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Journal Cover Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0981-9428
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Effects of Bacillus subtilis on some physiological and biochemical
           parameters of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) under salinity
    • Authors: Oksana Lastochkina; Ludmila Pusenkova; Ruslan Yuldashev; Marat Babaev; Svetlana Garipova; Dar'ya Blagova; Ramil Khairullin; Sasan Aliniaeifard
      Pages: 80 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 121
      Author(s): Oksana Lastochkina, Ludmila Pusenkova, Ruslan Yuldashev, Marat Babaev, Svetlana Garipova, Dar'ya Blagova, Ramil Khairullin, Sasan Aliniaeifard
      Endophytic strain Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) 10–4, producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderofores but not active in phosphate solubilization, exerted a protective effect on Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) plant grown under salinity (2% NaCl) stress. Exposure to salt stress resulted in an essential increase of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the seedlings. At the same time the seedlings inoculated with B. subtilis 10-4 were characterized by decreased level of stress-induced Pro and MDA accumulation. It was revealed that both B. subtilis 10-4 and salinity caused increase in the content of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) in wheat seedlings as compared to SA content in the control, while B. subtilis 10-4 suppressed stress-induced SA accumulation. Water storage capacity (WSC) in leaf tissues was increased and stress-induced hydrolysis of statolite starch in root cap cells of the germinal roots was reduced by B. subtilis 10-4. The obtained data indicated that the activation of the defense reactions induced by B. subtilis 10-4 induced defense reactions may be connected with their ability to decrease the level of stress-induced oxidative and osmotic stress in seedlings and with the increase of endogenous SA level that can make a significant contribution to the implementation of the protective effect of B. subtilis 10-4 and is manifested in the improvement of plant growth, WSC of leaves and slowing down of the process of statolite starch hydrolysis under salinity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Transcriptome dynamics provide insights into long-term salinity stress
           tolerance in Triticum aestivum cv. Kharchia Local
    • Authors: Mahesh M. Mahajan; Etika Goyal; Amit K. Singh; Kishor Gaikwad; Kumar Kanika
      Pages: 128 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 121
      Author(s): Mahesh M. Mahajan, Etika Goyal, Amit K. Singh, Kishor Gaikwad, Kumar Kanika
      Kharchia Local, a wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar, is native to the saline-sodic soils of Pali district, Rajasthan, India and well known for its salinity stress tolerance. In the present study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to compare genome wide differential expression pattern between flag leaves of salinity stressed (15 EC) and control plants at anthesis stage. The 63.9 million paired end raw reads were assembled into 74,106 unigenes, of which, 3197 unigenes were found to be differentially expressed. Functional annotation analysis revealed the upregulation of genes associated with various biological processes including signal transduction, phytohormones signaling, osmoregulation, flavonoid biosynthesis, ion transport and ROS homeostasis. Expression pattern of fourteen differentially expressed genes was validated using qRT-PCR and was found to be consistent with the results of the transcriptome sequencing. Present study is the primary report on transcriptome profiling of Kharchia Local flag leaf under long-term salinity stress at anthesis stage. In conclusion, the data generated in this study can improve our knowledge in understanding the molecular mechanism of salinity stress tolerance. It will also serve as a valuable genomic resource in wheat breeding programs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Ectopic expression of IiFUL isolated from Isatis indigotica could change
           the reproductive growth of Arabidopsis thaliana
    • Authors: Yan-Qin Ma; Dian-Zhen Li; Li Zhang; Qi Li; Jing-Wen Yao; Zheng Ma; Xuan Huang; Zi-Qin Xu
      Pages: 140 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 121
      Author(s): Yan-Qin Ma, Dian-Zhen Li, Li Zhang, Qi Li, Jing-Wen Yao, Zheng Ma, Xuan Huang, Zi-Qin Xu
      The coding sequence of IiFUL in Isatis indigotica was isolated and was used in transformation of Arabidopsis. IiFUL overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited early flowering phenotype, accompanied with the reduction of flower number and the production of terminal flower on the top of the main stems. In development process, the flowers located on the top of the main stems generated a lot of variations in phenotype, including abnormal swelling of pistil, withering and numerical change of stamens and petals, appearance of stigmatoid tissues and naked ovules at the margin or inside of sepals. Besides, secondary flower could be formed within the flowers on the top of the main stems. These observations illustrated that IiFUL mainly affected the development of inflorescence meristems and pistils, but its ectopic expression could also disturb the normal growth of other floral organs. Moreover, the fertile siliques produced by the lateral inflorescences of IiFUL overexpressing Arabidopsis plants showed indehiscent phenotype, and the shape of the cauline leaves was changed significantly. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that higher transcriptional levels of IiFUL could be detected in flowers and silicles of I. indigotica. In comprehensive consideration of the previous reports about the dehiscence phenotype of Arabidopsis siliques and the fact that the siliques of IiFUL overexpressing Arabidopsis plants were indehiscent in the present work, it can be speculated that high expression of IiFUL in pericarp is likely the reason why the silicles of I. indigotica possess an indehiscent phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Ultrasonication of in vitro potato single node explants: Activation and
           recovery of antioxidant defence system and growth responses
    • Authors: Judit Dobránszki; Georgina Asbóth; Dávid Homoki; Piroska Bíró-Molnár; Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva; Judit Remenyik
      Pages: 153 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 121
      Author(s): Judit Dobránszki, Georgina Asbóth, Dávid Homoki, Piroska Bíró-Molnár, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Judit Remenyik
      The ability to use sound or ultrasound (US) to modify plant growth in vitro, and if possible, to improve yield or productivity, would benefit horticultural scientists. In this study, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) in vitro node segments with a single leaf were exposed to US (35 kHz, 70 W, for 20 min). Morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. Treatment with US 24 h after ultrasonication temporarily accelerated shoot growth but inhibited the development and growth of roots due to a decrease in the level of AA directly after ultrasonication. At the end of the subculture period, i.e., 4 weeks after US treatment, shoot length increased 20% more than control shoots after 4 weeks, while shoot fresh weight was 24% higher than that of control shoots, representing the long-term after-effect of the US treatment. The antioxidant defence system was induced, partly by intensive plantlet growth and development from node segments, and partly by abiotic stress caused by the US treatment. Immediately (0 h) or 24 h after ultrasonication, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity increased significantly, as did the concentration of low molecular weight antioxidants (GSSG, GSH, AA, TCPa). However, there was no glutathione peroxidase activity, most likely due to the lack of selenium in the basal in vitro growth medium. Therefore, the glutathione-S-transferase path of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway was induced both by metabolic processes and by abiotic stresses and took part in the reduction of organic peroxides using glutathione. US treatment ameliorated the ratios of ascorbic acid/glutathione and reduced/oxidized glutathione, ensuring the development of plantlets with significantly improved shoot parameters, such as higher shoot length and fresh weight, by the end of the subculture period.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Engineered nickel oxide nanoparticles affect genome stability in Allium
           cepa (L.)
    • Authors: Indrani Manna; Maumita Bandyopadhyay
      Pages: 206 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Indrani Manna, Maumita Bandyopadhyay
      Indiscriminate uses of engineered nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) in heavy industries have ushered their introduction into the natural environment, ensuing novel interactions with biotic components of the ecosystem. Though much is known about the toxicity of NiO-NPs on animals, their phytotoxic potential is not well elucidated. NiO-NP hinders intra-cellular homeostasis by producing ROS in excess, having profound effect on the antioxidant profile of exposed animal and plant tissues. In the present study, bulbs of the model plant Allium cepa were treated with varying concentrations of NiO-NP (10 mg L−1 - 500 mg L−1) to study changes in ROS production and potential genotoxic effect. The data generated proved a concomitant upsurge in intracellular ROS accumulation with NiO-NP dosage that could be correlated with increased genotoxicity in A. cepa. Augmented in situ ROS production was revealed through DCFH-DA assay, with highest increase in fluorescence (70% over control) in bulbs exposed to 125 mg L−1 NiO-NP. Effect of NiO-NP on genomic DNA was studied through detailed analyses of RAPD profiles which allows detection of even slightest changes in DNA sequence of treated plants. Significant differences in band intensity, loss and appearance of bands as well as genomic template stability and band sharing indices of treated plants revealed increased vulnerability of genomic DNA to NiO-NP, at even lowest concentration (10 mg L−1). This is the first report of NiO-NP induced genotoxicity on A. cepa, which confirms the nanoparticle as a potent environmental hazard.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 121 (2017)
  • Seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity in the representive brown
           macroalgae Sagrassum thunbergii (Sargassaceae Phaeophyta)
    • Authors: Di Zhang; Quan Sheng Zhang; Xiao Qi Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Di Zhang, Quan Sheng Zhang, Xiao Qi Yang
      The present study evaluates the seasonal photosynthetic performances of Sargassum thunbergii via chlorophyll fluorescence technique. During summer and early winter, no significant change was observed in maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and performance index (PIabs). During late winter and early spring, Fv/Fm, and PIabs decreased significantly, implying that S. thunbergii photosystem II (PSII) suffered apparent photoinhibition. Subsequently, PSII gradually recovered during late spring and summer, as evidenced by an increase of both parameters. Throughout the year, the maximum decrease in the slope of MR/MR0 maintained low values indicated that photosystem I (PSI) was incative, the initial rate of P700+ re-reduction maintained low value indicated that cyclic electron transport (CET) were inactive; nevertheless, a seasonal down-regulation of both PSI and CET during late winter and early spring could be detected. The weak performance of PSI and CET can potentially limit the flexibility in response to winter stress and result in a delayed recovery of PSII. In conclusion, the seasonal variability of S. thunbergii photosynthetic activity was characterized by three periods: active state, down-regulation and restoration. The rapid growth during early spring was accompanied by weak photosynthetic performance, indicating that the carbohydrates consumed during this period were derived from previously stored starch.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T12:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • De novo transcriptome sequencing of Camellia sasanqua and the analysis of
           major candidate genes related to floral traits
    • Authors: Hui Huang; En-Hua Xia; Hai-Bin Zhang; Qiu-Yang Yao; Li-Zhi Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Hui Huang, En-Hua Xia, Hai-Bin Zhang, Qiu-Yang Yao, Li-Zhi Gao
      Camellia sasanqua is one of the most famous horticultural plants in Camellia (Theaceae) due to its aesthetic appeal as landscape plant. Knowledge regarding the genetic basis of flowering time, floral aroma and color in C. sasanqua is limited, but is essential to breed new varieties with desired floral traits. Here, we described the de novo transcriptome of young leaves, flower buds and flowers of C. sasanqua. A total of 60,127 unigenes were functionally annotated based on the sequence similarity. After analysis, we found that two floral integrator genes, SOC1 and AP1, in flowering time pathway showed evidence of gene family expansion. Compared with 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway, some genes in the mevalonate pathway were most highly expressed, suggesting that this might represent the major pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis related to floral aroma in C. sasanqua. In flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, PAL, CHI, DFR and ANS showing significantly higher expression levels in flowers and flower buds might have important role in regulation of floral color. The top five most transcription factors (TFs) families in C. sasanqua transcriptome were MYB, MIKC, C3H, FAR1 and HD-ZIP, many of which have a direct relationship with floral traits. In addition, we also identified 33,540 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the C. sasanqua transcriptome. Collectively, the C. sasanqua transcriptome dataset generated from this study along with the SSR markers provide a new resource for the identification of novel regulatory transcripts and will accelerate the genetic improvement of C. sasanqua breeding programs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T12:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.08.028
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Bacteria and smoke-water extract improve growth and induce the synthesis
           of volatile defense mechanisms in Vitis vinifera L.
