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Journal Cover Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0981-9428
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Identification and expression profiling of the Aux/IAA gene family in
           Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) during the grafting process
    • Authors: Huwei Yuan; Liang Zhao; Juanjuan Chen; Ying Yang; Dongbin Xu; Shenchen Tao; Shan Zheng; Yirui Shen; Yi He; Chenjia Shen; Daoliang Yan; Bingsong Zheng
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Huwei Yuan, Liang Zhao, Juanjuan Chen, Ying Yang, Dongbin Xu, Shenchen Tao, Shan Zheng, Yirui Shen, Yi He, Chenjia Shen, Daoliang Yan, Bingsong Zheng
      Auxin is an essential regulator in various aspects of organism growth and development. Members of the Aux/IAA family of genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins and mediate the responses of auxin-regulated gene expression. Here, the first identification and characterization of 22 cDNAs encoding the open reading frame of the Aux/IAA family in Chinese hickory (named as CcIAA) has been performed. The proteins encoded by these genes contain four whole or partially conserved domains of the Aux/IAA family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CcIAAs were unevenly distributed among eight different subgroups. The spatio-specific expression profiles showed that most of the CcIAAs preferentially expressed in specific tissues. Three CcIAA genes, including CcIAA11, CcIAA27a2 and CcIAAx, were predominantly expressed in stem. The predominant expression of CcIAA genes in stems might play important roles in vascular reconnection during the graft process. Furthermore, expression profiles of Aux/IAA genes during the grafting process of Chinese hickory have been analysed. Our data suggested that 19 CcIAAs were down-regulated and 3 CcIAAs (including CcIAA28, CcIAA8a and CcIAA27b) were induced, indicating their specializations during the grafting process. The involvement of CcIAA genes at the early stage after grafting gives us an opportunity to understand the role of auxin signalling in the grafting process.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Functional analyses of PtRDM1 gene overexpression in poplars and
           evaluation of its effect on DNA methylation and response to salt stress
    • Authors: Ali Movahedi; Jiaxin Zhang; Weibo Sun; Kourosh Mohammadi; Amir Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti; Hui Wei; Xiaolong Wu; Tongming Yin; Qiang Zhuge
      Pages: 64 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Ali Movahedi, Jiaxin Zhang, Weibo Sun, Kourosh Mohammadi, Amir Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti, Hui Wei, Xiaolong Wu, Tongming Yin, Qiang Zhuge
      Epigenetic modification by DNA methylation is necessary for all cellular processes, including genetic expression events, DNA repair, genomic imprinting and regulation of tissue development. It occurs almost exclusively at the C5 position of symmetric CpG and asymmetric CpHpG and CpHpH sites in genomic DNA. The RNA-directed DNA methylation (RDM1) gene is crucial for heterochromatin and DNA methylation. We overexpressed PtRDM1 gene from Populus trichocarpa to amplify transcripts of orthologous RDM1 in ‘Nanlin895’ (P. deltoides × P. euramericana ‘Nanlin895’). This overexpression resulted in increasing RDM1 transcript levels: by ∼150% at 0 mM NaCl treatment and by ∼300% at 60 mM NaCl treatment compared to WT (control) poplars. Genomic cytosine methylation was monitored within 5.8S rDNA and histone H3 loci by bisulfite sequencing. In total, transgenic poplars revealed more DNA methylation than WT plants. In our results, roots revealed more methylated CG contexts than stems and leaves whereas, histone H3 presented more DNA methylation than 5.8S rDNA in both WT and transgenic poplars. The NaCl stresses enhanced more DNA methylation in transgenic poplars than WT plants through histone H3 and 5.8 rDNA loci. Also, the overexpression of PtRDM1 resulted in hyper-methylation, which affected plant phenotype. Transgenic poplars revealed significantly more regeneration of roots than WT poplars via NaCl treatments. Our results proved that RDM1 protein enhanced the DNA methylation by chromatin remodeling (e.g. histone H3) more than repetitive DNA sequences (e.g. 5.8S rDNA).

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Linalool and linalool nerolidol synthases in roses, several genes for
           little scent
    • Authors: Jean-Louis Magnard; Aurélie Rius Bony; Fabienne Bettini; Ausilia Campanaro; Bernard Blerot; Sylvie Baudino; Frédéric Jullien
      Pages: 74 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jean-Louis Magnard, Aurélie Rius Bony, Fabienne Bettini, Ausilia Campanaro, Bernard Blerot, Sylvie Baudino, Frédéric Jullien
      Roses are widely appreciated for the appearance of their flowers and for their fragrance. This latter character results from the combination of different odorant molecules among which monoterpenes are often prevalent constituents. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of three rose monoterpene synthases. In vitro functional characterization of these enzymes showed that one is a (−)-(3R)-linalool synthase whereas the others have a dual (+)-(3S)-linalool nerolidol synthase activity. However, given that the characterized rose cultivars were only able to produce the (−)-(3R)-linalool stereoisomer, the linalool nerolidol synthases are probably not active in planta. Furthermore, these three enzymes were also characterized by a weak expression level as assessed by RT-qPCR and by the low abundance of the corresponding sequences in an EST library. This characteristic is likely to explain why linalool is generally a minor constituent in rose flowers’ scents. On this basis, we propose that in roses the monoterpene biosynthesis effort is focused on the production of acyclic monoterpenes derived from geraniol through the recently characterized Nudix biosynthesis pathway, at the expense of conventional monoterpene biosynthesis via terpene synthases such as linalool or linalool nerolidol synthases.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • The phytochelatin synthase from Nitella mucronata (Charophyta) plays a
           role in the homeostatic control of iron(II)/(III)
    • Authors: Debora Fontanini; Andrea Andreucci; Monica Ruffini Castiglione; Adriana Basile; Sergio Sorbo; Alessandro Petraglia; Francesca Degola; Erika Bellini; Laura Bruno; Claudio Varotto; Luigi Sanità di Toppi
      Pages: 88 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Debora Fontanini, Andrea Andreucci, Monica Ruffini Castiglione, Adriana Basile, Sergio Sorbo, Alessandro Petraglia, Francesca Degola, Erika Bellini, Laura Bruno, Claudio Varotto, Luigi Sanità di Toppi
      Although some charophytes (sister group to land plants) have been shown to synthesize phytochelatins (PCs) in response to cadmium (Cd), the functional characterization of their phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is still completely lacking. To investigate the metal response and the presence of PCS in charophytes, we focused on the species Nitella mucronata. A 40 kDa immunoreactive PCS band was revealed in mono-dimensional western blot by using a polyclonal antibody against Arabidopsis thaliana PCS1. In two-dimensional western blot, the putative PCS showed various spots with acidic isoelectric points, presumably originated by post-translational modifications. Given the PCS constitutive expression in N. mucronata, we tested its possible involvement in the homeostasis of metallic micronutrients, using physiological concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), and verified its role in the detoxification of a non-essential metal, such as Cd. Neither in vivo nor in vitro exposure to Zn resulted in PCS activation and PC significant biosynthesis, while Fe(II)/(III) and Cd were able to activate the PCS in vitro, as well as to induce PC accumulation in vivo. While Cd toxicity was evident from electron microscopy observations, the normal morphology of cells and organelles following Fe treatments was preserved. The overall results support a function of PCS and PCs in managing Fe homeostasis in the carophyte N. mucronata.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Soybean TCP transcription factors: Evolution, classification, protein
           interaction and stress and hormone responsiveness
    • Authors: Zhi-Juan Feng; Sheng-Chun Xu; Na Liu; Gu-Wen Zhang; Qi-Zan Hu; Ya-Ming Gong
      Pages: 129 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Zhi-Juan Feng, Sheng-Chun Xu, Na Liu, Gu-Wen Zhang, Qi-Zan Hu, Ya-Ming Gong
      TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors, a family of plant-specific proteins, play crucial roles in plant growth and development and stress response. However, systematical information is unknown regarding the TCP gene family in soybean. In the present study, a total of 54 GmTCPs were identified in soybean, which were grouped into 11 groups with the typical TCP conserved domains. Phylogenetic relationship, protein motif and gene structure analyses distinguished the GmTCPs into two homology classes: Class I and Class II. Class II was then differentiated into two subclasses: CIN and CYC/TB1. Unique cis-element number and composition existed in the promoter regions which might be involved in the gene transcriptional regulation of different GmTCPs. Tissue expression analysis demonstrated the diverse spatiotemporal expression profiles of GmTCPs. Furthermore, the interaction protein of one previously functionally unknown TCP protein-GmTCP8 was investigated. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed the interaction between GmTCP8 and an abscisic acid receptor (GmPYL10). QRT-PCR assays indicated the distinct expression profiles of GmTCPs in response to abiotic stresses (heat, drought and salt) and stress-related signals (abscisic acid, brassinolide, salicylicacid and methyl jasmonate). These results will facilitate to uncover the possible roles of GmTCPs under abiotic stress and hormone signal responses in soybean.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Expression of heterologous lycopene β-cyclase gene in flax can cause
           silencing of its endogenous counterpart by changes in gene-body
           methylation and in ABA homeostasis mechanism
    • Authors: Aleksandra Boba; Kamil Kostyn; Marta Preisner; Wioleta Wojtasik; Jan Szopa; Anna Kulma
      Pages: 143 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Aleksandra Boba, Kamil Kostyn, Marta Preisner, Wioleta Wojtasik, Jan Szopa, Anna Kulma
      Previously we described flax plants with expression of Arabidopsis lycopene β-cyclase (lcb) gene in which decreased expression of the endogenous lcb and increased resistance to fungal pathogen was observed. We suggested that co-suppression was responsible for the change. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of the observed effect in detail. We found that methylation changes in the Lulcb gene body might be responsible for repression of the gene. Treatment with azacitidine (DNA methylation inhibitor) confirmed the results. Moreover, we studied how the manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway increased ABA level in these plants. We suggest that elevated ABA levels may be responsible for the increased resistance of the flax plants to pathogen infection through activation of chitinase (PR gene).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Effects of silicon nanoparticles on molecular, chemical, structural and
           ultrastructural characteristics of oat (Avena sativa L.)
