynthesis in persimmon.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T06:30:45Z
       
  • Effect of nitrogen deficiency on ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling
           pathway in cucumber seedlings
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Xue Zhang, Hong Jun Yu, Xiao Meng Zhang, Xue Yong Yang, Wen Chao Zhao, Qiang Li, Wei Jie Jiang
      L-Ascorbic acid (AsA, ascorbate) is one of the most abundant natural antioxidants, and it is an important factor in the nutritional quality of cucumber. In this work, key enzymes involved in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling pathway in cucumber seedlings under nitrogen deficiency were investigated at the levels of transcription and enzyme activity. The activities of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) and transcript levels of MIOXs increased dramatically, while the activities of ascorbate oxidase (AO) and glutathione reductase (GR) and transcript levels of AOs and GR2 decreased significantly in N-limited leaves, as did the ascorbate concentration, in nitrogen-deficient cucumber seedlings. The activities of other enzymes and transcript levels of other genes involved in the ascorbate recycling pathway and ascorbate synthesis pathways decreased or remained unchanged under nitrogen deficiency. These results indicate that nitrogen deficiency induced genes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione recycling and myo-inositol pathway in cucumber leaves. Thus, the AO, GR and MIOX involved in the pathways might play roles in AsA accumulation.


      PubDate: 2016-07-29T06:30:45Z
       
  • Silybin content and overexpression of chalcone synthase genes in Silybum
           marianum L. plants under abiotic elicitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Hoda A.S. El-Garhy, Salah Khattab, Mahmoud M.A. Moustafa, Rania Abou Ali, Ahmed Z. Abdel Azeiz, Abeer Elhalwagi, Fadia El Sherif
      Silymarin, a Silybum marianum seed extract containing a mixture of flavonolignans including silybin, is being used as an antihepatotoxic therapy for liver diseases. In this study, the enhancing effect of gamma irradiation on plant growth parameters of S. marianum under salt stress was investigated. The effect of gamma irradiation, either as a single elicitor or coupled with salinity, on chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression and silybin A + B yield was also evaluated. The silybin A + B content in S. marianum fruits was estimated by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An increase in silybin content was accompanied by up-regulation of the CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3 genes, which are involved in the silybin biosynthetic pathway. The highest silybin A + B production (0.77 g/100 g plant DW) and transcript levels of the three studied genes (100.2-, 91.9-, and 24.3-fold increase, respectively) were obtained with 100GY gamma irradiation and 4000 ppm salty water. The CHS2 and CHS3 genes were partially sequenced and submitted to the NCBI database under the accession numbers KT252908.1 and KT252909.1, respectively. Developing new approaches to stimulate silybin biosynthetic pathways could be a useful tool to potentiate the use of plants as renewable resources of medicinal compounds.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T14:31:29Z
       
  • Kinetic commitment in the catalysis of glutamine synthesis by GS1 from
           Arabidopsis using 14N/15N and solvent isotope effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Caroline Mauve, Nicolas Giraud, Edouard R.A. Boex-Fontvieille, Ingrid Antheaume, Illa Tea, Guillaume Tcherkez
      Glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) catalyzes the production of glutamine from glutamate, ammonium and ATP. Although being essential in plants for N assimilation and recycling, kinetic commitments and transition states of the reaction have not been clearly established yet. Here, we examined 12C/13C, 14N/15N and H2O/D2O isotope effects in Arabidopsis GS1 catalysis and compared to the prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) enzyme. A14N/15N isotope effect (15 V/K ≈ 1.015, with respect to substrate NH4 +) was observed in the prokaryotic enzyme, indicating that ammonium utilization (deprotonation and/or amidation) was partially rate-limiting. In the plant enzyme, the isotope effect was inverse (15 V/K = 0.965), suggesting that the reaction intermediate is involved in an amidation-deamidation equilibrium favoring 15N. There was no 12C/13C kinetic isotope effect (13 V/K = 1.000), suggesting that the amidation step of the catalytic cycle involves a transition state with minimal alteration of overall force constants at the C-5 carbon. Surprisingly, the solvent isotope effect was found to be inverse, that is, with a higher turn-over rate in heavy water (D V ≈ 0.5), showing that restructuration of the active site due to displacement of H2O by D2O facilitates the processing of intermediates.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T14:31:29Z
       
  • 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates salt stress effects in the symbiosis
           Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti and regulates the nodulation in
           cross-talk with polyamines
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Miguel López-Gómez, Javier Hidalgo-Castellanos, Carmen Lluch, José A. Herrera-Cervera
      Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid plant hormones that have been shown to be involved in the response to salt stress in cross-talk with other plant growth regulators such as polyamines (PAs). In addition, BRs are involved in the regulation of the nodulation in the rhizobium-legume symbiosis through the alteration of the PAs content in leaves. In this work, we have studied the effect of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in the response to salinity of nitrogen fixation in the symbiosis Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti. Foliar spraying of EBL restored the growth of plants subjected to salt stress and provoked an increment of the nitrogenase activity. In general, PAs levels in leaves and nodules decreased by the salt and EBL treatments, however, the co-treatment with NaCl and EBL augmented the foliar spermine (Spm) concentration. This increment of the Spm levels was followed by a reduction of the membrane oxidative damage and a diminution of the proline accumulation. The effect of BRs on the symbiotic interaction was evaluated by the addition of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 μM EBL to the growing solution, which provoked a reduction of the nodule number and an increment of the PAs levels in shoot. In conclusion, foliar treatment with EBL had a protective effect against salt stress in the M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis mediated by an increment of the Spm levels. Treatment of roots with EBL incremented PAs levels in shoot and reduced the nodule number which suggests a cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the nodule suppression and the protection against salt stress.