    • Authors: María Victoria Salomon; Patricia Piccoli; Iván Funes Pinter; Wendy Ann Stirk; Manoj Kulkarni; Johannes van Staden; Rubén Bottini
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): María Victoria Salomon, Patricia Piccoli, Iván Funes Pinter, Wendy Ann Stirk, Manoj Kulkarni, Johannes van Staden, Rubén Bottini
      Sustainable agricultural practices have been developed as alternative to the use of agrochemicals, and viticulture is not exempt of that. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and smoke water extracts (SW) are environmentally-friendly alternative to those agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the single or combined effects of SW and the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and Bacillus licheniformis (Bl) on the physiology and biochemistry of grapevines plants. After 38 days, single applications of SW solutions and bacterial suspensions increase rooting and root length. Combined treatments had a slight positive effect compared to the water control. At the end of 60-days pot trial, grapevine treated with 1:1000 SW and Pf applied alone showed increases in stem length, leaf area and fresh weight of the roots, shoot and leaves, although not significantly differences from the water control were found. In addition, Pf augmented chlorophyll relative content, all treatments decreased the stomatal conductance (mainly 1:500 SW, Pf and 1:1000 SW + Bl), as well as lipid peroxidation in roots (mainly in bacterial treatments), and induced the synthesis of mono and sesquiterpenes in leaves, where the effect was enhanced in combined treatments. In conclusion, PGPR and SW are effective to improve growth of V. vinifera cuttings as well as to increase the plants defense mechanisms that may help them to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T10:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Overexpressing sweetpotato peroxidase gene swpa4 affects nitric oxide
           production by activating the expression of reactive oxygen species- and
           nitric oxide-related genes in tobacco
    • Authors: Yun-Hee Kim; Sung Chul Park; Byung-Wook Yun; Sang-Soo Kwak
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Yun-Hee Kim, Sung Chul Park, Byung-Wook Yun, Sang-Soo Kwak
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are key signaling molecules involved in various developmental and stress responses in plants. NO and ROS production, which is triggered by various stimuli, activates downstream signaling pathways to help plants cope with abiotic and biotic stresses. Recent evidence suggests that the interplay between NO and ROS signaling plays a critical role in regulating stress responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. We previously reported that transgenic tobacco overexpressing the swpa4 peroxidase (POD) gene from sweetpotato exhibits increased tolerance to stress. Overexpression of swpa4 also induces the generation of H2O2 and activates the expression of various extracellular acidic pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Here, we show that swpa4 positively regulates the expression of ROS- and NO-related genes in transgenic tobacco plants. Plants expressing swpa4 exhibited increased expression of ROS-related genes and increased ROS-related enzyme activity under normal conditions and H2O2 treatment, whereas the expression of NO associated 1 (NOA1) only increased under normal conditions. Moreover, plants overexpressing swpa4 showed increased NO levels under normal conditions and after treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Interestingly, treatment with a POD inhibitor dramatically reduced NO levels in swpa4 transgenic plants. These findings suggest that swpa4 regulates H2O2 and NO homeostasis in plants under stress conditions, thereby establishing a possible molecular link between the NO and ROS signaling pathways.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.023
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Six NAC transcription factors involved in response to TYLCV infection in
           resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars
    • Authors: Ying Huang; Tong Li; Zhi-Sheng Xu; Feng Wang; Ai-Sheng Xiong
      Pages: 61 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Ying Huang, Tong Li, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
      NAC transcription factors (TFs) belong to plant-specific TFs, which have been identified in many plant species. The NAC TFs act as the nodes of a regulatory network in plant's response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Till now, response of tomato NAC TFs involved in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection is unknown. In the present study, six NAC TFs were identified to respond to TYLCV infection in tomato. We observed that transcripts of four NAC genes (SlNAC20, SlNAC24, SlNAC47, and SlNAC61) were induced after TYLCV infection in resistant tomato cultivar. Virus-induced gene silencing analysis (VIGS) indicated that SlNAC61 played positive roles in response to TYLCV infection. Tomato NAC TFs were not only involved in defense regulation but in development and stress progress. These NAC TFs interacted with other proteins, including protein phosphatase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Some defense response TFs, such as WRKY, TGA, MYB, NAC, could interact with NAC proteins by binding cis-elements in promoter regions of NAC TFs. These identified tomato NAC TFs cooperated with other TFs and proteins, indicating the complex response mechanism of described NAC TFs involved in TYLCV infection. The results will offer new evidence to further understand the NAC TFs involved in response to TYLCV infection in tomato.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Drought tolerance of selected bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)
           Standl.] landraces assessed by leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic
    • Authors: Jacob Mashilo; Alfred O. Odindo; Hussein A. Shimelis; Pearl Musenge; Samson Z. Tesfay; Lembe S. Magwaza
      Pages: 75 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Jacob Mashilo, Alfred O. Odindo, Hussein A. Shimelis, Pearl Musenge, Samson Z. Tesfay, Lembe S. Magwaza
      Successful cultivation of bottle gourd in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa and globally requires the identification of drought tolerant parents for developing superior genotypes with increased drought resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the level of drought tolerance among genetically diverse South African bottle gourd landraces based on leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency and identify promising genotypes for breeding. The responses of 12 bottle gourd landraces grown in glasshouse under non-stressed (NS) and drought-stressed (DS) conditions were studied. A significant genotype x water regime interaction was observed for gs, T, A, A/C i , IWUE, WUEins, F m ′, F v ′/F m ′, Ф PSII, qP, qN, ETR, ETR/A and AES indicating variability in response among the studied bottle gourd landraces under NS and DS conditions. Principal component analysis identified three principal components (PC's) under drought stress condition contributing to 82.9% of total variation among leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured. PC1 explained 36% of total variation contributed by gs, T, F 0′, F m ′, F v ′/F m ′ and qN, while PC2 explained 28% of the variation and highly correlated with A, A/C i , IWUE, WUEins ETR/A and AES. PC3 explained 14% of total variation contributed by Ф PSII, qP and ETR. Principal biplot analysis allowed the identification of drought tolerant genotypes such as BG-27, BG-48, BG-58, BG-79, BG-70 and BG-78 which were grouped based on high gs, A, F m ′F v ′/F m ′, qN, ETR/A and AES under DS condition. The study suggests that the identified physiological traits could be useful indicators in the selection of bottle gourd genotypes for increased drought tolerance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Combined effects of fungal inoculants and the cytokinin-like growth
           regulator thidiazuron on growth, phytohormone contents and endophytic root
           fungi in Miscanthus × giganteus
    • Authors: Christoph Stephan Schmidt; Libor Mrnka; Tomaš Frantík; Václav Motyka; Petre I. Dobrev; Miroslav Vosátka
      Pages: 120 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomaš Frantík, Václav Motyka, Petre I. Dobrev, Miroslav Vosátka
      Aim of this study was to investigate main effects and interactions between symbiotic fungi and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in Miscanthus × giganteus. The arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (AMF) and the endophyte Piriformospora indica (PI) were chosen as model symbionts. The fungal inoculants and TDZ had no significant effect on plant growth but modulated phytohormone levels in the leaves. TDZ induced accumulation of salicylic acid in controls, but not in plants inoculated with fungi. Leaf concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) derivatives, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) precursors and catabolites and numerous cytokinins were increased by R. intraradices but lowered by P. indica. TDZ raised concentrations of ABA compounds, the non-indole auxin phenylacetic acid, jasmonate and some cytokinins, but decreased cis-zeatin and N 6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine levels. Inoculation with AMF reduced abundance of endogenous clampless endophytes. TDZ application strongly reduced formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and increased occurrence of clamped mycelia (i.e. basidiomycetous endophytes). Our study provides a thorough outline of the phytohormone homeostasis under the combined influence of beneficial inoculants and a growth regulator, highlighting the necessity to study their interaction in the whole plant-microbial context.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Separation of peroxidases from Miscanthus x giganteus, their partial
           characterisation and application for degradation of dyes
    • Authors: Robajac Dragana; Gligorijević Nikola; Dželetović Željko; Andrejić Gordana; Nedić Olgica
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Robajac Dragana, Gligorijević Nikola, Dželetović Željko, Andrejić Gordana, Nedić Olgica
