ISSN: 1680-5194 eISSN: 1994-7984 |
nutrition and dietetics
food and food industries
Published by Asian Network for Scientific Information (ANSInet)
No Issue Number
- Effect of Dietary Chromium Supplementation on Performance and Carcass Traits
of Broiler Chicks
This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of chromium from chromium picolinate source on the performance, carcass traits of broilers. Three hundred sixty one day old commercial male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to one of 24 floor pens in a completely randomized design with six treatment and four replicate groups and fifteen chicks per each pen. Dietary treatments consisted of 0 (control), 400, 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 μg Cr per kg of basal diet. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during 1 to 21, 21 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing slaughtered and dissected manually. Carcass yield, liver, abdominal fat, pancreas, thighs and breast weight declared as percentage of live body weight. The results showed that performance of broilers was not affected by dietary supplemental chromium. Also supplementation of broiler diet didn't influence carcass traits. Nevertheless there is a non significant increase in liver and pancreas weight while increasing the Cr content of the diet. It can be concluded that chromium content of the basal starter and finisher diet and drinking water is adequate to normal requirement of broilers under such experimental conditions and supplementing of Cr may not be essential.
- Effect of Various High Puddles on the Growth of Aerenchyma and the Growth
of Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L) in Pot
Long-term goal of the research is to improve the productivity of paddy crop which is a modification of the SRI (the System of Rice Intensification) of environmentally sound, reducing water use effectively and efficiently (saving water). In that case, the cultivation of which will be applied in the future is that paddy cultivation requires no much water (less than SRI and PTT) and the land from the beginning until the harvest is not stagnant but still moist (because the aeration of soil is pretty good) and oxidation of the soil layer becomes thicker as needed for rice productivity. While the specific objectives of this research is to study the growth of Aerenchyma tissue as a pathway where the release of methane gas from the soil and the growth of rice in the rice fields. This study wanted to obtain an optimal soil conditions, using Complete Randomized Design through vary of water depth level treatment (levels of soil water in pot) in the pot varies. The obtained results of this research are the latest results as different from previous research results. Finally the research obtained some conclusions; 1.) The growth of Aerenchyma in roots of rice plant Batang Piaman was not affected by high of inundation and soil water content in the potting media, 2.) The best rate of assimilation is treatment D (inundation of 10cm from the ground); 3.) the highest total number of seedlings obtained in treatment D (high pool of 10cm from the ground) which is 64.26 rods, far more than the other treatments and descriptions of varieties of rice Batang Piaman itself ie from 14 to 19.4; 4.) Base on the number of seedling growth parameters, high-tech farming with an inundation of 10cm below the soil surface (treatment D) can produce 180% better than conventional cultivation techniques (treatment A) 5.) We applied the latest rice cultivation technology with a high inundation of ±10 cm below the ground surface will provide an optimal effect on the growth of rice plants in field.
- Phytochemical Analysis, Nutritional Composition and Antimicrobial Activities
of White Mulberry (Morus alba)
The phytochemical analysis, nutritional composition and antimicrobial activities of two variants of Morus alba were investigated using standard procedures. The leaves were dried under room temperature and then extracted with cold water, hot water and ethanol (99.7% vol./vol.). The extracts were concentrated using rotary evaporator and kept in desiccators for further analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous (hot and cold) and ethanol extracts of white mulberry plant ( M. alba ) were carried out in vitro by agar diffusion-method against some human pathogenic microbes. Antibacterial potential of the M. alba (White mulberry plant) extracts were screened against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Streptococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , Neisseria gonorrheae , Proteus vulgaricus , while the antifungal properties were done on Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus tamari , Fusarium oxysporum and Penicilium oxalicum . Bacitracin and streptomycin were used as the standard reference antibiotics. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, phenolics and alkaloids while the antinutrients such as tannins, phytate and oxalate were also present in appreciable amounts. The nutritional evaluation showed that the plant is low in crude protein, crude fat and crude fibre and the mineral compositions confirmed the presence of calcium, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium. The result also showed that the ethanolic extracts had wider range of activity on the test organisms with high zone of inhibition when compared to the standard antibiotics. The cold extract had lower MIC values compared to the MIC values of the ethanolic extract which indicate that cold extract of the plants are more potent in suppressing microbial growth than the ethanolic extracts. This study supports the folklore use of plants (herbal extracts) in traditional medicines to cure many diseases like diarrhea, intestinal tract, throat, ear infections, fever and skin diseases and its potential in food supplements.
- The Effect of Supplementation of Micro Nutrient on Nutrient Rice Bran Which
Fermented by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of rice bran which supplemented with Zn, Sulfur and urea through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria ( Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ) as inoculums. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of catalytic substrate consisting of Zn, sulfur and urea on the substrata characteristics and its microbial population. The experiment was determination of the optimum conditions (dosage of Zn, Sulfur and urea) for rice bran fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental methods, using the completely randomize design in factorial with 3 treatments were : 1) A factor (Dose of urea: A1 = 1.0%, A2 = 1.5%, A3 = 2.0%), 2) B factor (Dose sulfur: B1 = 0.2%, B2 = 0.4%, B3 = 0.8%) and 3) C factor (Dose Zn: C1 = 0.0025%, C2 = 0.005%, C3 = 0.0075%). Results of study showed that optimum conditions of the fermentation of rice brand was at 2% urea, 0.0025% Zn and 0.2% sulfur. The protein level increased 100% and the mineral content 60%, accompanied by 8.2% of increase in the digestibility. The level of phytic acid decreased 97%. This conditions can increase 36% of metabolizable energy, 15% nitrogen retention, 98% crude fiber digestible.
- Factors Affecting Males Reproductive Health Behaviour in Punjab, Pakistan
In Pakistan, male involvement in reproductive health started long before the concept of a holistic approach emerged from ICPD in 1994. Men are far behind the knowledge about contraceptives, authority of decisions making, religiosity, exposure of media, health attitude, physical cost, male violence, drugs and family planning services. These circumstances have damaging-effect on men's reproductive health as well. The poor reproductive health of men in the entire Pakistan has been reported in many studies. The different national and international agencies have shown a great concern on this alarming situation of men's deteriorating reproductive health status. They have recommended to investigate the men reproductive health behaviour in relation to different aspects. A cross sectional study has been conducted in 3-districts of Punjab province. One tehsils from each district will be selected randomly and sample of 272 men from Tehsil-1 i.e. Rawalpindi, 197 from Tehsil-2 i.e. Bahawalpur and 131 from Tehsil-3 i.e. Toba Tek Singh. From each Tehsil equal no. of respondents were selected from rural and urban areas by random sampling technique to explore the research objectives. In this way the total sample size was 600, 300 from rural and 300 from urban areas. A well-structured questionnaire consisting of open ended and close ended questions was prepared in the light of research objectives. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions mean, standard deviation was worked out to describe the data. Bivariate analysis along with the application of different statistical tests such as chi-square test and gamma test according to the nature of the level of measurement of variables under study was applied to examine the relationship between variables. It was concluded that there was strong positive relationship between age, education and income of the respondents and their reproductive health behaviour.
- Effect of Substrate Composition and Inoculum Dosage to Improve Quality of
Palm Kernel Cake Fermented by Aspergillus niger
An experiment was conducted to improve the quality of palm kernel cake (PKC) through fermentation by combination of substrate composition and inoculum dosage. The experiment used complete randomize design (CRD) with 4 x 3 factorial and twice replication. The first factor was substrate composition(A): (1) PKC 80% + 20% of rice brand, (2) PKC 80% + 20% of feses, (3) PKC 70% + 30% rice brand, (4 ) PKC 70% + 30% of feses. The second factor was inoculum dosage (B): (1) 5%, (2) 10% and (3) 15%. The parameters were protease and cellulase activity, crude protein and crude fiber of palm kernel cake fermentation. The result of study showed that there was significantly (p<0.05) interaction between substrate composition and inoculum dosage to protease and cellulase activity, crude protein and crude fiber of palm kernel cake fermentation. Every factor from substrate composition and inoculum dosage showed that there were highly significant (p< 0.01) effect to protease and cellulase activity, crude protein and crude fiber of palm kernel cake fermentation. It can be concluded that palm kernel cake which was fermented by combination of substrate composition and inoculum dosage showed that substrate composition 80% PKC + 20% rice brand and inoculum dosage 10% had a better nutrient content of Palm kernel cake fermentation. This condition can be seen in protease activity (18.10 U/ml) cellulase activity (22.84 U/ml) crude protein (20.84%) and crude fiber (10.64%).