      PubDate: 2016-07-25T14:31:29Z
       
  • Silicon addition to soybean (Glycine max L.) plants alleviate zinc
           deficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): M Blanca Pascual, Virginia Echevarria, M José Gonzalo, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza
      It is well established the beneficial role of silicon (Si) in alleviating abiotic stress. However, it remains poorly understood the mechanisms of the Si-mediated protection against metal deficiency, especially the zinc (Zn) one. Recently, it has been proposed that Si may act by an interaction with this biometal in the root apoplast contributing to its movement through the plant, as in the case of Fe deficiency. In the present work, the effect of initial or continuous Si doses in soybean Zn deficient plants has been studied. For that purpose, plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) under Zn limiting conditions. SPAD index in leaves, several growth parameters, mineral content in the whole plant and the formation of Zn pools in roots were determined. An initial addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution led to an enhancement of plants growth, Zn and Si content in leaves, and a higher storage of Zn in the root apoplast. The results suggest that this treatment enhanced Zn accumulation on roots and its movement to shoots when needed, mitigating Zn deficiency symptoms.


      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • Purification of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) protein
           from transplastomic tobacco plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Maryam Abdoli Nasab, Mokhtar Jalali Javaran, Rosa M. Cusido, Javier Palazon
      Plants are low cost platforms for the production of recombinant proteins, but their complexity renders the purification of plant recombinant proteins more difficult than proteins expressed in yeast or bacteria. Plastid transformation enables high-level expression of foreign genes and the accumulation of recombinant proteins in plastid organelles. Histidine (His) tags are widely used for affinity purification of recombinant proteins in a nickel column. The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is one of the most important pharmaceutical recombinant proteins involved in the breakdown of blood clots in different parts of the body. The truncated form of the tissue plasminogen activator (K2S) has a longer plasma half-life, better diffusion into the clot, and higher fibrinolytic activity. In a construct designed to insert the K2S gene in the tobacco chloroplast, the sequence of six histidines and a factor Xa protease site was fused to the C-terminus of the K2S protein. The presence and amount of tPA recombinant protein in transplastomic tobacco plants was estimated by ELISA analysis using a specific antibody. The protein was purified from total soluble protein, insoluble protein aggregates and the protein was extracted from the isolated chloroplast using nickel resin and a chromatography column. After digestion of the purified protein with factor Xa, the presence of the purified tPA protein was confirmed by western blot analysis.


      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • Arabidopsis thaliana MRP1 (AtABCC1) nucleotide binding domain contributes
           to arsenic stress tolerance with serine triad phosphorylation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Ayan Raichaudhuri
      Multidrug resistance protein AtMRPs belong to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter super family. ABC proteins are membrane proteins involved in the transport of a broad range of amphipathic organic anions across membranes. MRPs (ABCCs) are one of the highly represented subfamilies of ABC transporters. Plant MRPs also transport various glutathione conjugates across membranes. Arabidopsis thaliana MRP1 is already known to be involved in vacuolar storage of folates. Using heterologously expressed AtMRP1 in yeast and its C-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD2) in E scherichia coli, it has been shown that Casein kinase II (CKII) mediated phosphorylation is a potential regulator of AtMRP1 function. AtMRP1 showed enhanced tolerance towards arsenite As(III) in yeast. CKIIII/CKII mediated phosphorylation of AtMRP1 was found to be involved in As(III) mediated signaling. AtMRP1-NBD2 and its serine mutants showed distinct change in secondary structure in the presence of arsenite and methotrexate (MTX) controlled by serine triad phosphorylation. Results showed that AtMRP1 is important for vacuolar accumulation of antifolates as well as tolerance against arsenic, both of which involved phosphorylation in the serine triads at the C terminal NBD of AtMRP1. The experiments provide an important insight into the role of AtMRP1 serine triad phosphorylation under AsIII stress conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • Different metabolite profile and metabolic pathway with leaves and roots
           in response to boron deficiency at the initial stage of citrus rootstock
           growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Xiaochang Dong, Guidong Liu, Xiuwen Wu, Xiaopei Lu, Lei Yan, Riaz Muhammad, Asad Shah, Lishu Wu, Cuncang Jiang
      Boron (B) is a microelement required for higher plants, and B deficiency has serious negative effect on metabolic processes. We concentrated on the changes in metabolite profiles of trifoliate orange leaves and roots as a consequence of B deficiency at the initial stage of growth by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics. Enlargement and browning of root tips were observed in B-deficient plants, while any obvious symptom was not recorded in the leaves after 30 days of B deprivation. The distinct patterns of alterations in metabolites observed in leaves and roots due to B deficiency suggest the presence of specific organ responses to B starvation. The accumulation of soluble sugars was occurred in leaves, which may be attributed to down-regulated pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and amino acid biosynthesis under B deficiency, while the amount of most amino acids in roots was increased, indicating that the effects of B deficiency on amino acids metabolism in trifoliate orange may be a consequence of disruptions in root tissues and decreased protein biosynthesis. Several important products of shikimate pathway were also significantly affected by B deficiency, which may be related to abnormal growth of roots induced by B deficiency. Conclusively, our results revealed a global perspective of the discriminative metabolism responses appearing between B-deprived leaves and roots and provided new insight into the relationship between B deficiency symptom in roots and the altered amino acids profiling and shikimate pathway induced by B deficiency during seedling establishment.