    • Authors: Faride Asgari; Ahmad Majd; Parissa Jonoubi; Farzaneh Najafi
      Pages: 152 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Faride Asgari, Ahmad Majd, Parissa Jonoubi, Farzaneh Najafi
      Nowadays, nanoparticles are extensively being utilized in medicine, industry, and agriculture thus distributed into the environment. Hence, it is essential to examine exactly the impact of these materials on a variety of organisms, including various species of plants. Therefore, in the current study, we compared the effects of sodium silicate and nano silicon (SiNP) (both at two concentrations of 5 and 10 mM) separately on lignification of the xylem cell wall, antioxidant enzyme activities, ultrastructure of leaf and root cells, expression of silicon transporter (Lsi1) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and also evaluated the protein content and chemical content of oat plants (Avena sativa L.) cultured hydroponically. The results indicated that SiNPs didn't have a toxic effect on the oat plants, and in many cases they enhanced plant growth. The effect of SiNPs on the chemical content of the treated plants was almost identical with silicate. The silicon transporter (Lsi1) gene was expressed in plants exposed to SiNPs, however, at lower levels (∼37% in roots) than those exposed to silicate treatments. The SiNPs increased PAL expression and lignification in leaves and roots, however, at lower levels those of silicate (˃50% in fourth leaves of 10 mM concentration). They were aggregated in the roots (268–366 nm) and deposited in nano size on the cell walls of leaves. In general, their effects in the plants were identical to silicate but differed in intensity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Comparative adventitious root development in pre-etiolated and flooded
           Arabidopsis hypocotyls exposed to different auxins
    • Authors: Cibele Tesser da Costa; Marcos Letaif Gaeta; Jorge Ernesto de Araujo Mariath; Remko Offringa; Arthur Germano Fett-Neto
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Cibele Tesser da Costa, Marcos Letaif Gaeta, Jorge Ernesto de Araujo Mariath, Remko Offringa, Arthur Germano Fett-Neto
      Adventitious roots (ARs) emerge from stems, leaves or hypocotyls, being strategic for clonal propagation. ARs may develop spontaneously, upon environmental stress or hormonal treatment. Auxins strongly influence AR development (ARD), depending on concentration and kind. However, the role of different types of auxin is rarely compared at the molecular level. Rooting triggered by light exposure and flooding was examined in intact etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls treated with distinct auxin types. Morphological aspects, rooting-related gene expression profiles, and IAA immunolocalization were recorded. NAA and 2,4-D effects were highly dose-dependent; at higher concentrations NAA inhibited root growth and 2,4-D promoted callus formation. NAA yielded the highest number of roots, but inhibited elongation. IAA increased the number of roots with less interference in elongation, yielding the best overall rooting response. IAA was localized close to the tissues of root origin. Auxin stimulated ARD was marked by increased expression of PIN1 and GH3.3. NAA treatment induced expression of CYCB1, GH3.6 and ARF8. These NAA-specific responses may be associated with the development of numerous shorter roots. In contrast, expression of the auxin action inhibitor IAA28 was induced by IAA. Increased PIN1 expression indicated the relevance of auxin efflux transport for focusing in target cells, whereas GH3.3 suggested tight control of auxin homeostasis. IAA28 increased expression during IAA-induced ARD differs from what was previously reported for lateral root development, pointing to yet another possible difference in the molecular programs of these two developmental processes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in polyploid cotton
           (Gossypium hirsutum) and in its diploid parental species (Gossypium
           arboreum and Gossypium raimondii)
    • Authors: Sarah Muniz Nardeli; Sinara Artico; Gustavo Mitsunori Aoyagi; Stéfanie Menezes de Moura; Tatiane da Franca Silva; Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa; Elisson Romanel; Marcio Alves-Ferreira
      Pages: 169 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Sarah Muniz Nardeli, Sinara Artico, Gustavo Mitsunori Aoyagi, Stéfanie Menezes de Moura, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa, Elisson Romanel, Marcio Alves-Ferreira
      The MADS-box gene family encodes transcription factors that share a highly conserved domain known to bind to DNA. Members of this family control various processes of development in plants, from root formation to fruit ripening. In this work, a survey of diploid (Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum) and tetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum) cotton genomes found a total of 147, 133 and 207 MADS-box genes, respectively, distributed in the MIKC, Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ subclades. A comparative phylogenetic analysis among cotton species, Arabidopsis, poplar and grapevine MADS-box homologous genes allowed us to evaluate the evolution of each MADS-box lineage in cotton plants and identify sequences within well-established subfamilies. Chromosomal localization and phylogenetic analysis revealed that G. raimondii and G. arboreum showed a conserved evolution of the MIKC subclade and a distinct pattern of duplication events in the Mα, Mγ and Mδ subclades. Additionally, G. hirsutum showed a combination of its parental subgenomes followed by a distinct evolutionary history including gene gain and loss in each subclade. qPCR analysis revealed the expression patterns of putative homologs in the AP1, AP3, AGL6, SEP4, AGL15, AG, AGL17, TM8, SVP, SOC and TT16 subfamilies of G. hirsutum. The identification of putative cotton orthologs is discussed in the light of evolution and gene expression data from other plants. This analysis of the MADS-box genes in Gossypium species opens an avenue to understanding the origin and evolution of each gene subfamily within diploid and polyploid species and paves the way for functional studies in cotton species.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Uptake and metabolism of ammonium and nitrate in response to drought
           stress in Malus prunifolia
    • Authors: Linlin Huang; Mingjun Li; Kun Zhou; Tingting Sun; Lingyu Hu; Cuiying Li; Fengwang Ma
      Pages: 185 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Linlin Huang, Mingjun Li, Kun Zhou, Tingting Sun, Lingyu Hu, Cuiying Li, Fengwang Ma
      Using a hydroponics culture system, we monitored morphological, physiological, and molecular changes in Malus prunifolia seedlings when drought conditions induced by 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) were combined with a low or normal supply of N (0.05 mM or 1 mM NH4NO3, respectively). Under either nutrient level, drought stress negatively inhibited seedling performance, as manifested by reduced photosynthesis and biomass production, decreased accumulations of total N, and inhibited root growth. Concentrations of NO3 − and NH4 + and the activities of enzymes involved in N metabolism (nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) were also significantly decreased under drought stress. The net influx of NO3 − at the surface of the fine roots declined while that of NH4 + rose markedly, suggesting that the latter may play a more important role in improving drought tolerance in M. prunifolia. Consistently, two ammonium transporters (AMT1;2 and AMT4;2) were notably up-regulated in response to drought stress, whereas most genes related to nitrate uptake, reduction, and N metabolism were down-regulated. At the normal N level, PEG-treated plants showed higher values for biomass production, root growth, and N uptake/reduction when compared with plants exposed to the lower N supply. These results suggest that the negative effect of drought stress on M. prunifolia may be alleviated when more nitrogen is available.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.031
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Involvement of ascorbate peroxidase and heat shock proteins on citrus
           tolerance to combined conditions of drought and high temperatures
    • Authors: Damián Balfagón; Sara I. Zandalinas; Pablo Baliño; María Muriach; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
      Pages: 194 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Damián Balfagón, Sara I. Zandalinas, Pablo Baliño, María Muriach, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
      Usually several environmental stresses occur in nature simultaneously causing a unique plant response. However, most of the studies until now have focused in individually-applied abiotic stress conditions. Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. X Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) are two citrus rootstocks with contrasting tolerance to drought and heat stress and have been used in this work as a model for the study of plant tolerance to the combination of drought and high temperatures. According to our results, leaf integrity and photosynthetic machinery are less affected in Carrizo than in Cleopatra under combined conditions of drought and heat stress. The pattern of accumulation of three proteins (APX, HSP101 and HSP17.6) involved in abiotic stress tolerance shows that they do not accumulate under water stress conditions individually applied. However, contents of APX and HSP101 are higher in Carrizo than in Cleopatra under stress combination whereas HSP17.6 has a similar behavior in both types of plants. This, together with a better stomatal control and a higher APX activity of Carrizo, contributes to the higher tolerance of Carrizo plants to the combination of stresses and point to it as a better rootstock than Cleopatra (traditionally used in areas with scare water supplies) under the predictable future climatic conditions with frequent periods of drought combined with high temperatures. This work also provides the basis for testing the tolerance of different citrus varieties grafted on these rootstocks and growing under different field conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.029
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • An altered tocopherol composition in chloroplasts reduces plant resistance
           to Botrytis cinerea
    • Authors: Jana Cela; John K.S. Tweed; Anushen Sivakumaran; Michael R.F. Lee; Luis A.J. Mur; Sergi Munné-Bosch
      Pages: 200 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jana Cela, John K.S. Tweed, Anushen Sivakumaran, Michael R.F. Lee, Luis A.J. Mur, Sergi Munné-Bosch
      Tocopherols are lipid-soluble antioxidants that contribute to plant resistance to abiotic stresses. However, it is still unknown to what extent alterations in tocopherol composition can affect the plant response to biotic stresses. The response to bacterial and fungal attack of the vte1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which lacks both α- and γ-tocopherol, was compared to that of the vte4 mutant (which lacks α- but accumulates γ-tocopherol) and the wild type (with accumulates α-tocopherol in leaves). Both mutants exhibited similar kinetics of cell death and resistance in response to Pseudomonas syringae. In contrast, both mutants exhibited delayed resistance when infected with Botrytis cinerea. Lipid and hormonal profiling was employed with the aim of assessing the underlying cause of this differential phenotype. Although an altered tocopherol composition in both mutants strongly influenced fatty acid composition, and strongly altered jasmonic acid and cytokinin contents upon infection with B. cinerea, differences between genotypes in these phytohormones were observed during late stages of infection only. By contrast, genotype-related effects on lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, were observed early upon infection with B. cinerea. We conclude that an altered tocopherol composition in chloroplasts may negatively influence the plant response to biotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana through changes in the membrane fatty acid composition, enhanced lipid peroxidation and delayed defence activation when challenged with B. cinerea.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.033