      Due to wide applicative potential of peroxidases (POXs), the search for novel sources and forms, possibly with better characteristics and performances, is justified. In this study, POXs from Miscanthus x giganteus rhizomes grown in chernozem-like soil and mine tailings were examined. Higher activity of POXs in samples originating from the metal-contaminated soil was found. The quantity of acidic isoforms was much greater than basic. The rates of reactions catalysed by acidic POX isoforms decreased slightly at 50 °C, whereas stability of basic isoforms was affected at 40 °C. Concentrations of Zn, Mn and Fe were higher in rhizomes grown in mine tailings, and negatively correlated with the concentration of proteins. Basic POX isoforms effectively degraded CBB R250, while Amidoblack 10b was predominantly degraded by acidic isoforms. Thus, Miscanthus x giganteus can be used as a source of POXs which can be applied for dye decomposition and, possibly, waste water management.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Effect of lignite on alleviation of salt toxicity in soybean (Glycine max
           L.) plants
    • Authors: Salar Farhangi-Abriz; Neda Nikpour-Rashidabad
      Pages: 186 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Neda Nikpour-Rashidabad
      Salt toxicity of agricultural land is a natural phenomenon which is due to agricultural irrigation. This toxicity is harmful to crop productivity via increasing oxidative stress products. In a factorial controlled trial, four levels of lignite-enriched soil (soil lignite content: none, 50, 75 and 100 g kg−1) were exposed to three levels of soil salinity (0, 5 and 10 dS m−1 NaCl). Then reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities (peroxidase, catalase and super oxide dismutase), proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugars and soluble protein contents of soybean plants were compared across different lignite concentration and saline toxicity. Under the 5 and 10 dS m−1 NaCl, sodium entry to the leaf and root cells, hydrogen peroxide concentration, superoxide radical generation, lipid peroxidation and osmoprotectants creation increased and consequently plant growth reduced (12–49%). Lignite applications by improving the cation exchange capacity of soil (8–16%), enriched the leaf and root cells with potassium (5–26%), calcium (40–56%), magnesium (30–42%) and inhibited the sodium entry to the cells, and consequently increased potassium/sodium ratio and reduced oxidative stress, antioxidant activities and synthesis of osmoprotectants in soybean leading to increased plant biomass (18–37%). Lignite usage in 75 and 100 g kg−1 soil showed a better effect than 50 g kg−1 soil on reducing harmful effects of salt toxicity. Soil enrichment with lignite improves plant tolerance to salt toxicity via decreased oxidative stress.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Input of different kinds of soluble pectin to cation binding properties of
           roots cell walls
    • Authors: A. Szatanik-Kloc; J. Szerement; J. Cybulska; G. Jozefaciuk
      Pages: 194 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): A. Szatanik-Kloc, J. Szerement, J. Cybulska, G. Jozefaciuk
      It is widely believed that pectin are responsible for the vast majority of cation binding positions in the root cell walls. To estimate the role of particular kinds of pectin, we studied the cell wall material isolated from the roots of monocots (wheat and rye) and dicots (clover and lupine) before and after removal of different fractions of soluble pectin. Simultaneously PME activity and degree of pectin methylation were determined. From potentiometric titration curves cation exchange capacity, total surface charge and acidic strength of surface functional groups responsible for surface charging were determined. Monocots had smaller cation exchange capacity and lower pectin content than dicots. Removal of pectin induced up to 50% reduction in the cell walls surface charge. Pectin seem to have more acidic character than the other roots components that is seen from an increase in very weakly acidic groups fraction and significant decrease in the average dissociation constant of the cell walls material after pectin removal. Water soluble pectin and non-pectic soluble compounds had the dominant role in surface charging, while chelator and diluted alkali soluble pectin contributed to surface charge only at high pH's.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of Mentha aquatica L.
           to manganese
    • Authors: Mehrdad Nazari; Fatemeh Zarinkamar; Bahram Mohammad Soltani
      Pages: 202 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Mehrdad Nazari, Fatemeh Zarinkamar, Bahram Mohammad Soltani
      Mentha aquatica is an aromatic herb which possesses valuable terpenoids constituents. Here, we intended to evaluate the effects of the different manganese (Mn) concentrations on the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in M. aquatica. Basic Hoagland's solution (control), 40, 80, and 160 μM of Mn supplied as MnSO4·H2O were applied to the nutrient solution. The results indicated that the different concentrations of Mn differently affected the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in M. aquatica. The growth parameters (biomass and photosynthetic pigments) and expression levels of β-caryophyllene synthase (CPS), limonene synthase (Ls), geranyl diphosphate synthase (Gpps), and menthofuran synthase (Mfs) genes were increased at the moderate Mn concentrations (40 and 80 μM) and began to decrease at the higher levels. However, the contents of anthocyanins, flavonoids, malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Mn accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, yield of essential oils and the expression levels of 1-Deoxy d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (Dxs) and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (Ippi) genes were gradually increased with increasing concentration of Mn in the nutrient solution. Also, the content and chemical composition of terpenoid constituents were altered in the Mn-treated plants. Here, we suggest that the application of external Mn in nutrient solution elevates the growth and expression levels of the genes that are involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in M. aquatica. Nevertheless, the extent and stability of these growth and gene expression elevation are varied among the different Mn treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Td4IN2: A drought-responsive durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene
           coding for a resistance like protein with serine/threonine protein kinase,
           nucleotide binding site and leucine rich domains
    • Authors: Patrizia Rampino; Mariarosaria De Pascali; Monica De Caroli; Andrea Luvisi; Luigi De Bellis; Gabriella Piro; Carla Perrotta
      Pages: 223 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120
      Author(s): Patrizia Rampino, Mariarosaria De Pascali, Monica De Caroli, Andrea Luvisi, Luigi De Bellis, Gabriella Piro, Carla Perrotta
      Wheat, the main food source for a third of world population, appears strongly under threat because of predicted increasing temperatures coupled to drought. Plant complex molecular response to drought stress relies on the gene network controlling cell reactions to abiotic stress. In the natural environment, plants are subjected to the combination of abiotic and biotic stresses. Also the response of plants to biotic stress, to cope with pathogens, involves the activation of a molecular network. Investigations on combination of abiotic and biotic stresses indicate the existence of cross-talk between the two networks and a kind of overlapping can be hypothesized. In this work we describe the isolation and characterization of a drought-related durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene, identified in a previous study, coding for a protein combining features of NBS-LRR type resistance protein with a S/TPK domain, involved in drought stress response. This is one of the few examples reported where all three domains are present in a single protein and, to our knowledge, it is the first report on a gene specifically induced by drought stress and drought-related conditions, with this particular structure.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 120 (2017)
  • Transcriptome profiling reveals specific patterns of paclitaxel synthesis
           in a new Taxus yunnanensis cultivar
    • Authors: Chun-Tao He; Zhi-Liang Li; Qian Zhou; Chuang Shen; Ying-Ying Huang; Samavia Mubeen; Jun-Zhi Yang; Jian-Gang Yuan; Zhong-Yi Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Chun-Tao He, Zhi-Liang Li, Qian Zhou, Chuang Shen, Ying-Ying Huang, Samavia Mubeen, Jun-Zhi Yang, Jian-Gang Yuan, Zhong-Yi Yang
      The difference in contents of paclitaxel and 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DABIII) in needles between wildtype (WT) and a new cultivar (Zhongdayihao, ZD1) of Taxus yunnanensis was examined. Transcriptome profiling was conducted for different tissues of the ZD1 and WT to illustrate the regulation mechanism of paclitaxel biosynthesis. It was observed that average contents of paclitaxel and 10-DABIII in ZD1 were 4 folds and 32 folds higher than those in WT, respectively. More significant elevations of differential expressed genes (DEGs) from paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway were revealed in ZD1 rather than WT, which should be responsible for the higher contents of paclitaxel and 10-DABIII in the ZD1. Special tissues-dependent expression patterns of paclitaxel biosynthesis DEGs in ZD1 compared to WT were unraveled. The relative higher expressions of paclitaxel biosynthesis genes in needles than other tissues supported the higher content of paclitaxel and 10-DABIII content in needles of ZD1. Attenuation of plant hormone signal transduction pathway led to the lower expression of TFs in ZD1 rather than WT. Besides, the significant negative correlations between differential expressed TFs and DEGs from paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway displayed a possibly negative regulation pattern of these TFs on paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway genes. These results provided new insights into the molecular process of paclitaxel synthesis in Taxus.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.028
  • Novel and rare prenyllipids – Occurrence and biological activity
    • Authors: Renata Szymańska; Jerzy Kruk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Renata Szymańska, Jerzy Kruk
      The data presented indicate that there is a variety of unique prenyllipids, often of very limited taxonomic distribution, whose origin, biosynthesis, metabolism and biological function deserves to be elucidated. These compounds include tocoenols, tocochromanol esters, tocochromanol acids, plastoquinones and ubiquinones. Additionally, based on the available data, it can be assumed that there are still unrecognized prenyllipids, like prenylquinols fatty acid esters of the hydroquinone ring, including prenylquinol phosphates, and others, whose biological function might be of great importance. Our knowledge of these compounds is not only important from the scientific point of view, but may also be of practical significance to medicine, pharmacy or cosmetics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.11.008