      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • Genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of
           LIM family genes in Solanum lycopersicum L.
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Khadiza Khatun, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Jong-In Park, Nasar Uddin Ahmed, Chang Kil Kim, Ki-Byung Lim, Min-Bae Kim, Do-Jin Lee, Ill Sup Nou, Mi-Young Chung
      LIM domain proteins, some of which have been shown to be actin binding proteins, are involved in various developmental activities and cellular processes in plants. To date, the molecular defense-related functions of LIM family genes have not been investigated in any solanaceous vegetable crop species. In this study, we identified 15 LIM family genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) through genome-wide analysis and performed expression profiling in different organs of tomato, including fruits at six different developmental stages. We also performed expression profiling of selected tomato LIM genes in plants under ABA, drought, cold, NaCl and heat stress treatment. The encoded proteins of the 15 tomato LIM genes were classified into two main groups, i.e., proteins similar to cysteine-rich proteins and plant-specific DAR proteins, based on differences in functional domains and variability in their C-terminal regions. The DAR proteins contain a so far poorly characterized zinc-finger-like motif that we propose to call DAR-ZF. Six of the 15 LIM genes were expressed only in flowers, indicating that they play flower-specific roles in plants. The other nine genes were expressed in all organs and at various stages of fruit development. SlβLIM1b was expressed relatively highly at the later stage of fruit development, but three other genes, SlWLIM2a, SlDAR2 and SlDAR4, were expressed at the early stage of fruit development. Seven genes were induced by ABA, five by cold, seven by drought, eight by NaCl and seven by heat treatment respectively, indicating their possible roles in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results will be useful for functional analysis of LIM genes during fruit development in tomato plants under different abiotic stresses.


      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • Genome-wide identification and domain organization of lectin domains in
           cucumber
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Liuyi Dang, Els J.M. Van Damme
      Lectins are ubiquitous proteins in plants and play important roles in a diverse set of biological processes, such as plant defense and cell signaling. Despite the availability of the Cucumis sativus L. genome sequence since 2009, little is known with respect to the occurrence of lectins in cucumber. In this study, a total of 146 putative lectin genes belonging to 10 different lectin families were identified and localized in the cucumber genome. Domain architecture analysis revealed that most of these lectin gene sequences contain multiple domains, where lectin domains are linked with other domains, as such creating chimeric lectin sequences encoding proteins with dual activities. This study provides an overview of lectin motifs in cucumber and will help to understand their potential biological role(s).


      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • The effect of kinetin on wheat seedlings exposed to boron
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Ahmet Eser, Tülin Aydemir
      The objective of this study was to examine relationship between boron (B) induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in boron sensitive and tolerant wheat cultivars Bezostaya and Kutluk, and also to investigate whether Kinetin (KN) enhances the level of antioxidant system, relative growth, concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline and chlorophyll content in both cultivars exposed to B stress. B treatments diminished growth and chlorophyll content whereas, it enhanced accumulation of H2O2, MDA and proline, and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in the shoot and root of both cultivars. However, the follow-up application of KN to the B stressed plants improved growth and chlorophyll content and further enhanced the mentioned antioxidant enzymes and level of H2O2, MDA and proline. This study thus suggests that KN improves B tolerance of the studied cultivars grown under B toxicity.


      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • Metabolomic profiling of the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera shows sodium
           salt- specific response
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Analía Llanes, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Virginia Luna
      Primary and secondary metabolite profiles were analyzed in roots and leaves of the halophytic shrub Prosopis strombulifera in response to control plants (no salt added in the growing media) and to lowering the osmotic potential to −1.0, −1.9, and −2.6 MPa generated by NaCl, Na2SO4, and the iso-osmotic combination of them at 24 h after reaching such potential. A rapid production of metabolites in response to sodium salt was found, which was correlated with modifications in growth parameters. Analysis of polar metabolite profiles by GC-MS rendered a total of 108 significantly altered compounds including 18 amino acids, 19 secondary metabolites, 23 carbohydrates, 13 organic acids, 4 indole acids, among others. Primary metabolites showed a differential response under the salt treatments, which was dependent on salt type and concentration, organ and age of plants. Most of identified compounds showed the strongest accumulation at the highest salt concentration assayed for Na2SO4-treated plants, which was correlated with damaging effects of sulfate anion on plant growth. Roots of NaCl-treated plants showed a higher number of altered metabolites (analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QqTOF-MS) compared to other treatments, while leaves of Na2SO4-treated plants showed the highest number of altered signals. A low degree of overlapping between secondary metabolites altered in roots and leaves of NaCl and Na2SO4-treated plants was found. However, when both NaCl and Na2SO4 salts were present plants always showed a lower number of altered metabolites. Three compounds were tentatively identified: tryptophan, lysophosphatidylcoline and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. Increasing knowledge on P. strombulifera metabolism will contribute to unravel the underlying biochemical mechanism of salt tolerance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T14:06:51Z
       