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Effect of phosphate nutrition on growth, physiology and phosphate
           transporter expression of cucumber seedlings
    • Authors: Zakira Naureen; Arjun Sham; Hibatullah Al Ashram; Syed A. Gilani; Salma Al Gheilani; Fazal Mabood; Javid Hussain; Ahmed Al Harrasi; Synan F. AbuQamar
      Pages: 211 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Zakira Naureen, Arjun Sham, Hibatullah Al Ashram, Syed A. Gilani, Salma Al Gheilani, Fazal Mabood, Javid Hussain, Ahmed Al Harrasi, Synan F. AbuQamar
      Although abundantly present in soils, inorganic phosphate (Pi) acquisition by plants is highly dependent on the transmembrane phosphate transporter (PT) gene family. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) requires a large amount of phosphorus (P). The purpose of this study was to isolate the CsPT2-1 from cucumber roots, and to determine the influence of Pi nutrition on cucumber growth, metabolism and transcript levels of CsPT2-1 in tissues. Full length CsPT2-1 was cloned and phylogenetically identified. In two greenhouse experiments, P-deficient seedlings provided with low or high P concentrations were sampled at 10 and 21 days post treatment, respectively. Addition of P dramatically reduced growth of roots but not shoots. Supplying plants with high P resulted in increased total protein in leaves. Acid phosphatase activity increased significantly in leaves at any rate higher than 4 mM P. Increasing P concentration had a notable decrease in glucose concentrations in leaves of plants supplied with >0.5 mM P. In roots, glucose and starch concentrations increased with increasing P supply. Steady-state transcript levels of CsPT2-1 were high in P-deprived roots, but declined when plants were provided >10 mM P. To our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on a PT and its expression levels in cucumber.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.028
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Demonstration of monolignol β-glucosidase activity of rice Os4BGlu14,
           Os4BGlu16 and Os4BGlu18 in Arabidopsis thaliana bglu45 mutant
    • Authors: Supaporn Baiya; Bancha Mahong; Sang-Kyu Lee; Jong-Seong Jeon; James R. Ketudat Cairns
      Pages: 223 - 230
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Supaporn Baiya, Bancha Mahong, Sang-Kyu Lee, Jong-Seong Jeon, James R. Ketudat Cairns
      The glycoside hydrolase family 1 members Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16, and Os4BGlu18 were proposed to be rice monolignol β-glucosidases. In vitro studies demonstrated that the Os4BGlu16 and Os4BGlu18 hydrolyze the monolignol glucosides coniferin and syringin with high efficiency compared to other substrates. The replacement of the conserved catalytic acid/base glutamate residue by a nonionizable glutamine residue in Os4BGlu14 suggested that it may be inactive as a β-glucosidase. Here, we investigated the activities of Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16, and Os4BGlu18 in planta by recombinant expression of their genes in the Arabidopsis bglu45-2 (monolignol β-glucosidase) mutant and analysis of monolignol glucosides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS). The bglu45-2 line exhibits elevated monolignol glucoside levels, but lower amounts of coniferin, syringin, and p-coumaryl alcohol glucoside were seen in Arabidopsis bglu45-2 rescued lines complemented by the Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16, and Os4BGlu18 genes. These data suggest that the bglu45-2 mutant has a broader effect on monolignols than previously reported and that the Os4BGlu14, Os4BGlu16 and Os4BGlu18 proteins act as monolignol β-glucosidases to complement the defect. An OsBGlu16-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell wall. This apoplastic localization and the effect of these enzymes on monolignol glucoside levels suggest monolignol glucosides from the vacuole may meet the monolignol β-glucosidases, despite their different localization.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Effect of combined waterlogging and salinity stresses on euhalophyte
           Suaeda glauca
    • Authors: Huimin Duan; Yanchun Ma; Ranran Liu; Qiang Li; Yang Yang; Jie Song
      Pages: 231 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Huimin Duan, Yanchun Ma, Ranran Liu, Qiang Li, Yang Yang, Jie Song
      Salinity and waterlogging are abiotic stresses that have a significant impact on agricultural production and ecosystem conservation. The response of euhalophyte Suaeda glauca to waterlogging and salinity stresses was investigated. The results revealed that waterlogging markedly decreased seedling emergence. Compared to drained conditions, waterlogging inhibited the shoot dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry and chlorophyll content at salinity. Salinity decreased these values in both waterlogged and drained conditions, while the opposite trend was found in intercellular CO2 concentrations. Waterlogging increased Na+, Cl−, O2 -, H2O2 and MDA content in the leaves compared with those in drained conditions, but this was not the case for K+ content and SOD and APX activity. Salinity increased these values except that salinity decreased K+ content in both waterlogged and drained conditions. In conclusion, S. glauca is not tolerant to combined waterlogging and salinity stresses during both seedling emergence and seedling growth stages, and this trait may limit the distribution of the species in lowland saline areas.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.030
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Elevated nitrogen metabolism and nitric oxide production are involved in
           Arabidopsis resistance to acid rain
    • Authors: Fang Qiao; Xi-Min Zhang; Xiang Liu; Juan Chen; Wen-Jun Hu; Ting-Wu Liu; Ji-Yun Liu; Chun-Quan Zhu; Kabir Ghoto; Xue-Yi Zhu; Hai-Lei Zheng
      Pages: 238 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Fang Qiao, Xi-Min Zhang, Xiang Liu, Juan Chen, Wen-Jun Hu, Ting-Wu Liu, Ji-Yun Liu, Chun-Quan Zhu, Kabir Ghoto, Xue-Yi Zhu, Hai-Lei Zheng
      Acid rain (AR) can induce great damages to plants and could be classified into different types according to the different SO4 2-/NO3 − ratio. However, the mechanism of plants’ responding to different types of AR has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we found that nitric-rich simulated AR (N-SiAR) induced less leaves injury as lower necrosis percentage, better physiological parameters and reduced oxidative damage in the leaves of N-SiAR treated Arabidopsis thaliana compared with sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR) or sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR) simulated AR treated ones. Of these three types of SiAR, N-SiAR treated Arabidopsis maintained the highest of nitrogen (N) content, nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity as well as N metabolism related genes expression level. Nitric oxide (NO) content showed that N-SiAR treated seedlings had a higher NO level compared to SN-SiAR or S-SiAR treated ones. A series of NO production and elimination related reagents and three NO production-related mutants were used to further confirm the role of NO in regulating acid rain resistance in N-SiAR treated Arabidopsis seedlings. Taken together, we concluded that an elevated N metabolism and enhanced NO production are involved in the tolerance to different types of AR in Arabidopsis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Biosynthetic pathways of glycinebetaine in Thalassiosira pseudonana;
           functional characterization of enzyme catalyzing three-step methylation of
           glycine
    • Authors: Hakuto Kageyama; Yoshito Tanaka; Teruhiro Takabe
      Pages: 248 - 255
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Hakuto Kageyama, Yoshito Tanaka, Teruhiro Takabe
      Betaine (trimethylglycine) is an important compatible solute that accumulates in response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. Biosynthetic pathways of betaine have been extensively studied, but it remains to be clarified on algae. A diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP1335 is an important component of marine ecosystems. Here we show that the genome sequence of Thalassiosira suggests the presence of two biosynthetic pathways for betaine, via three step methylation of glycine and via two step oxidation of choline. The choline oxidation via choline dehydrogenase was suggested and its sequential characteristics were analyzed. A candidate gene TpORF1 for glycine methylation encodes a protein consisted of 574 amino acids with two putative tandem repeat methyltransferase domains. The TpORF1 was expressed in E. coli, and the purified protein was shown to synthesize betaine via three step methylation of glycine and designated as TpGSDMT. The proteins containing C-terminal half or N-terminal half were expressed in E. coli and exhibited the methyl transferase activities with different substrate specificity for glycine, sarcosine and dimethylglycine. Upregulation of TpGSDMT transcription and betaine levels were observed at high salinity, suggesting the importance of TpGSDMT for salt tolerance in T. pseudonana cells.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.032
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Responses of grapevine rootstocks to drought through altered root system
           architecture and root transcriptomic regulations
    • Authors: Kubilay Yıldırım; Adem Yağcı; Seda Sucu; Sümeyye Tunç
      Pages: 256 - 268
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Kubilay Yıldırım, Adem Yağcı, Seda Sucu, Sümeyye Tunç
      Roots are the major interface between the plant and various stress factors in the soil environment. Alteration of root system architecture (RSA) (root length, spread, number and length of lateral roots) in response to environmental changes is known to be an important strategy for plant adaptation and productivity. In light of ongoing climate changes and global warming predictions, the breeding of drought-tolerant grapevine cultivars is becoming a crucial factor for developing a sustainable viticulture. Root-trait modeling of grapevine rootstock for drought stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, may provide a valuable background for breeding studies in viticulture. Here, tree grafted grapevine rootstocks (110R, 5BB and 41B) having differential RSA regulations and drought tolerance were investigated to define their drought dependent root characteristics. Root area, root length, ramification and number of root tips reduced less in 110R grafted grapevines compared to 5BB and 41B grafted ones during drought treatment. Root relative water content as well as total carbohydrate and nitrogen content were found to be much higher in the roots of 110R than it was in the roots of other rootstocks under drought. Microarray-based root transcriptome profiling was also conducted on the roots of these rootstocks to identify their gene regulation network behind drought-dependent RSA alterations. Transcriptome analysis revealed totally 2795, 1196 and 1612 differentially expressed transcripts at the severe drought for the roots of 110R, 5BB and 41B, respectively. According to this transcriptomic data, effective root elongation and enlargement performance of 110R were suggested to depend on three transcriptomic regulations. First one is the drought-dependent induction in sugar and protein transporters genes (SWEET and NRT1/PTR) in the roots of 110R to facilitate carbohydrate and nitrogen accumulation. In the roots of the same rootstock, expression increase in osmolyte producer genes revealed another transcriptomic regulation enabling effective root osmotic adjustment under drought stress. The third mechanism was linked to root suberization with upregulation of transcripts functional in wax producing enzymes (Caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, Eceriferum3, 3-ketoacyl-CoAsynthase). These three transcriptomic regulations were suggested to provide essential energy and water preservation to the roots of 110R for its effective RSA regulation under drought. This phenotypic and genotypic knowledge could be used to develop root-dependent drought tolerant grapevines in breeding programs and could facilitate elucidation of genetic regulations behind RSA alteration in other plants.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.034