  • Influence of salicylic acid pretreatment on seeds germination and some
           defence mechanisms of Zea mays plants under copper stress
    • Authors: Zuzana Piotr; Monika Kula Diana Saja Aneta Wojciech Marta Libik-Konieczny
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Šárka Moravcová, Jiří Tůma, Zuzana Kovalíková Dučaiova, Piotr Waligórski, Monika Kula, Diana Saja, Aneta Słomka, Wojciech Bąba, Marta Libik-Konieczny
      The study was focused on the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on maize seeds germination and on some physiological and biochemical processes in maize plants growing in the hydroponic culture under copper (Cu) stress. A significant influence of SA pretreatment on the advanced induction of the maize seeds metabolic activity and the level of the endogenous SA in germinated seeds and developing roots have been stated. Although, the ability of maize seeds to uptake SA and accumulate it in the germinated roots was confirmed, the growth inhibition of Cu-stressed maize seedlings was not ameliorated by SA seeds pretreatment. Cu-stressed plants exhibited a decrease in the photosynthetic pigment concentration and the increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) - an indicator of an excess energy in PSII antenna assemblies lost as a heat. The amelioration effect of SA application was found only for carotenoids content which increased in stressed plants. It was also shown that maize roots growing in stress conditions significantly differed in the chemical composition in comparison to the roots of control plants, but the SA pretreatment did not affect these differences. On the other hand, it was found that SA seed pretreatment significantly influenced the ability of stressed plants to accumulate copper in the roots. It was stated that a higher level of exogenous SA application led to a lower accumulation of Cu ions in maize roots. Cu-stressed plants exhibited higher oxidative stress in roots than in leaves which was manifested as an increase in the concentration of hydrogen peroxide due to stress factor application. We observed an increase in catalase (CAT) activity in leaves of Cu-stressed plants which corresponded with a lower H2O2 content when compared with roots where the hydrogen peroxide level was higher, and the inhibition of the CAT activity was found. Furthermore, we found that the SA seed pretreatment led to a decrease in the H2O2 content in the roots of the Cu-stressed plants, but it did not influence the H2O2 level in leaves. The increase in hydrogen peroxide content in the roots of Cu-stressed plants correlated with a higher activity of the MnSODI and MnSODII isoforms. It was found that SA pretreatment caused a decrease in MnSODII activity accompanied by the decrease in H2O2 concentration. Achieved results indicated also that the changes in the chemical composition of the root tissue under copper stress constituted protection mechanisms of blocking copper flow into other plant organs. However, it might be assumed that the root tissue remodelling under Cu stress did not only prevent against the Cu ions uptake but also limited the absorption of minerals required for the normal growth leading to the inhibition of the plant development.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:30Z
  • Pectin and cellulose cell wall composition enables different strategies to
           leaf water uptake in plants from tropical fog mountain
    • Authors: D. Boanares; B.G. Ferreira; A.R. Kozovits; H.C. Sousa; R.M.S. Isaias; M.G.C. França
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): D. Boanares, B.G. Ferreira, A.R. Kozovits, H.C. Sousa, R.M.S. Isaias, M.G.C. França
      Leaf water uptake (LWU) has been observed in plants of different ecosystems and this process is distinct among different species. Four plant species from the Brazilian fog mountain fields were evaluated in order to detect if leaf water uptake capacity is related to the cell wall composition of leaf epidermis. LWU measurements and their relation to anatomical and biochemical traits were analyzed. Cell wall composition was verified through immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies recognizing pectin compounds, and histochemistry with calcofluor white to track cellulose. Differences in LWU among the four species were clearly revealed. Two species presented higher maximum leaf water content and the lowest values of water absorption speed. The other two species presented opposite behavior, namely, low leaf water uptake and the highest values of water absorption speed. The anatomical traits associated with the cell wall composition corroborated the data on the different LWU strategies. The species with abundant detection of cellulose in their epidermal cell walls absorbed more water, but more slowly, while those with abundant detection of pectins absorbed water at a higher speed. These results indicate that cell wall composition regarding pectin and cellulose are significant for water uptake by the leaf epidermis. Pectin provides greater porosity and absorption speed, while cellulose provides greater hydrophilicity and greater water uptake capacity. Current data indicate that the composition of epidermal cell walls is a relevant trait for leaf water uptake.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.11.005
  • Protective role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against early
           blight disease in Solanum lycopersicum
    • Authors: Madhuree Kumari; Shipra Pandey; Arpita Bhattacharya; Aradhana Mishra; C.S. Nautiyal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Madhuree Kumari, Shipra Pandey, Arpita Bhattacharya, Aradhana Mishra, C.S. Nautiyal
      Tomato suffers a huge loss every year because of early blight disease. This study focuses on efficient inhibition of Alternaria solani, causative agent of early blight disease in tomato in vitro and in vivo. Foliar spray of 5 μg/mL of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles in A. solani infected plants resulted in significant increase of 32.58% in fresh weight and 23.52% in total chlorophyll content of tomato as compared to A. solani infected plants. A decrease of 48.57, 30, 39.59 and 28.57% was observed in fungal spore count, lipid peroxidation, proline content and superoxide dismutase respectively in infected tomato plants after treatment with synthesized silver nanoparticles as compared to A. solani infected plants. No significant variation in terms of soil pH, cultured population, carbon source utilization pattern and soil enzymes including dehydrogenase, urease, protenase and β-glucosidase was observed after foliar spray of nanoparticles. It was revealed that direct killing of pathogens, increased photosynthetic efficiencies, increased plant resistance and decrease in stress parameters and stress enzymes are the mechanisms employed by plants and nanoparticles simultaneously to combat the biotic stress. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles bear the potential to revolutionize plant disease management, though the molecular aspects of increased resistance must be looked upon.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.11.004
  • Characterization of UDP-glucosyltransferase from Indigofera tinctoria
    • Authors: Shintaro Inoue; Toshiki Moriya; Rihito Morita; Keiko Kuwata; Sanjog T. Thul; Bijaya K. Sarangi; Yoshiko Minami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Shintaro Inoue, Toshiki Moriya, Rihito Morita, Keiko Kuwata, Sanjog T. Thul, Bijaya K. Sarangi, Yoshiko Minami
      Indican is a secondary metabolite in Indigofera tinctoria; its synthesis from indoxyl and UDP-glucose is catalyzed by a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT). In this study, we partially purified UGT extracted from I. tinctoria leaves and analyzed the protein by peptide mass fingerprinting. We identified two fragments that were homologous to UGT after comparison with the transcriptomic data of I. tinctoria leaves. The fragments were named itUgt1 and itUgt2 and were amplified using rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction to obtain full-length cDNAs. The resultant nucleotide sequences of itUgt1 and itUgt2 encoded peptides of 477 and 475 amino acids, respectively. The primary structure of itUGT1 was 89% identical to that of itUGT2 and contained an important plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG) box sequence and a UGT motif. The recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were found to possess high indican synthesis activity. Although the properties of the two proteins itUGT1 and itUGT2 were very similar, itUGT2 was more stable at high temperatures than itUGT1. Expression levels of itUGT mRNA and protein in plant tissues were examined by UGT assay, immunoblotting, and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. So far, we presume that itUGT1, but not itUGT2, primarily catalyzes indican synthesis in I. tinctoria leaves.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.11.002
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 120

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
  • Grapevine immune signaling network in response to drought stress as
           revealed by transcriptomic analysis
    • Authors: Muhammad S. Haider; Mahantesh M. Kurjogi; M. Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Muhammad Fiaz; Tariq Pervaiz; Songtao Jiu; Jia Haifeng; Wang Chen; Jinggui Fang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Muhammad S. Haider, Mahantesh M. Kurjogi, M. Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Fiaz, Tariq Pervaiz, Songtao Jiu, Jia Haifeng, Wang Chen, Jinggui Fang
      Drought is a ubiquitous abiotic factor that severely impedes growth and development of horticulture crops. The challenge postured by global climate change is the evolution of drought-tolerant cultivars that could cope with concurrent stress. Hence, in this study, biochemical, physiological and transcriptome analysis were investigated in drought-treated grapevine leaves. The results revealed that photosynthetic activity and reducing sugars were significantly diminished which were positively correlated with low stomatal conductance and CO2 exchange in drought-stressed leaves. Further, the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase were significantly actuated in the drought-responsive grapevine leaves. Similarly, the levels of abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were also significantly increased in the drought-stressed leaves. In transcriptome analysis, 12,451 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were annotated, out of which 8021 DEGs were up-regulated and 4430 DEGs were down-regulated in response to drought stress. In addition, the genes encoding pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI), including calcium signals, protein phosphatase 2C, calcineurin B-like proteins, MAPKs, and phosphorylation (FLS2 and MEKK1) cascades were up-regulated in response to drought stress. Several genes related to plant-pathogen interaction pathway (RPM1, PBS1, RPS5, RIN4, MIN7, PR1, and WRKYs) were also found up-regulated in response to drought stress. Overall the results of present study showed the dynamic interaction of DEG in grapevine physiology which provides the premise for selection of defense-related genes against drought stress for subsequent grapevine breeding programs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.026
