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Journal Cover Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0981-9428
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Effect of seasonality and Cr(VI) on starch-sucrose partitioning and
           related enzymes in floating leaves of Salvinia minima
    • Authors: Mariana Rosa; Carolina Prado; Silvana Chocobar-Ponce; Eduardo Pagano; Fernando Prado
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 118
      Author(s): Mariana Rosa, Carolina Prado, Silvana Chocobar-Ponce, Eduardo Pagano, Fernando Prado
      Effects of seasonality and increasing Cr(VI) concentrations on leaf starch-sucrose partitioning, sucrose- and starch-related enzyme activities, and carbon allocation toward leaf development were analyzed in fronds (floating leaves) of the floating fern Salvinia minima. Carbohydrates and enzyme activities of Cr-exposed fronds showed different patterns in winter and summer. Total soluble sugars, starch, glucose and fructose increased in winter fronds, while sucrose was higher in summer ones. Starch and soluble carbohydrates, except glucose, increased under increasing Cr(VI) concentrations in winter fronds, while in summer ones only sucrose increased under Cr(VI) treatment. In summer fronds starch, total soluble sugars, fructose and glucose practically stayed without changes in all assayed Cr(VI) concentrations. Enzyme activities related to starch and sucrose metabolisms (e.g. ADPGase, SPS, SS and AI) were higher in winter fronds than in summer ones. Total amylase and cFBPase activities were higher in summer fronds. Cr(VI) treatment increased enzyme activities, except ADPGase, in both winter and summer fronds but no clear pattern changes were observed. Data of this study show clearly that carbohydrate metabolism is differently perturbed by both seasonality and Cr(VI) treatment in summer and winter fronds, which affects leaf starch-sucrose partitioning and specific leaf area (SLA) in terms of carbon investment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Endopolyploidy levels in barley vary in different root types and
           significantly decrease under phosphorus deficiency
    • Authors: Zhanghui Zeng; Huahong Huang; Ning Han; Chun Y. Huang; Peter Langridge; Hongwu Bian; Muyuan Zhu
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Zhanghui Zeng, Huahong Huang, Ning Han, Chun Y. Huang, Peter Langridge, Hongwu Bian, Muyuan Zhu
      Increased endopolyploidy is important for plant growth and development as well as for adaptation to environmental stresses. However, little is known about the role of reduced endopolyploidy, especially in root systems. In this report, endopolyploidy variations were examined in different types of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots, and the effects of phosphorus (P) deficiency and salinity (NaCl) stress on root endopolyploidy were also studied. The results showed that the endopolyploidy levels were lower in lateral roots than in either primary or nodal roots. The lower endopolyploidy in lateral roots was attributed to cortical cells. P deficiency reduced the endopolyploidy levels in lateral roots and mature zone of primary roots. By contrast, salinity had no effects on the endopolyploidy levels in either lateral or primary roots, but had a minor effect on nodal roots. Transcript analysis of cell cycle-related genes showed that multiple cell cycle-related genes were more highly expressed in lateral roots than in primary roots, suggesting their roles in lowering endopolyploidy. P deficiency reduced HvCCS52A1 transcripts in the mature zone of primary roots, but had little effect on the transcripts of 12 cell cycle-related genes in lateral roots, suggesting that endopolyploidy regulation differs between lateral roots and primary roots. Our results revealed that endopolyploidy reduction in root systems could be an integrated part of endopolyploidy plasticity in barley growth and development as well as in adaptation to a low P environment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Pattern of expression and interaction specificity of multiple G-protein
           beta (Gβ) subunit isoforms with their potential target proteins reveal
           functional dominance of BjuGβ1 in the allotetraploid Brassica juncea
    • Authors: Roshan Kumar; Aprajita Sharma; Ishita Chandel; Naveen C. Bisht
      Pages: 22 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 118
      Author(s): Roshan Kumar, Aprajita Sharma, Ishita Chandel, Naveen C. Bisht
      Heterotrimeric G-protein, consisting Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits, interacts with various upstream and downstream effector (target) proteins to regulate a large array of conserved and species-specific biological functions. The targets of G-protein components are recently reported in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; however limited information is available from crop species. In this study, we utilized yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay to screen the diversity of interacting partners of multiple Gβ subunit isoforms from allotetraploid Brassica juncea, a globally important oilseed and vegetable crop. The three BjuGβ genes (BjuGβ1-3), resulted from whole genome triplication event in Brassica lineage, showed distinct expression profile during plant developmental stages with maximal transcript abundance during reproductive stages. Protein-protein interaction of three BjuGβ proteins (bait) against the Y2H cDNA library (prey) identified a total of 14 and 1 non-redundant targets for BjuGβ1 and BjuGβ2, whereas BjuGβ3 screening surprisingly did not yield any genuine target, thereby suggesting functional dominance of BjuGβ1. The triplicated BjuGβ isoforms showed a high degree of interaction strength and specificity with the identified target proteins, which are known to be involved in diverse biological functions in plants. qRT-PCR analysis further indicated that the expression of BjuGβ-target genes was developmentally regulated under various tissue types studied and showed a high degree of co-expression pattern with the BjuGβ genes, particularly during flower and silique development in B. juncea. Taken together, our data provides novel insights on pattern of expression and interaction specificity governing functional divergence of multiple Gβ subunit proteins in polyploid B. juncea.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.020
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
       
  • Systematic analysis of the G-box Factor 14-3-3 gene family and functional
           characterization of GF14a in Brachypodium distachyon
    • Authors: Li Yang; Jun You; Yanping Wang; Jinzhu Li; Wenli Quan; Mingzhu Yin; Qingfeng Wang; Zhulong Chan
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117
      Author(s): Li Yang, Jun You, Yanping Wang, Jinzhu Li, Wenli Quan, Mingzhu Yin, Qingfeng Wang, Zhulong Chan
      The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved and ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. Plant 14-3-3 proteins are involved in many signaling pathways to regulate plant growth and development. Here we identified seven Brachypodium distachyon 14-3-3 genes and analyzed the evolution, gene structure and expression profiles of these genes. Several cis-elements involved in stress response and hormone pathway were found in the promoter region of 14-3-3 genes. Results of gene expression analysis showed that these genes were induced by abiotic stresses or hormone treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing BdGF14a exhibited increased leaf water content (LWC) and decreased electrolyte leakage (EL) and showed improved drought stress tolerance. BdGF14a transgene significantly up-regulated expression levels of DREB1A and DREB1B, but slightly elevated ABI1 expression. These results indicated that BdGF14a functioned as a positive regulator in plant response to drought stress mainly via ABA independent pathway.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T20:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Salicylic acid seed priming instigates defense mechanism by inducing
           PR-Proteins in Solanum melongena L. upon infection with Verticillium
           dahliae Kleb
    • Authors: H.M. Mahesh; M. Murali; M. Anup Chandra Pal; Prasad Melvin; M.S. Sharada
      Pages: 12 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117
      Author(s): H.M. Mahesh, M. Murali, M. Anup Chandra Pal, Prasad Melvin, M.S. Sharada
      Salicylic acid (SA) is a hormone connected with various cellular functions including the fight against invading pathogens. Priming of seeds pre-sowing is a very simple method to the farmers’ to produce better growth, yield and manage the pathogens. The present study was aimed to determine the growth and disease resistance ability in brinjal seeds primed with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mM) of SA under greenhouse conditions. Priming of seeds with SA significantly increased seed germination and seedling vigor with a maximum of 84% and 859.18, respectively at 0.5 mM concentration. Seed priming with SA also reduced Verticillium wilt incidence to 39.25% (at 0.5 mM) under greenhouse conditions and also enhanced the vegetative growth parameters of the plant compared to control. The induced resistance obtained with SA was in line with higher expression of PR-protein (β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase) related defense enzymes. Further, an increase of 1.7, 2.9, 2.1, 2.5 and 2-fold increase in gene expression of IAA27, MPK1, GPX, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively were observed in SA primed challenge inoculated seedlings than non-primed susceptible inoculated controls. The higher expression of IAA27, MPK1, GPX, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase correlates with the plant growth promoting and disease protection studies as these genes are vital for increasing plant growth and inducing resistance during host-pathogen interaction. Enhanced activation of defense-related activities in plants upon priming with SA suggests that it alters plant physiology which in turn is useful for production and protection of brinjal.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T20:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Suppression of the β-carotene hydroxylase gene increases β-carotene
           content and tolerance to abiotic stress in transgenic sweetpotato plants
    • Authors: Le Kang; Chang Yoon Ji; Sun Ha Kim; Qingbo Ke; Sung-Chul Park; Ho Soo Kim; Hyeong-Un Lee; Joon Seol Lee; Woo Sung Park; Mi-Jeong Ahn; Haeng-Soon Lee; Xiping Deng; Sang-Soo Kwak
      Pages: 24 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117
      Author(s): Le Kang, Chang Yoon Ji, Sun Ha Kim, Qingbo Ke, Sung-Chul Park, Ho Soo Kim, Hyeong-Un Lee, Joon Seol Lee, Woo Sung Park, Mi-Jeong Ahn, Haeng-Soon Lee, Xiping Deng, Sang-Soo Kwak
      β-carotene, a carotenoid that plays a key photo-protective role in plants is converted into zeaxanthin by β-carotene hydroxylase (CHY-β). Previous work showed that down-regulation of IbCHY-β by RNA interference (RNAi) results in higher levels of β-carotene and total carotenoids, as well as salt stress tolerance, in cultured transgenic sweetpotato cells. In this study, we introduced the RNAi-IbCHY-β construct into a white-fleshed sweetpotato cultivar (cv. Yulmi) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among the 13 resultant transgenic sweetpotato plants (referred to as RC plants), three lines were selected for further characterization on the basis of IbCHY-β transcript levels. The RC plants had orange flesh, total carotenoid and β-carotene contents in storage roots were 2-fold and 16-fold higher, respectively, than those of non-transgenic (NT) plants. Unlike storage roots, total carotenoid and β-carotene levels in the leaves of RC plants were slightly increased compared to NT plants. The leaves of RC plants also exhibited tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress, which was associated with higher 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. In addition, RC plants maintained higher levels of chlorophyll and higher photosystem II efficiency than NT plants after 250 mM NaCl stress. Yield of storage roots did not differ significantly between RC and NT plants. These observations suggest that RC plants might be useful as a nutritious and environmental stress-tolerant crop on marginal lands around the world.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin
           synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins
           