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Tyramine and tyrosine decarboxylase gene contributes to the formation of
           cyanic blotches in the petals of pansy (Viola × wittrockiana)
    • Authors: Wenhan Yang; Ting Peng; Tingge Li; Juren Cen; Jian Wang
      Pages: 269 - 275
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Wenhan Yang, Ting Peng, Tingge Li, Juren Cen, Jian Wang
      Tyrosine decarboxylase (TYDC) can catalyze tyrosine into tyramine. Several studies demonstrated its roles in the acidity, salidroside and defense response. Here we found that TYDC from Viola × wittrockiana Gam (VwTYDC) may contribute to the formation of cyaninc blotches in the petal. VwTYDC gene were cloned from Viola × wittrockiana and the cDNA full-length sequences were 1634 bp encoding 494 amino acids. Gene expression of VwTYDC in different tissues and developmental stages showed that they were significantly higher expressed in flowers than stems, leaves and roots. In addition, VwTYDC expression were higher in cyanic blotches than those observed in acyanic blotches of petal. Metabolites analysis showed the contents of tyramine in cyanic blotches were also higher than that in acyanic areas. Furthermore, in vitro assay revealed the absorption peak of anthocyanins had a red shift and an increase when fed tyramine. We speculated that tyramine might contribute to flower color expression of pansy as co-pigment. Our study demonstrated for the first time that the contents of tyramine led to flower blotches formation in cyanic blotches of the petals in plant flowers, and this may due to the higher expression of VwTYDC gene.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Transcriptome analysis of Jatropha curcas L. flower buds responded to the
           paclobutrazol treatment
    • Authors: Anupharb Seesangboon; Lucsame Gruneck; Tittinat Pokawattana; Prapassorn Damrongkool Eungwanichayapant; Jantrararuk Tovaranonte; Siam Popluechai
      Pages: 276 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Anupharb Seesangboon, Lucsame Gruneck, Tittinat Pokawattana, Prapassorn Damrongkool Eungwanichayapant, Jantrararuk Tovaranonte, Siam Popluechai
      Jatropha seeds can be used to produce high-quality biodiesel due to their high oil content. However, Jatropha produces low numbers of female flowers, which limits seed yield. Paclobutrazol (PCB), a plant growth retardant, can increase number of Jatropha female flowers and seed yield. However, the underlying mechanisms of flower development after PCB treatment are not well understood. To identify the critical genes associated with flower development, the transcriptome of flower buds following PCB treatment was analyzed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that the flower developmental stage between PCB-treated and control flower buds was similar. Based on the presence of sex organs, flower buds at 0, 4, and 24 h after treatment were chosen for global transcriptome analysis. In total, 100,597 unigenes were obtained, 174 of which were deemed as interesting based on their response to PCB treatment. Our analysis showed that the JcCKX5 and JcTSO1 genes were up-regulated at 4 h, suggesting roles in promoting organogenic capacity and ovule primordia formation in Jatropha. The JcNPGR2, JcMGP2-3, and JcHUA1 genes were down-regulated indicating that they may contribute to increased number of female flowers and amount of seed yield. Expression of cell division and cellulose biosynthesis-related genes, including JcGASA3, JcCycB3;1, JcCycP2;1, JcKNAT7, and JcCSLG3 was decreased, which might have caused the compacted inflorescences. This study represents the first report combining SEM-based morphology, qRT-PCR and transcriptome analysis of PCB-treated Jatropha flower buds at different stages of flower development.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.035
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Metabolomics-guided investigations of unintended effects of the expression
           of the hydroxycinnamoyl quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (hqt1) gene
           from Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus in Nicotiana tabacum cell cultures
    • Authors: S.P. Mudau; P.A. Steenkamp; L.A. Piater; M. De Palma; M. Tucci; N.E. Madala; I.A. Dubery
      Pages: 287 - 298
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): S.P. Mudau, P.A. Steenkamp, L.A. Piater, M. De Palma, M. Tucci, N.E. Madala, I.A. Dubery
      Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are phenolic compounds biosynthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway, with hydroxycinnamoyl quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) as the key enzyme. Variation of CGAs has been noted in different plants, with globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) producing high amounts and a diverse spectrum of CGAs in its leaves. In the current study, the effect of overexpression of the hqt1 transgene from globe artichoke in tobacco was evaluated at the metabolome level. Here, metabolomic approaches based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, together with chemometric models such as principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis, were employed to evaluate altered metabolic changes due to hqt1 overexpression. CGA profiles (caffeoylquinic acids: 3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA; p-coumaroylquinic acids: 4-pCoQA and 5-pCoQA; and 4,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid) of transgenic tobacco cell cultures were detected at lower concentrations than in the wild type. Interestingly, the cells were found to rather accumulate, as an unintended effect, abscisic acid - and benzoic acid derivatives. The results suggest that insertion of hqt1 in tobacco, and overexpression in undifferentiated cells, led to rechannelling of the phenylpropanoid pathway to accumulate benzoic acids. These findings proved to be contrary to the results shown elsewhere in leaf tissues, thus indicating differential metabolic control and regulation in the undifferentiated cell culture system.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Elevated CO2 induces alteration in lignin accumulation in celery (Apium
           graveolens L.)
    • Authors: Jie-Xia Liu; Kai Feng; Guang-Long Wang; Zhi-Sheng Xu; Feng Wang; Ai-Sheng Xiong
      Pages: 310 - 319
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jie-Xia Liu, Kai Feng, Guang-Long Wang, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
      Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important regulator of plant growth and development, and its proportion in the atmosphere continues to rise now. Lignin is one of the major secondary products in plants with vital biological functions. However, the relationship between CO2 level and xylogenesis in celery is still unknown. In order to investigate the effects of increasing CO2 concentration on lignin accumulation in celery, ‘Jinnanshiqin’ were exposed to two CO2 applications, 400 (e0) and 1000 μmol mol−1 (e1), respectively. Plant morphology and lignin distribution in celery plants treated with elevated CO2 did not change significantly. There was an upward trend on lignin content in celery leaves, and the transcript abundance of 12 genes involved in lignin metabolism has altered in response to elevated CO2. The effects of high level of CO2 on different tissues were different. Our works confirmed that CO2 may play an important role in lignin accumulation in celery leaves. The current study will offer new evidence to understand the regulation mechanism of lignin biosynthesis under elevated CO2 and provide a reference to improve celery quality by adjusting the growth environment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Functional characterization of the gene promoter for an Elaeis guineensis
           phosphate starvation-inducible, high affinity phosphate transporter in
           both homologous and heterologous model systems
    • Authors: Farzaneh Ahmadi; Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah; Saeid Kadkhodaei; Siti Mariyam Ijab; Luqman Hamzah; Maheran Abdul Aziz; Zaharah A. Rahman; Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed Alwee
      Pages: 320 - 335
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Farzaneh Ahmadi, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah, Saeid Kadkhodaei, Siti Mariyam Ijab, Luqman Hamzah, Maheran Abdul Aziz, Zaharah A. Rahman, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed Alwee
      Oil palm is grown in tropical soils with low bioavailability of Pi. A cDNA clone specifically expressed under phosphate-starvation condition in oil palm roots was identified as a high-affinity phosphate transporter (EgPHT1). The deduced amino acid sequence has 6 transmembrane domains each at the N- and C-termini separated by a hydrophilic linker. Comparison of promoter motifs within 1500 bp upstream of ATG of 10 promoters from high- and low-affinity phosphate transporter from both dicots and monocots including EgPHT1 was performed. The EgPHT1 promoter was fused to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and its activity was analysed by histochemical and fluorometric GUS assays in transiently transformed oil palm tissues and T3 homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In response to Pi-starvation, no GUS activity was detected in oil palm leaves, but a strong inducible activity was observed in the roots (1.4 times higher than the CaMV35S promoter). GUS was specifically expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis roots under Pi deficiency and starvation of the other macronutrients (N and K) did not induce GUS activity. Eight motifs including ABRERATCAL (abscisic-acid responsive), RHERPATEXPA7 (root hair-specific), SURECOREATSULTR11 (sulfur-deficiency response), LTRECOREATCOR15 (temperature-stress response), MYB2CONSENSUSAT and ACGTATERD1 (water-stress response) as well as two novel motifs, 3 (TAAAAAAA) and 26 (TTTTATGT) identified through pattern discovery, occur at significantly higher frequency (p < 0.05) in the high-than the low-affinity phosphate transporter promoters. The Pi deficiency-responsive elements in EgPHT1 includes the P1BS, W-box, E-box and the G-box. Thus, EgPHT1 is important for improving Pi uptake in oil palm with potential for engineering efficient Pi acquisition.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • A chloroplast-targeted cabbage DEAD-box RNA helicase BrRH22 confers
           abiotic stress tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants by affecting
           translation of chloroplast transcripts
    • Authors: Ghazala Nawaz; Kwanuk Lee; Su Jung Park; Yeon-Ok Kim; Hunseung Kang
      Pages: 336 - 342
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Ghazala Nawaz, Kwanuk Lee, Su Jung Park, Yeon-Ok Kim, Hunseung Kang
      Although the roles of many DEAD-box RNA helicases (RHs) have been determined in the nucleus as well as in cytoplasm during stress responses, the importance of chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RHs in stress response remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the function of BrRH22, a chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RH in cabbage (Brassica rapa), in abiotic stress responses. The expression of BrRH22 was markedly increased by drought, heat, salt, or cold stress and by ABA treatment, but was largely decreased by UV stress. Expression of BrRH22 in Arabidopsis enhanced germination and plantlet growth under high salinity or drought stress. BrRH22-expressing plants displayed a higher cotyledon greening and better plantlet growth upon ABA treatment due to decreases in the levels of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5. Further, BrRH22 affected translation of several chloroplast transcripts under stress. Notably, BrRH22 had RNA chaperone function. These results altogether suggest that chloroplast-transported BrRH22 contributes positively to the response of transgenic Arabidopsis to abiotic stress by affecting translation of chloroplast genes via its RNA chaperone activity.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Assessing the correlation of genotypic and phenotypic responses of indica