  • Selenium treatment differentially affects sulfur metabolism in high and
           low glucosinolate producing cultivars of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)
    • Authors: Marian J. McKenzie; Ronan K.Y. Chen; Susanna Leung; Srishti Joshi; Paula E. Rippon; Nigel I. Joyce; Michael T. McManus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Marian J. McKenzie, Ronan K.Y. Chen, Susanna Leung, Srishti Joshi, Paula E. Rippon, Nigel I. Joyce, Michael T. McManus
      The effect of selenium (Se) application on the sulfur (S)-rich glucosinolate (GSL)-containing plant, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) was examined with a view to producing germplasm with increased Se and GSL content for human health, and to understanding the influence of Se on the regulation of GSL production. Two cultivars differing in GSL content were compared. Increased Se application resulted in an increase in Se uptake in planta, but no significant change in total S or total GSL content in either cultivar. Also no significant change was observed in the activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, EC or O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase (OASTL, EC with increased Se application. However, in the first investigation of APS Kinase (APSK, EC expression in response to Se fertilisation, an increase in transcript abundance of one variant of APS Kinase 1 (BoAPSK1A) was observed in both cultivars, and an increase in BoAPSK2 transcript abundance was observed in the low GSL producing cultivar. A mechanism by which increased APSK transcription may provide a means of controlling the content of S-containing compounds, including GSLs, following Se uptake is proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.027
  • Genome-wide analysis of aquaporin gene family and their responses to
           water-deficit stress conditions in cassava
    • Authors: Pattaranit Putpeerawit; Punchapat Sojikul; Siripong Thitamadee; Jarunya Narangajavana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Pattaranit Putpeerawit, Punchapat Sojikul, Siripong Thitamadee, Jarunya Narangajavana
      Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important economic crop in tropical countries. Although cassava is considered a drought-tolerant crop that can grow in arid areas, the impact of drought can significantly reduce the growth and yield of cassava storage roots. The discovery of aquaporin molecules (AQPs) in plants has resulted in a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant-water relationships, whereas the relationship between aquaporin and drought resistance in cassava still remains elusive. To investigate the potential role of aquaporin in cassava under water-deficit conditions, 45 putative MeAQPs were identified in the cassava genome. Six members of MeAQPs, containing high numbers of water stress-responsive motifs in their promoter regions, were selected for a gene expression study. Two cassava cultivars, which showed different degrees of responses to water-deficit stress, were used to test in in vitro and potted plant systems. The differential expression of all candidate MeAQPs were found in only leaves from the potted plant system were consistent with the relative water content and with the stomatal closure profile of the two cultivars. MePIP2-1 and MePIP2-10 were up-regulated and this change in their expression might regulate a special signal for water efflux out of guard cells, thus inducing stomatal closure under water-deficit conditions. In addition, the expression profiles of genes in the ABA-dependent pathway revealed an essential correlation with stomatal closure. The potential functions of MeAQPs and candidate ABA-dependent pathway genes in response to water deficit in the more tolerant cassava cultivar were discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.025
  • Photosynthesis impairments and excitation energy dissipation on wheat
           plants supplied with silicon and infected with Pyricularia oryzae
    • Authors: Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez; Paulo Eduardo de Menezes Silva; Wiler Ribas Moreira; Fábio Murilo DaMatta; Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez, Paulo Eduardo de Menezes Silva, Wiler Ribas Moreira, Fábio Murilo DaMatta, Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues
      Considering the effect of silicon (Si) in reducing the blast symptoms on wheat in a scenario where the losses in the photosynthetic capacity of the infected plants is lowered, this study investigated the ability of using the incident light, the chloroplastidic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) alterations and the possible role of carotenoids on the process of light dissipation on wheat plants non-supplied (-Si) or supplied (+Si) with Si and inoculated or not with Pyricularia oryzae. For + Si plants, blast severity was reduced compared to -Si plants. Reductions in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll, violanxanthin + antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lutein) were greater for inoculated -Si plants than for inoculated + Si ones. The α-carotene concentration increased for inoculated -Si and +Si plants in comparison to non-inoculated plants limiting, therefore, lutein production. Higher functional damage to the photosystem II (PSII) was noticed for inoculated -Si plants with reductions in the values of maximum quantum quenching, photochemical yield of PSII and electron transport rate, but higher values for quenching non-photochemical. This finding also contributed to reductions in the values of light saturated rate photosynthesis and light saturation point for -Si plants which was attenuated for inoculated + Si plants. Increase in dark respiration values occurred for inoculated plants than for non-inoculated ones. The Si supply to wheat plants, besides reducing blast severity, contributed to their better photosynthetic performance. Moreover, inoculated + Si plants coped with drastic losses of light energy dissipation processes (fluorescence and heat) by increasing the concentration of carotenoids which helped to maintain the structural and functional viability of the photosynthetic machinery minimizing, therefore, lipid peroxidation and the production of reactive oxygen species.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.023
  • Genetic analysis of the wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) volatile
    • Authors: María Urrutia; José L. Rambla; Konstantinos G. Alexiou; Antonio Granell; Amparo Monfort
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): María Urrutia, José L. Rambla, Konstantinos G. Alexiou, Antonio Granell, Amparo Monfort
      The volatile composition of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) fruit differs from that of the cultivated strawberry, having more intense and fruity aromas. Over the last few years, the diploid F. vesca has been recognized as a model species for genetic studies of cultivated strawberry (F. x ananassa), and here a previously developed F. vesca/F. bucharica Near Isogenic Line collection (NIL) was used to explore genetic variability of fruit quality traits. Analysis of fruit volatiles by GC-MS in our NIL collection revealed a complex and highly variable profile. One hundred compounds were unequivocally identified, including esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, terpenoids, furans and lactones. Those in a subset, named key volatile compounds (KVCs), are likely contributors to the special aroma/flavour of wild strawberry. Genetic analysis revealed 50 major quantitative trait loci (QTL) including 14 QTL for KVCs, and one segregating as a dominant monogenetic trait for nerolidol. The most determinant regions affecting QTLs for KVCs, were mapped on LG5 and LG7. New candidate genes for the volatile QTL are proposed, based on differences in gene expression between NILs containing specific fragments of F. bucharica and the F. vesca recurrent genome. A high percentage of these candidate genes/alleles were colocalized within the boundaries of introgressed regions that contain QTLs, appearing to affect volatile metabolite accumulation acting in cis. A NIL collection is a good tool for the genetic dissection of volatile accumulation in wild strawberry fruit and a source of information for genes and alleles which may enhance aroma in cultivated strawberry.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.015
  • Systems biology approach in plant abiotic stresses
    • Authors: Tapan Kumar Mohanta; Tufail Bashir; Abeer Hashem; Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Tapan Kumar Mohanta, Tufail Bashir, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah
      Plant abiotic stresses are the major constraint on plant growth and development, causing enormous crop losses across the world. Plants have unique features to defend themselves against these challenging adverse stress conditions. They modulate their phenotypes upon changes in physiological, biochemical, molecular and genetic information, thus making them tolerant against abiotic stresses. It is of paramount importance to determine the stress-tolerant traits of a diverse range of genotypes of plant species and integrate those traits for crop improvement. Stress-tolerant traits can be identified by conducting genome-wide analysis of stress-tolerant genotypes through the highly advanced structural and functional genomics approach. Specifically, whole-genome sequencing, development of molecular markers, genome-wide association studies and comparative analysis of interaction networks between tolerant and susceptible crop varieties grown under stress conditions can greatly facilitate discovery of novel agronomic traits that protect plants against abiotic stresses.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.019
  • Comparative transcriptome analysis provides new insights into erect and
           prostrate growth in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.)