    • Authors: Alejandro Cáceres-Mella; M. Inmaculada Talaverano; Luis Villalobos-González; Camila Ribalta-Pizarro; Claudio Pastenes
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117
      Author(s): Alejandro Cáceres-Mella, M. Inmaculada Talaverano, Luis Villalobos-González, Camila Ribalta-Pizarro, Claudio Pastenes
      The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day−1; T2: 1.8 mm day−1 and T3: 0.3 mm day−1. The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • The isolation and functional characterization of three liverwort genes
           encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase
    • Authors: Xin-Yan Liu; Hai-Na Yu; Shuai Gao; Yi-Feng Wu; Ai-Xia Cheng; Hong-Xiang Lou
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117
      Author(s): Xin-Yan Liu, Hai-Na Yu, Shuai Gao, Yi-Feng Wu, Ai-Xia Cheng, Hong-Xiang Lou
      The plant phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the synthesis of a wide variety of secondary metabolites. The second step in phenylpropanoid synthesis is carried out by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzyme cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), which catalyzes the p-hydroxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumarate. Genes encoding C4H have been characterized in many vascular plant species, but as yet not in any bryophyte species. Here, a survey of the transcriptome sequences of four liverwort species was able to identify eight putative C4Hs. The three liverwort C4H genes taken forward for isolation and functional characterization were harbored by Plagiochasma appendiculatum (PaC4H) and Marchantia paleacea (MpC4H1 and MpC4H2). When the genes were heterologously expressed in yeast culture, an assay of enzyme activity indicated that PaC4H and MpC4H1 had a higher level of activity than MpC4H2. The favored substrate (trans-cinnamic acid) of all three liverwort C4Hs was the same as that of higher plant C4Hs. The co-expression of PaC4H in yeast cells harboring PaPAL (a P. appendiculatum ene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase) allowed the conversion of L-phenylalanine to p-coumaric acid. Furthermore, the expression level of PaC4H was enhanced after treatment with abiotic stress inducers UV irradiation or salicylic acid in the thallus of P. appendiculatum. The likelihood is that high activity C4Hs evolved in the liverworts and have remained highly conserved across the plant kingdom.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Superoxide-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays
    • Authors: Junhuan Xu; Thu Tran; Carmen S. Padilla Marcia; David M. Braun; Fiona L. Goggin
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117
      Author(s): Junhuan Xu, Thu Tran, Carmen S. Padilla Marcia, David M. Braun, Fiona L. Goggin
      Superoxide (O2 −) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in response to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Different ROS have been reported to elicit different transcriptional responses in plants, and so ROS-responsive marker genes and promoter::reporter gene fusions have been proposed as indirect means of detecting ROS and discriminating among different species. However, further information about the specificity of transcriptional responses to O2 − is needed in order to assess potential markers for this critical stress-responsive signaling molecule. Using qRT-PCR, the expression of 12 genes previously reported to be upregulated by O2 − was measured in Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to elicitors of common stress-responsive ROS: methyl viologen (an inducer of O2 −), rose bengal (an inducer of singlet oxygen, 1ΔO2), and exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Surprisingly, Zinc-Finger Protein 12 (AtZAT12), which had previously been used as a reporter for H2O2, responded more strongly to O2 − than to H2O2; moreover, the expression of an AtZAT12 promoter-reporter fusion (AtZAT12::Luc) was enhanced by diethyldithiocarbamate, which inhibits dismutation of O2 − to H2O2. These results suggest that AtZAT12 is transcriptionally upregulated in response to O2 −, and that AtZAT12::Luc may be a useful biosensor for detecting O2 − generation in vivo. In addition, transcripts encoding uncoupling proteins (AtUCPs) showed selectivity for O2 − in Arabidopsis, and an AtUCP homolog upregulated by methyl viologen was also identified in maize (Zea mays L.), indicating that there are O2 −–responsive members of this family in monocots. These results expand our limited knowledge of ROS-responsive gene expression in monocots, as well as O2 −-selective responses in dicots.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Functional analyses of NDPK2 in Populus trichocarpa and overexpression of
           PtNDPK2 enhances growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic
           poplar
    • Authors: Jiaxin Zhang; Ali Movahedi; Ming Sang; Zhiheng Wei; Junjie Xu; Xiaoli Wang; Xiaolong Wu; Mengyang Wang; Tongming Yin; Qiang Zhuge
      Pages: 61 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117
      Author(s): Jiaxin Zhang, Ali Movahedi, Ming Sang, Zhiheng Wei, Junjie Xu, Xiaoli Wang, Xiaolong Wu, Mengyang Wang, Tongming Yin, Qiang Zhuge
      Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are multifunctional proteins that regulate a variety of eukaryotic cellular activities, including cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. NDPK2 regulates the expression of antioxidant genes in plants. In a previous study, the Arabidopsis thaliana NDPK2 gene (AtNDPK2) was found to be associated with H2O2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proteins from transgenic plants overexpressing AtNDPK2 showed higher levels of autophosphorylation and NDPK activity and lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than those of wild-type (WT) plants. Therefore, constitutive overexpression of AtNDPK2 in Arabidopsis plants conferred enhanced tolerance to multiple environmental stresses that elicit ROS accumulation in situ. In this study, we cloned the Populus trichocarpa NDPK2 gene and analyzed its molecular structure and function. We generated and evaluated transgenic poplar plants expressing the PtNDPK2 gene under the control of the 35S promoter to achieve enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Transgenic poplar plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress at the whole-plant level. The transgenic poplar plants showed significantly greater tolerance to 200 mM NaCl and drought stresses than WT poplar plants. In addition, the transgenic plants exhibited better growth due to increased expression of auxin-related indole acetic acid genes under normal growth conditions compared with WT plants. Our results suggest that induction of PtNDPK2 overexpression in poplars will be useful for increasing biomass production in the presence of various abiotic stresses.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
       