  • Proteomic analysis of JAZ interacting proteins under methyl jasmonate
           treatment in finger millet
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Saswati Sen, Sangeeta Kundu, Samir Kr. Dutta
      Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in plants is activated against various developmental processes as well as biotic and abiotic stresses. The Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) protein family, the key regulator of plant JA signaling pathway, also participates in phytohormone crosstalk. This is the first study revealing the in vivo interactions of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) JAZ protein (EcJAZ) under methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment. The aim of the study was to explore not only the JA signaling pathway but also the phytohormone signaling crosstalk of finger millet, a highly important future crop. From the MJ-treated finger millet seedlings, the EcJAZ interacting proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with the EcJAZ-matrix. Twenty-one proteins of varying functionalities were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF Mass spectrometry. Apart from the previously identified JAZ binding proteins, most prominently, EcJAZ was found to interact with transcription factors like NAC, GATA and also with Cold responsive protein (COR), etc. that might have extended the range of functionalities of JAZ proteins. Moreover, to evaluate the interactions of EcJAZ in the JA-co-receptor complex, we generated ten in-silico models containing the EcJAZ degron and the COI1-SKP1 of five monocot cereals viz., rice, wheat, maize, Sorghum and Setaria with JA-Ile or coronatine. Our results indicated that the EcJAZ protein of finger millet could act as the signaling hub for the JA and other phytohormone signaling pathways, in response to a diverse set of stressors and developmental cues to provide survival fitness to the plant.


      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:59:19Z
       
  • MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 function redundantly in seed storage protein
           accumulation in Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Chenhao Gao, Shuanghui Qi, Kaige Liu, Dong Li, Changyu Jin, Zhuowei Li, Gengqing Huang, Jiangbo Hai, Meng Zhang, Mingxun Chen
      Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs), namely MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, interact with Jasmonate Zim-domain proteins and are their direct targets. These TFs have been shown to function synergistically to control Arabidopsis growth and development. Our results showed similar MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 expression patterns during Arabidopsis seed development, which remained relatively high during seed mid-maturation. MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 acted redundantly in seed size, weight control, and in regulating seed storage protein accumulation. Triple mutants produced the largest seeds and single and double mutants’ seeds were much larger than those of wild type. The weight of triple mutants’ seeds was significantly higher than that of wild-type seeds, which was accompanied by an increase in seed storage protein contents. Triple mutants’ seeds presented a marked decrease in 2S amounts relative to those in wild-type seeds. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectra sequencing results indicated that both the relative abundance and the peptide number of CRA1 and CRU3 were greatly increased in triple mutants compared to wild type. The expression of 2S1–2S5 decreased and that of CRA1 and CRU3 increased in triple mutants relative to those in wild types during seed development, which might have contributed to the low 2S and high 12S contents in triple mutants. Our results contribute to understanding the function of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 on seed development, and provide promising targets for genetic manipulations of protein-producing crops to improve the quantity and quality of seed storage proteins.


      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:59:19Z
       
  • Identification of structural elements involved in fine-tuning of the
           transport activity of the rice ammonium transporter OsAMT1;3
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Dongli Hao, Shunying Yang, Yanan Huang, Yanhua Su
      Ammonium transporters (AMTs) are major routes for plant uptake of the NH4 +-form nitrogen. Plant AMTs mediate predominantly the uptake of NH4 + and to a lesser extent, its organic analog methylammonium (MeA+). Mutagenesis studies on potential phosphorylation residues have achieved solid recognition that alteration of the phosphorylation status can result in allosteric regulation and impair the functionality of plant AMTs. However, molecular insights to the fine-tuning of a functional ammonium transporter remain less clear. In this report, we demonstrate that the rice root expressed OsAMT1;3 (Oryza sativa ammonium transporter 1;3) functions as a typical high-affinity NH4 + transporter and is weakly permeable to MeA+ using growth assays in NH4 + uptake defective yeast cells and electrophysiological measurements in Xenopus oocytes. Upon screening of six point mutations generated with the transporter, we identified two amino acid residues involved in the functional modulation of OsAMT1;3. The H199E mutation caused loss of transport activity whereas other five mutations retained the functionality of OsAMT1;3. Furthermore, the L56F mutation enabled respectively 5- and 3.5 -fold increased capability for NH4 + and MeA+ uptake with several-fold decreased affinity (K m ) and accelerated V max values. Surprisingly, yeast cells expressing the L56F mutation shown increased Na+ toxicity leading to a speculation that enhanced Na+ permeation occurred with this mutation. The phenomenon was further supported by the observation of significant Na+ uptake current in oocytes. Our results seemingly support a speculation that the L56F mutation of OsAMT1;3 widens the substrate passage tunnel and allows enhanced permeability to NH4 + and larger ions MeA+ and Na+.


      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:59:19Z
       
  • Impact of cadmium stress on two maize hybrids
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Zuzana Vatehová, Anna Malovíková, Karin Kollárová, Danica Kučerová, Desana Lišková
      Some physiological parameters and composition of the root cell walls of two maize hybrids (monocots), the sensitive Novania and the tolerant Almansa were studied after treatment with cadmium cations. After 10 days of Cd2+ treatment (1 × 10−5 M and 5 × 10−5 M), plant growth inhibition, in the sensitive hybrid in particular, as well as a certain alteration in root structure and pigment content were observed. The Cd2+ accumulation was ten times higher in the roots than in the shoots. Chemical analyses and atomic absorption spectroscopy proved that Cd2+ modified the composition of the root cell walls by a significant increase in the content of alkali-soluble polysaccharide fractions, particularly in the tolerant hybrid. An increase in the content of phenolic compounds, mainly in the tolerant hybrid, and a decrease in protein content were observed in the presence of Cd2+ in the alkali fractions. The results indicate that the changes in the cell wall polysaccharide fractions and their proportion to lignin and cellulose are obviously involved in the tolerance and/or defence against Cd2+ of the maize hybrids studied.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:59:19Z
       