    • Authors: Bing Zhang; Xiaolin Xiao; Junqin Zong; Jingbo Chen; Jianjian Li; Hailin Guo; Jianxiu Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Bing Zhang, Xiaolin Xiao, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Jianjian Li, Hailin Guo, Jianxiu Liu
      Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage. In this study, we compared the stem internode transcriptome of two bermudagrass wild accessions with extremely different tiller angles and stem growth directions. A total of 2088 and 12,141 unigenes were preferentially expressed in prostrate-growing wild accession C792 and erect-growing wild accession C793, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology-based Annotation System (KOBAS) analyses further indicated that light- and gravity-responsive genes were enriched in accession C792, whereas lignin synthesis-related genes were enriched in accession C793, which well explains the difference in lignification of vascular bundles and mechanical tissues in the two accessions. These results not only expand our understanding of the genetic control of tiller angle and stem growth direction in bermudagrass but also provide insight for future molecular breeding of C. dactylon and other turfgrass species with different plant architectures.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.016
  • A glimpse into the symplastic and apoplastic Cd uptake by Massai grass
           modulated by sulfur nutrition: Plants well-nourished with S as a strategy
           for phytoextraction
    • Authors: Flávio Henrique Silveira Rabêlo; Luiz Tadeu Jordão; José Lavres
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Flávio Henrique Silveira Rabêlo, Luiz Tadeu Jordão, José Lavres
      To date, there have been no studies demonstrating the influence of sulfur (S) on the cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics, which limits the understanding of mechanisms involved in the uptake of this element. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to quantify the contribution of symplastic and apoplastic uptakes of Cd (0.1 and 0.5 mmol L−1) by Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai) grown under low and adequate S-supply (0.1 and 1.9 mmol L−1) by measuring Cd concentration in the nutrient solution (Vmax, Km, and Cmin) along the plant's exposure time (108 h) and determining Cd concentration in root symplast and apoplast. The Vmax of Cd influx in Massai grass exposed to higher Cd and S concentrations was 38% higher than that plants supplied with lower S concentration. The Km and Cmin of plants exposed to the highest Cd concentration was higher than that plants subjected to the lowest Cd concentration, although values were not affected by S supply. Symplastic influx of Cd in plants subjected to the lower Cd and S concentrations was 20% higher as compared to plants supplied with the higher concentration of S, whereas the apoplastic influx of Cd was higher when there was a higher supply S, regardless of Cd concentration in the solution. This result indicates that an adequate supply of S decreases the contribution of the symplastic Cd uptake and increases the contribution of the apoplastic Cd uptake when the toxicity caused by Cd is lower.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.018
  • Regulation of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis by hydroxycinnamoyl CoA
           quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase in Lonicera japonica
    • Authors: Jingru Zhang; Minlin Wu; Weidong Li; Genben Bai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Jingru Zhang, Minlin Wu, Weidong Li, Genben Bai
      For many centuries, Lonicera japonica has been used as an effective herb for the treatment of inflammation and swelling because of the presence of bioactive components such as chlorogenic acid (CGA). To clarify the relationship between L. japonica hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) gene expression and CGA content, an HQT eukaryotic expression system was constructed using Gateway cloning. L. japonica callus transformed with HQT was obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. We found a positive correlation between CGA content, determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and the expression of HQT, analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. This study demonstrates that the HQT gene positively regulates CGA synthesis and lays the foundation for further study into enhancing efficacious components of medicinal plants.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.017
  • Overexpression of an aquaglyceroporin gene from Trichoderma harzianum
           improves water-use efficiency and drought tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum
    • Authors: Pabline Marinho Vieira; Mirella Pupo Santos; Cristiana Moura Andrade; Otacílio Antônio Souza-Neto; Cirano José Ulhoa; Francisco José Lima Aragão
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Pabline Marinho Vieira, Mirella Pupo Santos, Cristiana Moura Andrade, Otacílio Antônio Souza-Neto, Cirano José Ulhoa, Francisco José Lima Aragão
      Aquaporins (AQPs) and aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs) are integral membrane proteins that mediate the transport of water and solutes, such as glycerol and urea, across membranes. AQP and AQGP genes represent a valuable tool for biotechnological improvement of plant tolerance to environmental stresses. We previously isolated a gene encoding for an aquaglyceroporin (ThAQGP), which was up-regulated in Trichoderma harzianum during interaction with the plant pathogen Fusarium solani. This gene was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum and plants were physiologically characterized. Under favorable growth conditions, transgenic progenies did not had differences in both germination and growth rates when compared to wild type. However, physiological responses under drought stress revealed that transgenic plants presented significantly higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency and faster turgor recovery than wild type. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of ThAQGP transcripts in transgenic lines, showing the cause–effect relationship between the observed phenotype and the expression of the transgene. Our results underscore the high potential of T. harzianum as a source of genes with promising applications in transgenic plants tolerant to drought stress.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.012
  • The allelochemical farnesene affects Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem
           altering auxin distribution
    • Authors: Fabrizio Araniti; Leonardo Bruno; Francesco Sunseri; Marianna Pacenza; Ivano Forgione; Maria Beatrice Bitonti; Maria Rosa Abenavoli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Fabrizio Araniti, Leonardo Bruno, Francesco Sunseri, Marianna Pacenza, Ivano Forgione, Maria Beatrice Bitonti, Maria Rosa Abenavoli
      Farnesene is a sesquiterpene with semiochemical activity involved in interspecies communication. This molecule, known for its phytotoxic potential and its effects on root morphology and anatomy, caused anisotropic growth, bold roots and a "left-handedness" phenotype. These clues suggested an alteration of auxin distribution, and for this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate its effects on: i) PIN-FORMED proteins (PIN) distribution, involved in polar auxin transport; ii) PIN genes expression iii) apical meristem anatomy of primary root, in 7 days old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with farnesene 250 μM. The following GFP constructs: pSCR::SCR-GFP, pDR5::GFP, pPIN1::PIN1-GFP, pPIN2::PIN2-GFP, pPIN3::PIN3-GFP, pPIN4::PIN4-GFP and pPIN7::PIN7-GFP were used to evaluate auxin distribution. Farnesene caused a reduction in meristematic zone size, an advancement in transition zone, suggesting a premature exit of cells from the meristematic zone, a reduction in cell division and an impairment between epidermal and cortex cells. The auxin-responsive reporter pDR5::GFP highlighted that auxin distribution was impaired in farnesene-treated roots, where auxin distribution appeared maximum in the quiescent center and columella initial cells, without extending to mature columella cells. This finding was further confirmed by the analysis on PIN transport proteins distribution, assessed on individual constructs, which showed an extreme alteration mainly dependent on the PIN 3, 4 and 7, involved in pattern specification during root development and auxin redistribution. Finally, farnesene treatment caused a down-regulation of all the auxin transport genes studied. We propose that farnesene affected auxin transport and distribution causing the alteration of root meristem, and consequently the left-handedness phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.005
  • Wheat chronic exposure to TiO2-nanoparticles: Cyto- and genotoxic approach
    • Authors: Sónia Silva; Sandra C. Craveiro; Helena Oliveira; António J. Calado; Ricardo J.B. Pinto; Artur M.S. Silva; Conceição Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Sónia Silva, Sandra C. Craveiro, Helena Oliveira, António J. Calado, Ricardo J.B. Pinto, Artur M.S. Silva, Conceição Santos
      This study investigates the phytotoxicity of chronic exposure (up to 20 d) of different TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) concentrations (5, 50, 150 mg L−1) in Triticum aestivum. Germination was not affected by TiO2-NP exposure and seedling shoot length (3 d) was enhanced. Contrarily, plants’ shoot growth (20 d) was impaired. Effects on membrane permeability and total antioxidant capacity in TiO2-NP chronic exposure were organ dependent: increased in leaves and decreased in roots. Roots also showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Flow cytometry revealed no changes in ploidy levels as well as in the cell cycle dynamics for both organs. However, TiO2-NP induced clastogenic effects in roots with increases in micronucleated cells in root tips in a dose dependent manner. Also, increases of DNA single/double strand breaks were found in leaves, and effects were similar to all doses. Ti uptake and translocation to leaves were confirmed by ICP-MS, which was dependent on NP concentration. Overall, these data indicate that TiO2-NP phytotoxicity is more severe after longer exposure periods, higher doses and more severe for shoots than roots. The observed effects are a result of both direct and indirect (oxidative stress and/or water imbalances) action of TiO2-NP. Additionally, results highlight the negative impact that TiO2-NP may have on crop growth and production and to the risk of trophic transfer.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T08:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.013
  • A harpin elicitor induces the expression of a coiled-coil nucleotide
           binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene and others
           functioning during defense to parasitic nematodes
    • Authors: Weasam A.R. Aljaafri; Brant T. McNeece; Bisho R. Lawaju; Keshav Sharma; Prakash M. Niruala; Shankar R. Pant; David H. Long; Kathy S. Lawrence; Gary W. Lawrence; Vincent P. Klink
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Weasam A.R. Aljaafri, Brant T. McNeece, Bisho R. Lawaju, Keshav Sharma, Prakash M. Niruala, Shankar R. Pant, David H. Long, Kathy S. Lawrence, Gary W. Lawrence, Vincent P. Klink
      The bacterial effector harpin induces the transcription of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1/HARPIN INDUCED1 (NDR1/HIN1) coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene. In Glycine max, Gm-NDR1-1 transcripts have been detected within root cells undergoing a natural resistant reaction to parasitism by the syncytium-forming nematode Heterodera glycines, functioning in the defense response. Expressing Gm-NDR1-1 in Gossypium hirsutum leads to resistance to Meloidogyne incognita parasitism. In experiments presented here, the heterologous expression of Gm-NDR1-1 in G. hirsutum impairs Rotylenchulus reniformis parasitism. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Gm-NDR1-1 expression functions broadly in generating a defense response. To examine a possible relationship with harpin, G. max plants topically treated with harpin result in induction of the transcription of Gm-NDR1-1. The result indicates the topical treatment of plants with harpin, itself, may lead to impaired nematode parasitism. Topical harpin treatments are shown to impair G. max parasitism by H. glycines, M. incognita and R. reniformis and G. hirsutum parasitism by M. incognita and R. reniformis. How harpin could function in defense has been examined in experiments showing it also induces transcription of G. max homologs of the proven defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1), TGA2, galactinol synthase, reticuline oxidase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase, alpha soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (α-SNAP) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). In contrast, other defense genes are not directly transcriptionally activated by harpin. The results indicate harpin induces pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) defense processes in the root, activating defense to parasitic nematodes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.004
  • The imbalance between C and N metabolism during high nitrate supply
           inhibits photosynthesis and overall growth in maize (Zea mays L.)