           rice varieties under drought stress
    • Authors: Anupama Anupama; Swati Bhugra; Brejesh Lall; Santanu Chaudhury; Archana Chugh
      Pages: 343 - 354
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Anupama Anupama, Swati Bhugra, Brejesh Lall, Santanu Chaudhury, Archana Chugh
      Drought is one of the severe abiotic stress that affects the productivity of rice, an important staple crop that is consumed all over the world. The traits responsible for enhancing or adapting drought resistance in rice plants can be selected and studied to improve their growth under stress conditions. Experiments have been conducted on indica rice varieties comprising Sahabhagidhan as drought tolerant variety and IR64, MTU1010 categorized as drought sensitive varieties. Various root related biochemical and morphological traits such as root length, relative water content (RWC), xylem number, xylem area, proline content, and malondialdehyde content have been investigated for a comparative study of the plant response to drought stress in different rice varieties. The results of differential root transcriptome analysis have revealed that there is a notable difference in gene expression of OsPIP2;5 and OsNIP2;1 in various indica varieties of rice at different time periods of stress. The present work aims at assessing the correlation between genotypic and phenotypic traits that can contribute towards the emerging field of rice phenomics.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • The partial root-zone saline irrigation system and antioxidant responses
           in tomato plants
    • Authors: Rita de Cássia Alves; Ana Santana de Medeiros; Mayara Cristina Malvas Nicolau; Antônio Pizolato Neto; Francisco de Assis oliveira; Leonardo Warzea Lima; Tiago Tezotto; Priscila Lupino Gratão
      Pages: 366 - 379
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Rita de Cássia Alves, Ana Santana de Medeiros, Mayara Cristina Malvas Nicolau, Antônio Pizolato Neto, Francisco de Assis oliveira, Leonardo Warzea Lima, Tiago Tezotto, Priscila Lupino Gratão
      Salinity is a limiting factor that can affect plant growth and cause significant losses in agricultural productivity. This study provides an insight about the viability of partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) system with saline water supported by a biochemical approach involving antioxidant responses. Six different irrigation methods using low and high salt concentrations (S1-0.5 and S2-5.0 dS m−1) were applied, with or without PRSI, so that one side of the root-zone was submitted to saline water while the other side was low salinity water irrigated. The results revealed different responses according to the treatments and the PRSI system applied. For the treatments T1, T2 and T3, the PRSI was not applied, while T4, T5 and T6 treatments were applied with PRSI system. Lipid peroxidation, proline content, and activities of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and GSH in tomato plants subjected to PRSI system were analyzed. Plant growth was not affected by the salt concentrations; however, plants submitted to high salt concentrations showed high MDA content and Na+ accumulation when compared to the control plants. Plants submitted to treatments T4, T5 and T6 with PRSI system exhibited lower MDA compared to the control plants (T1). Proline content and activities of SOD, CAT, APX, GR and GSH content were maintained in all treatments and tissues analyzed, with only exception for APX in fruits and GSH content, in roots. The overall results showed that PRSI system could be an applicable technique for saline water supply on irrigation since plants did not show to be vulnerable to salt stress, supported by a biochemical approach involving antioxidant responses.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Leaf physiological and anatomical responses of Lantana and Ligustrum
           species under different water availability
    • Authors: Stefania Toscano; Antonio Ferrante; Alessandro Tribulato; Daniela Romano
      Pages: 380 - 392
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 127
      Author(s): Stefania Toscano, Antonio Ferrante, Alessandro Tribulato, Daniela Romano
      Understanding the plant characteristics that support tolerance to water stress is important in choosing plants in arid or semi-arid environments, such as the Mediterranean. In particular, leaf characteristics can affect the response of plants to water stress. In order to understand how plants with different leaf features can overcome water stress, four water regimes were adopted on two species that are widespread in the Mediterranean environment, Lantana camara and Ligustrum lucidum. The four treatments were: control (C), in which the pot substrate moisture was maintained close to water container capacity (WCC), light deficit irrigation (LDI) irrigated at 75% of WCC, moderate deficit irrigation (MDI) at 50% of WCC, and severe deficit irrigation (SDI) at 25% of WCC. To better understand the action mechanisms, the trial was repeated twice (from January to May, and from May to September). Morphological, anatomical and physiological data were measured to identify the action mechanisms. Water deficit significantly decreased the biomass accumulation in both species during the experimental growth period. In Lantana, significant variations in total leaf area and leaf number were registered between C and SDI, while in Ligustrum, the differences were significant only for total leaf area. The water deficit treatments reduced the leaf thickness especially in Ligustrum. In both species, photosynthesis reduction was related to stomatal closure. Ligustrum showed a higher variability among treatments indicating a faster and more efficient response to water limitations compared to Lantana, as also demonstrated by the lower biomass reduction in the most severe water stress treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Growth and physiological responses of two phenotypically distinct
           accessions of centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.) to
           salt stress
    • Authors: JianJian Li; Jingjing Ma; Hailin Guo; Junqin Zong; Jingbo Chen; Yi Wang; Dandan Li; Ling Li; Jingjing Wang; Jianxiu Liu
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): JianJian Li, Jingjing Ma, Hailin Guo, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Yi Wang, Dandan Li, Ling Li, Jingjing Wang, Jianxiu Liu
      Salinity is one of the major abiotic environmental stress factors affecting plant growth and development. Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro)] Hack.) is an important warm-season turfgrass species with low turf maintenance requirements, but is sensitive to salinity stress. To explore salt tolerant germplasms in centipedegrass and better understand the growth and physiological responses of centipedegrass to salinity, we conducted anatomic observation and phytochemical quantification, examined growth parameters, and investigated photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in two phenotypically distinct centipedegrass accessions under NaCl salt stress. The morphophenotypical difference of the stems in the two accessions mainly depends on whether or not a thickened epidermal horny layer with purple colour was formed, which was caused by anthocyanin accumulation in the tissue. Successive salinity treatment was found to result in an inhibition of leaf growth, a marked decrease in photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents, and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). Under the same treatment, purple-stem accession (E092) showed a lower degree of inhibition or decrease than green-stem one (E092-1). With the exception of malondialdehyde level, both proline content and antioxidant enzymes were upregulated to a greater extent in E092 following exposure to salinity condition. Meanwhile, significant enhancements of anthocyanin accumulation and total protein synthesis were detected in E092 after salt treatment, but not in E092-1. These results demonstrated that E092 favor better accumulation of anthocyanins under salinity condition, which contribute to salt tolerance by adjusting physiological functions and osmotic balance, and better maintenance of high turf quality. Hence, genetic phenotype can be utilized as a key indicator in E. ophiuroides breeding for salt-tolerance.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Transcription profile analysis of Lycopersicum esculentum leaves, unravels
           volatile emissions and gene expression under salinity stress
    • Authors: Jihong Zhang; Li Zeng; Shaoyang Chen; Helong Sun; Shuang Ma
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Jihong Zhang, Li Zeng, Shaoyang Chen, Helong Sun, Shuang Ma
      Salinity stress can impede development and plant growth adversely. However, there is very little molecular information on NaCl resistance and volatile emissions in Lycopersicum esculentum. In order to investigate the effects of salt stress on the release of volatile compounds, we quantified and compared transcriptome changes by RNA-Seq analysis and volatile constituents with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) coupled with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) after exposure to continuous salt stress. Chemical analysis by GC-MS analysis revealed that NaCl stress had changed species and quantity of volatile compounds released. In this research, 21,578 unigenes that represented 44,714 assembled unique transcripts were separated from tomato leaves exposed to NaCl stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. The total number of differentially expressed genes was 7210 after exposure to NaCl, including 6200 down-regulated and 1208 up-regulated genes. Among these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), there were eighteen differentially expressed genes associated with volatile biosynthesis. Of the unigenes, 3454 were mapped to 131 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, mainly those are involved in RNA transport, plant-pathogen interactions, and plant hormone signal transduction. qRT-PCR analysis showed that NaCl exposure affected the expression profiles of the biosynthesis genes for eight volatile compounds (IPI, GPS, and TPS, etc.), which corresponded well with the RNA-Seq analysis and GC-MS results. Our results suggest that NaCl stress affects the emission of volatile substances from L. esculentum leaves by regulating the expression of genes that are involved in volatile organic compounds’ biosynthesis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Functional analysis of overexpressed PtDRS1 involved in abiotic stresses
           enhances growth in transgenic poplar
    • Authors: Kourosh Mohammadi; Ali Movahedi; Samaneh sadat Maleki; Weibo Sun; Jiaxin Zhang; Amir Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti; Saeed Nourmohammadi; Qiang Zhuge
      Pages: 22 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Kourosh Mohammadi, Ali Movahedi, Samaneh sadat Maleki, Weibo Sun, Jiaxin Zhang, Amir Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti, Saeed Nourmohammadi, Qiang Zhuge
      Drought and salinity are two main abiotic stressors that can disrupt plant growth and survival. Various biotechnological approaches have been used to alleviate the problem of drought stress by improving water stress resistance in forestry and agriculture. The drought sensitive 1 (DRS1) gene acts as a regulator of drought stress, identified in human, yeast and some model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, but there have been no reports of DRS1 transformation in poplar plants to date. In this study, we transformed the DRS1 gene from Populus trichocarpa into Populus deltoides × Populus euramericana 'Nanlin895' using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. We confirmed that the DRS1 gene was transformed into 'Nanlin895' poplar genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All transformed and wild-type (WT) plants were then transferred into a greenhouse for complementary experiments. We analyzed the physiological and biochemical responses of transgenic plants under drought and salt stresses in the greenhouse, and the results were compared with control WT plants. Responses to abiotic stress were greater in transgenic plants compared with WT. Based on our results, introduction of the DRS1 gene into poplar 'Nanlin895' plants significantly enhanced the resistance of those plants to water deficit and high salinity, allowing higher growth rates of roots and shoots in those plants. Additionally, the clawed root rate increased in transformed poplars grown in culture media or in soil, and improved survival under drought and salt stress conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Exogenous gibberellic acid application induces the overexpression of key