- Sex Hormones Levels as Influenced by Cannabis sativa in Rats and Men
This study targeted the possible effects of chronic marijuana use on reproductive hormones. To pursue this effect, the levels of the testosterone, the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were assayed in men users in Sudan and in Cannabis sativa extract treated rats. Results were compared to non using groups as controls. Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels showed significant changes after 10 days in rat groups. In all addicted men groups, only slight non significant changes were observed compared to non users. These findings supported previous studies and concluded that C. sativa can significantly influence the levels of sex hormones in rats.
- Association of Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease
Risk in Jordanian Subjects
The underlying role of dietary Trans Fatty Acid (TFA) intake in the aetiology of Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD) and its influence on serum lipid levels is very well established. The present study was conducted to estimate the dietary intake of TFA among selected cases of CHD and healthy participants and to investigate the strength of the association between TFA intake and CHD risk in Jordan. Using a case-control design, 100 patients known to have CHD of either sex and 91 healthy controls of age < 60 y were examined. Daily intake of TFA was estimated using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Mean daily dietary intake of %TFA was significantly higher in cases (0.78±0.55) as compared to controls (0.62±0.28, p = 0.01). Daily TFA intake was significantly positively associated with CHD risk in cases as compared to controls [RR: 2.4 (1.1-4.9), p = 0.01]. The RR of CHD for TFA intake within the highest quartile as compared to the lowest was associated with increased risk of CHD by 4.9 fold (95% CI: 1.3-17.4, p = 0.01) in cases as compared to controls. Finally, the major food sources of TFA intake was contributed by fast food, meats and dairy products. Therefore, proper food labeling of TFA, especially on local foods would help to minimize TFA intake and therefore reduce the risk of CHD incidence in Jordan.
- Effect of Harvest Period on Starch Yield and Dry Matter Content from the Tuberous
Roots of Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties
The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of starch yields and dry contents from the tuberous roots of five improved cassava varieties ("Bonoua2", "Ay15", "971A", I88/00158 and "90/00039") at different harvest periods (11, 13, 15 and 17 months after planting). Indeed, the harvest period had significant effect at 0.05 level on dry matter contents and starch yields. All improved cassava varieties had their peak of dry matter contents (40.57%±2.41) and starch yields (20.17%±2.82%) at 13 months after planting. The tuberous roots of "Bonoua2" improved cassava variety had the highest starch yields at 11, 13 and 15 months after planting, with the respective values of 18.26%±1.52%, 20.78%±2.57% and 18.08%±3.18% respectively. Concerning the highest starch yield at 17 months after planting, it was obtained with "971A" improved cassava variety (19.38%±2.55%). The tuberous roots of "Bonoua2" improved cassava variety detained also the highest dry matter contents at 11 and 15 months after planting. The values were of 39.83%±1.19% and 38.70±2.61% respectively. As for the highest dry contents at 13 and 17 month after planting, they were given by the tuberous roots of "971A" improved cassava variety, with the respective values of 42.99%±1.48% and 39.04%±2.57%.
- Growth Performance of Finisher Broilers on Livingstone-Potato (Plectranthus
esculentus) Tubers Meal
A feeding trial lasting 42 days was conducted using seventy two (72) 4-weeks old Anak broiler chicks with an average initial live weight of 4.40 kg to determine the growth performance of finisher broilers fed diet containing Livingstone-potato tubers meal. The animals were assigned to four treatment based on their initial live weight. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (20% CP). The control diet was based on maize and soybean meal without Livingstone-potato tubers meal. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. The growth performance of broilers fed on various levels of meals in which Livingstone-potato (Rizga) meal substituted maize at 10%, 20% and 30% showed that there were no significant differences (p<0.05) in final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio among the treatments. The implication of these result is that those parameters measured were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the dietary levels of Livingstone-potato ( Plectranthus esculentus ) meal. The results suggest that 30% replacement of maize with Livingstone-potato ( Plectranthus esculentus ) meal produced no negative effect on the production performance of finisher broilers.
- The Relationship Between Fast Food Consumption and BMI among University Female
Fast food has become an important part of our diet and the increase in fast-food consumption is likely to continue. Our aim was to study the relationship between fast food and Body Mass Index (BMI) and the pattern of consumption of fast food in female university students. Total of 141 female students from different study levels of Nutrition and Food Science Department, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh Saudi Arabia were included. A survey questionnaire which contains three sections was used; firstly sociodemographic data, secondly fast food consumptions pattern and thirdly whether students apply basic nutrition knowledge in their selection of food or not. Height, weight and BMI were measured. We found that overweight and obesity were present in 25% of female students. Fast food consumption frequency of 1-2 times per week was high among them (74.5%). There is no significant relationship between fast food consumption, BMI and the pattern of consumption of fast food. There is a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship between increase in size of fish sandwich meal and increase of BMI. However there is no significant relationship between portion size of other food types and BMI. Moreover, we found significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship between university study level and the knowledge in explaining why fast food is unhealthy.
- Inventory of the Big Mammals of the Bay of Wali, In View of its Tourist Exploitation
The management rational of a protected area in general, the one to vocation cynégétique in particular, must rest on merely scientific bases. Information and the key information on vegetation, fauna and the ecological functions of the protected area, must be collected progressively so that they help to make assort a coherent program of his/her/its planning. The administrators of these spaces must follow the evolution of these resources therefore regularly, and particularly to know the animal species and their movements. It is in this optics that the present survey has been undertaken in the Bay of Wali situated to the periphery of the National Park of Nouabalé Ndoki in the goal to know the quality and the quantity of big mammals that frequent it. The present survey has been achieved during three months of January 15 to April 15, 2011 to the course of which we inventoried the big mammals in and to the periphery of the Bay of Wali. According to the results of this survey, the Bay of Wali presents a very rich, containing animal diversity thirty one (31) species different from big mammals, having preferences of very determined habitat. These preferences seem to be guided by the food needs and in mineral salts, the bodily cares and the type of plant formation. The results of the present survey could contribute to the setting up of a vast program of development of the vision tourism around the Bay of Wali and his/her/its periphery.
- Estimation of Nitrite, Nitrate and N-Nitrosamines in Selected Food Samples
Determination of nitrite, nitrate and N-nitrosamines in different types of milk and yogurt were carried out using colorimetric and GLC methods. This study shows that the average contents of nitrite and nitrate in milk were 0.045 μg/ml and 2.96 μg/ml respectively. Unidentified nitrosamines were observed in samples analyzed and neither DMN or DEN were detected. Selection of soft drink samples contained 3.9 μg/ml and 0.43 μg/ml of DMN and DEN respectively, water of industrial areas were observed to contained relatively high concentration of DMN (3.4 μg/ml) and DEN (0.25 μg/ml).
- Sewage Water Intrusion in the Groundwater of Lahore, its Causes and Protections
Lahore is the second largest city of Pakistan with population of about ten million where almost 100% population depends for their nutrition need on groundwater supplies. Hence the water quality plays controlling role in the health of local population. To determine the groundwater quality of the Lahore, 33 water samples were collected from tubewells, shallow wells and four samples from Lahore canal which is recharge source. The water samples were analyzed for E-coli by standard multiple tube method as per guideline of WHO. The results indicate that 100% water samples collected from injector pumps installed at shallow depth 120 to 150 feet are polluted due to intrusion of sewage water. However the water samples from deep tubewells installed at 400 to 700 feet depth are free from any E-coli . Recommendations are made to over come contamination problem in shallow aquifer.