    • Authors: Iñigo Saiz-Fernández; Nuria De Diego; Břetislav Brzobohatý; Alberto Muñoz-Rueda; Maite Lacuesta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Iñigo Saiz-Fernández, Nuria De Diego, Břetislav Brzobohatý, Alberto Muñoz-Rueda, Maite Lacuesta
      Nitrogen (N) is an important regulator of photosynthetic carbon (C) flow in plants, and an adequate balance between N and C metabolism is needed for correct plant development. However, an excessive N supply can alter this balance and cause changes in specific organic compounds associated with primary and secondary metabolism, including plant growth regulators. In previous work, we observed that high nitrate supply (15 mM) to maize plants led to a decrease in leaf expansion and overall biomass production, when compared with low nitrate supply (5 mM). Thus, the aim of this work is to study how overdoses of nitrate can affect photosynthesis and plant development. The results show that high nitrate doses greatly increased amino acid production, which led to a decrease in the concentration of 2-oxoglutarate, the main source of C skeletons for N assimilation. The concentration of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (and possibly its product, ethylene) also rose in high nitrate plants, leading to a decrease in leaf expansion, reducing the demand for photoassimilates by the growing tissues and causing the accumulation of sugars in source leaves. This accumulation of sugars, together with the decrease in 2-oxoglutarate levels and the reduction in chlorophyll concentration, decreased plant photosynthetic rates. This work provides new insights into how high nitrate concentration alters the balance between C and N metabolism, reducing photosynthetic rates and disrupting whole plant development. These findings are particularly relevant since negative effects of nitrate in contexts other than root growth have rarely been studied.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.006
  • Top Bending Panicle1 is involved in brassinosteroid signaling and
           regulates the plant architecture in rice
    • Authors: Yun Lin; Zhigang Zhao; Shirong Zhou; Linglong Liu; Weiyi Kong; Haiyuan Chen; Wuhua Long; Zhiming Feng; Ling Jiang; Jianmin Wan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Yun Lin, Zhigang Zhao, Shirong Zhou, Linglong Liu, Weiyi Kong, Haiyuan Chen, Wuhua Long, Zhiming Feng, Ling Jiang, Jianmin Wan
      Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate several aspects of plant growth and development. Although extensive studies have shown that BR signaling is conservative in higher plants, the molecular mechanism of regulating plant architecture in rice still remains to be explored. Here, we characterized a rice mutant named top bending panicle1 (tbp1). Compared to wild type, tbp1 mutant plants displayed semi-dwarf stature, erect leaves, small and round grains, as well as more tillers. Remarkably, the panicles of tbp1 plants were shorter and denser, and the tops of the panicles were curved by rolling of the base of flag leaves, which was later verified as due to reduced bulliform cell numbers. Map-based cloning, together with transgenic complementation and RNA-interference tests, revealed that TBP1 is a member of the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) family involved in BR signaling. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that a substitution at 61st amino acid (His61Leu) in the tbp1 mutant may result in a reduction of the interaction between TBP1 and OsBRI1 (BR receptor in rice). Taken together, our results demonstrate that TBP1 plays a significant role in regulating plant architecture via the brassinosteroid signaling pathway.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.001
  • Mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in the bromeliad Pitcairnia burchellii
           Mez: Biochemical adjustments and structural changes
    • Authors: Evandro Alves Vieira; Kleber Resende Silva; Aline Oriani; Camila Fernandes Moro; Marcia Regina Braga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Evandro Alves Vieira, Kleber Resende Silva, Aline Oriani, Camila Fernandes Moro, Marcia Regina Braga
      Rocky outcrops represent the diversity center of vascular desiccation tolerant (DT) plants. Vegetation in this environment is exposed to an extended dry season and extreme conditions due to rocky soils and high sun exposure. In this study, we demonstrated that Pitcairnia burchellii, a bromeliad from rocky outcrops, tolerates intense desiccation for about 90 days due to strategies as accumulation of compatible osmolytes and antioxidant substances together with leaf morphological changes. In dehydrated plants, an increase in antioxidant activity was observed and the vacuolization of parenchyma cells was accompanied by proline accumulation in leaves and rizomes. Precursors related to phenylpropanoid pathway increased significantly during plant dehydration. Accordingly, increases in anthocyanin and phenolic contents as well as lignin deposition were observed in leaves of dehydrated plants. Cell divisions and a decrease in stored starch were observed in the rhizomes indicating starch mobilization. Anatomical analyses revealed the presence of a more developed water-storage tissue in dehydrated leaves. During desiccation, leaves curl upwards and the adaxial V deep water-storage tissue is supported by two larger lateral vascular bundles. Cell wall folding and an increased proportion of arabinose-containing polymers was observed in leaves under dehydration, suggesting increasing of cell wall flexibility during desiccation. Such biochemical and morphological changes are consistent with the ability of P. burchellii to tolerate intense desiccation and behave as a resurrection species.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.10.002
  • Understanding the role of DNA polymerase λ gene in different growth and
           developmental stages of Oryza sativa L. indica rice cultivars
    • Authors: Sayantani Sihi; Soumitra Maiti; Sankar Bakshi; Arup Nayak; Shubho Chaudhuri; Dibyendu Narayan Sengupta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Sayantani Sihi, Soumitra Maiti, Sankar Bakshi, Arup Nayak, Shubho Chaudhuri, Dibyendu Narayan Sengupta
      DNA polymerase λ (Pol λ) is the only member of DNA polymerase family X present in plants. The enzyme is ddNTP sensitive as it contains the conserved C-terminal Pol β domain. The 1.1 kb partial coding sequence isolated spanned the whole 3′ regions of the gene containing functionally important domains of the Pol λ gene. Comparative in silico studies from both indica and japonica cultivars involving homology modelling showed that the model for the partial Pol λ gene was stable and acceptable. The alignment of both the protein models showed a RMS value of 0.783. Apart from this, expression of Pol λ and its relative activity is studied during different development stages of three different indica rice cultivars (IR29, Nonabokra and N22). Enhanced accumulation and higher activity of Pol λ during the early seedling stage was detected. Higher expression and activity were observed in the anthers, which was probably necessary for DNA repair during microspore formation. However, during the maturation stage of seed development and plant growth, expression and the activity of Pol λ decreased due to slow metabolic activity and a reduced rate of cell division respectively. Furthermore, the expression and activity of Pol λ were found to be higher in IR29 in comparison to Nonabokra and N22. IR29 is a rice cultivar susceptible to environmental stresses and hence it encounters higher DNA damages. The enhanced presence and activity of the Pol λ enzyme in IR29 with respect to the other two cultivars, which are more tolerant to the environmental stresses during various developmental stages, is therefore explainable.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T12:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.027
  • Hydrogen sulfide alleviates the cold stress through MPK4 in Arabidopsis
    • Authors: Xinzhe Du; Zhuping Jin; Danmei Liu; Guangdong Yang; Yanxi Pei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Xinzhe Du, Zhuping Jin, Danmei Liu, Guangdong Yang, Yanxi Pei
      Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that mediates physiological processes in animals and plants. In this study, we investigated the relationship of H2S and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) under cold stress in Arabidopsis. H2S up-regulated MAPK expression levels and was involved in the cold stress-related upregulation of MAPK genes expression. We then chose MPK4 whose expression level was influenced the most by H2S as a target and found that H2S's ability to alleviate cold stress required MPK4. Both H2S and MPK4 regulated the expression levels of the cold response genes inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1), C-repeat-binding factors (CBF3), cold responsive 15A (COR15A) and cold responsive 15B (COR15B). H2S inhibited the opening of stomata under cold stress, which required the participation of MPK4. In conclusion, MPK4 is a downstream component of H2S-related cold-stress resistance, and H2S and MPK4 both regulated the cold response genes and stomatal movement to response the cold stress.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T12:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.028
  • Enzymatic characterization and crystal structure analysis of Chlamydomonas
           reinhardtii dehydroascorbate reductase and their implications for
           oxidative stress
    • Authors: Hsin-Yang Chang; Shu-Tseng Lin; Tzu-Ping Ko; Shu-Mei Wu; Tsen-Hung Lin; Yu-Ching Chang; Kai-Fa Huang; Tse-Min Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Hsin-Yang Chang, Shu-Tseng Lin, Tzu-Ping Ko, Shu-Mei Wu, Tsen-Hung Lin, Yu-Ching Chang, Kai-Fa Huang, Tse-Min Lee
      Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a key enzyme for glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of dehydroascorbate (DHA) to recycled ascorbate (AsA) in plants, and plays a major role against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we proposed that the increase of AsA regeneration via enhanced DHAR activity modulates the ascorbate-glutathione cycle activity against photooxidative stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the present work, we use site-directed mutagenesis and crystal structure analysis to elucidate the molecular basis of how C. reinhardtii DHAR (CrDHAR1) is involved in the detoxification mechanisms. Mutagenesis data show that the D21A, D21N and C22A mutations result in severe loss of the enzyme's function, suggesting crucial roles of Asp-21 and Cys-22 in substrate binding and catalysis. The mutant K11A also exhibits reduced redox activity (∼50%). The crystal structure of apo CrDHAR1 further provides insights into the proposed mechanism centering on the strictly conserved Cys-22, which is suggested to initiate the redox reactions of DHA and GSH. Furthermore, in vitro oxidation of the recombinant CrDHAR1 in the presence of 1 mM H2O2 has minor effects on the K m for the substrates but significantly reduces the k cat. The enzyme's activity and its mRNA abundance in the C. reinhardtii cells are increased by treatment with 0.2–1 mM H2O2 but decreased when H2O2 is ≥ 1.5 mM. The latter decrease is accompanied by oxidative damage and lower AsA concentrations. These biochemical and physiological data provide new insights into the catalytic mechanism of CrDHAR1, which protects the C. reinhardtii cells from oxidative stress-induced toxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T12:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.026
  • Penicillium expansum (compatible) and Penicillium digitatum (non-host)
           pathogen infection differentially alter ethylene biosynthesis in apple
    • Authors: Laura Vilanova; Núria Vall-llaura; Rosario Torres; Josep Usall; Neus Teixidó Christian Larrigaudière; Jordi Giné-Bordonaba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Laura Vilanova, Núria Vall-llaura, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Neus Teixidó Christian Larrigaudière, Jordi Giné-Bordonaba
