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Journal Cover Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0981-9428
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Water use efficiency and shoot biomass production under water limitation
           is negatively correlated to the discrimination against 13C in the C3
           grasses Dactylis glomerata, Festuca arundinacea and Phalaris arundinacea
    • Authors: Linda-Maria Mårtensson; Georg Carlsson; Thomas Prade; Kirsten Kørup; Poul Erik Lærke; Erik Steen Jensen
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Linda-Maria Mårtensson, Georg Carlsson, Thomas Prade, Kirsten Kørup, Poul Erik Lærke, Erik Steen Jensen
      Climate change impacts rainfall patterns which may lead to drought stress in rain-fed agricultural systems. Crops with higher drought tolerance are required on marginal land with low precipitation or on soils with low water retention used for biomass production. It is essential to obtain plant breeding tools, which can identify genotypes with improved drought tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). In C3 plant species, the variation in discrimination against 13C (Δ13C) during photosynthesis has been shown to be a potential indicator for WUE, where discrimination against 13C and WUE were negatively correlated. The aim of this study was to determine the variation in the discrimination against 13C between species and cultivars of three perennial C3 grasses (Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot), Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)) and test the relationships between discrimination against 13C, season-long water use WUEB, shoot and root biomass production in plants grown under well-watered and water-limited conditions. The grasses were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to two irrigation regimes, which corresponded to 25% and 60% water holding capacity, respectively. We found negative relationships between discrimination against 13C and WUEB and between discrimination against 13C and shoot biomass production, under both the well-watered and water-limited growth conditions (p < 0.001). Discrimination against 13C decreased in response to water limitation (p < 0.001). We found interspecific differences in the discrimination against 13C, WUEB, and shoot biomass production, where the cocksfoot cultivars showed lowest and the reed canary grass cultivars highest values of discrimination against 13C. Cocksfoot cultivars also showed highest WUEB, shoot biomass production and potential tolerance to water limitation. We conclude that discrimination against 13C appears to be a useful indicator, when selecting C3 grass crops for biomass production under drought conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Physiological highlights of manganese toxicity symptoms in soybean plants:
           Mn toxicity responses
    • Authors: Elcio Ferreira Santos; José Mateus Kondo Santini; Amanda Pereira Paixão; Enes Furlani Júnior; José Lavres; Marcelo Campos; André Rodrigues dos Reis
      Pages: 6 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Elcio Ferreira Santos, José Mateus Kondo Santini, Amanda Pereira Paixão, Enes Furlani Júnior, José Lavres, Marcelo Campos, André Rodrigues dos Reis
      Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for plants; however, high concentrations in certain soil conditions can cause toxicity symptoms in the plant tissue. Here, we describe Mn toxicity symptoms and Mn toxicity responses in soybean plants. Soybean plants exposed to excess Mn showed reductions in the CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, which in turn resulted in decreased shoot biomass. Furthermore, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity were higher in plants grown with the highest Mn concentration. The Mn doses increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, POD, and SOD. The toxicity symptoms presented by the leaves included hypertrophying of the adaxial epidermis and the formation of necrotic areas with purple-colored veins. Dramatic movement of calcium from the healthy region to the purple-colored necrotic region was observed, as was the exit of potassium from the necrotic area to the healthy region of the tissue. The high activities of POD and SOD in the presence of high Mn compartmented in the roots was the main physiological responses at high Mn uptake by soybean plants.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Glucose and sucrose differentially modify cell proliferation in maize
           during germination
    • Authors: Aurora Lara-Núñez; Brendy B. García-Ayala; Sara M. Garza-Aguilar; Jesús Flores-Sánchez; Victor A. Sánchez-Camargo; Carlos E. Bravo-Alberto; Sonia Vázquez-Santana; Jorge M. Vázquez-Ramos
      Pages: 20 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Aurora Lara-Núñez, Brendy B. García-Ayala, Sara M. Garza-Aguilar, Jesús Flores-Sánchez, Victor A. Sánchez-Camargo, Carlos E. Bravo-Alberto, Sonia Vázquez-Santana, Jorge M. Vázquez-Ramos
      Glucose and sucrose play a dual role: as carbon and energy sources and as signaling molecules. In order to address the impact that sugars may have on maize seeds during germination, embryo axes were incubated with or without either of the two sugars. Expression of key cell cycle markers and protein abundance, cell patterning and de novo DNA synthesis in root meristem zones were analyzed. Embryo axes without added sugars in imbibition medium were unable to grow after 7 days; in sucrose, embryo axes developed seminal and primary roots with numerous root hairs, whereas in glucose axes showed a twisted morphology, no root hair formation but callus-like structures on adventitious and primary seminal roots. More and smaller cells were observed with glucose treatment in root apical meristems. de novo DNA synthesis was stimulated more by glucose than by sucrose. At 24 h of imbibition, expression of ZmCycD2;2a and ZmCycD4;2 was increased by sucrose and reduced by glucose. CDKA1;1 and CDKA2;1 expression was stimulated equally by both sugars. Protein abundance patterns were modified by sugars: ZmCycD2 showed peaks on glucose at 12 and 36 h of imbibition whereas sucrose promoted ZmCycD3 protein accumulation. In presence of glucose ZmCycD3, ZmCycD4 and ZmCycD6 protein abundance was reduced after 24 h. Finally, both sugars stimulated ZmCDKA protein accumulation but at different times. Overall, even though glucose appears to act as a stronger mitogen stimulator, sucrose stimulated the expression of more cell cycle markers during germination. This work provides evidence of a differential response of cell cycle markers to sucrose and glucose during maize germination that may affect the developmental program during plantlet establishment.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Adjustments in CAM and enzymatic scavenging of H2O2 in juvenile plants of
           the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia as affected by drought and
           rewatering
    • Authors: Victória Carvalho; Maria E. Abreu; Helenice Mercier; Catarina C. Nievola
      Pages: 32 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Victória Carvalho, Maria E. Abreu, Helenice Mercier, Catarina C. Nievola
      Juvenile plants of epiphytes such as bromeliads are highly prone to dehydration under drought conditions. It is likely that young epiphytes evolved mostly metabolic strategies to resist drought, which may include the plastic modulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Few studies have investigated such strategies in juvenile epiphytes, although such research is important to understand how these plants might face drought intensification derived from potential climatic alterations. The epiphytic CAM bromeliad Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez var. monostachia is known to have plastic responses to drought, but no reports have focused on the metabolism of juvenile plants to drought and recovery. Hence, we aimed to verify how juvenile G. monostachia plants adjust malate (indicative of CAM), H2O2 content and enzymatic scavenging in response to drought (eight days without irrigation) and rewatering (six days of irrigation post-drought). Interestingly, drought decreased H2O2 content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the pre-dusk period, although glutathione reductase (GR) and CAM activity increased. Rewatering restored H2O2, but activities of APX, CAT and GR exceeded pre-stress levels in the pre-dusk and/or pre-dawn periods. Results suggest that recovery from a first drought redefines the homeostatic balance of H2O2 scavenging, in which rewatered plants stimulate the enzymatic antioxidant system while drought-exposed plants intensify CAM activity to regulate H2O2 content, a photosynthetic pathway known to prevent oxidative stress. Such data show that young G. monostachia plants adjust CAM and H2O2 scavenging to adapt to water availability.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.024
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of a small GTP-binding protein gene TaRab18 from wheat
           involved in the stripe rust resistance
    • Authors: Zhengning Jiang; Hui Wang; Guoqin Zhang; Renhui Zhao; Tongde Bie; Ruiqi Zhang; Derong Gao; Liping Xing; Aizhong Cao
      Pages: 40 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Zhengning Jiang, Hui Wang, Guoqin Zhang, Renhui Zhao, Tongde Bie, Ruiqi Zhang, Derong Gao, Liping Xing, Aizhong Cao
      The stripe rust resistance gene, Yr26, is commonly used in wheat production. Identification of Yr26 resistance related genes is important for better understanding of the resistance mechanism. TaRab18, a putative small GTP-binding protein, was screened as a resistance regulated gene as it showed differential expression between the Yr26-containing resistant wheat and the susceptible wheat at different time points after Pst inoculation. TaRab18 contains four typical domains (GI to GIV) of the small GTP-binding proteins superfamily and five domains (RabF1 to RabF5) specific to the Rab subfamily. From the phylogenetic tree that TaRab18 was identified as belonging to the RABC1 subfamily. Chromosome location analysis indicated that TaRab18 and its homeoalles were on the homeologous group 7 chromosomes, and the Pst induced TaRab18 was on the 7 B chromosome. Functional analysis by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) indicated that TaRab18 was positively involved in the stripe rust resistance through regulating the hypersensitive response, and Pst can develop on the leaves of TaRab18 silenced 92R137. However, over-expression of TaRab18 in susceptible Yangmai158 did not enhance its resistance dramatically, only from 9 grade in Yangmai158 to 8 grade in the transgenic plant. However, histological observation indicated that the transgenic plants with over-expressed TaRab18 showed a strong hypersensitive response at the early infection stage. The research herein, will improve our understanding of the roles of Rab in wheat resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T07:09:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • The suppression of tomato defence response genes upon potato cyst nematode
           infection indicates a key regulatory role of miRNAs
    • Authors: Magdalena Święcicka; Waldemar Skowron; Piotr Cieszyński; Joanna Dąbrowska-Bronk; Mateusz Matuszkiewicz; Marcin Filipecki; Marek Daniel Koter
      Pages: 51 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Magdalena Święcicka, Waldemar Skowron, Piotr Cieszyński, Joanna Dąbrowska-Bronk, Mateusz Matuszkiewicz, Marcin Filipecki, Marek Daniel Koter
      Potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is an obligate parasite of solanaceous plants, triggering metabolic and morphological changes in roots which may result in substantial crop yield losses. Previously, we used the cDNA-AFLP to study the transcriptional dynamics in nematode infected tomato roots. Now, we present the rescreening of already published, upregulated transcript-derived fragment dataset using the most current tomato transcriptome sequences. Our reanalysis allowed to add 54 novel genes to 135, already found as upregulated in tomato roots upon G. rostochiensis infection (in total - 189). We also created completely new catalogue of downregulated sequences leading to the discovery of 76 novel genes. Functional classification of candidates showed that the ‘wound, stress and defence response’ category was enriched in the downregulated genes. We confirmed the transcriptional dynamics of six genes by qRT-PCR. To place our results in a broader context, we compared the tomato data with Arabidopsis thaliana, revealing similar proportions of upregulated and downregulated genes as well as similar enrichment of defence related transcripts in the downregulated group. Since transcript suppression is quite common in plant–nematode interactions, we assessed the possibility of miRNA-mediated inverse correlation on several tomato sequences belonging to NB-LRR and receptor-like kinase families. The qRT-PCR of miRNAs and putative target transcripts showed an opposite expression pattern in 9 cases. These results together with in silico analyses of potential miRNA targeting to the full repertoire of tomato R-genes show that miRNA mediated gene suppression may be a key regulatory mechanism during nematode parasitism.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T07:09:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.026
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the NAC genes
           under abiotic stresses in Cucumis sativus
    • Authors: Xiao Meng Zhang; Hong Jun Yu; Chao Sun; Jie Deng; Xue Zhang; Peng Liu; Yun Yun Li; Qiang Li; Wei Jie Jiang
      Pages: 98 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Xiao Meng Zhang, Hong Jun Yu, Chao Sun, Jie Deng, Xue Zhang, Peng Liu, Yun Yun Li, Qiang Li, Wei Jie Jiang
      The NAC (standing for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF] and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC]) proteins pertain to one of the plant-specific transcription factor families that play important roles in plant development, abiotic stress resistance and signalling transduction. In the present study, the genomic features of the NAC genes in cucumber were analysed in depth using in silico tools. To reveal a tissue-specific, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of CsNAC genes, RT-qPCR was performed under different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses and genome-wide annotation indicated that 82 high-confidence CsNAC genes were clustered into 13 sub-groups with uneven distribution in the cucumber genome. Furthermore, the CsNAC genes exhibited different tissue-specific expression patterns in 10 tissues under normal growth conditions, while 13 (16%) and 28 (34%) genes displayed preferential expression in roots and flowers, respectively. Moreover, CsNAC genes were more sensitive to salinity than other stresses; however, their responses were relatively rapid and transient to nutrition deprivation. Several CsNAC genes, including CsNAC35, which is an orthologue of the known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RD26, were identified as highly responsive to abiotic stresses and hormones. Overall, our findings revealed the genomic landscape and expression profiling of the CsNAC genes in response to multiple stresses and hormones, offering clues for further function analyses and molecular breeding.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T07:09:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Effects of low sink demand on leaf photosynthesis under potassium
           deficiency
    • Authors: Yonghui Pan; Zhifeng Lu; Jianwei Lu; Xiaokun Li; Rihuan Cong; Tao Ren
      Pages: 110 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Yonghui Pan, Zhifeng Lu, Jianwei Lu, Xiaokun Li, Rihuan Cong, Tao Ren
      The interaction between low sink demand and potassium (K) deficiency in leaf photosynthesis was not intensively investigated, therefore this interaction was investigated in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Plants subjected to sufficient (+K) or insufficient (−K) K supply treatments were maintained or removed their flowers and pods; these conditions were defined as high sink demand (HS) or low sink demand (LS), respectively. The low sink demand induced a lower photosynthetic rate (Pn), especially in the −K treatment during the first week. A negative relationship between Pn and carbohydrate concentration was observed in the −K treatment but not in the +K treatment, suggesting that the decrease in Pn in the −K treatment was the result of sink feedback regulation under low sink demand. Longer sink removal duration increased carbohydrate concentration, but the enhanced assimilate did not influence Pn. On the contrary, low sink demand resulted in a high K concentration, slower chloroplast degradation rate and better PSII activity, inducing a higher Pn compared with HS. Consequently, low sink demand decreased leaf photosynthesis over the short term due to sink feedback regulation, and potassium deficiency enhanced the photosynthetic decrease through carbohydrate accumulation and a lower carbohydrate concentration threshold for initiating photosynthesis depression. A longer duration of limited sink demand and sufficient potassium supply resulted in a higher photosynthesis rate because of delayed chloroplast degradation. This finding indicates that the nutritional status plays a role in leaf photosynthesis variations due to sink-source manipulation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T07:09:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Biochemical composition of symplastic sap from sugarcane genetically
           modified to overproduce proline
    • Authors: Graciele Carraro Balestro; Bruna Higashi; Sheila Mara Sanches Lopes; José Eduardo Gonçalves; Luiz Gonzaga Esteves Vieira; Arildo José Braz de Oliveira; Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves
      Pages: 133 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Graciele Carraro Balestro, Bruna Higashi, Sheila Mara Sanches Lopes, José Eduardo Gonçalves, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves Vieira, Arildo José Braz de Oliveira, Regina Aparecida Correia Gonçalves
      Global interest in sugarcane has increased significantly in recent years because of its economic impact on sustainable energy production. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate changes in the concentrations of total sugars, amino acids, free proline, and total proteins by colorimetric analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to perform a metabolic profiling of a water-soluble fraction of symplastic sap in response to the constitutive expression of a mutant Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene from Vigna aconitifolia. However, there was not a significant increase in the free proline content in the sap of transgenic plants compared to the non-transformed control plants. The most noticeable difference between the two genotypes was an almost two-fold increase in the accumulation of sucrose in the stem internodes of P5CS transgenic sugarcane plants. The results presented in this work showed that transgenic sugarcane plants with increased levels of free proline accumulates high soluble sugar content and, therefore, may represent a novel genotype for improving sugarcane cultivars.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T07:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • A new strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of trans-resveratrol by
           overexpressing stilbene synthase gene in elicited Vitis vinifera cell
           cultures
    • Authors: Mingyu Chu; M.A. Pedreño; Nuria Alburquerque; Lydia Faize; Lorenzo Burgos; Lorena Almagro
      Pages: 141 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Mingyu Chu, M.A. Pedreño, Nuria Alburquerque, Lydia Faize, Lorenzo Burgos, Lorena Almagro
      In this work, transgenic lines of suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell containing the plasmid pMOG800-sts have been obtained. The cell growth of these transgenic cell lines decreased slightly as compared to non-transgenic suspension cultured cells, while cell viability was not affected. In addition, the elicitation with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate enhanced the production of trans-resveratrol, observing the highest levels of this compound in sts-expressing transgenic Vitis suspension cultured cells with the sts expression cassette in the forwards orientation. Moreover, the forwards 2 (F2) transgenic cell line produced the greater levels of trans-resveratrol in comparison with the non-transgenic cell line. In fact, when suspension cultured cells were treated with both elicitors, the accumulation of trans-resveratrol outside the cells in the F2 transgenic suspension cultured cells increased twice (1458 mg.L−1) as compared to non-transgenic cell lines (724 mg.L−1). In both cases, the levels of trans-resveratrol detected in the treatment with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate were greater than the sum of the individual treatments, and therefore we observed a synergistic effect in the presence of both elicitors. Moreover, the expression profile of sts gene in transgenic V. vinifera cell lines was similar to the expression profile detected for the endogenous sts gene in non-transgenic V. vinifera cell lines, being the expression levels greater in the treatment with methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, which was related to the high levels of trans-resveratrol found in the presence of both elicitors.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T07:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Lipid signalling mediated by PLD/PA modulates proline and H2O2 levels in
           barley seedlings exposed to short- and long-term chilling stress
    • Authors: Micaela Peppino Margutti; Matias Reyna; María Verónica Meringer; Graciela E. Racagni; Ana Laura Villasuso
      Pages: 149 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Micaela Peppino Margutti, Matias Reyna, María Verónica Meringer, Graciela E. Racagni, Ana Laura Villasuso
      Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyses phospholipids to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and a head group, and is involved in responses to a variety of environmental stresses, including chilling and freezing stress. Barley responses to chilling stress (induced by incubating seedlings at 4 °C) are dynamic and the duration of stress, either short (0–180 min) or long-term (24–36 h) had a significant impact on the response. We investigated the roles of PLD/PA in responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings to short and long-term chilling stress, based on regulation of proline and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Short-term chilling stress caused rapid and transient increases in PLD activity, proline level, and ROS levels in young leaves. PLD has the ability to catalyse the transphosphatidylation reaction leading to formation of phosphatidylalcohol (preferentially, to PA). Pre-treatment of seedlings with 1-butanol significantly increased proline synthesis but decreased ROS (H2O2) formation. These observations suggest that PLD is a negative regulator of proline synthesis, whereas PA/PLD promote ROS signals. Exogenous PA pre-treatment reduced the proline synthesis but enhanced H2O2 formation. Effects of long-term chilling stress on barley seedlings differed from those of short-term chilling stress. E.g., PLD activity was significantly reduced in young leaves and roots, whereas proline synthesis and ROS signals were increased in roots. Exogenous ROS application enhanced proline level while exogenous proline application reduced ROS level and modulated some effects of long-term chilling stress. Our findings suggest that PLD contributes to signalling pathways in responses to short-term chilling stress in barley seedling, through regulation of the balance between proline and ROS levels. In contrast, reduced PLD activity in the response to long-term chilling stress did not affect proline level. Increased ROS levels may reflect an antioxidant system that is affected by chilling stress and positively compensated by changes in proline level. Implications of our findings are discussed in regard to adaptation strategies of barley seedlings to low temperatures.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T07:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Improved tolerance to transplanting injury and chilling stress in rice
           seedlings treated with orysastrobin
    • Authors: Naoto Takahashi; Yukari Sunohara; Masami Fujiwara; Hiroshi Matsumoto
      Pages: 161 - 167
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 113
      Author(s): Naoto Takahashi, Yukari Sunohara, Masami Fujiwara, Hiroshi Matsumoto
      In addition to their fungicidal activity, strobilurin-type fungicides are reported to show enhancing effects on crop growth and yield. Previous studies suggested that the fungicide has a mitigating effect on abiotic stresses. However, there are few reports about growth enhancement through abiotic stress alleviation by strobilurin-type fungicides, but the mechanism of action of the growth enhancement is still not clear. The present study revealed that orysastrobin enhanced rice seedling growth after root cutting injury and chilling stress. We also found that orysastrobin decreased the transpiration rate and increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. This stress alleviation was eliminated by the application of naproxen, a putative abscisic acid biosynthesis inhibitor. These results suggested that orysastrobin improved tolerance against transplanting injury and chilling stress in rice seedlings by inducing water-retaining activity through the suppression of transpiration, and also by inducing reactive oxygen scavenging activity thus inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-18T07:13:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Arsenic-induced genotoxic responses and their amelioration by diphenylene
           iodonium, 24-epibrassinolide and proline in Glycine max L.
    • Authors: Vibhuti Chandrakar; Bhumika Yadu; Rakesh Kumar Meena; Amit Dubey; S. Keshavkant
      Pages: 74 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Vibhuti Chandrakar, Bhumika Yadu, Rakesh Kumar Meena, Amit Dubey, S. Keshavkant
      Presence of the toxic metalloid, “arsenic (As)” is ubiquitous in the environment especially in the soil and water. Its excess availability in the soil retards growth and metabolism of plants via (a) slowing down the cell division/elongation, (b) overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (c) modulation of antioxidant enzymes, and (d) alteration of DNA profile/genomic template stability (GTS). In the current study, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and proline (Pro) were used to analyze their roles in eliminating the adverse effects of As. Glycine max L. (variety JS 335) seeds were subjected to As (75 μM, Sodium arsenite was used as source of As), and in combination with DPI (10 μM), EBL (0.5 μM) or Pro (10 mM), for five consecutive days, and effects of these treatment combinations were analyzed on germination percentage, biomass, membrane stability, GTS and expressions of defensive genes. In addition, the levels of As, ROS, malondialdehyde, DNA content, oxidation, fragmentation, polymorphism, DNase activity, endogenous Pro and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity were evaluated. The results indicated that the treatments of DPI, EBL or Pro are capable to alleviate detrimental effects of As, gauged from above variables, but with different magnitudes. Apropos As-stress mitigation, Pro was found to be the most effective under the confines of the study protocol. This study certainly provides new ideas for intensifying studies to unravel elusive central mechanism of amelioration involving use of DPI, EBL or Pro in plants with confirmed As-toxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • A comparative study of the dynamic accumulation of polyphenol components
           and the changes in their antioxidant activities in diploid and tetraploid
           Lonicera japonica
    • Authors: Dexin Kong; Yanqun Li; Mei Bai; Yali Deng; Guangxin Liang; Hong Wu
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Dexin Kong, Yanqun Li, Mei Bai, Yali Deng, Guangxin Liang, Hong Wu
      Polyploidization is an effective method to achieve a higher yield of secondary metabolism active ingredients in medicinal plants. Polyphenols are the main active substances that contribute to the antioxidant activity of Lonicera japonica. For studying on the effect of chromosome doubling and harvest time on the dynamic accumulation of the main active substances and antioxidant capabilities of L. japonica, the polyphenol composition contents (7 phenolic acids and 3 flavonoids) and the antioxidant capacity in buds and flowers of diploid and tetraploid L. japonica at six different growth stages were determined by HPLC-DAD and three common antioxidant assays (FRAP, OH RSC and DPPH ARP), and the correlation between the dynamic accumulation of the polyphenol components and antioxidant capacity was also analyzed in current research. The results indicated that the content of the most determined phenolic acids and flavonoids and the antioxidant capacity in most of the growth stages from tetraploid plants were significantly higher than those in the diploid plants. Furthermore, the changes in the antioxidant activity presented a significant positive correlation with the variations in the chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, luteoloside in the two ploidy levels of L. japonica plants. The higher yields of chlorogenic acid (158.97, 164.00, 199.85 mg), luteoloside (5.44, 4.03, 6.31 mg), hyperoside (1.15, 1.06, 1.30 mg) and total flavonoids (9.87, 8.67, 11.10 mg) from 100 buds or flowers in tetraploid plants occurred during the S3–S5 stages, and these stages also exhibited higher antioxidant activities. Therefore, the stages of S3–S5 are recommended as the best time for harvesting high-yield, high-quality tetraploid Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Transcriptome profiling of sweetpotato tuberous roots during low
           temperature storage
    • Authors: Chang Yoon Ji; Won-Hyong Chung; Ho Soo Kim; Won Yong Jung; Le Kang; Jae Cheol Jeong; Sang-Soo Kwak
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Chang Yoon Ji, Won-Hyong Chung, Ho Soo Kim, Won Yong Jung, Le Kang, Jae Cheol Jeong, Sang-Soo Kwak
      Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is a globally important root crop with high industrial value. However, because sweetpotato tuberous roots undergo chilling injuries that negatively affect their quality at temperatures below 10 °C, postharvest damage during the winter season is a major constraint for industrialization. To understand chilling injury response during postharvest low temperature storage, we used next-generation sequencing technology to comprehensive analyze the transcriptome of tuberous roots stored at optimal (13 °C) or low temperature (4 °C) for 6 weeks. From nine cDNA libraries, we produced 298,765,564 clean reads, which were de novo assembled into 58,392 unigenes with an average length of 1100 bp. A total of 3216 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected and categorized into six clusters, of which clusters 2, 4, and 5 (1464 DEGs) were up-regulated under low temperature. The genes in these three clusters are involved in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, pathogen defense, and phenylalanine metabolism. By contrast, genes in clusters 1, 3, and 6 (1752 DEGs), which were generally down-regulated at low temperature, encode antioxidant enzymes or are involved in glycerophospholipid, carbohydrate, or energy metabolism. We confirmed the results of the transcriptome analysis by quantitative RT-PCR. Our transcriptome analysis will advance our understanding of the comprehensive mechanisms of chilling injury during low temperature storage and facilitate improvements in postharvest storage of sweetpotato tuberous roots.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Pb low doses induced genotoxicity in Lactuca sativa plants
    • Authors: S. Silva; P. Silva; H. Oliveira; I. Gaivão; M. Matos; O. Pinto-Carnide; C. Santos
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): S. Silva, P. Silva, H. Oliveira, I. Gaivão, M. Matos, O. Pinto-Carnide, C. Santos
      Soil and water contamination by lead (Pb) remains a topic of great concern, particularly regarding crop production. The admissible Pb values in irrigation water in several countries range from ≈0.1 to ≈5 mg L−1. In order to evaluate putative effects of Pb within legal doses on crops growth, we exposed Lactuca sativa seeds and seedlings to increasing doses of Pb(NO3)2 up to 20 mg L−1. The OECD parameter seed germination and seedling/plant growth were not affected by any of the Pb-concentrations used. However, for doses higher than 5 mg L−1 significant DNA damage was detected: Comet assay detected DNA fragmentation at ≥ 5 mg L−1 and presence of micronuclei (MN) were detected for 20 mg L−1. Also, cell cycle impairment was observed for doses as low as 0.05 mg L−1 and 0.5 mg L−1 (mostly G2 arrest). Our data show that for the low doses of Pb used, the OECD endpoints were not able to detect toxicity, while more sensitive endpoints (related with DNA damage and mitotic/interphase disorders) identified genotoxic and cytostatic effects. Furthermore, the nature of the genotoxic effect was dependent on the concentration. Finally, we recommend that MN test and the comet assay should be included as sensitive endpoints in (eco)toxicological assays.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.026
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Identification and expression analysis of the NAC transcription factor
           family in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)
    • Authors: Mohammed Najib Saidi; Dhawya Mergby; Faiçal Brini
      Pages: 117 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Mohammed Najib Saidi, Dhawya Mergby, Faiçal Brini
      The NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. Our analysis led to the identification of 168 NAC genes in durum wheat, including nine putative membrane-bound TFs and 48 homeologous genes pairs. Phylogenetic analyses of TtNACs along with their Arabidopsis, grape, barley and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 8 phylogenetic groups and allowed the identification of TtNAC-A7, TtNAC-B35, TtNAC-A68, TtNAC-B69 and TtNAC-A43 as homologs of OsNAC1, OsNAC8, OsNTL2, OsNTL5 and ANAC025/NTL14, respectively. In silico expression analysis, using RNA-seq data, revealed tissue-specific and stress responsive TtNAC genes. The expression of ten selected genes was analyzed under salt and drought stresses in two contrasting tolerance cultivars. This analysis is the first report of NAC gene family in durum wheat and will be useful for the identification and selection of candidate genes associated with stress tolerance.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Oil palm drought inducible DREB1 induced expression of DRE/CRT- and
           non-DRE/CRT-containing genes in lowland transgenic tomato under cold and
           PEG treatments
    • Authors: Azzreena Mohamad Azzeme; Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah; Maheran Abd Aziz; Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab
      Pages: 129 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Azzreena Mohamad Azzeme, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah, Maheran Abd Aziz, Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab
      Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factor plays an important role in controlling the expression of abiotic stress responsive genes. An intronless oil palm EgDREB1 was isolated and confirmed to be a nuclear localized protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift and yeast one-hybrid assays validated its ability to interact with DRE/CRT motif. Its close evolutionary relation to the dicot NtDREB2 suggests a universal regulatory role. In order to determine its involvement in abiotic stress response, functional characterization was performed in oil palm seedlings subjected to different levels of drought severity and in EgDREB1 transgenic tomato seedlings treated by abiotic stresses. Its expression in roots and leaves was compared with several antioxidant genes using quantitative real-time PCR. Early accumulation of EgDREB1 in oil palm roots under mild drought suggests possible involvement in the initiation of signaling communication from root to shoot. Ectopic expression of EgDREB1 in T1 transgenic tomato seedlings enhanced expression of DRE/CRT and non-DRE/CRT containing genes, including tomato peroxidase (LePOD), ascorbate peroxidase (LeAPX), catalase (LeCAT), superoxide dismutase (LeSOD), glutathione reductase (LeGR), glutathione peroxidase (LeGP), heat shock protein 70 (LeHSP70), late embryogenesis abundant (LeLEA), metallothionine type 2 (LeMET2), delta 1-pyrroline-5- carboxylate synthetase (LePCS), ABA-aldehyde oxidase (LeAAO) and 9-cis- Epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LeECD) under PEG treatment and cold stress (4 °C). Altogether, these findings suggest that EgDREB1 is a functional regulator in enhancing tolerance to drought and cold stress.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.025
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Antibacterial serine protease from Wrightia tinctoria: Purification and
           characterization
    • Authors: Sakthivel Muthu; Venkatesh Babu Gopal; Selvakumar Soundararajan; Karthikeyan Nattarayan; Karthik S. Narayan; Mythileeswari Lakshmikanthan; Sathuvan Malairaj; Palani Perumal
      Pages: 161 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Sakthivel Muthu, Venkatesh Babu Gopal, Selvakumar Soundararajan, Karthikeyan Nattarayan, Karthik S. Narayan, Mythileeswari Lakshmikanthan, Sathuvan Malairaj, Palani Perumal
      A serine protease was purified from the leaves of Wrightia tinctoria by sequential flow through method comprising screening, optimization, ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange column chromatography. The yield and purification fold obtained were 11.58% and 9.56 respectively. A single band of serine protease was visualized on SDS-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoretic analyses were revealed with the molecular mass of 38.5 kDa. Serine protease had an optimum pH of 8.0 and was stable at 45°C with high relative protease activity. The addition of metal ions such as Mg2+ and Mn2+ exhibits a high relative activity. Serine protease had a potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A 10 μg/ml of serine protease was tested against S. aureus, M. luteus, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae which had 21, 20, 18 and 17 mm of zone of inhibition respectively. Serine protease from W. tinctoria degrades the peptidoglycan layer of bacteria which was visualized by transmission electron microscopic analysis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T05:31:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Melatonin and resveratrol reverse the toxic effect of high boron (B) and
           modulate biochemical parameters in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.)
    • Authors: Eleana Sarafi; Pavlos Tsouvaltzis; Christos Chatzissavvidis; Anastasios Siomos; Ioannis Therios
      Pages: 173 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Eleana Sarafi, Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Christos Chatzissavvidis, Anastasios Siomos, Ioannis Therios
      The objectives of this research were to test a possible involvement of melatonin (MEL) and resveratrol (RES) in restoring growth and to control boron (B) toxicity in peppers. The plants were subjected to four different nutrient solution treatments as following: 1) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Control), 2) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B (100 μMB), 3) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM boron+100 μMresveratrol (100 μMRES), and 4) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B+1 μMmelatonin (1 μM MEL). Pepper plants subjected to B excess (100 μM) for 68 days (d) exhibited visible B toxicity symptoms, reduced rate of photosynthesis (Pn) and reduced dry weight (DW), while their leaf and fruit had the greatest increase of B concentration. The reduction of photosynthesis was restored, the reduction of DW was prevented, while the B leaf and fruit accumulation was moderated with the application of both 100 μMresveratrol (RES) and 1 μMmelatonin (MEL). Moreover, plants exposed to MEL and/or RES displayed no visible B toxicity symptoms. The present study revealed a novel role of MEL and/or RES in the adaptation of pepper plants to B excess based on plant growth, physiological and biochemical criteria.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T05:31:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Sulphur alters chromium (VI) toxicity in Solanum melongena seedlings: Role
           of sulphur assimilation and sulphur-containing antioxidants
    • Authors: Madhulika Singh; Bishwajit Kumar Kushwaha; Samiksha Singh; Vipin Kumar; Vijay Pratap Singh; Sheo Mohan Prasad
      Pages: 183 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Madhulika Singh, Bishwajit Kumar Kushwaha, Samiksha Singh, Vipin Kumar, Vijay Pratap Singh, Sheo Mohan Prasad
      The present study investigates modulation in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI) 25 μM] toxicity by sulphur (S; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM S as low (LS), medium (MS) and high sulphur (HS), respectively) in Solanum melongena (eggplant) seedlings. Biomass accumulation (fresh and dry weights), photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic oxygen evolution and S content were declined by Cr(VI) toxicity. Furthermore, fluorescence characteristics (JIP-test) were also affected by Cr(VI), but Cr(VI) toxicity on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by HS treatment via reducing damaging effect on PS II reaction centre and its reduction side. Enhanced respiration, Cr content and oxidative biomarkers: superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and membrane damage were observed under Cr(VI) stress. Though Cr(VI) enhanced adenosine triphasphate sulfurylase (ATPS) and o-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and content of total glutathione, cysteine and NP-SH, however, their levels/activity were further enhanced by S being maximum with HS treatment. The results show that Cr(VI) toxicity does increase under LS treatment while HS protected Cr(VI)-induced damaging effects in brinjal seedlings. Under HS treatment, in mitigating Cr(VI) toxicity, S assimilation and its associated metabolites such as cysteine, glutathione and NP-SH play crucial role.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T05:31:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Magnesium and manganese affect photosynthesis, essential oil composition
           and phenolic compounds of Tanacetum parthenium
    • Authors: Soudeh Farzadfar; Fatemeh Zarinkamar; Mostafa Hojati
      Pages: 207 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Soudeh Farzadfar, Fatemeh Zarinkamar, Mostafa Hojati
      The accumulation of plant defense metabolites is closely associated with the concentration of nutrient elements, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on the deployment of phenolics and terpenoids are scare. In the present study, the interaction between magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) on nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, oxidative status and the accumulation of phenolics and terpenoids in the leaves of feverfew plants grown at different concentrations of Mg and Mn was investigated. Nutrient uptake and photosynthesis were associated with the amount of applied Mg but could be modified by the concentration of Mn. Phenolic biosynthetic enzymes and individual phenolics were not only induced by Mg, but their levels were also dependent on the Mn supply. Additionally, the proportion of monoterpenes was enhanced by a deficiency of Mg rather than an excess of Mn. Deprivation of Mg also decreased the proportion of sesquiterpenes in the essential oil. Therefore, it appears that a high Mg and a low Mn supply lead to a marked shift from monoterpene to sesquiterpene production. Phenolic compounds also differentially accumulated under varying Mg and Mn concentrations. These results suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of Mg and Mn on the biosynthesis of terpenes and phenolics.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T05:31:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Tomato SlGGP-LIKE gene participates in plant responses to chilling stress
           and pathogenic infection
    • Authors: Dong-Yue Yang; Meng Li; Na-Na Ma; Xing-Hong Yang; Qing-Wei Meng
      Pages: 218 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Dong-Yue Yang, Meng Li, Na-Na Ma, Xing-Hong Yang, Qing-Wei Meng
      Plants are always exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses which can adversely affect their growth and development. As an important antioxidant, AsA plays a vital role in plant defence against damage caused by stresses. In this study, we cloned a tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase-like (SlGGP-LIKE) gene and investigated its role in resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses by using antisense transgenic (AS) tomato lines. The AsA content in AS plants was lower than that in WT plants. Under chilling stress, the growth of AS plants was inhibited significantly, and they yielded higher levels of ROS, REC and MDA but demonstrated weaker APX activity than that shown by WT plants. Additionally, the declined values of Pn, Fv/Fm, oxidisable P700, and D1 protein content of PSII in AS lines were significant. Furthermore, the effect on xanthophyll cycle of AS plants was more severe than that on WT plants, and the ratio of zeaxanthin (Z)/(V + A + Z) and (Z + 0.5 A)/(V + A + Z) in AS lines was lower than that in WT plants. In spite of chilling stress, under Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain infection, AS plants showed lesser bacterial cell growth and dead cells than those shown by WT plants. This finding indicated that AS plants demonstrated stronger resistance against pathogenic infection. Results suggest that SlGGP-LIKE gene played an important role in plant defence against chilling stress and pathogenic infection.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T05:31:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Natural amelioration of Zinc oxide nanoparticle toxicity in
           fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-gracum) by arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus
           intraradices) secretion of glomalin
    • Authors: Narges Ghasemi Siani; Seyfollah Fallah; Lok Raj Pokhrel; Ali Rostamnejadi
      Pages: 227 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Narges Ghasemi Siani, Seyfollah Fallah, Lok Raj Pokhrel, Ali Rostamnejadi
      Owing to rising production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the myriad of consumer applications, ENPs are being released into the environment where their potential fate and effects have remained unclear. With naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus intraradices) in soils, their influence (positive or negative) on ENPs toxicity in plants is not well documented. Herein, we investigated potential influence of AMF on the growth and development in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under varied Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) treatments (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 μg g−1). Results showed that in the absence of AMF, increasing ZnONPs concentrations caused significant decline in root nodule number and biomass in fenugreek. In non-AMF plants, shoot length, and biomass of both root and shoot decreased at ≥375 μg g−1 of ZnONPs treatment; while Zn uptake by shoot and root increased as a function of ZnONPs treatments. Interestingly, AMF colonization in roots significantly diminished at 375 μg g−1 ZnONPs treatment compared to controls. More importantly, AMF inoculation ameliorated inhibitory effects of ZnONPs by promoting secretion of glycoprotein called glomalin—a potent metal chelator—within the rhizosphere, which significantly reduced (by almost half) Zn uptake by root and subsequent translocation to the shoot. AMF inoculation (high glomalin secretion)-mediated low Zn uptake might have been stimulatory to promote root and shoot growth in fenugreek. The results highlight significant protective roles of rhizospheric AMF through glomalin secretion thereby ameliorating nanotoxicity in plants, and underscore the need to include soil-microbial interactions when assessing nanophytotoxicology and risks. Furthermore, potential positive implications to other organisms in the food chain can be inferred due to low tropic transfer of ENPs and/or associated toxic dissolved ions in the presence of naturally occurring soil fingi.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Comparative analysis of polyamine metabolism in wheat and maize plants
    • Authors: Gabriella Szalai; Katalin Janda; Éva Darkó; Tibor Janda; Violeta Peeva; Magda Pál
      Pages: 239 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Gabriella Szalai, Katalin Janda, Éva Darkó, Tibor Janda, Violeta Peeva, Magda Pál
      In the present work changes in polyamine contents were investigated after various hydroponic polyamine treatments (putrescine, spermidine and spermine at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mM concentrations) in two different crop species, wheat and maize. In contrast to putrescine, higher polyamines (spermidine and spermine) induced concentration-dependent oxidative damage in both crops, resulting in decreased biomass. The unfavourable effects of polyamines were more pronounced in the roots, and maize was more sensitive than wheat. The adverse effects of polyamine treatment were proportional to the accumulation of polyamine and the plant hormone salicylic acid in the leaves and roots of both plant species. Changes in polyamine content and catabolism during osmotic stress conditions were also studied after beneficial pre-treatment with putrescine. The greater positive effect of putrescine in wheat than in maize can be explained by differences in the polyamine metabolism under normal and osmotic stress conditions, and by relationship between polyamines and salicylic acid. The results demonstrated that changes in the polyamine pool are important for fine tuning of polyamine signalling, which influences the hormonal balance required if putrescine is to exert a protective effect under stress conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Glycine increases cold tolerance in rice via the regulation of N uptake,
           physiological characteristics, and photosynthesis
    • Authors: Cao Xiaochuang; Zhong Chu; Zhu Lianfeng; Zhang Junhua; Sajid Hussain; Wu Lianghuan; Jin Qianyu
      Pages: 251 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Cao Xiaochuang, Zhong Chu, Zhu Lianfeng, Zhang Junhua, Sajid Hussain, Wu Lianghuan, Jin Qianyu
      To investigate the response of rice growth and photosynthesis to different nitrogen (N) sources under cold stress, hydroponic cultivation of rice was done in greenhouse, with glycine, ammonium, and nitrate as the sole N sources. The results demonstrate that exposure to low temperature reduced the rice biomass and leaf chlorophyll content, but their values in the glycine-treated plants were significantly higher than in the ammonium- and nitrate-treated plants. This might be attributed to the higher N uptake rate and root area and activity in the glycine-treated plants. The glycine-treated plants also maintained high contents of soluble proteins, soluble sugars, and proline as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities to protect themselves against chilling injury. Under cold stress, reduced stomatal conductance (g s ) and effective quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) significantly inhibited the leaf photosynthesis; however, glycine treatment alleviated these effects compared to the ammonium and nitrate treatments. The high non-photochemical quenching (qN) and excess energy dissipative energy (E x ) in the glycine-treated plants were beneficial for the release of extra energy, thereby, strengthening their photochemical efficiency. We, therefore, conclude that the strengthened cold tolerance of glycine-treated rice plants was closely associated with the higher accumulation of dry matter and photosynthesis through the up-regulation of N-uptake, and increase in the content of osmoprotectants, activities of the antioxidant defense enzymes, and photochemical efficiency. The results of the present study provide new ideas for improving the plant tolerance to extreme temperatures by nutrient resource management in the cold regions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • The ozone-like syndrome in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): Mechanisms
           