- Genetic Analysis of Water Stress Tolerance and Various Morpho-Physiological
Traits in Zea mays L. Using Graphical Approach
Fifty inbred lines of Zea mays L. were screened against water stress in glass house experiment. Six inbred lines selected on the basis of various tolerance levels at seedling stage were hybridized in a diallel mating system. The F1 hybrids along with the parents were evaluated in field under normal and water stress regimes to determine the nature and magnitude of genetic variances and heritability estimates. Highly significant (p < 0.01) differences were noted among the genotypes for all the traits studied under both regimes. The scaling test disclosed full adequacy for traits like plant height, ear leaf area, grain yield, Cell Membrane Thermostability (CMT) and net Photosynthetic rate (P n ) under normal condition. Similarly characters like ear leaf area, 100-grain weight, cell membrane thermostability and net photosynthetic rate under water stress condition showed additive genetic effect with partial dominance which suggested that these traits might be useful during selection for developing synthetics. The model was partially adequate for anthesis-silking interval and 100-grain weight under normal condition and plant height, anthesis-silking interval and grain yield under moisture deficit condition. Moderate to high heritability estimates for grain yield and yield related parameters revealed maximum ability to transfer the genes to the next generation.
- Antioxidant Supplementation among Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):
Is it Necessary'
The development of airflow limitation is related to inadequate antioxidant intake and hence dietary supplementation may be a beneficial therapeutic intervention. Antioxidants with good bioavailability or molecules that have antioxidant enzyme activity may not only protect cells against the direct injurious effects of oxidants, but may fundamentally alter the inflammatory events that play an important part in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We aimed to review highlights the role of antioxidant and antioxidant vitamins in respiratory health. This is a retrospective study which is reviewing twenty cross-sectional and nine interventional studies from years 1990 to 2007 which were journal publications on the benefits of antioxidants and antioxidant supplementation among COPD patients. The results and finding from reviewing the studies, revealed that antioxidant vitamins [e.g. Vitamin A, E, C and N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC)] had an important role in respiratory health and lung function.
No Issue Number
- Indirect Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Inviscid Compressible Flow
Past a Joukowski Aerofoil with Linear Element Approach Using Doublet Distribution
In this paper, an indirect boundary element method is used to give solution for surface as well as ground water bodies which are major nutrition fluids. The inviscid compressible flow (i.e., velocity distribution) over the surface of the joukowski aerofoil has been calculated with linear element approach using doublet distribution alone whereas in our previous research papers, we applied constant boundary element approach for this purpose. To check the accuracy of the method, the computed flow velocity is compared with the exact velocity. The comparison of these results has been given in the tables and graphs. It is found that the computed results are in good agreement with the analytical results.
- Dietary Iodine from Interview-Based Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire:
Correlation with 24h Dietary Recall
Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem throughout the world. Malaysia's latest IDD survey in 2008 showed that 12.5% of the school children had urinary iodine above adequate requirement ( > 200 μg/L), where 7.6% were above the adequate value (200-299 μg/L) and 4.9% were excessive ( > 300 μ/L) particularly in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya (19.9%) and Sabah (16.6%). Socio-demography, environment and dietary are three main factors contributing to an increase in the prevalence of high urinary iodine in a population. Therefore, this study was conducted to validate an interview-based semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) with 24h dietary recall method on iodine nutrition for use in future studies in Malaysia particularly among school children. A total of 35 healthy euthyroid consented school children in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya were enrolled in the study. Each subject completed 24h dietary recall, followed by an interview-based food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary iodine intake. A standardized coloured book containing photos of food high in iodine and household measuring tools were used to help the respondents in answering the questions. Daily iodine intake was calculated for each participant in both FFQ and 24h dietary recall. Median daily iodine intake was 423.95±225.49 μg/L from the interview-based FFQ and 436.45±217.37 μg/L in the 24h dietary recall. The iodine content from the 24h dietary recall was strongly correlated with the iodine content from the interview-based FFQ where r = 0.954. It is concluded that the semi-quantitative FFQ is sufficiently reliable to inquire the daily iodine intake of school children.
- Effects of Steaming and Soaking on Chemical Composition of Cashew Nutshell:
Implications for Ruminant Animal Nutrition
Samples of cashew nut shell were screened to determine the effect of steaming and soaking treatments on chemical composition, pH and phyto chemical content Four samples of cashew nut shell. T 1 (Raw), T 2 (Steamed), T 3 (Soaked in water for 1 day) and T 4 (soaked in wood ash solution for 1 day). Samples of T 3 and T 4 were soaked for additional 2 days in water and wood ash solution for the determination of phyto chemical content. The tests were carried out in triplicate for each treatment. Data obtained were subjected to a one way analysis of variance. Treatment means where significant (p<0.05) difference existed were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5% level of probability. Treatment method had no significant (P>0.05) effect on crude protein, crude fibre, nitrogen free extracts and Dry matter contents. However, there were significant (P<0.05) differences in the values for pH and Ether Extracts. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in values for all the phytochemicals from T 1 to T 4 . Phenolic compounds in cashew nut shell ranged from (8.22 to 16.83%). None of the treatment methods completely removed the phytochemicals. It was concluded that cashew nut shell may be safe for inclusion in ruminant rations after much of the oil has been extracted and feeding may require supplementation with energy, protein and mineral sources to balance for nutrient requirements of farm animal that can tolerate higher fibre diets.
- The Effect of Leucaena Leaf Meal (Leucaena leucocephala) Fermented by Bacillus laterosporus and Trichoderma viride in
the Ration on Performance of Pitalah Ducks
Here we try to determine the effect of fermented leucaena leaf meal in the ration of Pitalah ducks. The research design used Randomized Completely Block of Design (RCBD) with 7 treatments, 3 replications and each replication consist of 6 laying duck. The treatment of this research were RO (control), R1 (10% leucaena leaf meal without fermentation), R2 (10% leucaena leaf meal fermented by Bacillus laterosporus) , R3 (20% leucaena leaf meal fermented by Bacillus laterosporus ), R4 (10% leucaena leaf meal fermented by Trichoderma viride ), R5 (20% leucaena leaf meal fermented by Trichoderma viride ), R6 (10% leucaena leaf meal fermented by Bacillus laterosporus +10% leucaena leaf meal fermented by Trichoderma viride ). Parameter which are observed like: feed consumption, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion. The results showed that the ration treatment influenced different highly significant (p<0.01) for feed consumption, egg weight and egg mass ration treatment but influenced different significantly (p<0.05) on egg production and feed conversion treatment. The use of the product leucaena leaf fermentation with Trichoderma viride and Bacillus laterosporus as much as 20% in Pitalah ducks rations and R2 treatment increase feed consumption (897.47g/bird/week), egg production (59.66%), egg weight 56.23 g/grain, egg mass (234.86g/head/week) and feed conversion (3.58 for R6 treatment). Treatment ration (R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6) is better than control ration and can improve performance of Pitalah ducks.
- Evaluation of Slurry Formulations for Kilishi Processing of African
Lungfish (Protopterus annectens, Owen)
The kilishi of Protopterus annectens was produced for determination of appropriate slurry formulations for fish kilishi preparation. Thirty six freshly caught samples of Protopterus annectens with average weight of 331.00±22.64g from Kware Lake in Sokoto State were used. Kilishi of this species was prepared with three different slurry formulations of high (F 1 ), medium (F 2 ) and low (F 3 ) proportions of groundnut dough to spice mixture in the ratio of 1.3:1.0, 1.0:1.2 and 1.0:1.8, respectively. Results of proximate composition indicated that kilishi of the P. annectens prepared with formulation 3 (F 3 ) recorded significantly higher (p<0.05) protein content (45.18±0.02%) and lower lipid content (11.07±0.07%) despite recording significantly higher (p<0.05) moisture content (9.07±0.07%). Sensory score of kilishi of P. annectens processed with F 3 formulation rated significantly higher (p<0.05) for texture, taste and flavour with mean scores of 5.72±0.22, 6.14±0.23 and 5.69±0.20, respectively. It could be concluded that kilishi of P. annectens prepared with F 3 formulation was the most acceptable, hence, recommended for use in kilishi production.