  • Improved quinoa growth, physiological response, and seed nutritional
           quality in three soils having different stresses by the application of
           acidified biochar and compost
    • Authors: Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani; Lin Shan; Shazia Anjum; Waqas-ud-Din Khan; Hu Ronggui; Muhammad Iqbal; Zaheer Abbas Virk; Salma Kausar
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Lin Shan, Shazia Anjum, Waqas-ud-Din Khan, Hu Ronggui, Muhammad Iqbal, Zaheer Abbas Virk, Salma Kausar
      Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a traditional Andean agronomical resilient seed crop having immense significance in terms of high nutritional qualities and its tolerance against various abiotic stresses. However, finite work has been executed to evaluate the growth, physiological, chemical, biochemical, antioxidant properties, and mineral nutrients bioavailability of quinoa under abiotic stresses. Depending on the consistency in the stability of pH, intended rate of S was selected from four rates (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% S) for the acidification of biochar and compost in the presence of Thiobacillus thiooxidans by pH value of 4. All three soils were amended with 1% (w/w) acidified biochar (BCA) and compost (COA). Results revealed that selective plant growth, yield, physiological, chemical and biochemical improved significantly by the application of BCA in all stressed soils. Antioxidants in quinoa fresh leaves increased in the order of control > COA > BCA, while reactive oxygen species decreased in the order of control < COA < BCA. A significant reduction in anti-nutrients (phytate and polyphenols) was observed in all stressed soils with the application of BCA. Moreover, incorporation of COA and BCA reduced the pH of rhizosphere soil by 0.4–1.6 units in all stressed soils, while only BCA in bulk soil decreased pH significantly by 0.3 units. These results demonstrate that BCA was more effective than COA to enhance the bioavailability, translocation of essential nutrients from the soil to plant and their enhanced bioavailability in the seed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Potassium and zinc increase tolerance to salt stress in wheat (Triticum
           aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Amin Ullah Jan; Fazal Hadi; Midrarullah; Muhammad Asif Nawaz; Khaista Rahman
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Amin Ullah Jan, Fazal Hadi, Midrarullah, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Khaista Rahman
      Potassium and zinc are essential elements in plant growth and metabolism and plays a vital role in salt stress tolerance. To investigate the physiological mechanism of salt stress tolerance, a pot experiment was conducted. Potassium and zinc significantly minimize the oxidative stress and increase root, shoot and spike length in wheat varieties. Fresh and dry biomass were significantly increased by potassium followed by zinc as compared to control C. The photosynthetic pigment and osmolyte regulator (proline, total phenolic, and total carbohydrate) were significantly enhanced by potassium and zinc. Salt stress increases MDA content in wheat varieties while potassium and zinc counteract the adverse effect of salinity and significantly increased membrane stability index. Salt stress decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) while the exogenous application of potassium and zinc significantly enhanced the activities of these enzymes. A significant positive correlation was found of spike length with proline (R2 = 0.966 ∗∗∗), phenolic (R2 = 0.741∗) and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.853∗∗). The MDA content showed significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.983∗∗∗) with MSI. It is concluded that potassium and zinc reduced toxic effect of salinity while its combine application showed synergetic effect and significantly enhanced salt tolerance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Seed tolerance to deterioration in arabidopsis is affected by virus
           infection
    • Authors: Eduardo Bueso; Ramón Serrano; Vicente Pallás; Jesús A. Sánchez-Navarro
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Eduardo Bueso, Ramón Serrano, Vicente Pallás, Jesús A. Sánchez-Navarro
      Seed longevity is the period during which the plant seed is able to germinate. This property is strongly influenced by environment conditions experienced by seeds during their formation and storage. In the present study we have analyzed how the biotic stress derived from the infection of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) affects seed tolerance to deterioration measuring germination rates after an accelerated aging treatment. Arabidopsis wild type plants infected with AMV and CMV rendered seeds with improved tolerance to deterioration when compared to the non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, CaMV infection generated seeds more sensitive to deterioration. No seeds were obtained from TuMV infected plants. Similar pattern of viral effects was observed in the double mutant athb22 athb25, which is more sensitive to accelerated seed aging than wild type. However, we observed a significant reduction of the seed germination for CMV (65% vs 55%) and healthy (50% vs 30%) plants in these mutants. The seed quality differences were overcomed using the A. thaliana athb25-1D dominant mutant, which over accumulated gibberellic acid (GA), except for TuMV which generated some siliques with low seed tolerance to deterioration. For AMV and TuMV (in athb25-1D), the seed quality correlated with the accumulation of the messengers of the gibberellin 3-oxidase family, the mucilage of the seed and the GA1. For CMV and CaMV it was not a good correlation suggesting that other factors are affecting seed viability.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Polyamines contribute to salinity tolerance in the symbiosis Medicago
           truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti by preventing oxidative damage
    • Authors: Miguel López-Gómez; Javier Hidalgo-Castellanos; J. Rubén Muñoz-Sánchez; Agustín J. Marín-Peña; Carmen Lluch; José A. Herrera-Cervera
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Miguel López-Gómez, Javier Hidalgo-Castellanos, J. Rubén Muñoz-Sánchez, Agustín J. Marín-Peña, Carmen Lluch, José A. Herrera-Cervera
      Polyamines (PAs) such as spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are small ubiquitous polycationic compounds that contribute to plant adaptation to salt stress. The positive effect of PAs has been associated to a cross-talk with other anti-stress hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). In this work we have studied the effects of exogenous Spd and Spm pre-treatments in the response to salt stress of the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti by analyzing parameters related to nitrogen fixation, oxidative damage and cross-talk with BRs in the response to salinity. Exogenous PAs treatments incremented the foliar and nodular Spd and Spm content which correlated with an increment of the nodule biomass and nitrogenase activity. Exogenous Spm treatment partially prevented proline accumulation which suggests that this polyamine could replace the role of this amino acid in the salt stress response. Additionally, Spd and Spm pre-treatments reduced the levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation under salt stress. PAs induced the expression of genes involved in BRs biosynthesis which support a cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the salt stress response of M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis. In conclusion, exogenous PAs improved the response to salinity of the M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis by reducing the oxidative damage induced under salt stress conditions. In addition, in this work we provide evidences of the cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the adaptive responses to salinity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.04.024
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Biochemical characterization of the triticale TsPAP1, a new type of plant
           prolyl aminopeptidase, and its impact on proline content and flowering
           time in transgenic Arabidopsis plants
    • Authors: Edyta Zdunek-Zastocka; Agnieszka Grabowska; Tomasz Branicki; Beata Michniewska
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Edyta Zdunek-Zastocka, Agnieszka Grabowska, Tomasz Branicki, Beata Michniewska
      Proline aminopeptidase (PAP, EC 3.4.11.5) is the only enzyme that effectively releases proline from the N-termini of peptides. The amino acid sequence of the PAP from Triticosecale, TsPAP1, comprises conserved regions, characteristic of the monomeric forms of PAP found in bacteria but not yet identified in plants. Therefore, we aimed to obtain and biochemically characterize the TsPAP1 protein. The recombinant TsPAP1 protein was received through heterologous expression of the TsPAP1 coding sequence in a bacterial expression system and purified with affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS electrophoresis revealed that TsPAP1 is a monomer with a molecular mass of 37.5 kDa. TsPAP1 prefers substrates with proline at the N-terminus but is also capable of hydrolyzing β-naphthylamides of hydroxyproline and alanine. Among the peptides tested, the most preferred were di- and tripeptides, especially those with glycine in the Y position. The use of diagnostic inhibitors indicated that TsPAP1 is a serine peptidase; however, further characterization revealed that the SH residues are also important for maintaining its activity. To examine the role of TsPAP1 under physiological conditions, we developed transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TsPAP1. Compared with wild-type plants, the transgenic lines accumulated more proline, flowered an average of 3.5 days earlier, and developed more siliques than did untransformed controls. Our paper is the first to describe the biochemical properties of a novel monomeric plant PAP and contributes to the functional characterization of PAP proteins in plants.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.04.026
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Cloning and characterization of a novel GIGANTEA gene in sweet potato
    • Authors: Wei Tang; Hui Yan; Zai-xing Su; Sung-Chul Park; Ya-ju Liu; Yun-gang Zhang; Xin Wang; Meng Kou; Dai-fu Ma; Sang-Soo Kwak; Qiang Li
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Wei Tang, Hui Yan, Zai-xing Su, Sung-Chul Park, Ya-ju Liu, Yun-gang Zhang, Xin Wang, Meng Kou, Dai-fu Ma, Sang-Soo Kwak, Qiang Li
      The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, a key event in the lifecycle of a plant, is affected by environmental stresses. The flowering-time regulator GIGANTEA (GI) may be contributing to susceptibility of the regulation of photoperiodic flowering, circadian rhythm control, and abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of GI in sweet potato remains unknown. Here, we isolated and characterized a GI gene (IbGI) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam). The IbGI cDNA sequence was isolated based on information from a sweet potato transcriptome database. IbGI mRNA transcript levels showed robust circadian rhythm control during the light-dark transition, and the expression of IbGI was stronger in leaves and roots than in stems. IbGI protein is predominantly localized to the nucleus. IbGI expression was upregulated by high temperature, drought, and salt stress but downregulated by cold stress. Overexpressing IbGI in the Arabidopsis gi-2 mutant background rescued its late flowering phenotype and reduced its salt tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that IbGI shares functions in regulating flowering, the circadian rhythm, and tolerance to some stresses with other GI orthologs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.04.025
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Monochromatic green light induces an aberrant accumulation of
           geranylgeranyled chlorophylls in plants
    • Authors: Zuzana Materová; Roman Sobotka; Barbora Zdvihalová; Michal Oravec; Jakub Nezval; Václav Karlický; Daniel Vrábl; Michal Štroch; Vladimír Špunda
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Zuzana Materová, Roman Sobotka, Barbora Zdvihalová, Michal Oravec, Jakub Nezval, Václav Karlický, Daniel Vrábl, Michal Štroch, Vladimír Špunda
      Light quality is an important environmental factor affecting the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments whose production seems to be affected not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. In this work, we set out to identify unusual pigment detected in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and explain its presence in plants grown under monochromatic green light (GL; 500–590 nm). The chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD) revealed that a peak belonging to this unknown pigment is eluted between chlorophyll (Chl) a and b. This pigment exhibited the same absorption spectrum and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra as Chl a. It was negligible in control plants cultivated under white light of the same irradiance (photosynthetic photon flux density of 240 μmol m−2 s−1). Mass spectrometry analysis of this pigment (ions m/z = 889 [M−H]−; m/z = 949 [M+acetic acid-H]-) indicates that it is Chl a with a tetrahydrogengeranylgeraniol side chain (containing two double bonds in a phytyl side chain; Chl a THGG), which is an intermediate in Chl a synthesis. In plants grown under GL, the proportion of Chl a THGG to total Chl content rose to approximately 8% and 16% after 7 and 14 days of cultivation, respectively. Surprisingly, plants cultivated under GL exhibited drastically increased concentration of the enzyme geranylgeranyl reductase, which is responsible for the reduction of phytyl chain double bonds in the Chl synthesis pathway. This indicates impaired activity of this enzyme in GL-grown plants. A similar effect of GL on Chl synthesis was observed for distinct higher plant species.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T19:52:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Metabolomic and physico-chemical approach unravel dynamic regulation of
           calcium in sweet cherry fruit physiology
    • Authors: Michail Michailidis; Evangelos Karagiannis; Georgia Tanou; Katerina Karamanoli; Athina Lazaridou; Theodora Matsi; Athanassios Molassiotis
      Pages: 68 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Michail Michailidis, Evangelos Karagiannis, Georgia Tanou, Katerina Karamanoli, Athina Lazaridou, Theodora Matsi, Athanassios Molassiotis
      Calcium (Ca2) nutrition has a significant role in fruit physiology; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, fruit quality in response to CaCl2, applied via foliar sprays (Ca2) or/and hydro-cooling water (CaHC), was characterized in ‘Lapins’ cherries at harvest, just after cold storage (20 days at 0 °C) as well as after cold storage followed by 2 days at 20 °C, herein defined as shelf-life period. Data indicated that pre- and post-harvest Ca2+ applications increased total Ca2+ and cell wall bound Ca2+, respectively. Treatment with Ca reduced cracking whereas Ca + CaHC condition depressed stem browning. Both skin penetration and stem removal were affected by Ca2+ feeding. Also, several color- and antioxidant-related parameters were induced by Ca2+ treatments. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant alterations in primary metabolites among the Ca2+ treatments, including sugars (eg., glucose, fructose), soluble alcohols (eg., arabitol, sorbitol), organic acids (eg.,malate, quinate) and amino acids (eg., glycine, beta-alanine). This work helps to improve our knowledge on the fruit's response to Ca2+ nutrition.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Potential link between fruit yield, quality parameters and phytohormonal
           changes in preharvest UV-C treated strawberry
    • Authors: Yanqun Xu; Marie Thérèse Charles; Zisheng Luo; Dominique Roussel; Daniel Rolland
      Pages: 80 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Yanqun Xu, Marie Thérèse Charles, Zisheng Luo, Dominique Roussel, Daniel Rolland
      Preharvest ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment of strawberry is a very new approach, and little information is available on the effect of this treatment on plant growth regulators. In this study, the effect of preharvest UV-C irradiations at three different doses on strawberry yield, fruit quality parameters and endogenous phytohormones was investigated simultaneously. The overall marketable yield of strawberry was not affected by the preharvest UV-C treatments, although more aborted and misshapen fruits were found in UV-C treated groups than in the untreated control. The fruits in the high dose group were firmer and had approximately 20% higher sucrose content and 15% higher ascorbic acid content than the control, while fruits from the middle and low dose groups showed no significant changes in these parameters. The lower abscisic acid (ABA) content found in the fruits in the high UV-C group may be associated with those quality changes. The citric acid content decreased only in the low dose group (reduction of 5.8%), with a concomitant 37% reduction in jasmonic acid (JA) content, compared to the control. The antioxidant status of fruits that received preharvest UV-C treatment was considered enhanced based on their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In terms of aroma, three volatile alcohols differed significantly among the various treatments with obvious activation of alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity. The observed synchronous influence on physiological indexes and related phytohormones suggests that preharvest UV-C might affect fruit quality via the action of plant hormones.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve
           the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower
           artificial seeds
    • Authors: Hail Z. Rihan; Mohammed Al-Issawi; Michael P. Fuller
      Pages: 91 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Hail Z. Rihan, Mohammed Al-Issawi, Michael P. Fuller
      The development stages of conventional cauliflower seeds were studied and the accumulation of dehydrin proteins through the maturation stages was investigated with the aim of identifying methods to improve the viability of artificial seeds of cauliflower. While carbohydrate, ash and lipids increased throughout the development of cauliflower traditional seeds, proteins increased with the development of seed and reached the maximum level after 75 days of pollination, however, the level of protein started to decrease after that. A significant increase in the accumulation of small size dehydrin proteins (12, 17, 26 KDa) was observed during the development of cauliflower seeds. Several experiments were conducted in order to increase the accumulation of important dehydrin proteins in cauliflower microshoots (artificial seeds). Mannitol and ABA (Absisic acid) increased the accumulation of dehydrins in cauliflower microshoots while cold acclimation did not have a significant impact on the accumulation of these proteins. Molybdenum treatments had a negative impact on dehydrin accumulation. Dehydrins have an important role in the drought tolerance of seeds and, therefore, the current research helps to improve the accumulation of these proteins in cauliflower artificial seeds. This in turns improves the quality of these artificial seeds. The current results suggest that dehydrins do not play an important role in cold tolerance of cauliflower artificial seeds. This study could have an important role in improving the understanding of the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Expression profiles of a cytoplasmic male sterile line of Gossypium
           harknessii and its fertility restorer and maintainer lines revealed by
           RNA-Seq
    • Authors: Zongfu Han; Yuxiang Qin; Yongsheng Deng; Fanjin Kong; Zongwen Wang; Guifang Shen; Jinghui Wang; Bing Duan; Ruzhong Li
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Zongfu Han, Yuxiang Qin, Yongsheng Deng, Fanjin Kong, Zongwen Wang, Guifang Shen, Jinghui Wang, Bing Duan, Ruzhong Li
      The Gossypium harknessii background cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system has been used in cotton hybrid breeding in China. However, the mechanism underlying pollen abortion and fertility restoration in CMS remains to be determined. In this study, we used RNA-seq to identify critical genes and pathways associated with CMS in G. harknessii based CMS lines (588A), the near isogenic restorer lines (588R), and maintainer lines (588B). We performed an assembly of 80,811,676 raw reads into 89,939 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 698 bp. Among these, 72.62% unigenes were annotated in public protein databases and were classified into functional clusters. In addition, we investigated the changes in expression of genes between 588A and 588B (588R); the RNA-seq data showed 742 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 588A and 588B and 748 DEGs between 588A and 588R. They were mainly down-regulated in 588A and most of them distributed in metabolic and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathways. Further analysis revealed 23 pollen development related genes were differentially expressed between 588A and 588B. Numerous genes associated with tapetum development were down-regulated in 588A, implicating tapetum dysplasia may be a key reason for pollen abortion in CMS lines. Also, among DEGs between 588A and 588R, we identified two PPR genes which were highly up-regulated in restorer line. This study may provide assistance for detailed molecular analysis and a better understanding of harknessii based CMS in cotton.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Physiological and biochemical perspectives of non-salt tolerant plants
           during bacterial interaction against soil salinity
    • Authors: Ramalingam Radhakrishnan; Kwang Hyun Baek
      Pages: 116 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Kwang Hyun Baek
      Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells. Salinity also affects plant growth regulators and suppresses seed germination and root and shoot growth. Bacterial secretion of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins compensates for the salt-induced hormonal decrease in plants, and bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase synthesis decreases ethylene production to stimulate plant growth. Furthermore, bacteria modulate the redox state of salinity-affected plants by enhancing antioxidants and polyamines, which leads to increased photosynthetic efficiency. Bacteria-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in stressed plants regulates plant cellular activities and prevents salt stress damage. Plant-bacterial interaction reprograms the expression of salt stress-responsive genes and proteins in salinity-affected plants, resulting in a precise stress mitigation metabolism as a defense mechanism. Soil bacteria increase the fertility of soil and regulate the plant functions to prevent the salinity effects in glycophytes. This review explains the current understanding about the physiological changes induced in glycophytes during bacterial interaction to alleviate the adverse effects of soil salinity stress.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • Isolation and characterization of Cepa2, a natural alliospiroside A, from
           shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) with anticancer activity
    • Authors: Mostafa Abdelrahman; Hassan Y.A.H. Mahmoud; Magdi El-Sayed; Shuhei Tanaka; Lam-Son Phan Tran
      Pages: 167 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116
      Author(s): Mostafa Abdelrahman, Hassan Y.A.H. Mahmoud, Magdi El-Sayed, Shuhei Tanaka, Lam-Son Phan Tran
      Exploration of new and promising anticancer compounds continues to be one of the main tasks of cancer research because of the drug resistance, high cytotoxicity and limitations of tumor selectivity. Natural products represent a better choice for cancer treatment in comparison with synthetic compounds because of their pharmacokinetic properties and lower side effects. In the current study, we isolated a steroidal saponin, named Cepa2, from the dry roots of shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group), and determined its structure by using two-dimensional nuclear manganic resonance (2D NMR). The 1H NMR and 13C NMR data revealed that the newly isolated Cepa2 compound is identical to alliospiroside A (C38H60O12) [(25S)-3β-hydroxyspirost-5-en-1β-yl-2-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-α-L-arabinopyranoside], whose anticancer activity remains elusive. Our in vitro examination of the cytotoxic activity of the identified Cepa2 against P3U1 myeloma cancer cell line showed its high efficiency as an anticancer with 91.13% reduction in P3U1 cell viability 12 h post-treatment. The reduction of cell viability was correlated with the increase in reactive oxygen species levels in Cepa2-treated P3U1 cells, as compared with untreated cells. Moreover, scanning electron microscope results demonstrated apoptosis of the Cepa2-treated P3U1 cells in a time course-dependent manner. The results of our study provide evidence for the anticancer properties of the natural Cepa2/alliospiroside A extracted from shallot plants, and a strong foundation for in-depth investigations to build theoretical bases for cell apoptosis and development of novel anticancer drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T20:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
       