    • Authors: Valentina Picchi; Robert Monga; Riccardo Marzuoli; Giacomo Gerosa; Franco Faoro
      Pages: 261 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Valentina Picchi, Robert Monga, Riccardo Marzuoli, Giacomo Gerosa, Franco Faoro
      Colombo and Sculptur are two modern durum wheat cultivars that, in previous studies, proved to be very sensitive to ozone injury in terms of eco-physiological parameters and significant grain yield loss. Nevertheless, their response regarding leaf visible symptoms was very different; Sculptur showed almost no symptoms, even after several weeks of ozone exposure, whereas Colombo showed in a few weeks typical ozone-like symptoms (chlorotic/necrotic spots). The mechanisms underlying this different response has been studied with a biochemical and microscopical approach. Plants were grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTCs) and exposed to charcoal filtered and ozone enriched air. Flag leaves were analyzed at two phenological stages (pre- and post-anthesis). At pre-anthesis the ascorbate pool was significantly lower in Colombo, which also underwent an increase in the oxidized glutathione content and abundant H2O2 deposition in mesophyll cells around the substomatal chamber. No or scarce H2O2 was found at both phenological stages in ozone exposed leaf tissues of Sculptur, where stomata appeared often closed. In this cultivar, transmission electron microscopy showed that chloroplasts in apparently undamaged mesophyll cells were slightly swollen and presented numerous plastoglobuli, as a result of a mild oxidative stress. These results suggest that Sculptur leaves remains symptomless as a consequence of the higher content of constitutive ascorbate pool and the synergistic effect of stomata closure. Instead, Colombo shows chlorotic/necrotic symptoms because of the lower ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) scavenging capacity and the less efficient stomata closure that lead to severe damages of groups of the mesophyll cells, however leaving the surrounding photosynthetic tissue functional.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Expression of FlHMA3, a P1B2-ATPase from Festulolium loliaceum, correlates
           with response to cadmium stress
    • Authors: Qiang Guo; Lin Meng; Mike W. Humphreys; John Scullion; Luis A.J. Mur
      Pages: 270 - 277
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Qiang Guo, Lin Meng, Mike W. Humphreys, John Scullion, Luis A.J. Mur
      Heavy metal ATPase 3 (HMA3), a P1B2-ATPase, is a key tonoplast transporter involved in mediating the vacuolar sequestration of cadmium (Cd) to detoxify the intake of this element by plants. HMA3 expression in response to Cd stress has not been previously examined in the grass hybrid species Festulolium loliaceum (Huds.) P. Fourn. In this study, FlHMA3 isolated from F. loliaceum was found to comprise 833 amino acid residues with 77% homology to the rice OsHMA3. Transient expression of FlHMA3 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested its localization to vacuolar membranes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of F. loliaceum revealed that FlHMA3 is expressed predominantly within roots and up-regulated by excess Cd. Over the 168 h treatment, Cd content of F. loliaceum roots was significantly higher than that of shoots, regardless of external CdCl2 concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between FlHMA3 expression and Cd accumulation in roots of F. loliaceum seedlings subjected to 10–100 mg L-1 CdCl2 for 168 h or, in a separate experiment, to 25 or 100 mg L-1 CdCl2 for the same duration. These findings provide evidence that FlHMA3 encodes a vacuolar P1B2-ATPase that may play an important role in Cd2+ sequestration into root cell vacuoles, thereby limiting the entry of Cd2+ into the cytoplasm and reducing Cd2+ toxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Substituent effect of benzaldehydes on tyrosinase inhibition
    • Authors: Ken-ichi Nihei; Isao Kubo
      Pages: 278 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Ken-ichi Nihei, Isao Kubo
      Benzaldehyde inhibited the oxidation of 4-t-butylcatechol catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 31.0 μM. The inhibition kinetics analyzed by Dixon plot indicated that it acts as a partial noncompetitive inhibitor. Further studies of several benzaldehydes, particularly those having a substitution at C-4, suggested that the partial inhibitory property diminished when using a bulk substituent. For example, 4-penthylbenzaldehyde showed a full and mixed type inhibition on diphenolase activity. Therefore, 4-substituted benzaldehyde on the aromatic ring primarily reflected the rate of product formation as it may act as a tight hydrophobic cover on the catalytic center of tyrosinase.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Enhanced plastochromanol-8 accumulation during reiterated drought in maize
           (Zea mays L.)
    • Authors: Eva Fleta-Soriano; Sergi Munné-Bosch
      Pages: 283 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Eva Fleta-Soriano, Sergi Munné-Bosch
      Plastochromanol-8 (PC-8) belongs to the group of tocochromanols, and together with tocopherols and carotenoids, might help protect photosystem II from photoinhibition during environmental stresses. Here, we aimed to unravel the time course evolution of PC-8 together with that of vitamin E compounds, in maize (Zea mays L.) plants exposed to reiterated drought. Measurements were performed in plants grown in a greenhouse subjected to two consecutive cycles of drought-recovery. PC-8 contents, which accounted for more than 25% of tocochromanols in maize leaves, increased progressively in response to reiterated drought stress. PC-8 contents paralleled with those of vitamin E, particularly α-tocopherol. Profiling of the stress-related phytohormones (ABA, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) was consistent with a role of ABA in the regulation of PC-8 and vitamin E biosynthesis during drought stress. Results also suggest that PC-8 may help tocopherols prevent damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. A better knowledge of the ABA-dependent regulation of PC-8 may help us manipulate the contents of this important antioxidant in crops.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Comparative analysis of mutant plants impaired in the main regulatory
           mechanisms of photosynthetic light reactions - From biophysical
           measurements to molecular mechanisms
    • Authors: Mikko Tikkanen; Sanna Rantala; Michele Grieco; Eva-Mari Aro
      Pages: 290 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Mikko Tikkanen, Sanna Rantala, Michele Grieco, Eva-Mari Aro
      Chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence emission by photosystem II (PSII) and light absorption by P700 reaction center chl a of photosystem I (PSI) provide easy means to probe the function of the photosynthetic machinery. The exact relationship between the measured optical variables and the molecular processes have, however, remained elusive. Today, the availability of mutants with distinct molecular characterization of photosynthesis regulatory processes should make it possible to gain further insights into this relationship, yet a systematic comparative analysis of such regulatory mutants has been missing. Here we have systematically compared the behavior of Dual-PAM fluorescence and P700 variables from well-characterized photosynthesis regulation mutants. The analysis revealed a very convincing relationship between the given molecular deficiency in the photosynthetic apparatus and the original fluorescence and P700 signals obtained by using varying intensities of actinic light and by applying a saturating pulse. Importantly, the specific information on the underlying molecular mechanism, present in these authentic signals of a given photosynthesis mutant, was largely nullified when using the commonly accepted parameters that are based on further treatment of the original signals. Understanding the unique relationship between the investigated molecular process of photosynthesis and the measured variable is an absolute prerequisite for comprehensive interpretation of fluorescence and P700 measurements. The data presented here elucidates the relationships between the main regulatory mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic light reactions and the variables obtained by fluorescence and P700 measurements. It is discussed how the full potential of optical photosynthesis measurements can be utilized in investigation of a given molecular mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T06:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • PacMYBA, a sweet cherry R2R3-MYB transcription factor, is a positive
           regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance
    • Authors: Xinjie Shen; Xinwei Guo; Xiao Guo; Di Zhao; Wei Zhao; Jingsheng Chen; Tianhong Li
      Pages: 302 - 311
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Xinjie Shen, Xinwei Guo, Xiao Guo, Di Zhao, Wei Zhao, Jingsheng Chen, Tianhong Li
      Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors play crucial roles in stress responses. We previously isolated a R2R3-MYB homolog from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng, designated PacMYBA (GenBank accession No. KF974774). To explore the role of PacMYBA in the plant stress response, we heterologously expressed PacMYBA in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. In a previous study, we demonstrated that PacMYBA is mainly localized to the nucleus and could be induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Analysis of the promoter sequence of PacMYBA revealed that it contains several stress-related cis-elements. QPCR results showed that PacMYBA is induced by salt, salicylic (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) in sweet cherry leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants heterologously expressing PacMYBA exhibited enhanced salt-tolerance and increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Overexpression of PacMYBA decreased the osmotic potential (OP), increased the free proline content, and increased the peroxidase content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Furthermore, overexpression of PacMYBA also affected the expression levels of salt stress- and pathogen defense-related genes in the transgenic plants. These results indicate that PacMYBA is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T11:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Proteomic comparison of Chelidonium majus L. latex in different phases of
           plant development
    • Authors: Robert Nawrot; Rico Lippmann; Andrea Matros; Oskar Musidlak; Grzegorz Nowicki; Hans-Peter Mock
      Pages: 312 - 325
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Robert Nawrot, Rico Lippmann, Andrea Matros, Oskar Musidlak, Grzegorz Nowicki, Hans-Peter Mock
      Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) latex is used in traditinonal folk medicine to treat papillae, warts, condylomas, which are visible effects of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. The aim of this work was to provide new insights into the biology and medicinal use of C. majus milky sap in the flowering and fruit ripening period of the plant by comparing the protein content between samples collected on respective developmental stages using LC-MS-based label-free proteome approach. For quantification, the multiplexed LC-MS data were processed using comparative chemometric approach. Progenesis LC-MS results showed that in green fruit phase (stage IV), comparing to flowering phase (stage III) of plant development, a range of proteins with higher abundance were identified as stress- and defense-related. On the other hand at stage III very intense protein synthesis, processes of transcription, protein folding and active transport of molecules (ABC transporters) are well represented. 2-DE protein maps showed an abundant set of spots with similar MWs (about 30–35 kDa) and pIs (ca. 5.5–6.5), which were identified as major latex proteins (MLPs). Therefore we suggest that biological activity of C. majus latex could be related to its protein content, which shifts during plant development from intense biosynthetic processes (biosynthesis and transport of small molecules, like alkaloids) to plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. Further studies will help to elucidate if these defense-related and pathogenesis-related proteins, like MLP, together with small-molecule compounds, could inhibit viral infection, what could be a step to fully understand the medicinal activity of C. majus latex.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T11:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Saline stress enhanced accumulation of leaf phenolics in honeysuckle
           (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) without induction of oxidative stress
    • Authors: Kun Yan; Shijie Zhao; Lanxing Bian; Xiaobing Chen
      Pages: 326 - 334
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Kun Yan, Shijie Zhao, Lanxing Bian, Xiaobing Chen
      Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in Chinese, and chlorogenic acid and luteolosid are its specific bioactive phenolic compounds. This study was to investigate leaf antioxidant responses in honeysuckle to saline stress with emphasis on phenolics through hydroponic experiments and field trials. NaCl stress did not stimulate antioxidant system including superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate, and had no significant effect on lipid peroxidation in the leaves. Consistently, no inhibition on photochemical capacity of photosystems suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) was maintained at a normal level under NaCl stress. However, leaf phenolic synthesis was activated by NaCl stress, indicated by elevated genes transcription and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and increased phenolics concentration. Specifically, leaf chlorogenic acid concentration was increased by 67.43% and 48.86% after 15 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, and the increase of luteolosid concentration was 54.26% and 39.74%. The accumulated phenolics hardly helped detoxify ROS in vivo in absence of oxidative stress, but the elevated phenolic synthesis might restrict ROS generation by consuming reduction equivalents. As with NaCl stress, soil salinity also increased concentrations of leaf phenolics including chlorogenic acid and luteolosid without exacerbated lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, leaf phenolics accumulation is a mechanism for the acclimation to saline stress probably by preventing oxidative stress in honeysuckle; leaf medicinal quality of honeysuckle can be improved by saline stress due to the accumulation of bioactive phenolic compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T11:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation of DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 in Dendrobium
           hybrids petals
    • Authors: Chonghui Li; Jian Qiu; Ling Ding; Mingzhong Huang; Surong Huang; Guangsui Yang; Junmei Yin
      Pages: 335 - 345
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Chonghui Li, Jian Qiu, Ling Ding, Mingzhong Huang, Surong Huang, Guangsui Yang, Junmei Yin
      Dendrobium hybrids orchid are popular throughout the world. They have various floral color and pigmentation patterns that are mainly caused by anthocyanins. It is well established that anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by the interplay between MYB and bHLH transcription factors (TF) in most plants. In this study, we identified one R2R3-MYB gene, DhMYB2, and one bHLH gene, DhbHLH1, from a Dendrobium hybrid. Their expression profiles were related to anthocyanin pigmentation in Dendrobium petals. Transient over-expression of these two TF genes showed that both DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 resulted in anthocyanin production in white petals. The interaction between the two TFs was observed in vitro. In different Dendrobium hybrids petals with various pigmentations, DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 were co-expressed with DhDFR and DhANS, which are regarded as potential regulatory targets of the two TFs. In flowers with distinct purple lips but white or yellow petals/sepals, the expression of DhbHLH1 was only related to anthocyanin accumulation in the lips. Taken together, DhMYB2 interacted with DhbHLH1 to regulate anthocyanin production in Dendrobium hybrid petals. DhbHLH1 was also responsible for the distinct anthocyanin pigmentation in lip tissues. The functional characterization of DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 will improve understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis modulation in Dendrobium orchids.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T11:08:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • A novel Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. MYC-type ICE-like transcription factor
           gene ZmmICE1, enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis
           thaliana
    • Authors: Xiang Lu; Lei Yang; Mengyuan Yu; Jianbin Lai; Chao Wang; David McNeil; Meixue Zhou; Chengwei Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Xiang Lu, Lei Yang, Mengyuan Yu, Jianbin Lai, Chao Wang, David McNeil, Meixue Zhou, Chengwei Yang
      The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L., a member of the teosinte group, is a close wild relative of maize and thus can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, an ICE-like gene, ZmmICE1, was isolated from a cDNA library of RNA-Seq from cold-treated seedling tissues of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. The deduced protein of ZmmICE1 contains a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and C-terminal region of ICE-like proteins. The ZmmICE1 protein localizes to the nucleus and shows sumoylation when expressed in an Escherichia coli reconstitution system. In addition, yeast one hybrid assays indicated that ZmmICE1 has transactivation activities. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmmICE1 in the Arabidopsis ice1-2 mutant increased freezing tolerance. The ZmmICE1 overexpressed plants showed lower electrolyte leakage (EL), reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). The expression of downstream cold related genes of Arabidopsis C-repeat-binding factors (AtCBF1, AtCBF2 and AtCBF3), cold-responsive genes (AtCOR15A and AtCOR47), kinesin-1 member gene (AtKIN1) and responsive to desiccation gene (AtRD29A) was significantly induced when compared with wild type under low temperature treatment. Taken together, these results indicated that ZmmICE1 is the homolog of Arabidopsis inducer of CBF expression genes (AtICE1/2) and plays an important role in the regulation of freezing stress response.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.02.002
       