- Natural Antioxidants Effect of Mulberry Fruits (Morus nigra and Morus
alba L.) On Lipids Profile and Oxidative Stress in Hypercholestrolemic Rats
Mulberry belongs to the Morus genus of the Moraceae family. There are 24 species of Morus, with at least 100 known varieties. Mulberry leaves, bark and branches have long been used in Chinese medicine. In most European countries mulberries are grown for fruit production. Mulberry are a good source of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins and micronutrients. In epidemiological and clinical studies, these constituents have been associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles. Human intervention studies using (either fresh, or as juice, or freeze-dried), or purified anthocyanin extracts have demonstrated significant improvements in LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity, dyslipidemia and glucose metabolism. Benefits were seen in healthy subjects and in those with existing metabolic risk factors. The present study was performed to determine the natural antioxidants content of black and white mulberry fruits ( Morus nigra and Morus alba L.) in Egypt and study the effects of different levels different levels of black and white mulberry fruits on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholestrolemic rats. Forty adult male albino rats Sprague Dawley strain with an average weight of (100±120 g) randomly divided into 8 groups (each of 5 rats), Group 1: Control negative, rats fed on basal diet, Group 2: Control positive, rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet composed of basal diet +2% cholesterol. Others groups (3-8), rats fed on hypercholestrolemic diet supplemented by different levels of black or white mulberry dry fruits (2.5, 5 and 10%) for four weeks. Results observed that rats fed on hypercholestrolemic diet without supplementation (control positive) had significant increase in malonaldhyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), total cholesterol, triglycerides (T.G), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) while it had significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) comparing with rats fed on basal diet (control negative). Moreover, The group administrated with Morus nigra L. 10% had lowest value in malonaldhyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) followed by the group administrated with Morus alba L. 10%. In addition, all hypercholestrolemic groups administrated with different levels (2.5, 5 and 10%) of black and white mulberry fruits ( Morus nigra and Morus alba L.) had significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The group administrated with Morus nigra L. 10% had highest value in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) followed by the group administrated with Morus alba L. 10%. In addition, all hypercholestrolemic groups administrated with different levels (2.5, 5 and 10%) of black and white mulberry fruits ( Morus nigra and Morus alba L.) had significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides (T.G), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). and significant increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL),comparing with rats fed on hypercholestrolemic diet (control positive). It concluded that, consumption of black and white mulberry fruits ( Morus nigra and Morus alba L.) my modify the risk of hypercholesterolemia and it have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants. Moreover, mulberries are emerging as a dietary source of multiple compounds and nutrients, including anthocyanins, flavonoids, vitamins and fiber, that reduce CVD risk. While limited epidemiological data inversely associate consumption of berries with inflammation and CVD, these conclusions need to be strengthened in future case-control or cohort studies investigating the long-term health benefits of berries in specific populations.
- Nursing Staffs Attitudes on
the Elderly Nutrition in Ankara (Turkey)
This study was conducted to identify the nurse and care givers attitudes towards the nutrition of the elderly. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out in the geriatric care centers (nursing homes, hospitals) in Ankara, Turkey. It was conducted on 100 nursing staff (71 care givers, 29 nurses) working in geriatric care centers and agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected via a survey and SANN-G scale (Staff Attitudes to Nutritional Nursing Care Geriatric Scale) was used in order to identify the nursing staffs attitudes towards the nutrition of the elderly (Cronbachs alpha: 0.74). It was concluded that the nursing staff's total scores and dimension scores were below the cut-off scores for positive attitudes. That is, the nursing staff had insufficient knowledge about the nutrition of the elderly. The attitude scores were found to increase as the nursing staffs educational level and work experience increased while the staff working in hospitals received higher scores than those working in other institutions. At the end of the study, it was determined that the nursing staff had insufficient knowledge about the nutrition of the elderly. It is suggested that nursing staff should have special education on the elderly nutrition and continuity of this education should be provided.
- Effect of Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria on Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Masa (A Fermented Snack)
Eight microbial yeast and lactobacillus isolates were identified during spontaneous fermentation of mixed cereal gruels (rice, maize and millet) for 78 h at room temperature. The potential of these isolates to act as single starter was further studied in a fermentation set up for Masa (waina) production. The resulting batter from the milled rice used was inoculated with 2.0 x 10 6 cfu/ml of Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus inoculum suspension in different set up. The fermented gruel was sized and fried in little oil to produce Masa (Waina). The Masa was analyzed for physical (thickness, volume and spread) and nutritional qualities through an untrained panelist. The dimension of the Masa ranges from 4.50-6.0cm in diameter, 1.5-2.0cm thickness and 50-68g in weight. The result of the proximate analysis showed that for both isolates there was a steady increase of crude fibre ranging from 0.75-1.04%, crude protein for all isolates gave insignificant difference in amount ranging between 7.33 and 8.63% for Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus spp., respectively. There was reduction in fat between isolates with Lactobacillus having the lowest fat value of 12.06%. There was increase in moisture content ranging from 35.5-42.13% for Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus spp., respectively. There was high production of carbohydrate, whereas there was no significant difference in terms of results obtained between the isolates and bakers yeast used as control in this study. The sensory evaluation showed that all samples of Masa produced were preferred by the panelist.
- Low Self-Efficacy Lead to Failure in Adopting CHO-Counting Approach to Control Diabetes: Pilot Study
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of self-efficacy in adopting carbohydrate counting behavior on their glycemic control, lipid profile and body weight among patients with type 2 diabetes. Self-efficacy was measured using chwarzer and Renner self-efficacy scale. All patients, regardless of their self-efficacy score, received an intervention composed of tailored diet plans based on the carbohydrate counting method. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at baseline, 3 and 6 months after the intervention. The short-acting insulin dose was modified based on the total amount of carbohydrate per meal. Two patients (1 and 2) out of five recorded high self-efficacy scores. A significant decrease (p<0.001) in FBG, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL and an increase in HDL levels were observed in patients 1 and 2 when baseline readings compared to the six-month readings. A decrease in daily insulin dose was observed after the intervention for patients 1 and 2. The significant differences were also found in weight, BMI and body fat percentage after intervention period. Regarding the three patients (3, 4 and 5) who recorded low self-efficacy scores, a significant improvement was found in total cholesterol and triglycerides in patients 3 and 4. It could be concluded that high self-efficacy for adopting carbohydrate counting-based dietary regimens may be effective in improving health status for patients with diabetes.
- The Cluster Analysis, BMI Status and Dietary Habits of the Patients with Thyroid
Disorder in Pakpattan, Pakistan
Thyroid gland is one of the important glands in human body and thyroid disorder creates many serious health problems. The present work is based on the study of 200 individuals (57 male and 143 female) with thyroid disorder (i.e., goiterous patients) from Pakpattan, Pakistan. The said study explores the dietary habits, Body Mass Index (BMI) status and cluster analysis of these patients.
- Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Crude Oil Extracts from Three Vegetable Seeds
Crude oils extracted from three vegetable seeds namely: soya beans ( Glycine max ), groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea ) and maize ( Zea mays) purchased from a local market in Sagamu Ilisan, Ogun State were investigated. Extraction of the oils from the seeds was carried out by soxhlet method using petroleum ether as the extractant. The physio-chemical properties of the oils were determined using Gas Chromatography (GC) and other standard methods. The results of physical analysis showed that soy bean oil had the highest percentage of oil yield (14. 51%), followed by groundnut oil (10. 54%) and lastly maize (6. 63%). The refractive indexes of the oils are as follows: Soya bean oil (1.4662), groundnut (1.4622) and maize (1.4632). The chemical analysis showed that the saponification values were 228.19, 227.49 and 211.37 mg KOH/g and free fatty acid values were 6.85, 1.65 and 23.35 mgNaOH/g for soybean, groundnut and maize oils respectively. The acid values were 19.21, 4.63 and 65.50mg KOH/g and iodine values were 73.02, 38.65 and 47.25 for soybean, groundnut and maize oils respectively. Gas Chromatography analysis gave the following fatty acid profiles: oleic (26.2%), linoleic (5.5%), stearic (4.8%), myristic (1.5%) and lauric (1.25%) for groundnut oil; oleic (26.2%), linoleic (8.5%), stearic (5.6%) for soybean oil while corn oil contained stearic (3.8%) and oleic (4.6%). The study revealed that the three vegetable seeds are good sources of edible oils. Soya bean oil is considered to be the most suitable for food formulation as well as drying oil in pharmaceutical, paints, soap and perfume industries because of its higher level of unsaturation in the fatty acid contents.