  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid improves DNA damage and DNA Methylation changes in
           deltamethrin-exposed Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings
    • Authors: Mahmut Sinan Taspinar; Murat Aydin; Esra Arslan; Muhammet Yaprak; Guleray Agar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Mahmut Sinan Taspinar, Murat Aydin, Esra Arslan, Muhammet Yaprak, Guleray Agar
      Deltamethrin, synthetic type II pyrethroid, is one of the most widely used pesticide in agriculture. Intense use of deltamethrin can cause permanant or temporary damages in nontarget plant species. In this study, we aimed to determine DNA methylation change and DNA damage level in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings subjected to different concentrations of deltamethrin (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 ppm). Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification (CRED-RA) was performed to analyze the changes of DNA methylation as well as Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used for genotoxic influences estimation and genomic stability. The results showed that deltamethrin caused to increase in RAPD profile changes (DNA damage) and reduce in Genomic Template Stability (GTS). GTS declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of deltamethrin applied. The lowest GTS value (71.4%) observed in 0.5 ppm deltamethrin treatment. Also, DNA hypermethylation was occurred in all treatments. Moreover, alleviative effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20, 40 and 80 mg/l), one of the plant growth regulators, was tested against the 0.5 ppm deltamethrin. Adverse effects of deltamethrin on GTS decreased after ALA treatments, especially 20 mg/l concentration. As a result, we concluded that ALA has a strong anti-genotoxic agent against deltamethrin and it could be an alternative chemical to reduce genetic damage in plants under deltamethrin stress conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T20:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.026
       