  • Involvement of vacuolar processing enzyme SlVPE5 in post-transcriptional
           process of invertase in sucrose accumulation in tomato
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Ning Wang, Narendra Duhita, Toru Ariizumi, Hiroshi Ezura
      Enhancing the flavor of fruits plays a fundamental role in improving fruit quality, and volatile compositions as well as acid and sugar accumulation are significant factors that have an impact on the acceptability of sensory responses by human beings. Vacuoles in plants not only function as cell compartments that store amino acids, sugars and other metabolites but also act as lytic organelles where vacuolar proteins are post-translationally processed into mature forms or degraded by the action of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE). We have previously characterized VPE genes (SlVPE1-5) during fruit development in tomato and discovered that the VPE enzyme activity negatively interfered with sugar accumulation in mature fruits. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that acid invertase was one of the molecular targets of SlVPE5, which is involved in the hydrolysis of sucrose. This study also showed that decreased VPE enzyme activity due to suppression of SlVPE5 by RNAi strategy (RNAi-SlVPE5) accompanied with decreased enzyme activity of acid invertase. Further, we identified the enzyme activity of acid invertase was not well correlated with mRNA levels in the RNAi-SlVPE5 line. These results suggest that SlVPE5 regulates post-transcriptional processing through de novo synthesis of the acid invertase protein to suppress enzyme activity, thereby eventually ensuring sucrose hydrolysis.


      PubDate: 2016-07-16T13:59:19Z
       
  • Magnesium decreases leaf scald symptoms on rice leaves and preserves their
           photosynthetic performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): S.D. Tatagiba, F.M. DaMatta, F.A. Rodrigues
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnesium (Mg) on the photosynthetic gas exchange parameters ([net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (g s), and internal CO2 concentration (C i)], chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence a parameters {minimal fluorescence (F 0), maximum fluorescence (F m), maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F v/F m), photochemical quenching coefficient (q p), yield of photochemistry [Y(II)], yield of regulated energy dissipation [Y(NPQ)] and yield of non-regulated dissipation losses [Y(NO)]} as well as on the concentrations of chloroplastidic pigments in rice plants grown in a nutrient solution containing 0.5 or 1.5 mM of Mg (-Mg or + Mg plants, respectively) and non-inoculated or inoculated with Monographella albescens. A higher Mg supply decreased the leaf scald symptoms in addition to partially preserving the photosynthetic performance of rice leaves challenged with M. albescens. Photosynthetic impairments were associated with photochemical and biochemical dysfunctions at the chloroplast level. The images of Chl a fluorescence evidenced increases in both the Y(II) and q p coupled with decreases in Y(NPQ) associated with a higher Mg supply regardless of inoculation, suggesting increased electron transport rates and lower energy dissipation as heat. Notably, as the leaf scald developed, the use of light energy through photochemical reactions was continuously lost, especially for the inoculated -Mg plants. Interestingly, the lower values for F 0, F m, and F v/F m for -Mg plants were associated with greater photochemical dysfunctions and a progressive loss of photosynthetic pigments during the infection process of M. albescens. The underlying mechanism through which Mg can affect rice resistance against M. albescens remains to be fully elucidated.


      PubDate: 2016-07-12T13:44:21Z
       
  • Sulphur interferes with selenium accumulation in Tartary buckwheat plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Aleksandra Golob, Drena Gadžo, Vekoslava Stibilj, Mirha Djikić, Teofil Gavrić, Ivan Kreft, Mateja Germ
      Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) and common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) plants grown in the field were treated foliarly with 126 μM solutions of selenate and/or sulphate in order to study the effect of sulphur (S) on selenium (Se) concentration in plants. In both species, the concentration of Se in all plant parts was similar in control and S treated plants. In Tartary buckwheat the concentration of Se was higher in S and Se treated plants than in plants treated with Se alone. S was shown to enhance Se accumulation in Tartary buckwheat. It was also shown that it is possible to produce grain and herb of Tartary and common buckwheat containing appropriate amounts of Se for food without affecting the yield of the plants.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-07-12T13:44:21Z
       
  • Molecular characterization of biotic and abiotic stress-responsive MAP
           kinase genes, IbMPK3 and IbMPK6, in sweetpotato
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Ho Soo Kim, Sung-Chul Park, Chang Yoon Ji, Seyeon Park, Jae Cheol Jeong, Haeng-Soon Lee, Sang-Soo Kwak
      Plants are continually exposed to numerous environmental stresses. To decrease damage caused by these potentially detrimental factors, various stress-related signaling cascades are activated in plants. One such stress-responsive signaling pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) module, plays a critical role in diverse plant stress responses. Here, we functionally characterized biotic and abiotic stress-responsive MAPK genes, IbMPK3 and IbMPK6, from sweetpotato. IbMPK3/6 contain totally 11 MAPK conserved subdomains and the phosphorylating motif TEY. Bacterially expressed IbMPK3/6 could be autophosphorylated in vitro, and these proteins phosphorylated universal kinase substrate, such as myelin basic protein. IbMPK3/6 transcripts were expressed in leaf, stem, and root of sweetpotato cultivars with storage roots of various colors. IbMPK3 and IbMPK6 were induced by various biotic/abiotic stress treatments. Furthermore, the kinase activity of IbMPK3/6 was induced during early NaCl, SA, H2O2, and ABA treatment. IbMPK3/6 were predominantly localized to the nucleus. To determine the biological functions of IbMPK3/6, we transiently expressed the IbMPK genes in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves, which resulted in enhanced tolerance to bacterial pathogen and increased expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. These data demonstrate that IbMPK3 and IbMPK6 play significant roles in plant responses to environmental stress.