- Wheat Response to Fertilizer Application Techniques and Nitrogen Levels: II.
Crop Growth and Yield Attributes
Field experiment was conducted to evaluate difference among various levels of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer, its application techniques and their interaction on the growth, yield components and yield of wheat. Treatments of N fertilizer application techniques, viz., broadcast and side-dressing were allocated to main-plots and nitrogen levels, viz., 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg N/ha were placed in sub-plots. This experiment was repeated for two years with the same treatments. Results revealed that nitrogen application techniques had non-significant impact on most of the crop parameters except count of fertile tillers. Various rates of nitrogen showed significant influence on all the parameters under study and showed significantly higher grain yield of wheat with successive increase of dose up to 180 kg N/ha. Maximum plant height and biological yield were obtained under the highest nitrogen level, viz., 210 kg N/ha. However, the highest count of fertile tillers, spike length, number of grains, 1000-grain weight and harvest index were recorded in the treatment receiving 180 kg N/ha. Interactions between fertilizer application techniques and nitrogen levels were non-significant for all the crop parameters studied in this experiment on wheat.
- Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Budu of
West Sumatera to Food Biopreservatives
Budu is a traditional fermented fish product which are produced and distributed within a specific area in the province of West Sumatera prepared from Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus guttatus ). The samples were obtained from the small scale domestic factory. The aim of this research are to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) activity from budu with pathogen bacteria ( Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella thypi , Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes ) followed identified by PCR. The bacteria isolated were growth on medium Glucose Tripton Agar (GTA) supplement with CaCO3 and then performed purification by plate out on deMan Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar . It was found 138 isolates of LAB showed with clear zone around the culture and 8 isolates (B2, B4, B5, B9, B11, B13, B28 and B34) has been antimicrobial activity against the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that isolates B28 had the highest antimicrobial activity against all bacteria test, with a range of inhibition zone 14-35 mm, gram positive, spore former bacil, motility and catalase positive. Based on morphological examination and PCR analysis, the isolate B28 was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus strain HVR22 bacteria.
- Potential of Dyospirus khaki Baverage as Sources of Natural Antioxidant
Dyospirus khaki is fruit belongs to the Ebenaceae family. Its beneficial properties are considered to be related to the various antioxidants, including vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids, contained in this kind of fruit. Methanolic and ethanolic extract of Dyospirus khaki baverage were evaluated for their phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activities by using DPPH and bleacing of β-karoten method. Correlation between phenol and flavonoid content with pearson correlation. The result showed that methanolic extract of Dyospirus khaki baverage has higher phenol and flavonoid content than ethanolic extract of Dyospirus khaki baverage. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Dyospirus khaki baverage was higher than that of ethanolic extract of Dyospirus khaki baverage based on DPPH and bleacing β-karoten. There were significant and positive correlation between antioxidant activity based on DPPH and bleacing β-karoten and phenol and flavonoid content on baverage from methanolic and ethanolic extract of Dyospirus khaki . These results indicated that methanolic extract and ethanolic extract of Dyopsirus khaki baverage might be used as potential source of natural antioxidants.
- Biological Response of Epithelial Cells line (CMT-93) Induced by β-Carotene
β-carotene is the most widely studied carotenoid that has provitamin A properties beside its great promise for cancer chemoprotective and human physiological functions. β-carotene can be cleavaged to retinal by some enzymes in wide variety of cells especially in intestinal cells. The retinal is further metabolized to retinoic acid by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) family of enzymes. In this study we use CMT-93 cell line as a cell model of intestinal epithelial cell to study the effect of β-carotene on cells morphology, proliferation and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene expression. These cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated Fecal Bovine Serum (FBS), 4 mM L-glutamine, 50 U/ml penicillin and 50 mg/ml streptomycin. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) (1.25%) was used to solve β-carotene (Sigma). Final concentration of β-carotene in medium for proliferation were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 5.0 μM. The results showed that in higher concentration (1.5 μM), β-carotene can alter the morphologycal structure of monolayer epithelial cells of CMT-93. Meanwhile, β-carotene in supra physiological concentration (5.0 μM) significantly (p <0.05) decreased proliferation, exhibited ALDH1A2 gene expression and changed morphological structure.
- The Role of Dairy Products in Prostate Cancer: A Review
Prostate cancer is an important health problem for all men in the world, in particularly in west countries such as ABD and Europe. Although, it is the most common cancer type in men and second reason for death due to cancer, what the most suitable treatment of prostate cancer is still being discussed. It is well known that eating healthy was a very important factor for production from cancer and also it has been discussing for a long time. Dairy products, that are important parts of a healthy diet, are source of especially dietary calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, fatty acids and IGFs. There are many researches about these components in milk and milk products had effects on various cancer types. In this review, it was examined that the relationship between milk and milk product consumption and prostate cancer and researches that were related to this subject.
- Fasting Calorie Restriction Improved the Quality of Dietary Intake among Aging
Men in Klang Valley, Malaysia
This study used the new model of Fasting Calorie Restriction, which aimed at providing a feasible way of controlling eating. The present study aimed at determining the changes in dietary patterns following a three-month Fasting Calorie Restriction intervention. Twenty-five apparently healthy men (aged 50-70 years, BMI 23.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ) were randomized into Fasting Calorie Restriction or Control groups. Those assigned to the Fasting Calorie Restriction group were instructed to restrict their daily energy intake to 2100 kJ/day and practice Muslim Sunnah fasting for 2 days a week for three months. Dietary data and Healthy Eating Index were obtained using a Diet History Questionnaire at the baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Statistical analysis was carried out using a repeated measured of Analysis of Covariance using the baseline data as covariate. Energy intake decreased significantly (p<0.01) in the Fasting Calorie Restriction group. We also found a significant increase (p<0.05) in thiamine, riboflavin and niacin intakes in the Fasting Calorie Restriction group throughout the intervention period. Analysis of the Healthy Eating Index showed a significant main effect (p<0.05) for fat, saturated fat and cholesterol scores. Food variability decreased significantly (p<0.001) (9.5±0.9 at the baseline to 8.1±1.1 at week 12) in the Fasting Calorie Restriction group. Fasting Calorie Restriction in this study was beneficial in reducing overall energy and fat intake. However, it also decreased the food variability among subjects. There is a need to evaluate the long-term effects of Fasting Calorie Restriction on food variability and micronutrient status.
- Some Quality Characteristics of Malaysian Commercial Fish Sausage
Five brands of Malaysian commercial fish sausages were analyzed for proximate and physicochemical properties. The proximate contents showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the samples. The protein and fat contents ranged from 8.18-10.77% and 0.93-6.53%, respectively. There were significance differences (p<0.05) among the fish sausages in the lightness value. A folding test showed no significant differences among the fish sausages, with all samples receiving the highest score. Hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force were significantly different (p<0.05) among the samples. This study showed that physicochemical properties among the sample were relatively different, but most of the samples fulfilled the requirements of a good-quality sausage.
- Effect of the Type of Water Used in Irrigation of Olive Trees on the Storability of Olive Oil at Room Temperature
This study covers the effect of irrigation of olive trees with water of different types (treated wastewater, well water and rain-fed) on the storability of the produced olive oil at room temperature (10-30°C). The results of the fatty acid profile revealed that the fresh olive oil samples contain about 16-18% palmatic, 2.3-2.4% stearic, 61-65% oleic, 14-17% linoleic and 0.7-0.9% linolenic acid. It was observed that water type had no significant effect on the quantity of both palmitic and stearic acids. On the contrary, water type affected significantly the quantity of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Higher quantities of linoleic and linolenic and lower one of oleic acids were present in olive oils taken from rain-fed olive trees. It was evident that the type of water used in irrigation had a significant effect on the storability of olive oil where rain-fed olive trees produced olive oil that had the best storability i.e lower acidity, lower peroxide values, higher total phenol content, higher sensory scores for the positive sensory attributes with the absence of negative ones. Taking into consideration the type of package used in storage of olive oil at room temperature (10-30°C), the data obtained revealed that metal cans were the worst in preserving the olive oil quality parameters followed by plastic containers whereas glass containers gave the best results. Regarding the storage time (0, 3, 6 and 9 months), the results showed that more deterioration for the quality of olive oil was achieved after 6 months storage.