  • Physio-biochemical basis of iron-sulfide nanoparticle induced growth and
           seed yield enhancement in B. juncea
    • Authors: Madhu Rawat; Rajeev Nayan; Bhawana Negi; M.G.H. Zaidi; Sandeep Arora
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Madhu Rawat, Rajeev Nayan, Bhawana Negi, M.G.H. Zaidi, Sandeep Arora
      Metal nanoparticles have been reported to influence plant growth and productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects have not been completely understood yet. Current work describes the physio-biochemical basis of iron sulfide nanoparticle induced growth and yield enhancement in Brassica juncea. Iron sulfide nanoparticles (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm) were used for foliar treatment of B. juncea at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing, under field conditions. Foliar treatment of 4 ppm iron sulfide nanoparticle solution at 30 days after sowing brought maximal enhancement in agronomic attributes of the treated plants. Results of assays i.e. total chlorophyll, electrolyte leakage, Malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, H2O2 and antioxidant enzyme activities indicated the benign effect of iron sulfide nanoparticles on plants. Consequently, improved redox status of the treated plants, enabled them to assimilate higher photosynthate. The augmentation in growth and seed yield in iron sulfide nanoparticle treated plants was amply supported by activation of RUBISCO small subunit (rubisco S), RUBISCO large subunit (rubisco L), glutamine synthetase (gs) and glutamate synthase (gogat) genes. Thus, iron sulfide nanoparticle induced growth and yield enhancement is proposed to be mediated through activation of carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways at specific growth stage. The iron content in the leaves and root tissues of the treated plants was also significantly improved.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T20:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.021
       
  • Alterations of growth, antioxidant system and gene expression in
           Stylosanthes guianensis during Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infection
    • Authors: Hui Wang; Zhijian Chen; Guodao Liu; Changjun Bai; Hong Qiu; Yanxing Jia; Lijuan Luo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Hui Wang, Zhijian Chen, Guodao Liu, Changjun Bai, Hong Qiu, Yanxing Jia, Lijuan Luo
      Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of many plants, including stylo (Stylosanthes spp.), which is an important tropical forage legume. Although C. gloeosporioides-caused anthracnose is the major constraint limiting the growth and yield of stylo, little information is available regarding the responses of stylo during the infection process of this pathogen. This study investigated the changes in growth, the antioxidant system and gene expression in stylo in response to C. gloeosporioides treatment. Negative effects of C. gloeosporioides were observed in inoculated stylo plants, as reflected by the formation of necrotic disease lesions and the decrease in shoot fresh weight. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation increased in stylo leaves during the C. gloeosporioides infection process. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as the concentrations of the antioxidant compounds ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH), increased in leaves under C. gloeosporioides treatment. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of stress response genes, including NADPH oxidase (Nox), thioredoxin (Thi), pathogenesis related genes (PR1 and PR5), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chitinase (Cht), was differentially enhanced in stylo leaves by C. gloeosporioides. Taken together, this study provides novel information regarding the alterations during the infection process of C. gloeosporioides in stylo at the levels of antioxidant system and gene expression.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T20:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.024
       
  • Physiological traits and Mn transporter genes expression in ryegrass
           genotypes under increasing Mn at short-term
    • Authors: Marjorie Reyes-Díaz; Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau; Graciela Berríos; Mariana Deppe; Rolando Demanet; Miren Alberdi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Graciela Berríos, Mariana Deppe, Rolando Demanet, Miren Alberdi
      We studied physiological traits and Mn transporter genes expression in ryegrass genotypes (One-50, Banquet-II, Halo-AR1 and Nui) under increasing Mn (2.4–750 μM) at short-term (8–24 h) in nutrient solution. An increment in Mn concentration occurred early in roots of all genotypes at increased Mn doses relative to control. Banquet-II and Nui roots showed the greatest Mn concentration at the highest Mn supply. Net photosynthesis (Pn) of Banquet-II and Halo-AR1 were not perturbed by Mn doses, whereas One-50 and Nui, decayed strongly at the highest Mn dose, concomitant with reduced total chlorophyll concentration. A high accumulation of Mn in roots together the maintained Pn under increased Mn doses in Banquet-II and Halo-AR1 suggest a higher Mn resistance of these genotypes. Stomatal conductance (gs) of all genotypes did not vary in presence of Mn. In roots of Banquet-II an augment of lipid peroxidation (LP) by Mn excess was observed earlier decreasing afterwards, being attenuated by the augment of the radical scavenging activity (RSA) and total phenols (TP) of this genotype. Mn concentration and LP in tissues of One-50 and Nui genotypes rose together, may be due to its Mn sensitivity. Differential expression of Mn transporter genes were found in the studied genotypes grown under increasing supplies of Mn, being MTP8.1 expressed in shoots and NRAMP2-like in roots. We concluded that Banquet-II showed greater Mn concentration associated to high roots NRAMP2-like gene expression, without changes in photosynthetic performance. Despite, this genotype showed an increase of LP at the first hours of Mn-excess, it was decreased by the RSA and TP. Halo-AR1 appears to be Mn-resistant in the short-term due to its photosynthetic performance was unchanged by Mn-toxicity, whilst One-50 and Nui were Mn-sensitive.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T20:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.023
       
  • Comparative proteomic and metabolomic studies between Prunus persica
           genotypes resistant and susceptible to Taphrina deformans suggest a
           molecular basis of resistance
    • Authors: Camila Goldy; Laura A. Svetaz; Claudia A. Bustamante; Marco Allegrini; Gabriel H. Valentini; María F. Drincovich; Alisdair R. Fernie; María V. Lara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Camila Goldy, Laura A. Svetaz, Claudia A. Bustamante, Marco Allegrini, Gabriel H. Valentini, María F. Drincovich, Alisdair R. Fernie, María V. Lara
      The worldwide-distributed leaf peach curl disease is caused by the biotroph Taphrina deformans. To characterize the plant-fungus interaction, resistant and susceptible Prunus persica genotypes grown in the orchard were studied. Asymptomatic leaves were tested for fungal presence. In all resistant leaves analyzed the fungus was not detected. Conversely, leaves from the susceptible genotype were categorized according to the presence or absence of the pathogen. Comparative metabolomic analysis disclosed the metabolite composition associated with resistant and susceptible interactions, and of compounds involved in fungal growth inhibition such as chlorogenic acid, whose in vitro antifungal activity was verified in this work. Differential proteome studies revealed that chloroplasts are important site of plant defense responses against T. deformans. Members of the Bet-v1-like family protein differentially responded to the pathogen. Extracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, evaluated by qRT-PCR, and an enone oxidoreductase are constitutively present in leaves of resistant trees and could be related to fungal resistance. This study is a global view of the changes in the metabolome, proteome and transcripts related to plant defense in naturally infected leaves of susceptible plants during the asymptomatic stage. Additionally, it provides clues to the successful molecular mechanisms operating in resistant plants, which neither develop the disease nor harbor the pathogen.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T20:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.022
       
  • Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain
           legumes
    • Authors: Muhammad Farooq; Nirmali Gogoi; Mubshar Hussain; Sharmistha Barthakur; Sreyashi Paul; Nandita Bharadwaj; Hussein M. Migdadi; Salem S. Alghamdi; Kadambot H.M. Siddique
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Muhammad Farooq, Nirmali Gogoi, Mubshar Hussain, Sharmistha Barthakur, Sreyashi Paul, Nandita Bharadwaj, Hussein M. Migdadi, Salem S. Alghamdi, Kadambot H.M. Siddique
      Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12–100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of transgenics and crop management strategies may enhance salt tolerance and yield in grain legumes on salt-affected soils.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T20:51:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.020
       
  • Changes in lipid peroxidation in stay-green leaves of tobacco with
           senescence-induced synthesis of cytokinins
    • Authors: Maria Pilarska; Ernest Skowron; Rafał Pietraś; Karin Krupinska; Ewa Niewiadomska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Maria Pilarska, Ernest Skowron, Rafał Pietraś, Karin Krupinska, Ewa Niewiadomska
      The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progress of leaf senescence has long been suggested, but there are contrasting results to either support or deny the positive correlation between the senescence progression and the level of ROS-triggered lipid peroxidation. The inconsistency among reported results can partly be attributed to the poor specificity of the most commonly employed colorimetric assay and changes in the ratio of dry weight/fresh weight during leaf senescence. In this study we determined the end-product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) by GS-MS, and analyzed its changes during senescence of tobacco leaves as calculated on dry weight basis. In leaves of the wild type plants the MDA level did not change during senescence. In the mutant P SAG12 ::IPT leaves stayed green because of the elevated synthesis of cytokinins, but the MDA level was much higher in comparison to WT when leaves of the same age were compared. These results clearly show that lipid peroxidation is not associated with leaf senescence, at least in tobacco. This GS-MS method can be used to judge the involvement of lipid peroxidation in senescence in other species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.018
       