  • Physiological and biochemical responses to manganese toxicity in ryegrass
           (Lolium perenne L.) genotypes
    • Authors: Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau; Marjorie Reyes-Díaz; Graciela Berríos; Acácio Rodrigues-Salvador; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Mariana Deppe; Rolando Demanet; Zed Rengel; Miren Alberdi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Graciela Berríos, Acácio Rodrigues-Salvador, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Mariana Deppe, Rolando Demanet, Zed Rengel, Miren Alberdi
      We studied resistance to manganese (Mn) toxicity under acidic conditions and its relationship with nutrients such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in new perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) genotypes (One-50, Banquet-II and Halo-AR1) introduced in southern Chile, using the Nui genotype as the reference. Plants were grown in nutrient solution at increased Mn concentrations (0–750 μM) at pH 4.8, and physiological and biochemical features were determined. Under higher Mn concentration, the One-50 genotype had a significantly lower relative growth rate (RGR) of shoots and roots, whereas in the other cultivars this parameter did not change under variable Mn treatments. Increasing the Mn concentration led to an increased Mn concentration in roots and shoots, with Banquet-II and Halo-AR1 having higher Mn in roots than shoots. Shoot Mg and Ca concentrations in all genotypes (except Banquet-II) decreased concomitantly with increasing Mn applications. In contrast to the other genotypes, Banquet-II and Halo-AR1 maintained their net CO2 assimilation rate regardless of Mn treatment, whereas the chlorophyll concentration decreased in all genotypes with the exception of Banquet-II. In addition, lipid peroxidation in Banquet-II roots increased at 150 μM Mn, but decreased at higher Mn concentrations. This decrease was associated with an increase in antioxidant capacity as well as total phenol concentration. Banquet-II and Halo-AR1 appear to be the most Mn-resistant genotypes based on RGR and CO2 assimilation rate. In addition, Mn excess provoked a strong decrease in Ca and Mg concentrations in shoots of the Mn-sensitive genotype, whereas only slight variations in the Mn-resistant genotype were noted. When other evaluated parameters were taken into account, we concluded that among the perennial ryegrass genotypes introduced recently into southern Chile Banquet-II appears to be the most Mn-resistant, followed by Halo-AR1, with One-50 being the most sensitive.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.02.003
       