- Utilization of Labneh Whey Lactose Hydrolyzed Syrup in Baking and Confectionery
Hydrolyzed labneh whey lactose syrup was obtained by the action of immobilized Beta-galactosidase enzyme using fluidized bed reactor system. The obtained sweet syrup was used as sugar replacement in three products (French - type bread, Cherry cake and Kunafah syrup). The sensory evaluation results showed that bread made with 25% sugar replacement level was better than the control one. For (Cherry cake and Kunafah) there were no significant differences between the products made with 25% sugar replacement level and the control samples. The bread dough mad with 25% sugar replacement had a better rheological properties with regards to stability, rate of absorption and mechanical tolerance indication. The nutritional value of the newly developed product was improved with regards to high amount of protein content compared to control products. No microbial growth was detected in both control and new developed bread products during storage.
- The Nutrition Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians in the State of Qatar
To determine the nutritional knowledge of primary care physicians. A validated questionnaire with multiple-choice questions were distributed to 136 physicians, working in various health care centers in the state of Qatar between Jan 2009 to Jun 2009. Completed questionnaire were received from 136 of 225 physicians (60.4% the mean score for correctly answered questions was (64%). Approximately 19% of the physicians describe their knowledge of nutrition as very good, 60% as moderate and 21% as poor. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of nutritional information related to common prevalent topics related to nutrient believed to help prevent thrombosis Major type of fat in olive oil, the preventive action of fruits and vegetables against cancer, toxic vitamins if consumed excessively and the nutrients associated with the prevention of neural tube defects. In contrast physicians showed poor knowledge regarding other important topics in nutrition, such as the role of soluble fibers in lowering blood cholesterol, the lowest glycemic index foods, the main fatty acid formed in the egg, substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level and the association between excess protein intake and calcium less. These results showed that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in the continuing medical education.
- Comparison of Chemical Composition and Protein Digestibility, Carotenoids, Tanins and Alkaloids Content of Wild Lupinus Varieties Flour
Proximate composition, carotenoids, tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids and in vitro protein digestibility were determined in flours of two wild lupines seeds recollected at central region of Mexico. Varieties identified as Lupinus barkeri and Lupinus montanus were compared with a domesticated cultivated Lupinus albus crop. Although total protein content resulted significantly (p<0.05) higher for both L. barkeri and L. montanus , no significantly (p>0.05) difference were found in in vitro protein digestibility. Ash and crude fiber contents were significantly (p<0.05) higher for L. barkeri and L. montanus ether extract was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other lupin samples. In general, chemical composition related to ash, fiber and ether extract contents are close to the reported range for other Lupinus species. Wild varieties of Lupinus could represent a viable alternative looking for new protein resources, from the techno-functional and nutritional point of view. Lupin flour is a good source of minerals and functional compounds, like carotenoids as antioxidant or dietary fiber, with health-promoting properties. Antinutritional factors associated to lupin can be minimized or eliminated by processing (soaking, dehulling and cooking). These characteristics of wild Lupinus varieties result in a revalorization of these crops as a protein and other healthy promoting compounds for human or animal consumption.
- Consumptions Pattern and
Knowledge of Athletes about Energy Drink in South of Iran (Shiraz)
During the last years, sports and energy drink consumption has continued to gain popularity among young people in Iran. Obviously, according to the fact that 66% of 70-million population in Iran are aged less than 30 years and also a growing consumer purchasing power as a result of a growing economy, urbanization and access to quality raw material have been the main drivers of the rapid growth of the energy drinks industry and clients. The purpose of this study is to determine the consumptions pattern of energy drinks among athletes. Totally, 800 athletes (400 males and 400 females) from Fitting and bodybuilding Clubs in Shiraz were included in this study. Subjects were expected to do a questionnaire which was about their personal characteristics, knowledge about energy drinks and their consumption frequency. Mean age was 24.9±6.6 in sport men and 27.5±9.4 in sport women. Participants were divided into two groups: 54.7% consumers of energy drinks and 45.3% non-consumers. Male consumers were 57.5% which was higher than female consumers. 51.4% of energy drink consumers had university degree, 36% had diploma and 12.6% did not finish high school while none of them were illiterate. Using energy drinks is common among athletes especially in Fitting and bodybuilding Clubs for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, side effects from consuming energy drinks are not sensible. Results of this study showed that most of the participants do not know about ingredients of energy drinks. Our findings have numerous practical applications for athletes.
- Bacterial Quality of Informally Marketed Raw Milk in Kenitra City, Morocco
One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk were randomly collected from six dairies in different locations in Kenitra City (Morocco) from October 2010 to March 2011 and were subjected to evaluation. The study has shown that 119 samples were of poor merchantability and 24 samples of bad sanitary quality. Microbiological enumeration revealed that the counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, 6.9x10 8 cfu mL -1 ; faecal coliforms, 4.2x10 7 cfu mL -1 and Staphylococcus aureus, 1.4x10 5 cfu mL -1 . Salmonella sp. were below detection level in all of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one sample. The same contamination degree between dairies and districts (p>0.05) was detected. A significant correlation was observed between total bacterial counts and faecal coliforms (r = 0.51; p<0.001) and also between total bacterial counts and temperature of storage (r = -0.37; p<0.001). The microbiological quality of raw milk sold in Kénitra city was judged marginal indicating the need for improved hygienic standards.
- Green Tea as a Functional Food Against Breast Cancer: A Review
Green tea has been purported to have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease, hypertension, inflammatory disease and cancer. Recently, there has been considerable scientific interest in functional foods, or conventional foods that are demonstrated to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. This article examines green tea as a possible functional food for breast cancer. It is believed that the bioactive compound in green tea with purported anticancer potential is the catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG has been demonstrated to have antioxidant, anti-angiogenic and apoptotic effects using in vitro models. The results from epidemiological studies conducted in human populations are not statistically significant to warrant inclusion of green tea as a functional food against breast cancer. Nevertheless, certain trends observed in these studies and results from preclinical models necessitates further research into employing green tea as a functional food for breast cancer.
- Salt Stress Alleviation in Field Crops Through Nutritional Supplementation of Silicon
Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. Salts taken up by the plants influence the plant growth by inducing adverse effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, including turgor, photosynthesis and enzymatic activities. Mechanisms responsible for reduction in plant growth under salt stress are: (1) Osmotic stress, (2) Specific ion toxicity, (3) Nutritional imbalance and (4) Oxidative stress. Different approaches such as introduction of new genes into genotypes responsible for salt tolerance, screening of large international collections and conduct of field trials on selected genotypes, conventional and non-conventional breeding methods and adequate regulation of mineral nutrients have been employed to enhance salinity tolerance in plants. Saline agriculture and exogenous application of mineral elements including Si has been professed as cost effective approach to ameliorate the salt stress in cereal crops like wheat. Si is categorized as a beneficial element in plant biology. It is unquestionably an important requirement for the normal growth of many plants and must be called as Quasi essential. Si amendment also plays a pivotal role to enhance chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and rigidity of plants under stressful conditions. There are different mechanisms by which Si mediates salinity tolerance in plants. It maintains the plant water status under saline conditions. It reduces uptake of Na + by improving K + : Na + and also alleviates the toxicity of other heavy metals. It application helps to improve the defensive system of the plants by producing anti-oxidants which in turn detoxify reactive oxygen species. Morphological and physiological improvements in plants were observed due to Si deposition within plant body under salt stress conditions. Silicon improves growth and dry matter production under salt stress conditions. Its application also enhances the crop performance against biotic stress. It is, therefore, suggested that supplemental application of Si must be included in salt stress alleviation management techniques.