  • Suppression of the MADS-box gene SlMBP8 accelerates fruit ripening of
           tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
    • Authors: Wencheng Yin; Zongli Hu; Baolu Cui; Xuhu Guo; Jingtao Hu; Zhiguo Zhu; Guoping Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Wencheng Yin, Zongli Hu, Baolu Cui, Xuhu Guo, Jingtao Hu, Zhiguo Zhu, Guoping Chen
      MADS-box genes encode important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants, including fruit ripening. In our research, a MADS-box gene, SlMBP8, was identified, and its tissue-specific expression profiles were analysed. SlMBP8 was highly expressed in fruits of the B+4 stage, in senescent leaves and in sepals. To further characterize its function, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector of SlMBP8 was constructed and transferred into tomato. In the transgenic plants, the ripening of fruits was shortened by 2–4 days compared to that of wild type. At the same time, carotenoids accumulated to higher levels and the expression of phytone synthase 1 (PSY1), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and ς-carotene desaturase (ZDS) was enhanced in RNAi fruits. The transgenic fruits and seedlings showed more ethylene production compared with that of the wild type. Furthermore, SlMBP8-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls due to higher endogenous ethylene levels, suggesting that SlMBP8 may modulates the ethylene triple response negatively. A yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that SlMBP8 could interact with SlMADS-RIN. Besides, the expression of ethylene-related genes, including ACO1, ACO3, ACS2, ERF1, E4 and E8, was simultaneously up-regulated in transgenic plants. In addition, SlMBP8-silenced fruits showed higher ethylene production, suggesting that suppressed expression of SlMBP8 promotes carotenoid and ethylene biosynthesis. In addition, the fruits of transgenic plants displayed more rapid water loss and decreased storability compared to wild type, which was due to the significantly induced expressions of cell wall metabolism genes such as PG, EXP, HEX, TBG4, XTH5 and XYL. These results suggest that SlMBP8 plays an important role in fruit ripening and softening.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.019
       
  • Location and characterization of lignin in tracheid cell walls of radiata
           pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) compression woods
    • Authors: Miao Zhang; Catherine Lapierre; Noor Liyana Nouxman; Michel K. Nieuwoudt; Bronwen G. Smith; Ramesh R. Chavan; Brian H. McArdle; Philip J. Harris
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Miao Zhang, Catherine Lapierre, Noor Liyana Nouxman, Michel K. Nieuwoudt, Bronwen G. Smith, Ramesh R. Chavan, Brian H. McArdle, Philip J. Harris
      Tilted stems of softwoods form compression wood (CW) and opposite wood (OW) on their lower and upper sides, respectively. More is known about the most severe form of CW, severe CW (SCW), but mild CWs (MCWs) also occur widely. Two grades of MCWs, MCW1 and MCW2, as well as SCW and OW were identified in the stems of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) that had been slightly tilted. The four wood types were identified by the distribution of lignin in the tracheid walls determined by fluorescence microscopy. A solution of the fluorescent dye acridine orange (AO) (0.02% at pH 6 or 7) was shown to metachromatically stain the tracheid walls and can also be used to determine lignin distribution. The lignified walls fluoresced orange to yellow depending on the lignin concentration. Microscopically well-characterized discs (0.5 mm diameter) of the wood types were used to determine lignin concentrations and lignin monomer compositions using the acetyl bromide method and thioacidolysis, respectively. Lignin concentration and the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H-units) relative to guaiacyl (G-units) increased with CW severity, with <1% H-units in OW and up to 14% in SCW. Lignin H-units can be used as a marker for CW and CW severity. Similar discs were also examined by Raman and FTIR micro-spectroscopies coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) to determine if these techniques can be used to differentiate the four different wood types. Both techniques were able to do this, particularly Raman micro-spectroscopy.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.012
       
  • Beneficial effects of melatonin in overcoming drought stress in wheat
           seedlings
    • Authors: Guibin Cui; Xiaoxiao Zhao; Shudong Liu; Fengli Sun; Chao Zhang; Yajun Xi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Guibin Cui, Xiaoxiao Zhao, Shudong Liu, Fengli Sun, Chao Zhang, Yajun Xi
      Melatonin plays an important role in abiotic stress in plant, but its role in wheat drought tolerance is less known. To verify its role, wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Yan 995’) at 60% and 40% of field capacity were treated with 500 μM melatonin in this study. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the drought tolerance of wheat seedlings, as demonstrated by decreased membrane damage, more intact grana lamella of chloroplast, higher photosynthetic rate, and maximum efficiency of photosystem II, as well as higher cell turgor and water holding capacity in melatonin-treated seedlings. Besides, melatonin markedly decreased the content of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion in melatonin-treated seedlings, which is attributed to the increased total antioxidant capacity, GSH and AsA contents, as well as enzyme activity including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione transferase (GST). The GSH-AsA related genes including APX, MDHAR, and DHAR were commonly upregulated by melatonin and correlated to the antioxidant enzyme activity as well as the content of GSH and AsA, indicating that the increase of GSH and AsA was attributed to the expression of these genes. Our result confirmed the mitigation potential of melatonin in drought stress and certain mechanisms of melatonin-induced GSH and AsA accumulation, which could deepen our understanding of melatonin-induced drought tolerance in wheat.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.014
       
  • Effects of salinity and short-term elevated atmospheric CO2 on the
           chemical equilibrium between CO2 fixation and photosynthetic electron
           transport of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
    • Authors: Sayed Hussin; Nicole Geissler; Mervat M.M. El-Far; Hans-Werner Koyro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Sayed Hussin, Nicole Geissler, Mervat M.M. El-Far, Hans-Werner Koyro
      The effect of water salinity on plant growth and photosynthetic traits of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated to determine its level and mechanisms of salinity tolerance. It was also attempted to assess how short-term elevated CO2 concentration would influence the boundaries and mechanisms of its photosynthetic capacity. The plants were grown in gravel/hydroponic system under controlled greenhouse conditions and irrigated with four different salinity levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 mol m−3NaCl). Low salinity did not significantly alter the plant fresh weight, which was substantially decreased by 67% at high salinity treatment. Salinity tolerance threshold was reached at 50 mol m−3 NaCl while C50 was between 50 and 100 mol m−3 NaCl, indicating that S. rebaudiana is a moderate salt tolerant species. Salt-induced growth reduction was apparently linked to a significant decline of about 47% in the photosynthetic rates (Anet) at high salinity treatment, leading consequently to a disequilibrium between CO2-assimilation and electron transport rates (indicated by enhanced ETRmax/Agross ratio). Elevated atmospheric CO2 enhanced CO2-assimilation rates by 65% and 80% for control and high-salt-stressed plants respectively, likely due to significant increases in intercellular CO2 concentration (indicated by enhanced Ci/Ca). The priority for Stevia under elevated atmospheric CO2 was not to save water but to maximize photosynthesis so that the PWUE was progressively improved and the threat of oxidative stress was diminished (decline in ETRmax/Agross ratio). The results imply that elevated CO2 level could ameliorate some of the detrimental effects of salinity, conferring higher tolerance and survival of S. rebaudiana, a highlydesired feature with the forthcoming era of global changes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.017
       
  • Hormonal profile and the role of cell expansion in the germination control
           of Cerrado biome palm seeds
    • Authors: Daiane Souza Dias; Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro; Paulo Sérgio Nascimento Lopes; Sergi Munné-Bosch; Queila Souza Garcia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Daiane Souza Dias, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro, Paulo Sérgio Nascimento Lopes, Sergi Munné-Bosch, Queila Souza Garcia
      Little information is currently available concerning the mechanisms controlling palm seed germination. We compared the anatomical and physiological aspects of seeds of two neotropical palm species showing different levels of dormancy. The seeds of Attalea vitrivir and Butia capitata were evaluated for the endogenous contents of hormones (ABA, GAs, CKs, BRs, IAA, JA, SA and the ethylene precursor ACC) in their cotyledonary petiole and operculum (structures involved in germination control), the force necessary to displace the operculum, endo-β-mannanase activities, and embryo cell elongation. The analyses were carried out on with intact dry and imbibed seeds as well as with seeds with the operculum mechanically removed, 2, 5 and 10 days after sowing. The germinabilities of the intact seeds of A. vitrivir and B. capitata were 68% and 3%, respectively; the removal of the operculum increased germination to more than 90% in both species. Reductions of ABA and increases in GAs contents coincided with cell elongation, although there is no evidence that hormonal balance and endo-β-mannanase activity are involved in operculum weakening. The ratio between the embryo length and the force required for operculum displacement (EL/OF) was found to be 1.9 times greater in A. vitrivir than in B. capitata, which means that very small elongations in each cell would be sufficient to promote germination, resulting in a lower level of dormancy in the former species. EL/OF and cell growth control are therefore important for defining dormancy level in palm seeds.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.015
       
  • In vitro protein synthesis of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and maize (Zea
           
    • Authors: Franziska Faust; Sven Schubert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Franziska Faust, Sven Schubert
      The substitution of potassium ions (K+) by sodium ions (Na+) in the nutrition of plants is restricted. It was shown earlier that net protein synthesis is the process which is most sensitive to the substitution of K+ by Na+ in young sugar beet. We hypothesized that the activity of ribosomes is inhibited by the substitution. This hypothesis was tested in an in vitro approach. Cytosolic polysomes were isolated from growing leaves of sugar beet and maize by means of differential centrifugation. In vitro systems of both plant species were tested for functionality and comparability. Translation was quantified by the 35S-methionine incorporation in TCA-precipitable products. The effect of different substitution levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% substitution of K+ by Na+) on in vitro translation was measured. Translation by polysomes of both plant species was significantly inhibited by the substitution. However, the translation by maize polysomes was more negatively affected by the substitution. A significant decrease in the translation by maize polysomes was observed already when 20% of K+ were replaced by Na+, whereas in the case of sugar beet, the translation was inhibited firstly at the substitution level of 40%. The in vitro results show that the process of translation itself is disturbed by the substitution and indicate a higher tolerance of sugar beet polysomes to increased Na+ concentrations and Na+/K+ ratios compared to polysomes of maize. We propose that this tolerance contributes to the salt resistance of sugar beet.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.016
       