  • Overexpression of the carbohydrate binding module from Solanum
           lycopersicum expansin 1 (Sl-EXP1) modifies tomato fruit firmness and
           Botrytis cinerea susceptibility
    • Authors: M.A. Perini; I.N. Sin; N.M. Villarreal; M. Marina; A.L.T. Powell; G.A. Martínez; P.M. Civello
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): M.A. Perini, I.N. Sin, N.M. Villarreal, M. Marina, A.L.T. Powell, G.A. Martínez, P.M. Civello
      Firmness, one of the major determinants of postharvest quality and shelf life of fruits is determined by the mechanical resistance imposed by the plant cell wall. Expansins (EXP) are involved in the non-hydrolytic metabolic disassembly of plant cell walls, particularly in processes where relaxation of the wall is necessary, such as fruit development and ripening. As many carbohydrate-associated proteins, expansins have a putative catalytic domain and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Several strategies have been pursued to control the loss of fruit firmness during storage. Most of the approaches have been to suppress the expression of key enzymes involved in the cell wall metabolism, but this is the first time that a CBM was overexpressed in a fruit aimed to control cell wall degradation and fruit softening. We report the constitutive overexpression of the CBM of Solanum lycopersicum expansin 1 (CBM-SlExp1) in the cell wall of tomato plants, and its effects on plant and fruit phenotype. Overexpression of CBM-SlExp1 increased the mechanical resistance of leaves, whereas it did not modify plant growth and general phenotype. However, transgenic plants showed delayed softening and firmer fruits. In addition, fruits were less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection, and the “in vitro” growth of the fungus on media containing AIR from the pericarp of transgenic fruits was lower than controls. The possibility of overexpressing a CBM of a fruit-specific expansin to control cell wall degradation and fruit softening is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.029
       