      PubDate: 2016-07-12T13:44:21Z
       
  • Expression of a repressor form of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcription
           factor TCP16 induces the formation of ectopic meristems
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Nora G. Uberti-Manassero, Ezequiel R. Coscueta, Daniel H. Gonzalez
      Plants that express a fusion of the Arabidopsis thaliana class I TCP transcription factor TCP16 to the EAR repressor domain develop several phenotypic alterations, including rounder leaves, short petioles and pedicels, and delayed elongation of sepals, petals and anthers. In addition, these plants develop lobed cotyledons and ectopic meristems. Ectopic meristems are formed on the adaxial side of cotyledon petioles and arise from a cleft that is formed at this site. Analysis of the expression of reporter genes indicated that meristem genes are reactivated at the site of emergence of ectopic meristems, located near the bifurcation of cotyledon veins. The plants also show increased transcript levels of the boundary-specific CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes. The results suggest that TCP16 is able to modulate the induction of meristematic programs and the differentiation state of plant cells.


      PubDate: 2016-07-12T13:44:21Z
       
  • The molecular cloning and functional characterization of MdMYC2, a bHLH
           transcription factor in apple
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jian-Ping An, Hao-Hao Li, Lai-Qing Song, Ling Su, Xin Liu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
      The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Leu zipper transcription factor MYC2 is an important regulator in the Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. In this study, the apple MdMYC2 gene was isolated and cloned on the basis of its homology with Arabidopsis thaliana MYC2. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that MdMYC2 transcripts were induced by Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and wounding. The MdMYC2 protein interacted with itself and bound the G-Box motif of the AtJAZ3 gene. MdMYC2 interacted with the MdJAZ2 protein, which is a repressor protein in the JA signaling pathway. Furthermore, we obtained transgenic apple calli that either overexpressed or suppressed the MdMYC2 gene. Expression analysis with qRT-PCR demonstrated that the transcript levels of JA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, such as MdDFR, MdUF3GT, MdF3H and MdCHS, were markedly up-regulated in the MdMYC2 overexpressing calli and down-regulated in the suppressing calli compared with the WT control. As a result, the overexpressing calli produced more anthocyanin, and the suppressing calli produced less. Finally, the MdMYC2 gene was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis. Both phenotypic investigation and expression analysis demonstrated that the MdMYC2 transgenic Arabidopsis lines were more sensitive to MeJA than the WT control. Together, these results indicate that the apple MdMYC2 gene plays a vital role in the JA response.


      PubDate: 2016-07-12T13:44:21Z
       
  • Physiological and biochemical characterization of two Amaranthus species
           under Cr(VI) stress differing in Cr(VI) tolerance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Gausiya Bashri, Parul Parihar, Rachana Singh, Samiksha Singh, Vijay Pratap Singh, Sheo Mohan Prasad
      The present study was undertaken to evaluate Cr(VI) toxicity tolerance in two Amaranthus species viz. Amaranthus viridis and Amaranthus cruentus exposed to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] stress. To ascertain this, both Amaranthus species were grown under various concentrations (0, 10 and 50 μM) of Cr(VI) in the hydroponic system. After 7 days of Cr(VI) treatment, various traits such as growth, Cr accumulation, photochemistry of photosystem II (PS II) (JIP-test), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system were analyzed. Cr(VI) treatments caused inhibition in growth and PS II photochemistry, which was accompanied with increased accumulation of Cr that results into enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS): O2 − and H2O2, which subsequently induced the peroxidation of lipids and leakage of electrolyte in both the Amaranthus species. Cr(VI) accumulation, lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage were more pronounced in A. viridis than in A. cruentus. On the other hand, A. cruentus seedlings showed higher activities of enzymatic antioxidants: SOD, POD, CAT and GST, and non-enzymatic antioxidants: cysteine and non-protein thiols (NP-SH) levels than A. viridis. The overall results suggest that A. cruentus is more tolerant than A. viridis due to its higher antioxidant defense system that protected seedlings under Cr(VI) stress.


      PubDate: 2016-07-07T12:49:49Z
       
  • Genome-wide characterization of pectin methyl esterase genes reveals
           members differentially expressed in tolerant and susceptible wheats in
           response to Fusarium graminearum
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 108
      Author(s): Alessandra Zega, Renato D’Ovidio
      Pectin methyl esterase (PME) genes code for enzymes that are involved in structural modifications of the plant cell wall during plant growth and development. They are also involved in plant-pathogen interaction. PME genes belong to a multigene family and in this study we report the first comprehensive analysis of the PME gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Like in other species, the members of the TaPME family are dispersed throughout the genome and their encoded products retain the typical structural features of PMEs. qRT-PCR analysis showed variation in the expression pattern of TaPME genes in different tissues and revealed that these genes are mainly expressed in flowering spikes. In our attempt to identify putative TaPME genes involved in wheat defense, we revealed a strong variation in the expression of the TaPME following Fusarium graminearum infection, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). Particularly interesting was the finding that the expression profile of some PME genes was markedly different between the FHB-resistant wheat cultivar Sumai3 and the FHB-susceptible cultivar Bobwhite, suggesting a possible involvement of these PME genes in FHB resistance. Moreover, the expression analysis of the TaPME genes during F. graminearum progression within the spike revealed those genes that responded more promptly to pathogen invasion.