  • Biotechnological production of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator
           protein (reteplase) from transplastomic tobacco cell cultures
    • Authors: Diego Hidalgo; Maryam Abdoli Nasab; Mokhtar Jalali-Javaran; Roque Bru-Martínez; Rosa M. Cusidó; Purificación Corchete; Javier Palazon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Diego Hidalgo, Maryam Abdoli Nasab, Mokhtar Jalali-Javaran, Roque Bru-Martínez, Rosa M. Cusidó, Purificación Corchete, Javier Palazon
      Transplastomic plants are a system of choice for the mass production of biopharmaceuticals due to the polyploidy of the plastid genome and the low risk of pollen-mediated outcrossing because of maternal inheritance. However, as field-grown plants, they can suffer contamination by agrochemicals and fertilizers, as well as fluctuations in yield due to climatic changes and infections. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a protein used to treat heart attacks, converts plasminogen into plasmine, which digests fibrin and induces the dissolution of fibrin clots. Recently, we obtained transplastomic tobacco plants carrying the K2S gene encoding truncated human tPA (reteplase) with improved biological activity, and confirmed the presence of the target protein in the transgenic plant leaves. Considering the advantages of plant cell cultures for biopharmaceutical production, we established a cell line derived from the K2S tobacco plants. The active form of reteplase was quantified in cultures grown in light or darkness, with production 3-fold higher in light.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T20:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.013
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 117


      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 116


      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
       
  • Bacillus subtilis affects miRNAs and flavanoids production in
           Agrobacterium-Tobacco interaction
    • Authors: Fahimeh Nazari; Naser Safaie; Bahram Mohammad Soltani; Masoud Shams-Bakhsh; Mohsen Sharifi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Fahimeh Nazari, Naser Safaie, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Masoud Shams-Bakhsh, Mohsen Sharifi
      Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a very destructive plant pathogen. Selection of effective biological agents against this pathogen depends on more insight into molecular plant defence responses during the biocontrol agent-pathogen interaction. Auxin as a phytohormone is a key contributor in pathogenesis and plant defence and accumulation of auxin transport carriers are accompanied by increasing in flavonoid and miRNAs concentrations during plant interactions with bacteria. The aim of this research was molecular analysis of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC21332) biocontrol effect against A. tumefaciens (IBRC-M10701) pathogen interacting with Nicotiana tabacum plants. Tobacco plants were either treated with both or one of the challenging bacteria and the expression of miRNAs inside the plants were analysed through qRT-PCR. The results indicated that the bacterial treatments affect expression level of nta-miRNAs. In tobacco plants treated only with A. tumefaciens the expression of nta-miR393 was more than that was recorded for nta-miR167 (3.8 folds, P < 0.05 in 3dpi). While the expression level of nta-miR167 was more than the expression of nta-miR393 in other treatments including tobacco plants treated only with B. subtilis (2.1 folds, P < 0.05) and the plants treated with both of the bacteria (3.9 folds, P < 0.05) in 3 dpi. Also, the composition and concentration of rutin, myrecetin, daidzein and vitexin flavanoid derivatives were detected using HPLC and analysed according the standard curves. All of the tested flavanoid compounds were highly detected in Tobacco plants which were only challenged with A. tumefaciens. The amount of these compounds in the plants which were challenged with the B. subtilis alone, was similar to the amount recorded for the plants challenged with the both bacteria. This study suggests a relationship between the upregulation of nta-miR167, nta-miR393 and accumulation of flavanoid compounds. Overall, the expression of these miRNAs as well as flavonoid derivatives has the potential of being used as biomarkers for the interaction of B. subtilis and A. tumefaciens model system in N. tabacum.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.010
       
  • Immobilisation of barley aleurone layers enables parallelisation of assays
           and analysis of transient gene expression in single cells
    • Authors: Kinga Zór; Christina Mark; Arto Heiskanen; Claus Krogh Madsen; Martin Dufva; Jenny Emnéus; Henrik Brinch-Pedersen; Christine Finnie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Kinga Zór, Christina Mark, Arto Heiskanen, Claus Krogh Madsen, Martin Dufva, Jenny Emnéus, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen, Christine Finnie
      The barley aleurone layer is an established model system for studying phytohormone signalling, enzyme secretion and programmed cell death during seed germination. Most analyses performed on the aleurone layer are end-point assays based on cell extracts, meaning each sample is only analysed at a single time point. By immobilising barley aleurone layer tissue on polydimethylsiloxane pillars in the lid of a multiwell plate, continuous monitoring of living tissue is enabled using multiple non-destructive assays in parallel. Cell viability and menadione reducing capacity were monitored in the same aleurone layer samples over time, in the presence or absence of plant hormones and other effectors. The system is also amenable to transient gene expression by particle bombardment, with simultaneous monitoring of cell death. In conclusion, the easy to handle and efficient experimental setup developed here enables continuous monitoring of tissue samples, parallelisation of assays and single cell analysis, with potential for time course studies using any plant tissue that can be immobilised, for example leaves or epidermal peels.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.008
       
  • Photoprotection regulated by phosphorus application can improve
           photosynthetic performance and alleviate oxidative damage in dwarf bamboo
           subjected to water stress
    • Authors: Chenggang Liu; Yanjie Wang; Yanqiang Jin; Kaiwen Pan; Xingmei Zhou; Na Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Chenggang Liu, Yanjie Wang, Yanqiang Jin, Kaiwen Pan, Xingmei Zhou, Na Li
      Water and nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P), are the two most limiting factors for dwarf bamboo growth in tropical and subtropical areas. Dwarf bamboo is highly sensitive to water stress and often causes severe P deficiency in its growing soils due to the characteristics of shallower roots and expeditious growth. However, little is known about its photoprotective response to soil water deficit and the underlying mechanisms regulated by P application. In this study, a completely randomized design with two factors of two water regimes (well-watered and water-stressed) and two P levels (with and without P application) was arranged to investigate this issue in dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa) plants. Water stress not only decreased water status and photochemical activity but also increased lipid peroxidation due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation irrespective of P application. In this case, thermal dissipation and antioxidative defense were promoted. Moreover, the role of the water−water cycle under this stress still could not be ignored because it accounted for a large proportion of total energy (J PSII). P application significantly enhanced photochemical activity accompanied by increased chlorophyll content in water-stressed plants. Meanwhile, P application remarkably reduced thermal dissipation and hardly affected photorespiration and the water−water cycle under water stress. Although P application only enhanced ascorbate (AsA) level, ROS, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced in water-stressed plants. Therefore, P application can improve the photosynthetic capacity by regulating the redistribution of energy absorbed by PSII antennae and independently activating of the H2O2-scavenging function of AsA to alleviate oxidative damage in F. rufa plants, thereby improving their survival under water stress conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.022
       
  • Assessment of the phenolic profile, antimicrobial activity and oxidative
           stability of transgenic Perilla frutescens L.overexpressing tocopherol
           methyltransferase (γ-tmt) gene
    • Authors: Bimal Kumar Ghimire; Chang Yeon Yu; Ill-Min Chung
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Chang Yeon Yu, Ill-Min Chung
      This study evaluated the effects of enhanced concentrations of α-tocopherol and phenolic compounds on the resistance and stability of Perilla oil in transgenic Perilla frutescens plants against various tested pathogenic bacteria by over-expressing the γ-tmt gene. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the non-transgenic samples was 9313.198 ± 18.887 μg g−1 dry weight (DW), whereas the total concentration of the transgenic samples ranged from 9118.015 ± 18.822 to 10527.612 ± 20.411 μg g−1 DW. The largest increases in phenolic compounds in the transgenic plants in comparison with the control plants were observed in gallic acid, pyrogallol, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, vanillin, syringic acid, naringenin, salicylic acid, quercetin, o-coumaric acid, kaempferol, and hesperetin. o-coumaric and benzoic acid acid were the most abundant phenolic acids found in the transgenic plants. Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) were the most susceptible microorganism against transgenic ethyl acetate extracts with lower measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) (0.25 ± 0.03 mg/ml) at an extract concentration of 2 mg/ml in dried plant material. The same extracts were more effective against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) when compared to control plants with MICs values of 0.52 ± 0.02 mg/ml. The suplementation of 20 μg of α-tocopherol (1000 ppm) in combination with ethyl acetate extracts enhanced the antimicrobial activity against S. typhimurium and B. subtilis, compared to the non-transgenic plants. The acid value of transgenic Perilla oil improved by 91.2% and 35.54% relative to the non-transgenic control oil and commercial Perilla oil, respectively. The low acid value suggests that the oil will be less susceptible to lipase action, and more economically viable and thus, may also improve the oil quality for industrial purposes. In addition, extracts obtained from transgenic plants could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.006
       