  • Changes in root hydraulic conductivity facilitate the overall hydraulic
           response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to salt and osmotic stress
    • Authors: Delong Meng; Wieland Fricke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Delong Meng, Wieland Fricke
      The aim of the present work was to assess the significance of changes in root AQP gene expression and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in the regulation of water balance in two hydroponically-grown rice cultivars (Azucena, Bala) which differ in root morphology, stomatal regulation and aquaporin (AQP) isoform expression. Plants were exposed to NaCl (25 mM, 50 mM) and osmotic stress (5%, 10% PEG6000). Root Lp was determined for exuding root systems (osmotic forces driving water uptake; ‘exudation Lp’) and transpiring plants (hydrostatic forces dominating; ‘transpiration-Lp’). Gene expression was analysed by qPCR. Stress treatments caused a consistent and significant decrease in plant growth, transpirational water loss, stomatal conductance, shoot-to-root surface area ratio and root Lp. Comparison of exudation-with transpiration-Lp supported a significant contribution of AQP-facilitated water flow to root water uptake. Changes in root Lp in response to treatments were correlated much stronger with root morphological characteristics, such as the number of main and lateral roots, surface area ratio of root to shoot and plant transpiration rate than with AQP gene expression. Changes in root Lp, involving AQP function, form an integral part of the plant hydraulic response to stress and facilitate changes in the root-to-shoot surface area ratio, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.02.001
       