           genes for pedicel lignification and an increase in berry drop in table
           grape
    • Authors: Miguel García-Rojas; Marco Meneses; Kristen Oviedo; Carlos Carrasco; Bruno Defilippi; Mauricio González-Agüero; Gabriel León; Patricio Hinrichsen
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Miguel García-Rojas, Marco Meneses, Kristen Oviedo, Carlos Carrasco, Bruno Defilippi, Mauricio González-Agüero, Gabriel León, Patricio Hinrichsen
      Most table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties require gibberellic acid (GA3) applications to obtain an adequate berry size in order to satisfy market requirements. However, GA3 treatments also produce severe berry drop in some cultivars, which occurs mainly after a cold storage period during post-harvest. Berry drop in bunches treated with GA3 has been related to the hardening and thickening of the pedicel produced by the over-accumulation of cellulose and its lignification. The main goal of this study was to compare the morphology and gene expression in pedicel samples of genotypes contrasting for berry drop susceptibility. These genotypes are Thompson Seedless, which exhibits a low incidence of berry drop, and a genetic line (Line #23) of INIA's breeding program that is very susceptible to berry drop at harvest and after storage in bunches sprayed with GA3. The parameters measured to study this phenomenon during fruit growth and post-harvest storage included fruit detachment force (FDF), hardness and thickness of the pedicel and berry drop frequency. Histological analyses of pedicel structures at harvest showed an increase in cell size and deposition of lignin in the cortex zone in both contrasting genotypes treated with GA3. The expression profile in both genotypes of the key lignin biosynthesis genes Vv4CL4, VvCCR1L and VvCAD1 analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) revealed evident changes in response to GA3 treatments. In particular, gene VvCAD1 is overexpressed (100X) in pedicels of line #23 treated with GA3 after 30 and 45 days in cold storage compared to control. Moreover, the frequency of berry drop was higher for Line #23 treated with GA3 than for the control (23% vs. 1%). Our results suggest that gibberellic acid regulates the expression of the biosynthesis of lignin genes, generating changes in cell wall composition and pedicel structure that result in an increase in berry drop.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Systems-level feedback regulation of cell cycle transitions in
           Ostreococcus tauri
    • Authors: Orsolya Kapuy; P.K. Vinod; Gábor Bánhegyi; Béla Novák
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Orsolya Kapuy, P.K. Vinod, Gábor Bánhegyi, Béla Novák
      Ostreococcus tauri is the smallest free-living unicellular organism with one copy of each core cell cycle genes in its genome. There is a growing interest in this green algae due to its evolutionary origin. Since O. tauri is diverged early in the green lineage, relatively close to the ancestral eukaryotic cell, it might hold a key phylogenetic position in the eukaryotic tree of life. In this study, we focus on the regulatory network of its cell division cycle. We propose a mathematical modelling framework to integrate the existing knowledge of cell cycle network of O. tauri. We observe that feedback loop regulation of both G1/S and G2/M transitions in O. tauri is conserved, which can make the transition bistable. This is essential to make the transition irreversible as shown in other eukaryotic organisms. By performing sequence analysis, we also predict the presence of the Greatwall/PP2A pathway in the cell cycle of O. tauri. Since O. tauri cell cycle machinery is conserved, the exploration of the dynamical characteristic of the cell division cycle will help in further understanding the regulation of cell cycle in higher eukaryotes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Effects of long-term UV-exposure and plant sex on the leaf phenoloxidase
           activities and phenolic concentrations of Salix myrsinifolia (Salisb.)
    • Authors: Teija Ruuhola; Line Nybakken; Tendry Randriamanana; Anu Lavola; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Teija Ruuhola, Line Nybakken, Tendry Randriamanana, Anu Lavola, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
      The accumulation of flavonoids on the leaf surface is a well-characterized protective mechanism against UV-B radiation. Other protective mechanisms, such as the induction of antioxidative enzymes and peroxidase-mediated lignification may also be important. The effects of UV-B radiation have mainly been considered in short-term studies, whereas ecologically more relevant long-term field studies are still rare. Here we examined the effects of long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation on the activities of two antioxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.2.2 and EC 1.14.18.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7), as well as the phenolic concentrations in two sexes of the dioecious species, Salix myrsinifolia. After three consecutive growth seasons with enhanced UV-B radiation, we found that PPO activity was decreased by UV radiation in male plants, which might explain their lower UV-B tolerance when compared to female plants. In addition, male plants had higher specific activity than did female plants under ambient conditions, supporting the idea that males of S. myrsinifolia are generally more growth-oriented than females. By contrast, neither UV treatment nor sex had significant effects on the POD activities of willows. Gender differences in the concentrations of phenolic compounds are in line with the general concept that males are less well defended than females. We suggest that the inability to increase PPO and POD activity, along with lower accumulation of UV-B absorbing compounds under UV-B exposure, might be one of the reasons why males had thinner leaves and were less tolerant of UV-B than were females.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Ascophyllum nodosum extract biostimulants and their role in enhancing
           tolerance to drought stress in tomato plants
    • Authors: Oscar Goñi; Patrick Quille; Shane O'Connell
      Pages: 63 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Oscar Goñi, Patrick Quille, Shane O'Connell
      Global changes in climate are leading to increased occurrence and duration of drought episodes with concurrent reduction in crop yields. Expansion of the irrigated land area does not appear to be a viable solution in many regions to deliver crop productivity. The development of crop drought tolerance traits by either genetic modification or plant breeding represent the principal approaches to meeting this challenge to date. Biostimulants are an emerging category of crop management products which can enhance crop productivity under abiotic stress conditions. The ability of some biostimulant products such as Ascophyllum nodosum extracts (ANE) to enhance the tolerance of crops to drought stress has been observed by growers. The objective of this study was to investigate if different commercial ANE biostimulants provided the same tolerance to tomato plants (cv. Moneymaker) subjected to a defined drought period. A compositional characterisation of the key macromolecules of ANEs was performed. In addition, the role of ANE biostimulants in inducing changes of chlorophyll and osmolytes levels, MDA production, dehydrin isoform pattern and dehydrin gene expression levels was assessed. The three ANE biostimulants evaluated were found to provide different levels of tolerance to drought stressed tomato plants. The level of drought tolerance provided was related to changes in the concentration of osmolytes and expression of tas14 dehydrin gene. Taken together, our results highlight that despite the fact all ANE biostimulants were manufactured from the same raw material, their ability to maintain crop productivity during and after drought stress was not the same.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • H2O2 homeostasis in wild-type and ethylene-insensitive Never ripe tomato
           in response to salicylic acid treatment in normal photoperiod and in
           prolonged darkness
    • Authors: Zoltán Takács; Péter Poór; Péter Borbély; Zalán Czékus; Gabriella Szalai; Irma Tari
      Pages: 74 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Zoltán Takács, Péter Poór, Péter Borbély, Zalán Czékus, Gabriella Szalai, Irma Tari
      Ethylene proved to be an important modulator of salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathway. Since SA may regulate both the production and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which show light-dependency, the aim of this study was to compare H2O2 metabolism in the leaves of SA-treated wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Ailsa Craig) and in ethylene receptor Never-ripe (Nr) mutants grown in normal photoperiod or in prolonged darkness. H2O2 accumulation was higher in the WT than in the mutants in normal photoperiod after 1 mM SA treatment, while Nr leaves contained more H2O2 after light deprivation. The expression of certain superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes and activity of the enzyme followed the same tendency as H2O2, which was scavenged by different enzymes in the two genotypes. Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was inhibited by SA in WT, while the mutants maintained enhanced enzyme activity in the dark. Thus, in WT, CAT inhibition was the major component of the H2O2 accumulation elicited by 1 mM SA in a normal photoperiod, since the expression and/or activity of ascorbate (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and guaiacol peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were induced in the leaves. The absence of APX and POD activation in mutant plants suggests that the regulation of these enzymes by SA needs functional ethylene signalling. While the block of ethylene perception in Nr mutants was overwritten in the transcription and activity of certain SOD and CAT isoenzymes during prolonged darkness, the low APX and POD activities led to H2O2 accumulation in these tissues.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Mitochondria dysfunctions under Fe and S deficiency: is citric acid
           involved in the regulation of adaptive responses'
    • Authors: Gianpiero Vigani; Youry Pii; Silvia Celletti; Mauro Maver; Tanja Mimmo; Stefano Cesco; Stefania Astolfi
      Pages: 86 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Gianpiero Vigani, Youry Pii, Silvia Celletti, Mauro Maver, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco, Stefania Astolfi