      The role of ethylene on inducing plant resistance or susceptibility to certain fungal pathogens clearly depends on the plant pathogen interaction with little or no-information available focused on the apple-Penicillium interaction. Taken advantage that Penicillium expansum is the compatible pathogen and P. digitatum is the non-host of apples, the present study aimed at deciphering how each Penicillium spp. could interfere in the fruit ethylene biosynthesis at the biochemical and molecular level. The infection capacity and different aspects related to the ethylene biosynthesis were conducted at different times post-inoculation. The results show that the fruit ethylene biosynthesis was differently altered during the P. expansum infection than in response to other biotic (non-host pathogen P. digitatum) or abiotic stresses (wounding). The first symptoms of the disease due to P. expansum were visible before the initiation of the fruit ethylene climacteric burst. Indeed, the ethylene climacteric burst was reduced in response to P. expansum concomitant to an important induction of MdACO3 gene expression and an inhibition (ca. 3-fold) and overexpression (ca. 2-fold) of ACO (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) and ACS (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) enzyme activities, indicating a putative role of MdACO3 in the P. expansum-apple interaction which may, in turn, be related to System-1 ethylene biosynthesis. Indeed, System-1 is auto-inhibited by ethylene and is characteristic of non-climateric or pre-climacteric fruit. Accordingly, we hypothesise that P. expansum may ‘manipulate’ the endogenous ethylene biosynthesis in apples, leading to the circumvention or suppression of effective defences hence facilitating its colonization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T12:15:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.024
  • The influence of different light quality and benzene on gene expression
           and benzene degradation of Chlorophytum comosum
    • Authors: Arnon Setsungnern; Chairat Treesubsuntorn; Paitip Thiravetyan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Arnon Setsungnern, Chairat Treesubsuntorn, Paitip Thiravetyan
      Benzene, a carcinogenic compound, has been reported as a major indoor air pollutant. Chlorophytum comosum (C. comosum) was reported to be the highest efficient benzene removal plant among other screened plants. Our previous studies found that plants under light conditions could remove gaseous benzene higher than under dark conditions. Therefore, C. comosum exposure to airborne benzene was studied under different light quality at the same light intensity. C. comosum could remove 500 ppm gaseous benzene with the highest efficiency of 68.77% under Blue:Red = 1:1 LED treatments and the lowest one appeared 57.41% under white fluorescent treatment within 8 days. After benzene was uptaken by C. comosum, benzene was oxidized to be phenol in the plant cells by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. Then, phenol was catalyzed to be catechol that was confirmed by the up-regulation of phenol 2-monooxygenase (PMO) gene expression. After that, catechol was changed to cic, cis-muconic acid. Interestingly, cis,cis-muconic acid production was found in the plant tissues higher than phenol and catechol. The result confirmed that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), phenol 2-monooxygenase (PMO) and cytochrome P450 90B1 (CYP90B1) in plant cells were involved in benzene degradation or detoxification. In addition, phenol, catechol, and cis,cis-muconic acid production were found under the Blue-Red LED light conditions higher than under white fluorescent light conditions due to under LED light conditions gave higher NADPH contents. Hence, C. comosum under the Blue-Red LED light conditions had a high potential to remove benzene in a contaminated site.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T03:46:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.021
  • DNA demethylation activates genes in seed maternal integument development
           in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    • Authors: Yifeng Wang; Haiyan Lin; Xiaohong Tong; Yuxuan Hou; Yuxiao Chang; Jian Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Yifeng Wang, Haiyan Lin, Xiaohong Tong, Yuxuan Hou, Yuxiao Chang, Jian Zhang
      DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates various plant developmental processes. Rice seed integument determines the seed size. However, the role of DNA methylation in its development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the first dynamic DNA methylomic profiling of rice maternal integument before and after pollination by using a whole-genome bisulfite deep sequencing approach. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns identified 4238 differentially methylated regions underpin 4112 differentially methylated genes, including GW2, DEP1, RGB1 and numerous other regulators participated in maternal integument development. Bisulfite sanger sequencing and qRT-PCR of six differentially methylated genes revealed extensive occurrence of DNA hypomethylation triggered by double fertilization at IAP compared with IBP, suggesting that DNA demethylation might be a key mechanism to activate numerous maternal controlling genes. These results presented here not only greatly expanded the rice methylome dataset, but also shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in rice seed maternal integument development.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T03:46:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.018
  • Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of genes associated with arsenate
           toxicity in an arsenic-tolerant rice mutant
    • Authors: Sun-Goo Hwang; Sandeep Chapagain; Jae Woo Lee; A-Reum Han; Cheol Seong Jang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Sun-Goo Hwang, Sandeep Chapagain, Jae Woo Lee, A-Reum Han, Cheol Seong Jang
      The presence of arsenic (As) in polluted environments, such as ground water, affects the accumulation of As in rice grains and causes a serious threat to human health. However, the precise molecular regulations related to As toxicity and tolerance in rice remain largely unknown. In the present study, we developed an arsenic-tolerant type 1 (ATT1) rice mutant by γ-irradiation mutagenesis and performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis for the characterization of As-responsive genes. Toxicity inhibited transcriptional regulation of putative genes involved in photosynthesis, mitochondrial electron transport, and lipid biosynthesis metabolism in wild-type (WT) and ATT1 rice mutant. However, many cysteine biosynthesis-related genes were significantly upregulated in both plants. We also attempted to elucidate the putative genes associated with As tolerance by comparing transcriptomes and identified ATT1-specific transcriptional regulation of genes involved in stress and RNA-protein synthesis. This analysis identified 50 genes that had DNA polymorphisms in upstream regions that differed from those in the exon regions, which suggested that genetic variations in the upstream regions might enhance As tolerance in the mutants. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes evaluated in this study may improve understanding of the functional roles of As-related genes in response to As tolerance mechanisms and could potentially be used in molecular breeding to limit As accumulation in rice grains.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T03:46:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.019
  • Drought-induced embolism in stems of sunflower: A comparison of in vivo
           micro-CT observations and destructive hydraulic measurements
    • Authors: Tadeja Savi; Andrea Miotto; Francesco Petruzzellis; Adriano Losso; Serena Pacilè; Giuliana Tromba; Stefan Mayr; Andrea Nardini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Tadeja Savi, Andrea Miotto, Francesco Petruzzellis, Adriano Losso, Serena Pacilè, Giuliana Tromba, Stefan Mayr, Andrea Nardini
      Vulnerability curves (VCs) are a useful tool to investigate the susceptibility of plants to drought-induced hydraulic failure, and several experimental techniques have been used for their measurement. The validity of the bench dehydration method coupled to hydraulic measurements, considered as a 'golden standard', has been recently questioned calling for its validation with non-destructive methods. We compared the VCs of a herbaceous crop plant (Helianthus annuus) obtained during whole-plant dehydration followed by i) hydraulic flow measurements in stem segments (classical destructive method) or by ii) in vivo micro-CT observations of stem xylem conduits in intact plants. The interpolated P50 values (xylem water potential inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance) were −1.74 MPa and −0.87 MPa for the hydraulic and the micro-CT VC, respectively. Interpolated P20 values were similar, while P50 and P80 were significantly different, as evidenced by non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Our results did not support the tension-cutting artefact, as no overestimation of vulnerability was observed when comparing the hydraulic VC to that obtained with in vivo imaging. After one scan, 25% of plants showed signs of x-ray induced damage, while three successive scans caused the formation of a circular brownish scar in all tested plants. Our results support the validity of hydraulic measurements of samples excised under tension provided standard sampling and handling protocols are followed, but also show that caution is needed when investigating vital plant processes with x-ray imaging.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T10:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.017
  • Identification of TPS family members in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)
           and the effect of sucrose sprays on TPS expression and floral induction
    • Authors: Lisha Du; Siyan Qi; Juanjuan Ma; Libo Xing; Sheng Fan; Songwen Zhang; Youmei Li; Yawen Shen; Dong Zhang; Mingyu Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Lisha Du, Siyan Qi, Juanjuan Ma, Libo Xing, Sheng Fan, Songwen Zhang, Youmei Li, Yawen Shen, Dong Zhang, Mingyu Han
      Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing disaccharide that serves as a carbon source and stress protectant in apple trees. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is the biosynthetic precursor of trehalose. It functions as a crucial signaling molecule involved in the regulation of floral induction, and is closely related to sucrose. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) family members are pivotal components of the T6P biosynthetic pathway. The present study identified 13 apple TPS family members and characterized their expression patterns in different tissues and in response to exogenous application of sucrose during floral induction. ‘Fuji’ apple trees were sprayed with sucrose prior to the onset of floral induction. Bud growth, flowering rate, and endogenous sugar levels were then monitored. The expression of genes associated with sucrose metabolism and flowering were also characterized by RT-quantitative PCR. Results revealed that sucrose applications significantly improved flower production and increased bud size and fresh weight, as well as the sucrose content in buds and leaves. Furthermore, the expression of MdTPS1, 2, 4, 10, and 11 was rapidly and significantly up-regulated in response to the sucrose treatments. In addition, the expression levels of flowering-related genes (e.g., SPL genes, FT1, and AP1) also increased in response to the sucrose sprays. In summary, apple TPS family members were identified that may influence the regulation of floral induction and other responses to sucrose. The relationship between sucrose and T6P or TPS during the regulation of floral induction in apple trees is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T10:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.015
  • Phosphate stresses affect ionome and metabolome in tea plants
    • Authors: Zhaotang Ding; Sisi Jia; Yu Wang; Jun Xiao; Yinfei Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Zhaotang Ding, Sisi Jia, Yu Wang, Jun Xiao, Yinfei Zhang
      In order to study the response of tea plants to P stress, we conducted the ionomic and metabolomic analysis by ICP-OES, GC-MS and LC-MS. The results demonstrated that P was antagonistic with S, and was cooperative with Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe under P-deficiency. However, P was antagonistic with Mn, Fe and S, and was cooperative with Cu and Zn under P-excess. Moreover, P-deficiency or excess reduced the syntheses of flavonoids and phosphorylated metabolites. P-deficiency decreased the amount of glutamate and increased the content of glutamine, while P-excess decreased the content of glutamine. Besides, P-deficiency increased three organic acids and decreased three organic acids. P-excess increased the contents of malic acid, oxalic acid, ribonic acid and etc. involved in primary metabolism, but decreased the contents of p-coumaric acid, indoleacrylic acid, related to secondary metabolism. Furthermore, the contents of Mn and Zn were found to be positively related to the amounts of myricetin and quercetin, and the content of Mn to be positively related to the amount of arabinose. The results implied that the P stresses severely disturbed the metabolism of minerals and metabolites in tea plants, which influenced the yield and quality of tea.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T10:44:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.007
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