  • Protein tyrosine nitration in plants: Present knowledge, computational
           prediction and future perspectives
    • Authors: Zsuzsanna Kolbert; Gábor Feigl; Ádám Bordé; Árpád Molnár; László Erdei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Zsuzsanna Kolbert, Gábor Feigl, Ádám Bordé, Árpád Molnár, László Erdei
      Nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules (reactive nitrogen species) regulate diverse physiological processes mainly through posttranslational modifications such as protein tyrosine nitration (PTN). PTN is a covalent and specific modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues resulting in altered protein structure and function. In the last decade, great efforts have been made to reveal candidate proteins, target Tyr residues and functional consequences of nitration in plants. This review intends to evaluate the accumulated knowledge about the biochemical mechanism, the structural and functional consequences and the selectivity of plants’ protein nitration and also about the decomposition or conversion of nitrated proteins. At the same time, this review emphasizes yet unanswered or uncertain questions such as the reversibility/irreversibility of tyrosine nitration, the involvement of proteasomes in the removal of nitrated proteins or the effect of nitration on Tyr phosphorylation. The different NO producing systems of algae and higher plants raise the possibility of diversely regulated protein nitration. Therefore studying PTN from an evolutionary point of view would enrich our present understanding with novel aspects. Plant proteomic research can be promoted by the application of computational prediction tools such as GPS-YNO2 and iNitro-Tyr software. Using the reference Arabidopsis proteome,
      Authors performed in silico analysis of tyrosine nitration in order to characterize plant tyrosine nitroproteome. Nevertheless, based on the common results of the present prediction and previous experiments the most likely nitrated proteins were selected thus recommending candidates for detailed future research.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T11:37:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.028
       