      Within the last years, extensive information has been accumulated on the reciprocal influence between S and Fe nutrition at both physiological and molecular level in several plant species, but the mechanisms regulating S and Fe sensing and signaling are not fully understood. Fe and S interact for the building of Fe–S clusters, and mitochondria is one of the cellular compartments where Fe–S cluster assembly takes place. Therefore, it would be expected that mitochondria might play a central role in the regulation of Fe and S interaction. The Fe deficiency-induced alteration in the synthesis of mitochondria-derived carboxylic acids, such as citric acid, and the evidence that such molecules have already been identified as important players of metabolite signaling in several organisms, further support this hypothesis. Tomato plants were grown under single or combined Fe and S deficiency with the aim of verifying whether mitochondria activities played a role in Fe/S interaction. Both Fe and S deficiencies determined similar alteration of respiratory chain activity: a general decrease of Fe-S containing complexes as well as an increase of alternative NAD(P)H activities was observed in both Fe and S deficient-plants. However, the content of Krebs cycle-related organic acids in roots was substantially different in response to treatments, being the accumulation of citric acid always increased, while the others (i.e. succinic, malic, fumaric acids) always decreased. Interestingly, citric acid levels significantly correlated with the expression of some Fe and S deficiency induced genes. Our results contribute to existing knowledge on the complexity of the S/Fe interaction, suggesting a model in which endogenous alteration of citric acid content in plant tissues might act as signal molecule for the regulation of some nuclear-encoded and nutrient-responsive genes and also provide a basis for further study of the mechanism underlying S and Fe sensing and signalling.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Magnesium and organic biostimulant integrative application induces
           physiological and biochemical changes in sunflower plants and its
           harvested progeny on sandy soil
    • Authors: Hafeez ur Rehman; Hesham F. Alharby; Yahya Alzahrani; Mostafa M. Rady
      Pages: 97 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Hafeez ur Rehman, Hesham F. Alharby, Yahya Alzahrani, Mostafa M. Rady
      Magnesium (Mg) often leaches down in sandy soils due to high mobility and its foliar application proves to be beneficial. Organic biostimulants also prove to be helpful to affect plant physio-biochemistry and antioxidative defense system. The present study evaluated the beneficial effects of seed soaking in maize grain extract (MGE; 3%) in integration with or without foliar Mg (1 mM) in comparison to control (no treatment) on growth, yield performance, seed oil and fatty acid profile including physiological and biochemical basis of Hysun-336 sunflower hybrid grown on a sandy soil under greenhouse conditions. The integrative treatment (seed soaking in MGE + foliar spray with Mg) elevated growth traits, plant water status and membrane stability index, and reduced electrolyte leakage. Improved leaf contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, total soluble sugars and proline, activities of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants were also observed. In addition, enhanced uptake of N, P, K including Mg and endogenous levels of plant hormones IAA, GA3 and zeatin were recorded with the integrative treatment. Seed yield and oil contents including oleic (mono-unsaturated) and linoleic (poly-unsaturated) fatty acids also increased; however, a decrease in other saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids was noticed. Improved seed and seedling vigor traits were also observed in progeny of sunflower that harvested from the integrative treatment. In summary, improved plant performance by the integrative treatment may be attributed to improved activities of antioxidants contributing to improved plant water content, nutrient uptake and endogenous hormonal levels in sunflower plants grown under sandy soil conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Metabolomic characterization of pitaya fruit from three red-skinned
           cultivars with different pulp colors
    • Authors: Qingzhu Hua; Canbin Chen; Noemi Tel Zur; Huicong Wang; Jingyu Wu; Jianye Chen; Zhike Zhang; Jietang Zhao; Guibing Hu; Yonghua Qin
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 126
      Author(s): Qingzhu Hua, Canbin Chen, Noemi Tel Zur, Huicong Wang, Jingyu Wu, Jianye Chen, Zhike Zhang, Jietang Zhao, Guibing Hu, Yonghua Qin
      Pitaya is a new fruit crop, whose exotically colored fruits have excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties. In this study, the primary metabolite profiles of three pitaya cultivars i.e. 'Guanhuahong' (red peel with red pulp), 'Guanhuabai' (red peel with white pulp) and 'Guanhuahongfen' (red peel with pink pulp) were investigated using GC-MS and Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. In the fruit pulp, levels of starch, organic acids, and inositol decreased as the fruit matured. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol contents increased gradually during fruit maturation and reached their highest levels in the pulp at the mature stage. Citramalic acid was identified for the first time in the pulp of Hylocereus species. Higher levels of total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activities were detected in the peel than in the pulp during fruit maturation of all three cultivars. The finding of higher levels of total phenols and flavonoids in the pitaya peel than in the pulp at the mature stage suggests that pitaya peels are a good source of natural phenols and flavonoids.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T09:39:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Signal transduction in artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus
           (L.) Hayek] callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress
    • Authors: Vincenzo Lattanzio; Sofia Caretto; Vito Linsalata; Giovanni Colella; Giovanni Mita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Vincenzo Lattanzio, Sofia Caretto, Vito Linsalata, Giovanni Colella, Giovanni Mita
      Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency. The results obtained strongly suggest that plant tissues respond to nutrient deprivation by a defensive costly mechanism, which determines the establishment of a mechanism of trade-off between growth and adaptive response. Furthermore, the results of this research suggest that perception of abiotic stress and increased phenolic metabolites are linked by a sequence of biochemical processes that also involves the intracellular free proline and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The main conclusion of this paper is that, once calli and cell suspension cultures respond to nutrient deficiency, in acclimated cells the establishment of a negative correlation between primary metabolism (growth) and secondary metabolism (defence compounds) is observed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.017
       
  • Water relation, leaf gas exchange and Chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging
           of soybean leaves infected with Colletotrichum truncatum
    • Authors: Carla Silva Dias; Leonardo Araújo; Joicy Aparecida Alves Chaves; Fábio M. DaMatta; Fabrício A. Rodrigues
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Carla Silva Dias, Leonardo Araújo, Joicy Aparecida Alves Chaves, Fábio M. DaMatta, Fabrício A. Rodrigues
      Considering the potential of anthracnose to decrease soybean yield and the need to gain more information regarding its effect on soybean physiology, the present study performed an in-depth analysis of the photosynthetic performance of soybean leaflets challenged with Colletotrichum truncatum by combining chlorophyll a fluorescence images with gas-exchange measurements and photosynthetic pigment pools. There were no significant differences between non-inoculated and inoculated plants in leaf water potential, apparent hydraulic conductance, net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance to water vapor and transpiration rate. For internal CO2 concentration, significant difference between non-inoculated and inoculated plants occurred only at 36 h after inoculation. Reductions in the values of the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters [initial fluorescence (F 0), maximal fluorescence (F m), maximal photosystem II quantum yield (F v/F m), quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ))] and increases in effective PS II quantum yield (Y(II)), quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation Y(NO) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P) were noticed on the necrotic vein tissue in contrast to the surrounding leaf tissue. It appears that the impact of the infection by C. truncatum on the photosynthetic performance of the leaflets was minimal considering the preference of the fungus to colonize the veins.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.016
       
  • Elucidating the substrate specificities of acyl-lipid thioesterases from
           diverse plant taxa
    • Authors: Rebecca S. Kalinger; Ian P. Pulsifer; Owen Rowland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Rebecca S. Kalinger, Ian P. Pulsifer, Owen Rowland
      Acyl-ACP thioesterase enzymes, which cleave fatty acyl thioester bonds to release free fatty acids, contribute to much of the fatty acid diversity in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a family of four single hot-dog fold domain, plastid-localized acyl-lipid thioesterases (AtALT1-4) generate medium-chain (C6-C14) fatty and β–keto fatty acids as secondary metabolites. These volatile products may serve to attract insect pollinators or deter predatory insects. Homologs of AtALT1-4 are present in all plant taxa, but are nearly all uncharacterized. Despite high sequence identity, AtALT1-4 generate different lipid products, suggesting that ALT homologs in other plants also have highly varied activities. We investigated the catalytic diversity of ALT-like thioesterases by screening the substrate specificities of 15 ALT homologs from monocots, eudicots, a lycophyte, a green microalga, and the ancient gymnosperm Gingko biloba, via expression in Escherichia coli. Overall, these enzymes had highly varied substrate preferences compared to one another and to AtALT1-4, and could be classified into four catalytic groups comprising members from diverse taxa. Group 1 ALTs primarily generated 14:1 β-keto fatty acids, Group 2 ALTs produced 6–10 carbon fatty/β-keto fatty acids, Group 3 ALTs predominantly produced 12–14 carbon fatty acids, and Group 4 ALTs mainly generated 16 carbon fatty acids. Enzymes in each group differed significantly in the quantities of lipids and types of minor products they generated in E. coli. Medium-chain fatty acids are used to manufacture insecticides, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels, and ALT-like proteins are ideal candidates for metabolic engineering to produce specific fatty acids in significant quantities.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T12:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.013
       
  • The use of infrared thermal imaging as a non-destructive screening tool
           for identifying drought-tolerant lentil genotypes
    • Authors: Sajitha Biju; Sigfredo Fuentes; Dorin Gupta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
      Lentil (Lens culinaris, Medik.) is an important legume crop, which often experience drought stress especially at the flowering and grain filling phenological stages. The availability of efficient and robust screening tools based on relevant non-destructive quantifiable traits would facilitate research on crop improvement for drought tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drought tolerance of 37 lentil genotypes using infrared thermal imaging (IRTI), drought tolerance parameters and multivariate data analysis. Potted plants were kept in a completely randomized design in a growth chamber with five replicates. Plants were subjected to three different drought treatments: 100, 50 and 20% of field capacity at the onset of reproductive period. The relative drought stress tolerance was determined based on a set of morpho-physiological parameters including non-destructive measures based on IRTI, such as: canopy temperature (Tc), canopy temperature depression (CTD) and crop water stress index (CWSI) during the growing period and destructive measures at harvest, such as: dry root-shoot ratio (RS ratio), relative water content (RWC) and harvest index (HI). The drought tolerance indices used were drought susceptibility index (DSI) and drought tolerance efficiency (DTE). Results showed that drought stress treatments significantly reduced the RWC, HI, CTD and DSI, whereas, the values of Tc, CWSI, RS ratio and DTE significantly increased for all the genotypes. The cluster analysis from morpho-physiological parameters clustered genotypes in three distinctive groups as per the level of drought stress tolerance. The genotypes with higher values of RS ratio, RWC, HI, DTE and CTD and lower values of DSI, Tc and CWSI were identified as drought-tolerant genotypes. Based on this preliminary screening, the genotypes Digger, Cumra, Indianhead, ILL 5588, ILL 6002 and ILL 5582 were identified as promising drought-tolerant genotypes. It can be concluded that the IRTI analysis is a high-throughput constructive screening tool along with RS ratio, RWC, HI and other drought tolerance indices to define the drought stress tolerance variability within lentil plants. These results provide a foundation for future research directed at identifying powerful drought assessment traits using rapid and non-destructive techniques, such as IRTI along with the yield traits, and understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying lentil tolerance to drought stress.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.005
       