- Improvements in Biofilm Processes for Wastewater Treatment
This review paper intends to provide an overall vision of biofilm technology as an alternative method for treating waste waters. This technology has been gaining popularity through the years, mainly because many wastewater treatment plants, which are still used Activated Sludge Process (AS) are present some shortcomings when exposed to increased hydraulic and organic loads. Fundamental research into biofilms is presented in three sections, Biofilm Types and Characterization, Advantages and Drawbacks and Design Parameters. The reactor types covered in this review are: un-submerged fixed film systems (trickling filters and rotating biological contactors) and submerged fixed film systems (biological aerated flooded filters, submerged aerated filters, biofilm up-flow sludge blanket, fluidized bed, expanded granular sludge blanket, biofilm airlift suspension, internal circulation, moving bed biofilm and membrane biofilm) reactors.
- Starch Functional Properties and Resistant Starch from Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv] Species
The study evaluated physicochemical and content of Resistant Starch (RS) of starches isolated from defatted white foxtail millet and yellow foxtail millet by alkaline extraction. The characteristic of the isolated starches were compared with those of commercial corn starch (CCS). The extraction yielded 42.10% and 39.29% (dry basis) of starch respectively, for white and yellow foxtail millets. The amylose content was highest (35.80mg g -1 ) in the Yellow Foxtail Starch (YFS) followed by White Foxtail Starch (WFS) which recorded 34.92mg g -1 and CCS (33.98mg g -1 ) with significant difference (p <0.05). The amylopectin was found in trace amounts for both WFS and YFS, whereas highest value of carbohydrate was found in CCS (98.59 mg g -1 ) followed by WFS (98.03mg g -1 ) and YFS (82.79mg g -1 ). Microscopic examination showed that all starch granules had sizes ranging from 20 to 50 μm with variable irregular shapes. Millet starch indicated highest degree of syneresis and gel consistency. Swelling and solubility increased as temperature increased from 60 to 95°C. Pasting viscosities and maximum peaks were CCS (75.34°C, 3307cP), WFS (76.09°C, 3321cP) and YFS (76.10°C, 3322cP). The RS in raw defatted and hot boiled starches were (15.77-9.17%) in CCS, (13.35-7.46%) WFS and (14.56-8.24%) YFS, respectively and showed a significant difference (p <0.05) among samples.
- Comparative Studies of the Trace Elements Content of Some Herbal Tea Consumed in Jordan
Six mineral and trace elements (Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn) were determined in the five Samples of herbal teas commercially available in Jordanian Pharmaceutical market, such as Sahha Fennel Tea (SFT), Sahha Chamomile Tea (SCT), Sahha Herbal Tea (SHT), Miltea Herbal Tea (MHT) and Miltea Chamomile Tea (MCT). The mineral and trace elements content of the studied samples showed a wide variability. Mn was not detectable in SFT and SCT. It was ranged from 1.73 ppb in MCT to 5.95 ppb in SHT. The highest Cu content was 1.956 ppb in SCT and the lowest value was 0.939 ppb in SHT. However, it was not detectable in SFT, MHT and MCT. Cd ranged from 6.86 to 26.25 ppb in MCT and SHT respectively. Maximum concentration of Ni was 47.68 ppb in SHT while the minimum was 6.55 ppb in MCT. On the other hand, Zn concentration was not detectable in all studied samples. The results of this study indicated that, the herbal teas that are consumed in Jordan did not contain toxic elements.
- The Role of Prelacteal Feeding in Infant Methemoglobinemia Risk: Case Study in the Upper East Region of Ghana
Exposure to high nitrate concentration and prelacteal feeding increase the risk of infant methemoglobinemia. This research was therefore carried out to test for the presence and concentration of nitrates in drinking water for households in upper east region where prelacteal feeding is common as compared to other regions in Ghana and to determine the risk of exposure to methemoglobinemia through unregulated sources of drinking water. An experimental study was carried out: Seven districts, twenty Communities and twenty eight unregulated sources of drinking water (nineteen wells and nine boreholes) were randomly selected. Key informant interviews were carried out in various selected communities to ascertain the number of existing and functional water sources. Nitrate-Nitrogen was determined using the hydrazine reduction method. 43 % of these water sources had nitrate levels above accepted limits indicating that nearly three (3) out of seven (7) unregulated water sources expose the consumers to high nitrate concentration (beyond 10 mg/L) which is highly unacceptable. 57% of them were however considered to be safe for consumption. Implying that nearly four (4) out of seven (7) unregulated water sources could be said to be safe for consumption. The margin between consuming safe and unsafe water from unregulated water sources in the region was therefore observed to be very slim. The risk of being exposed to methemoglobinemia was found to be 0.08; meaning about one (1) out of every twelve (12) children stands the risk of being exposed to methemoglobinemia when using unregulated water sources. Comparing wells and boreholes, the risk of wells was found to be 0.08 which is the same as the combined risk for all unregulated water sources. It can therefore be said that well water accounts largely for the risk of exposure to methemoglobinemia in the region. The risk from boreholes stood at 0.06. The difference in the two sources was attributed to boreholes being covered and sunk deeper than most wells.
- Blood Profile of Lactating Cows Supplemented with Organic Chromium and Ganoderma lucidum
The aim of this experiment was to determine blood profile (hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells), differential leucocytes count (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils) and chromium in blood of lactating cows supplemented with organic chromium (Cr) and Ganoderma lucidum in ration. Fifteen lactating cows grouped and allocated in the five treatments in randomize block design, were fed a basal diet composed of 60% grass and 40% concentrate. Supplementation on basal diet as treatment were: A = basal diet (control), B = 3 ppm inorganic Cr in CrCl 3 .6H 2 O, C= 3 ppm organic Cr (fermentation product with Ganoderma lucidum ), D = Ganoderma lucidum (5 g 50 kg -1 live weight) and E = Organic Cr+ Ganoderma lucidum . Blood profile, differentiation of leucocytes and chromium in blood were investigated. The result showed that there were no significant differences on blood profile (p>0.05). Total leucocytes count was 7120±1.44 cell/μl in treatment E to 9270±2.32 cell/μl in control. Also, organic Cr and Ganoderma lucidum supplementation had no significant effect on differential leucocytes counts and chromium in blood (p>0.05). It can be concluded that blood profile, differential leucocytes count and chromium in blood of lactating cows have not been affected by supplementing organic chromium and Ganoderma lucidum in ration.
- Assessment of Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Makkah Governorate
A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of a sample of 102 recently hospitalized elderly patients in general hospitals at Makkah Governorate by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Among the studied patients, 22.6% were classified as malnourished, 57.8% were at risk of malnutrition and 19.6% were as well nourished. Low body mass index, history of weight loss during the last 3 months, living independently, taking > 3 prescription of drugs per day and presence of neuropsychological problems were associated with malnutrition (p<0.05). The elderly classified as malnourished and those at risk of malnutrition and well nourished differed significantly in all dietary assessment variables of the MNA score (p<0.05). It is concluded that malnutrition is a common problem among older people. MNA test should be performed for elderly upon admission to hospitals and more attention need to be paid to this vulnerable group of people.
- Compositional Studies of Rattle Box (Crotalaria retusa L.) Seeds Found in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
The rattle box ( Crotalaria retusa L.) is a lesser known plant grown wild in Nigerian soil. Studies were conducted on its seed flour and oils to determine their suitability, using standard analytical techniques. The result of mineral composition revealed that magnesium was the most abundant mineral (50.82 mg/100 g) while the least was arsenic (0.03 mg/100 g). Lead, cadmium and chromium were not at detecting limit of AAS. The most concentrated fatty acids were stearic acid (11.02%) < oleic acid (15.50%) < linoleic acid (57.54%). Caprylic, margaric, capric, lauric, myristic, arachidonic, erucic and lignoceric acids were all determined but not detected. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with only linoleic (57.54%) available as essential fatty acid. The results of physicochemical parameters of the seed oils determined were: Colour (yellow), acid value (1.10 mg KOH/g), iodine value (46.34 g/100 g), saponification (161.28 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (5.26 meq/kg), specific gravity at 25°C (0.88), kinetic viscosity at 40°C (4.91), unsaponifiable matter (1.92%) and flash point (231.00). The results showed that Crotalaria retusa seed oils may not be used as edible oils due to their instability as frying oils but may be useful industrially for the manufacture of products such as paints and shampoos.