      PubDate: 2016-07-07T12:49:49Z
       
  • Identification of differentially expressed genes and signalling pathways
           in bark of Hevea brasiliensis seedlings associated with secondary
           laticifer differentiation using gene expression microarray
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Swee Cheng Loh, Gincy P. Thottathil, Ahmad Sofiman Othman
      The natural rubber of Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is the main crop involved in industrial rubber production due to its superior quality. The Hevea bark is commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. The laticifer is well defined in the aspect of morphology; however, only some genes associated with its development have been reported. We successfully induced secondary laticifer in the jasmonic acid (JA)-treated and linolenic acid (LA)-treated Hevea bark but secondary laticifer is not observed in the ethephon (ET)-treated and untreated Hevea bark. In this study, we analysed 27,195 gene models using NimbleGen microarrays based on the Hevea draft genome. 491 filtered differentially expressed (FDE) transcripts that are common to both JA- and LA-treated bark samples but not ET-treated bark samples were identified. In the Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG) analysis, 491 FDE transcripts belong to different functional categories that reflect the diverse processes and pathways involved in laticifer differentiation. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and KOG analysis, the profile of the FDE transcripts suggest that JA- and LA-treated bark samples have a sufficient molecular basis for secondary laticifer differentiation, especially regarding secondary metabolites metabolism. FDE genes in this category are from the cytochrome (CYP) P450 family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) family. The data includes many genes involved in cell division, cell wall synthesis, and cell differentiation. The most abundant transcript in FDE list was SDR65C, reflecting its importance in laticifer differentiation. Using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) as part of annotation and functional prediction, several characterised as well as uncharacterized transcription factors and genes were found in the dataset. Hence, the further characterization of these genes is necessary to unveil their role in laticifer differentiation. This study provides a platform for the further characterization and identification of the key genes involved in secondary laticifer differentiation.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Unsaturated amino acids derived from isoleucine trigger early membrane
           effects on plant cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Gabriel Roblin, Joëlle Laduranty, Janine Bonmort, Mohand Aidene, Jean-François Chollet
      Unsaturated amino acids (UnsAA) have been shown to affect the activity of various biological processes. However, their mode of action has been investigated poorly thus far. We show in this work that 2-amino-3-methyl-4-pentenoic acid (C2) and 2-amino-3-methyl-4-pentynoic acid (C3) structurally derived from isoleucine (Ile) exhibited a multisite action on plant cells. For one, C2 and C3 induced early modifications at the plasma membrane level, as shown by the hyperpolarization monitored by microelectrode implantation in the pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica, indicating that these compounds are able to modify ionic fluxes. In particular, proton (H+) fluxes were modified, as shown by the pH rise monitored in the bathing medium of pulvinar tissues. A component of this effect may be linked to the inhibitory effect observed on the proton pumping and the vanadate-sensitive activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase monitored in plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified from pulvinar tissues of M. pudica and leaf tissues of Beta vulgaris. This effect may explain, in part, the inhibitory effect of the compounds on the uptake capacity of sucrose and valine by B. vulgaris leaf tissues. In contrast, an unexpected action was observed in cell reactions, implicating ion fluxes and water movement. Indeed, the osmocontractile reactions of pulvini induced either by a mechanical shock in M. pudica or by dark and light signals in Cassia fasciculata were increased, indicating that, compared to Ile, these compounds may modify in a specific way the plasma membrane permeability to water and ions.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Response of phytohormones and correlation of SAR signal pathway genes to
           the different resistance levels of grapevine against Plasmopara viticola
           infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Shao-li Liu, Jiao Wu, Pei Zhang, Gerile Hasi, Yu Huang, Jiang Lu, Ya-li Zhang
      Phytohormones play an important role in the process of disease resistance in plants. Here, we investigated which among salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid performs a key role in plant defense after Plasmopara viticola infection in grapevine. We used grapevines possessing different resistance levels against P. viticola infection to study the relationship between the expression of key genes in the related resistance signaling pathways and the level of resistance. We performed high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to estimate the phytohormone contents in grape leaves at different time points after the infection. Furthermore, we performed quantitative analyses of key genes such as EDS1, PAD4, ICS2, PAL, NPR1, TGA1, and PR1 in the systemic acquired resistance pathway by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed an increased variation in the SA content, which was maintained at high levels, after P. viticola infection in plant species exhibiting stronger resistance to the pathogen; this finding highlights the importance of SA in plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, EDS1 and PAD4 expression did not show a positive correlation with disease resistance in grape; however, higher expression of other genes that were analyzed was observed in highly resistant grape varieties. Our results provide insights into the role of phytohormone regulation in the induction and maintenance of plant defense response to pathogens.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Metabolic variations in different citrus rootstock cultivars associated
           with different responses to Huanglongbing
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ute Albrecht, Oliver Fiehn, Kim D. Bowman
      Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of citrus. No resistant cultivars have been identified, although tolerance has been observed in the genus Poncirus and some of its hybrids with Citrus that are commonly used as rootstocks. In this study we exploited this tolerance by comparing five different tolerant hybrids with a cultivar that shows pronounced HLB sensitivity to discern potential contributing metabolic factors. Whole leaves of infected and non-infected greenhouse-grown seedlings were extracted and subjected to untargeted GC-TOF MS based metabolomics. After BinBase data filtering, 342 (experiment 1) and 650 (experiment 2) unique metabolites were quantified, of which 122 and 195, respectively, were assigned by chemical structures. The number of metabolites found to be differently regulated in the infected state compared with the non-infected state varied between the cultivars and was largest (166) in the susceptible cultivar Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lowest (3) in the tolerant cultivars US-897 (C. reticulata ‘Cleopatra’ × Poncirus trifoliata) and US-942 (C. reticulata ‘Sunki’ × P. trifoliata) from experiment 2. Tolerance to HLB did not appear to be associated with accumulation of higher amounts of protective metabolites in response to infection. Many metabolites were found in higher concentrations in the tolerant cultivars compared with susceptible Cleopatra mandarin and may play important roles in conferring tolerance to HLB. Lower availability of specific sugars necessary for survival of the pathogen may also be a contributing factor in the decreased disease severity observed for these cultivars.