  • Sanguinarine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis-like programmed cell
           death(AL-PCD) in root meristem cells of Allium cepa
    • Authors: Aneta Żabka; Konrad Winnicki; Justyna Teresa Polit; Janusz Maszewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Aneta Żabka, Konrad Winnicki, Justyna Teresa Polit, Janusz Maszewski
      A vast number of studies on plant cell systems clearly indicate that various biotic and abiotic stresses give rise to the uncontrolled increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess concentrations of ROS result in damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and DNA, which may lead, in consequence, to the apoptotic cell death. The current study investigates the effects of sanguinarine (SAN), a natural alkaloid derived from the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis, on root apical meristem cells of Allium cepa. It is shown that SAN treatment generated large amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2·−). Oxidative stress induced in SAN-treated cells was correlated with DNA fragmentation, formation of micronuclei (MN), altered and ‘degenerated’ chromatin structures characteristic of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD). The experiments with SAN + MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor engaged in Topo II-mediated formation of cleavable complexes) and SAN + ascorbic acid (AA; H2O2 scavenger) seem to suggest, however, that the high level of H2O2 is not the only factor responsible for changes observed at the chromatin level and for the consequent cell death. Our findings imply that Topo II-DNA covalent complexes and 26S proteasomes are also involved in SAN-induced DNA damage.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.004
       
  • Functional characterization of a novel jasmonate ZIM-domain interactor
           (NINJA) from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
    • Authors: Le Wang; Shu-Ming Wu; Yue Zhu; Qiang Fan; Zhen-Nan Zhang; Guang Hu; Qing-Zhong Peng; Jia-He Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Le Wang, Shu-Ming Wu, Yue Zhu, Qiang Fan, Zhen-Nan Zhang, Guang Hu, Qing-Zhong Peng, Jia-He Wu
      The jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway plays roles in plant development and defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. We isolated a cotton NINJA novel interactor of JA ZIM-domain) gene, designated GhNINJA, which contains a 1305 bp open read frame. The GhNINJA gene encodes a 434 amino acid peptide. According to quantitative real-time PCR analysis, GhNINJA is preferentially expressed in roots, and its expression level is greatly induced by Verticillium dahliae infection. Through a virus-induced gene silencing technique, we developed GhNINJA-silenced cotton plants, which had significantly decreased expression of the target gene with an average expression of 6% of the control. The regenerating lateral root growth of silenced plants was largely inhibited compared to the control. Analysis by microscopy demonstrated that the cell length of the root differentiation zone in GhNINJA-silenced plants is significantly shorter than those of the control. Moreover, the silenced plants exhibited higher tolerance to V. dahliae infection compared to the control, which was linked to the increased expression of the defence marker genes PDF1.2 and PR4. Together, these data indicated that knockdown of GhNINJA represses the root growth and enhances the tolerance to V. dahliae. Therefore, GhNINJA gene can be used as a candidate gene to breed the new cultivars for improving cotton yield and disease resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T09:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.01.005
       