  • GmSK1, an SKP1 homologue in soybean, is involved in the tolerance to salt
           and drought
    • Authors: Yanping Chen; Yingjun Chi; Qingchang Meng; Xiaolin Wang; Deyue Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Yanping Chen, Yingjun Chi, Qingchang Meng, Xiaolin Wang, Deyue Yu
      In plants, various proteins are regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated system in response to different environmental stresses, such as drought, cold and heat. The Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex, one of the multisubunit E3 ligases, has been shown to be involved in abiotic response pathways. In this study, Glycine max SKP1-like 1 (GmSK1), which had the typical characteristics of an SKP1 protein, with an alpha/beta structure, targeted to the cytoplasm and nucleus, was isolated from soybean [Glycine max (L.)]. GmSK1 was constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, especially in the roots. Furthermore, the expression of GmSK1 was simultaneously induced by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), NaCl, low temperatures and drought, which suggests important roles for GmSK1 in plant responses to hormone treatments and abiotic stress. GmSK1-overexpressing transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. Samsun) plants showed enhanced tolerance to high salinity and drought stress; exhibited significantly reduced inhibition of growth, greenness and water loss; and exhibited increased MDA accumulation compared with wild-type controls. Our results suggest that GmSK1 might play a role in the crosstalk between ubiquitination and abiotic stress responses in plants.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.007
       
  • Global gene expression and pigment analysis of two contrasting flower
           color cultivars of Canna
    • Authors: Abhinandan Mani Tripathi; Abhishek Niranjan; Sribash Roy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Abhinandan Mani Tripathi, Abhishek Niranjan, Sribash Roy
      Development of flower color in plants is a complex process. Among others, it is an important trait for ornamental flowering plants. Canna is a flowering ornamental plant of family Cannaceae. To understand the molecular mechanism of flower color development in Canna, RNA sequencing from flower tissues of two contrasting flower color cultivars, Red President (RP) and Tropical Sunrise (TS) was performed. More than 27.0 million and 19.0 million clean reads were obtained from RP and TS, respectively. The combined clean reads were assembled into 147,295 unigenes. The Canna unigenes showed maximum homology with Populus trichocarpa (26.79%). A total of 2702 unigenes expressed differentially between the two cultivars of which 1972 were up-regulated and 730 were down-regulated in RP. Phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic processes were the significant processes in RP. Expression of a vast number of transcription factors including MYB, bHLH, ARF, and WRKY were higher in RP than TS. The expression analysis of RNA sequencing data was validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Further, concentration of measured anthocyanidins and flavonols were very low or absent in TS, corroborating largely with our transcriptome data. These findings may help in understanding flower color development in Canna and in future crop breeding program.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.008
       
  • Metabolic responses of terrestrial macrolichens to nickel
    • Authors: Jozef Kováčik; Sławomir Dresler; Petr Babula
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Jozef Kováčik, Sławomir Dresler, Petr Babula
      Short-term (24 h) responses of Cladonia arbuscula subsp. mitis (formerly known as Cladina and this name is used to distinguish the tested species) and Cladonia furcata to nickel (Ni2+) excess (10 or 100 μM) were compared. Cladonia accumulated more Ni at higher Ni dose (1.717 mg total Ni/g DW), K amount was unaffected and Ca amount decreased in Cladina only. Fluorescence microscopy detection of total/general ROS and hydrogen peroxide showed Ni-stimulated increase in both species being more pronounced in Cladonia and in mycobiont partner mainly. Nitric oxide visualization (diaminonaphthalene staining) also revealed elevation in response to Ni that could contribute to synthesis of protective metabolites: they may include ascorbic acid or reduced glutathione which increased in Ni-exposed Cladina or Cladonia, respectively. Only low content of phytochelatin 2 was detected in Ni-treated Cladonia and the role in Ni chelation is not apparent. Among aliphatic organic acids, content of citric or succinic acid was not or slightly affected by Ni, production of malic acid dropped by ca. 50% in both species and α-ketoglutaric acid showed the opposite behavior in the tested species. Data indicate that even short-term Ni treatments induce metabolic changes and symptoms of oxidative stress in lichens, confirming that nickel is not non-toxic metal as frequently visible from standard biochemical assays of basic physiology. Ascorbic acid and GSH rather than aliphatic organic acids seem to contribute to Ni tolerance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.006
       
  • Effects of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid on α-amylase activity in the
           aleurone of barley seeds
    • Authors: Yidi Sheng; Huiyuan Xiao; Chunli Guo; Hong Wu; Xiaojing Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Yidi Sheng, Huiyuan Xiao, Chunli Guo, Hong Wu, Xiaojing Wang
      Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, often accumulates in plants exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Previous studies indicated that a closed relationship existed between endogenous GABA and seed germination. However, there are few studies on the effect of exogenous GABA on seed germination. The objective of this study was to explore whether exogenous GABA affected α-amylase activity which the activation is an important stage in seed germination. The level of endogenous GABA in barley seeds rose gradually during germination, suggesting that endogenous GABA was involved in germination. We measured starch degradation under application of various concentration GABA and found that GABA promoted seed starch degradation with a dose-responsive effect. The relationship between GABA and α-amylase activity was investigated by treating barley aleurone with exogenous GABA. The result showed that α-amylase activity began to rise after about 24 h and reached a peak at 48 h. Molecular evidence suggested that GABA increased α-amylase gene expression. We explore the possible roles played by GABA in signal transduction.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.030
       
  • Copper-induced activation of TRP channels promotes extracellular calcium
           entry and activation of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK leading to increased
           expression of antioxidant enzymes in Ectocarpus siliculosus
    • Authors: Alberto González; Claudio A. Sáez; Bernardo Morales; Alejandra Moenne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Alberto González, Claudio A. Sáez, Bernardo Morales, Alejandra Moenne
      The existence of functional Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels was analyzed in Ectocarpus siliculosus using agonists of human TRPs and specific antagonists of TRPA1, TRPC5, TRPM8 and TRPV; intracellular calcium was detected for 60 min. Increases in intracellular calcium were observed at 13, 29, 39 and 50–52 min, which appeared to be mediated by the activation of TRPM8/V1 at 13 min, TRPV1 at 29 min, TRPA1/V1 at 39 min and TRPA1/C5 at 50–52 min. In addition, intracellular calcium increases appear to be due to extracellular calcium entry, not requiring protein kinase activation. On the other hand, 2.5 μM copper exposure induced increased intracellular calcium at 13, 29, 39 and 51 min, likely due to the activation of a TRPA1/V1 at 13 min, TRPA1/C5/M8 at 29 min, TRPC5/M8 at 39 min, and a TRPC5/V1 at 51 min. The increases in intracellular calcium induced by copper were due to extracellular calcium entry and required protein kinase activation. Furthermore, from 3 to 24 h, copper exposure induced an increase in the level of transcripts encoding antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and peroxiredoxin. The described upregulation decreased with inhibitors of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK, as well as with a mixture of TRP inhibitors. Thus, copper induces the activation of TRP channels allowing extracellular calcium entry as well as the activation of CaMK, PKA, PKC, PKG and CBLPK leading to increased expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in E. siliculosus.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.02.032
       
  • Metabolic characterization of Hyoscyamus niger root-specific putrescine
           N-methyltransferase
    • Authors: Chen Geng; Tengfei Zhao; Chunxian Yang; Qiaozhuo Zhang; Feng Bai; Junlan Zeng; Fangyuan Zhang; Xiaoqiang Liu; Xiaozhong Lan; Min Chen; Zhihua Liao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Chen Geng, Tengfei Zhao, Chunxian Yang, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Feng Bai, Junlan Zeng, Fangyuan Zhang, Xiaoqiang Liu, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
      N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-methylputrescine. While the role of PMT in nicotine biosynthesis is clear, knowledge of PMT in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) and the regulation of polyamines remains limited. We characterized a PMT gene from Hyoscyamus niger, designated HnPMT that was specifically expressed in roots, especially in the secondary roots and dramatically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The GUS gene was specifically expressed in Arabidopsis roots or in the vascular tissues, including pericycles and endodermis, of the H. niger hairy root cultures, when it was driven by the 5′-flanking promoter region of HnPMT. The recombinant HnPMT was purified for enzymatic assays. HnPMT converted putrescine to form N-methylputrescine, as confirmed by LC-MS. The kinetics analysis revealed that HnPMT had high affinity with putrescine but low catalytic activity, suggesting that it was a rate-limiting enzyme. When HnPMT was suppressed in the H. niger plants by using the VIGS approach, the contents of N-methylputrescine and hyoscyamine were markedly decreased, but the contents of putrescine, spermidine and a mixture of spermine and thermospermine were significantly increased; this suggested that HnPMT was involved in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids and played a competent role in regulating the biosynthesis of polyamines. Functional identification of HnPMT facilitated the understanding of TA biosynthesis and thus implied that the HnPMT-catalyzed step might be a target for metabolic engineering of the TA production in H. niger.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T11:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.03.001
       
 
 
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