      PubDate: 2016-05-31T00:00:17Z
       
  • Phenotyping two tomato genotypes with different nitrogen use efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Maria Rosa Abenavoli, Caterina Longo, Antonio Lupini, Anthony J. Miller, Fabrizio Araniti, Francesco Mercati, Maria P. Princi, Francesco Sunseri
      Nitrogen (N) supply usually limits crop production and optimizing N-use efficiency (NUE) to minimize fertilizer loss is important. NUE is a complex trait that can be dissected into crop N uptake from the soil (NUpE) and N utilization (NUtE). We compared NUE in 14 genotypes of three week old tomatoes grown in sand or hydroponic culture supplied with nitrate (NO3 −). Culture method influenced measured NUE for some cultivars, but Regina Ostuni (RO) and UC82 were consistently identified as high and low NUE genotypes. To identify why these genotypes had contrasting NUE some traits were compared growing under 0.1 and 5 mM NO3 − supply. UC82 showed greater root 15NO3 − influx at low and high supply, and stronger SlNRT2.1/NAR2.1 transporter expression under low supply when compared with RO. Conversely, RO showed a higher total root length and thickness compared to UC82. Compared with UC82, RO showed higher shoot SlNRT2.3 expression and NO3 − storage at high supply, but similar NO3 − reductase activity. After N-starvation, root cell electrical potentials of RO were significantly more negative than UC82, but nitrate elicited similar responses in both root types. Overall for UC82 and RO, NUtE may play a greater role than NUpE for improved NUE.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Regulation of biosynthesis and emission of volatile
           phenylpropanoids/benzenoids in petunia× hybrida flowers by
           multi-factors of circadian clock, light, and temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Sihua Cheng, Xiumin Fu, Xin Mei, Ying Zhou, Bing Du, Naoharu Watanabe, Ziyin Yang
      Floral volatile phenylpropanoids and benzenoids (VPBs) play important ecological functions and have potential economic applications. Little is known about how multi-factors in integration regulate the formation and emission of floral VPBs. In the present study, we investigated effects of multi factors including endogenous circadian clock, light, and temperature on the formation and emission of VPBs, which are major volatiles in flowers of Petunia× hybrida cv. ‘Mitchell Diploid’. Endogenous circadian clock was proposed as the most important factor regulating rhythmic emission of VPBs and expressions of structural genes involved in the upstream biosynthetic pathway of VPBs, but did not affect expression levels of structural genes involved in the downstream pathway and VPBs-related regulators. In contrast to light, temperature was a more constant factor affecting emission of VPBs. VPBs emission could be inhibited within a short time by increasing temperature. The information will contribute to our understanding of emission mechanism of floral volatiles.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
  • Cloning and biochemical characterization of indole-3-acetic acid-amino
           acid synthetase PsGH3 from pea
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 107
      Author(s): Maciej Ostrowski, Agnieszka Mierek-Adamska, Dorota Porowińska, Anna Goc, Anna Jakubowska
      Phytohormone conjugation is one of the mechanisms that maintains a proper hormonal homeostasis and that is necessary for the realization of physiological responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases convert indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to IAA-amino acid conjugates by ATP-dependent reactions. IAA-aspartate (IAA-Asp) exists as a predominant amide conjugate of auxin in pea tissues and acts as an intermediate during IAA catabolism. Here we report a novel recombinant indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase in Pisum sativum. In silico analysis shows that amino acid sequence of PsGH3 has the highest homology to Medicago truncatula GH3.3. The recombinant His-tag-PsGH3 fusion protein has been obtained in E. coli cells and is a soluble monomeric polypeptide with molecular mass of 69.18 kDa. The PsGH3 was purified using Ni2+-affinity chromatography and native PAGE. Kinetic analysis indicates that the enzyme strongly prefers IAA and L-aspartate as substrates for conjugation revealing K m ATP  = 0.49 mM, K m L−Asp  = 2.2 mM, and K m IAA  = 0.28 mM. Diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) competes with ATP for catalytic site and diminishes the PsGH3 affinity toward ATP approximately 1.11-fold indicating K i  = 8.5 μM. L-Tryptophan acts as an inhibitor of IAA-amido synthesizing activity by competition with L-aspartate. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) hydrolyzing pyrophosphate to two phosphate ions, potentiates IAA-Asp synthetase activity of PsGH3. Our results demonstrate that PsGH3 is a novel enzyme that is involved in auxin metabolism in pea seeds.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:33:53Z
       
 
 
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