  • Drought responsive microRNAs in two barley cultivars differing in their
           level of sensitivity to drought stress
    • Authors: Ehsan Mohseni Fard; Behnam Bakhshi; Reza Keshavarznia; Nava Nikpay; Maryam Shahbazi; Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Reza Keshavarznia, Nava Nikpay, Maryam Shahbazi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
      MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of genes involved in the response to stress. Here, a comparison has been drawn between the miRNA profiles of a drought susceptible, 'Morocco 9–75′, and a drought tolerant, ‘Yousef’, barley cultivars. Leaf water content, shoot dry matter and chlorophyll content decreased in 'Morocco 9–75′ more considerably compared with ‘Yousef’ under drought stress. Furthermore, lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature were observed in 'Morocco 9–75′ compared with ‘Yousef’. Based on the criteria set for differential abundance, 118 of conserved and novel miRNAs were identified as being responsive to soil water status. Although drought stress resulted in an altered abundance of more miRNAs in 'Morocco 9–75′ than in ‘Yousef’, drought stress was generally associated with an increased miRNA abundance in 'Yousef' and a decreased abundance in 'Morocco 9–75'. An in silico analysis identified 645 genes as putative targets for the drought-responsive miRNAs in 'Yousef' and 3735 in 'Morocco 9–75'. Gene ontology analysis showed that drought stress was associated with the altered abundance of miRNAs targeting growth, development, the juvenile to adult transition and hormone signaling. Some miRNAs which became more abundant in 'Yousef' are thought to target genes intimately involved in development and stress adaptation. In 'Morocco 9–75′, drought stress induced changes in the abundance of miRNAs associated with genes affecting growth, development, the juvenile to adult transition and ABA signaling. The data imply that miRNAs may affect the tolerance/sensitivity of barley to drought stress by modulating the expression of a wide set of genes and induction of some physiological changes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.007
       
  • Overexpressing IbCBF3 increases low temperature and drought stress
           tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato
    • Authors: Rong Jin; Beg Hab Kim; Chang Yoon Ji; Ho Soo Kim; Hong Min Li; Dai Fu Ma; Sang-Soo Kwak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Rong Jin, Beg Hab Kim, Chang Yoon Ji, Ho Soo Kim, Hong Min Li, Dai Fu Ma, Sang-Soo Kwak
      Dehydration-responsive element-binding/C-repeat-binding factor (DREB/CBF) proteins regulate the transcription of genes involved in cold acclimation in several species. However, little is known about the physiological functions of CBF proteins in the low temperature-sensitive crop sweetpotato. We previously reported that the DREB1/CBF-like sweetpotato gene SwDREB1/IbCBF3 is involved in responses to diverse abiotic stresses. In this study, we confirmed that IbCBF3 is localized to the nucleus and binds to the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive elements (CRT/DRE) in the promoters of cold-regulated (COR) genes. We generated transgenic sweetpotato plants overexpressing IbCBF3 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter (referred to as SC plants) and evaluated their responses to various abiotic stresses. IbCBF3 expression was dramatically induced by cold and drought but much less strongly induced by high salinity and ABA. We further characterized two SC lines (SC3 and SC6) with high levels of IbCBF3 transcript. The SC plants displayed enhanced tolerance to cold, drought, and oxidative stress on the whole-plant level. Under cold stress treatment (4 °C for 48 h), severe wilting and chilling injury were observed in the leaves of wild-type (WT) plants, whereas SC plants were not affected by cold stress. In addition, the COR genes were significantly upregulated in SC plants compared with the WT. The SC plants also showed significantly higher tolerance to drought stress than the WT, which was associated with higher photosynthesis efficiency and lower hydrogen peroxide levels. These results indicate that IbCBF3 is a functional transcription factor involved in the responses to various abiotic stresses in sweetpotato.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.002
       
  • Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit
           development
    • Authors: Candelas Paniagua; Nieves Santiago-Doménech; Andrew R. Kirby; A. Patrick Gunning; Victor J. Morris; Miguel A. Quesada; Antonio J. Matas; José A. Mercado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Candelas Paniagua, Nieves Santiago-Doménech, Andrew R. Kirby, A. Patrick Gunning, Victor J. Morris, Miguel A. Quesada, Antonio J. Matas, José A. Mercado
      Strawberry (Fragaria × anannasa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruit. Rapid loss of firmness occurs during the ripening process, resulting in a short shelf life and high economic losses. To get insight into the role of pectin matrix in the softening process, cell walls from strawberry fruit at two developmental stages, unripe-green and ripe-red, were extracted and sequentially fractionated with different solvents to obtain fractions enriched in a specific component. The yield of cell wall material as well as the per fresh weight contents of the different fractions decreased in ripe fruit. The largest reduction was observed in the pectic fractions extracted with a chelating agent (trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N’N’-tetraacetic acid, CDTA fraction) and those covalently bound to the wall (extracted with Na2CO3). Uronic acid content of these two fractions also decreased significantly during ripening, but the amount of soluble pectins extracted with phenol:acetic acid:water (PAW) and water increased in ripe fruit. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the different fractions showed that the degree of esterification decreased in CDTA pectins but increased in soluble fractions at ripen stage. The chromatographic analysis of pectin fractions by gel filtration revealed that CDTA, water and, mainly PAW polyuronides were depolymerised in ripe fruit. By contrast, the size of Na2CO3 pectins was not modified. The nanostructural characteristics of CDTA and Na2CO3 pectins were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Isolated pectic chains present in the CDTA fractions were significantly longer and more branched in samples from green fruit than those from red fruit. No differences in contour length were observed in Na2CO3 strands between samples of both stages. However, the percentage of branched chains decreased from 19.7% in unripe samples to 3.4% in ripe fruit. The number of pectin aggregates was higher in green fruit samples of both fractions. These results show that the nanostructural complexity of pectins present in CDTA and Na2CO3 fractions diminishes during fruit development, and this correlates with the solubilisation of pectins and the softening of the fruit.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T20:29:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.001
       
  • Identification and comprehensive evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR
           analysis of host gene-expression in Brassica juncea-aphid interaction
           using microarray data
    • Authors: Chet Ram; Murali Krishna Koramutla; Ramcharan Bhattacharya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Chet Ram, Murali Krishna Koramutla, Ramcharan Bhattacharya
      Brassica juncea is a chief oil yielding crop in many parts of the world including India. With advancement of molecular techniques, RT-qPCR based study of gene-expression has become an integral part of experimentations in crop breeding. In RT-qPCR, use of appropriate reference gene(s) is pivotal. The virtue of the reference genes, being constant in expression throughout the experimental treatments, needs to be validated case by case. Appropriate reference gene(s) for normalization of gene-expression data in B. juncea during the biotic stress of aphid infestation is not known. In the present investigation, 11 reference genes identified from microarray database of Arabidopsis-aphid interaction at a cut off FDR ≤0.1, along with two known reference genes of B. juncea, were analyzed for their expression stability upon aphid infestation. These included 6 frequently used and 5 newly identified reference genes. Ranking orders of the reference genes in terms of expression stability were calculated using advanced statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder, delta Ct and BestKeeper. The analysis suggested CAC, TUA and DUF179 as the most suitable reference genes. Further, normalization of the gene-expression data of STP4 and PR1 by the most and the least stable reference gene, respectively has demonstrated importance and applicability of the recommended reference genes in aphid infested samples of B. juncea.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T00:15:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.004
       
  • Metabolically speaking: Possible reasons behind the tolerance of ‘Sugar
           Belle’ mandarin hybrid to huanglongbing
    • Authors: Nabil Killiny; Maria Filomena Valim; Shelley E. Jones; Ahmad A. Omar; Faraj Hijaz; Fred G. Gmitter; Jude W. Grosser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Nabil Killiny, Maria Filomena Valim, Shelley E. Jones, Ahmad A. Omar, Faraj Hijaz, Fred G. Gmitter, Jude W. Grosser
      Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently considered the most destructive disease of citrus. Since its spread to the Americas, HLB has killed millions of trees and caused a sharp decline in production in many citrus growing regions. With the continuous spread of HLB disease in Florida and worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of commercial citrus cultivars with a strong tolerance to HLB. Interestingly, field observations showed that some of the recently released mandarin hybrids such as ‘Sugar Belle’ were tolerant to HLB. In this study, we investigated the volatile and non-volatile metabolites of greenhouse-grown ‘Sugar Belle’ mandarin and four of its ancestors in order to understand why ‘Sugar Belle’ mandarin is relatively tolerant to HLB. Leaf volatiles were directly extracted with hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Leaf polar metabolites were extracted with a mixture of methanol:water (1:1, v/v), derivatized to their trimethylsilyl ethers, and analyzed using GC-MS. Forty-seven volatile compounds and forty-two polar metabolites were detected in ‘Sugar Belle’ mandarin leaves and its ancestors. ‘Sugar Belle’ was high in several volatiles such as α-thujene, para-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymol, β-elemene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene. Some of these volatiles, especially thymol, β-elemene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene are known for their anti-microbial activity. In addition, ‘Sugar Belle’ mandarin was the highest in synephrine, benzoic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chiro-inositol, fructose, glucose, threonic acid, saccharic acid, and galactaric acid, and the second in threonine, malic acid, and myo-inositol compared to the ancestors. Phenolic compounds such as benzoic, ferulic, and caffeic acids may act as antibacterial agents, whereas others like sugar alcohols may protect ‘Sugar Belle’ mandarin from stress during pathogen attack. The tolerance of ‘Sugar Belle’ and other newly released mandarin hybrids should be further evaluated using greenhouse controlled studies. If tolerance of these hybrids is confirmed, they could be used to replace the traditionally susceptible cultivars.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:11:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.001
       
 
 
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