  • Peach leaf curl disease shifts sugar metabolism in severely infected
           leaves from source to sink
    • Authors: Stefano Moscatello; Simona Proietti; Roberto Buonaurio; Franco Famiani; Vittorio Raggi; Robert P. Walker; Alberto Battistelli
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Stefano Moscatello, Simona Proietti, Roberto Buonaurio, Franco Famiani, Vittorio Raggi, Robert P. Walker, Alberto Battistelli
      Peach leaf curl is a disease that affects the leaves of peach trees, and in severe cases all of the leaf can be similarly affected. This study investigated some effects of this disease on the metabolism of peach leaves in which all parts of the leaf were infected. These diseased leaves contained very little chlorophyll and performed little or no photosynthesis. Compared to uninfected leaves, diseased leaves possessed higher contents of fructose and especially glucose, but lowered contents of sucrose, sorbitol and especially starch. The activities of soluble acid invertase, neutral invertase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and sucrose synthase were all higher in diseased leaves, whereas, those of aldose-6-phosphate reductase and sucrose phosphate synthase were lower. The activities of hexokinase and fructokinase were little changed. In addition, immunblots showed that the contents of Rubisco and ADP-glucose phosphorylase were reduced in diseased leaves, whereas, the content of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was increased. The results show that certain aspects of the metabolism of diseased leaves are similar to immature sink leaves. That is photosynthetic function is reduced, the leaf imports rather than exports sugars, and the contents of non-structural carbohydrates and enzymes involved in their metabolism are similar to sink leaves. Further, the effects of peach leaf curl on the metabolism of peach leaves are comparable to the effects of some other diseases on the metabolism of photosynthetic organs of other plant species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:51:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2016)
       
  • Implications of terminal oxidase function in regulation of salicylic acid
           on soybean seedling photosynthetic performance under water stress
    • Authors: Yanping Tang; Xin Sun; Tao Wen; Mingjie Liu; Mingyan Yang; Xuefei Chen
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Yanping Tang, Xin Sun, Tao Wen, Mingjie Liu, Mingyan Yang, Xuefei Chen
      The aim of this study is to investigate whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could modulate the photosynthetic capacity of soybean seedlings in water stress tolerance, and to clarify the potential functions of terminal oxidase (plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) and alternative oxidase (AOX)) in SA′ s regulation on photosynthesis. The effects of SA and water stress on gas exchange, pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, enzymes (guaiacol peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7), superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) and NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH; EC1.1.1.82)) activity and transcript levels of PTOX, AOX1, AOX2a, AOX2b were examined in a hydroponic cultivation system. Results indicate that water stress significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), pigment contents (Chla + b, Chla/b, Car), maximum quantum yield of PSⅡphotochemistry (Fv/Fm), efficiency of excitation capture of open PSⅡcenter (Fv’/Fm’), quantum efficiency of PSⅡphotochemistry (ΦPSⅡ), photochemical quenching (qP), and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activity of all the enzymes. SA pretreatment led to significant decreases in Ci and MDA content, and increases in Pn, Gs, E, pigment contents, Fv/Fm, Fv’/Fm’, ΦPSⅡ, qP, and the activity of all the enzymes. SA treatment and water stress alone significantly up-regulated the expression of PTOX, AOX1 and AOX2b. SA pretreatment further increased the transcript levels of PTOX and AOX2b of soybean seedling under water stress. These results indicate that SA application alleviates the water stress-induced decrease in photosynthesis may mainly through maintaining a lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, a greater PSⅡefficiency, and an enhanced alternative respiration and chlororespiration. PTOX and AOX may play important roles in SA-mediated resistance to water stress.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T04:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2016)
       
  • Molecular cloning, characterization, heterologous expression and in-silico
           analysis of disordered boiling soluble stress-responsive wBsSRP protein
           from drought tolerant wheat cv.PBW 175
    • Authors: Gurmeen Rakhra; Tarandeep Kaur; Dhiraj Vyas; Arun Dev Sharma; Jatinder Singh; Gobind Ram
      Pages: 29 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Gurmeen Rakhra, Tarandeep Kaur, Dhiraj Vyas, Arun Dev Sharma, Jatinder Singh, Gobind Ram
      The structural and physico-chemical properties that account for the multi-functionality of dehydrins remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified, sequenced and cloned a stress regulated cDNA encoding a dehydrin-like boiling stable protein (designated as wBsSRP; wheat boiling stable stress responsive protein) from drought stressed seedlings of drought tolerant cultivar of wheat (PBW 175). qRT-PCR analysis documented high transcripts levels of wBsSRP during drought and cold conditions in the tolerant cv. PBW 175 as a part of adaptive response to stress while the levels were significantly lower in the sensitive cv. PBW 343. We also describe in-silico characterization and molecular modeling of wBsSRP through homology search, motif analysis, secondary structure prediction, active site prediction and 3D structure analysis. The physico-chemical properties and theoretical data of wBsSRP depicts that it is a canonical group 2 LEA protein. The recombinant wBsSRP protein when expressed in E. coli detected a specific differential band (∼11 kDa) on SDS- PAGE after IPTG induction. The functional analysis of wBsSRP in E. coli revealed that wBsSRP is essential for the survival of E. coli as well as for maintaining bacterial growth under various stress conditions. In vitro peroxidase protection assay during heat stress (50 and 100 °C) showed that in the presence of wBsSRP, peroxidase activity was significantly retained and/or increased. Based upon the findings, it is suggested that wBsSRP accentuated the effects of stress by acting as a protectant and by the stabilization of membranes, thereby contributing to the improved stress tolerance of the recombinant E. coli under various abiotic stress conditions. We suggest that these findings might provide the rationale for the mechanism of how these proteins obviate the adverse effects of dehydration stress.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T04:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2016)
       
  • Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho
           affected with esca disease
    • Authors: Marta R.M. Lima; Mafalda L. Felgueiras; Ana Cunha; Gisela Chicau; Federico Ferreres; Alberto C.P. Dias
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Marta R.M. Lima, Mafalda L. Felgueiras, Ana Cunha, Gisela Chicau, Federico Ferreres, Alberto C.P. Dias
      Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T04:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2016)
       
  • Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the
           accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson
           Seedless’
    • Authors: Li Jiao; Yali Zhang; Jiang Lu
      Pages: 53 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Li Jiao, Yali Zhang, Jiang Lu
      Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis ‘Zuoshanyi’ grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’ affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T04:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2016)
       
  • Insights on germinability and desiccation tolerance in developing neem
           seeds (Azadirachta indica): Role of AOS, antioxidative enzymes and
           dehydrin-like protein
    • Authors: Balram Sahu; Alok Kumar Sahu; Srinivasa Rao Chennareddy; Avinash Soni; Subhash Chandra Naithani
      Pages: 64 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 112
      Author(s): Balram Sahu, Alok Kumar Sahu, Srinivasa Rao Chennareddy, Avinash Soni, Subhash Chandra Naithani
      The germinability and desiccation tolerance (DT) in developing seed are regulated by cellular metabolism involving active oxygen species (AOS) and protective proteins during maturation drying. The aim of the present investigation was to unravel the functions of AOS (superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical), antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX) and dehydrin-like proteins in regulating the germinability and DT in undried and artificially desiccated developing neem seeds. Germination was first observed in seeds of 8 weeks after anthesis (waa) whereas DT was noticed from 9 waa. High levels of superoxide in undried and artificially desiccated seeds of 9 waa were rapidly declined up to 15 waa with simultaneous increase in levels of SOD (quantitative and isoenzymes) that dismutates superoxide with corresponding formation and accumulation of H2O2. Activities and isoenzymes of APX and CAT were promoted in seeds from 9 to 12 waa. Intensity of dehydrin-like proteins increased as development progressed in seeds with higher intensities in slow dried (SD) seeds. Desiccation modulated the metabolism for the acquisition of germinability and DT in the developing neem seeds from 8 to 15 waa by altering the levels of superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical those possibly act as signalling molecules for reprogramming protective proteins. Desiccation mediated the expression of new bands of SOD and APX in undried as well as SD seeds during 9–12 waa but the bands were more intense in SD seeds. The superoxide and H2O2-regulated intensity of dehydrin-like protein in SD seeds further validated our conclusion.

      PubDate: 2016-12-30T04:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2016)
       
  • Effects of Fe-deficient conditions on Fe uptake and utilization in
           P-efficient soybean
    • Authors: Wei Qiu; Jing Dai; Nanqi Wang; Xiaotong Guo; Xiaoli Zhang; Yuanmei Zuo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Wei Qiu, Jing Dai, Nanqi Wang, Xiaotong Guo, Xiaoli Zhang, Yuanmei Zuo
      Phosphorus (P)-efficient soybean (Glycine max) plants absorb and utilize P with high efficiency. To investigate the effects of iron (Fe)-deficient conditions on the absorption and utilization of Fe in P-efficient soybean plants, two soybean cultivars with different P efficiency, the 03-3 (P-efficient variety) and Bd-2 (P-inefficient variety), were used in this study. The two soybean cultivars were grown in nutrient solution containing Fe concentrations of 0 (Fe0), 20 (Fe20), 40 (Fe40), or 80 (Fe80) μM for 7 days. The Fe reductase activity of roots was higher in 03-3 plants grown under the Fe0, Fe20, and Fe40 treatments than in Bd-2 plants and the total Fe uptake was greater in 03-3 plants under the Fe40 treatment. GmFRD3a was much more highly expressed in the stem of 03-3 than in that of Bd-2, and significantly more iron was transported to 03-3 plant shoots during Fe0 treatment. Chlorosis in young leaves caused by Fe deficiency under the Fe0 and Fe20 treatments was alleviated by increased Fe concentration in shoots. Increased levels of active Fe in young 03-3 leaves under Fe-deprivation conditions (Fe0) and maintenance of stable Fe concentrations in 03-3 shoots subjected to Fe20, Fe40, and Fe80 treatments suggested that the P-efficient 03-3 cultivar is also Fe-efficient. It is suggested that 03-3 soybean cultivar should be a good resource for application to farm field.

      PubDate: 2016-12-08T03:16:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.12.010
       
 
 
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