- Effect of Irrigation Levels on Growth and Yield of Mungbean
The research was carried out to investigate the effects of different irrigation levels on growth and yield of mungbean at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The results revealed that application of 5 irrigations i.e. 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 Days After Sowing (DAS) gave significantly better performance than 3, 4 and 6 applied at different time intervals. However, the number of seeds/pod was not increased by irrigation levels. It was also noted that water stress reduced mungbean yield regardless of whether the stress was imposed when plant were in vegetative or reproductive stage. However, water stress that occurred at the reproductive stages, specially flowering and pod formation, affected seed yield more severely than its occurrence at other stages. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that 5 irrigations should be applied to mungbean crop to get the maximum grain yield under the agro-ecology of Dera Ismail Khan or similar environmental conditions prevailing in other parts of the country.
- Food Expenditure and Diet Diversity Score are Predictors of Household Food Insecurity among Low Income Households in Rural District of Kelantan Malaysia
Food insecurity has always been associated with low purchasing power and inadequate dietary intake in terms of quality and quantity. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between household food insecurity, food expenditure and diet diversity in low income households in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted in 223 households of mothers aged 18 to 55 years old. Non-lactating and non-pregnant mothers were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered. Items on socio-demographic characteristics and food expenditures of eight food groups were rated on the Radimer/Cornell scale. Diet diversity scores were analyzed from the food frequency questionnaire. Approximately 83.9% of caretaker respondents revealed that they and the members of their households had experienced periods of food insecurity in the 12 months prior to the interview. Of the 83.9%, 29.6% experienced household food insecurity; 19.3% of mothers whose responses to the Radimer/Cornell scale indicated individual food insecurity and 35.0% fell into the child hunger category. Compared to food-insecure households, food-secure households had significantly higher total food expenditures (p<0.05), which include expenditures on fruits and vegetables (p = 0.011), animal-source food (p = 0.028) and milk and dairy products (p = 0.047). Furthermore, compared to their counterparts in the food-secure group, mothers from food-insecure households had lower diet diversity scores on grain and cereals, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products and beverages. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that total food expenditure (OR = 0.99; 95% C.I, 0.99, 1.00; p<0.05) and total diet diversity score (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54, 0.75; p<0.001) were found to be associated with household food insecurity after controlling for potential confounder. The prevalence of household food insecurity has reached a high and alarming scale. Inadequate dietary intake is usually observed in low-income households as direct or indirect consequences of household food insecurity.
- Investigation of the Biochemical Composition of Heterobranchus longifilis, Clarias gariepinus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus of the Cross River, Nigeria
The proximate composition and mineral contents of Heterobranchus longifilis , Clarias gariepinus and Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus caught in the Cross River, Nigeria were investigated. Live specimens of these species were bought from the market and conveyed to the laboratory for study. In the laboratory, the food components of protein, fat, moisture and some minerals were measured following the methods given by AOAC. Crude protein in C. nigrodigitatus was 19.0% and in C. gariepinus it was 20.0% and 20.5% in H . longifilis . Fat contents were 5.04%, 5.0% and 6.0% in C. nigrodigitatus , C. gariepinus and H. longifilis respectively, while 75%, 73% and 75% were determined as moisture in C. nigrodigitatus , C. gariepinus and H. longifilis respectivel y. These values were not significant (p>0.05). The species are good sources for calcium, potassium and phosphorus and also excellent sources for iron. Copper was not detected in any of the species. These results are linked to the nutritional aspects of the species as food fish and also as animal feed and drug concentrates.
- Studies on Nutritive Characteristics and Variability in Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.)
Fruits of fifteen morphotypes of Carica papaya of sunrise solo was evaluated to determine their nutritive characteristics, phenotypic and genotypic variability as well as the heritability and expected genetic advance of the nutritive traits. The result indicated that the moisture content was high among the morphotypes and differed significantly (p <0.01). Protein values were significantly different among the morphotypes and ranged from 0.293 to 0.82%. Crude fat was low in all the morphortypes and the morphotypes varied significantly (p <0.01) in carbohydrate, ash, moisture content and dry matter contents. The mineral and vitamin contents of the morphotypes also varied significantly from one another (p <0.01). High thiamine content was observed in Pear red fruits while vitamin C content was high in oblong yellow fruits. The variability observed in these traits were more of genetic nature than non-genetic and indicates that there is considerable scope for selections in the morphotypes. High heritability and genetic advance was observed in crude fibre, ash, calcium, sodium, protein and riboflavin indicating that selection for these traits can be effective for their improvement.
- Nutritional Variation in Fruits and Seeds of Pumpkins (Cucurbita Spp) Accessions from Nigeria
Fruits and seeds of Nineteen accessions of Cucurbita collected from three agro ecological zones of Nigeria were evaluated for their physical attributes, proximate values, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutritional factors. The result indicated that there was significant differences in the accessions for moisture content, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, fat and carbohydrate in the fruits (p<0.01) while crude fibre and carbohydrate was not significant in the seeds (p>0.05). The moisture content ranged from 78.46 to 91.97% in the fruits while in the seeds, it ranged from 44.73 to 53.04%. The ash, crude fat and crude protein content was generally higher in the seeds than the fruit pulp indicating that the seeds are high in essential nutrients. The Nigerian accessions of Cucurbita species have low levels of tannin, flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids but the hydrogen cyanide was high. The vitamin C content was high among the fruits and seeds while thiamine and riboflavin content was moderate. The variations observed among the accessions can be explained with the first four principal component axis which accounted for 84.5% of the total variations observed with crude fibre, moisture and crude protein being the most important contributing variables. Genetic component analysis showed that most of the traits had more genetic than non-genetic factors contributing to the variability which indicates that selection can be effective in the improvement of these traits. This was further validated by such traits such as ash, niacin, flavonoids and alkaloids having high heritability and high genetic advance which means that they can be improved by selection directly.
- Generation Means Analysis in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for Drought Tolerance
Four genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum L; two drought tolerant (NIAB-78, CIM-482) and two susceptible (CIM-446 and FH-1000) were selected to make cross combinations. The parents, F 1 , F 2 and backcross generations of two crosses were studied under drought and normal conditions in the field to find gene action involved in the inheritance of the traits; number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield and ginning out turn. There were significant differences among six generations (P 1 , P 2 , F 1 , F 2 , BC 1 and BC 2 ) of two crosses for all the plant traits both under normal and drought conditions. Generation means analysis revealed additive, dominance and epistatic genetic effects operating in the phenotypic manifestation of the plant characters under both the conditions.
- Microbiological Assessment of Preservative Methods for African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum Linn) Juice
Microbiological assessment of preservative methods for African Star Apple juice was carried out. The juice samples were subjected to pasteurization, chemical treatment using 0.1% (v/v) sodium benzoate, a combined treatment of both or no treatment. All samples were stored in ambient (28±2 o C) or refrigeration (5 o C) temperatures for six weeks to determine the effect of treatments on growth count. The juice sample that was pasteurized and preserved with sodium benzoate stored longer than any other sample at both storage conditions. The combination of pasteurization, use of sodium benzoate and juice storage at refrigeration temperature gave the best storage stability.
- Understanding and Use of Food Package Nutrition Label among Educated Young Adults
Nutrition information on food labels has become one of the major components included in Malaysian Dietary Guideline in order to promote healthy dietary habits among Malaysians. This study was aimed to assess the understanding on nutrition label information and ability to perform common nutrition label task and to explore the extent of nutrition label usage as well as the reason associated with the intensity of label used among educated young adults. Cross sectional study conducted by distributing 357 self administered questionnaires among students in UiTM Puncak Alam and only 295 returned (response rate = 82.6%). The questionnaires collected information of demographics, nutrition knowledge and understanding, nutrition label task, item used on nutrition label and the reason of nutrition label use. The mean ages are 21±1.745 which most of the respondent currently study at degree (73.9%) and diploma (26.1%) level. The nutrition knowledge means score 12.08±4.287 where about 37.6% have low knowledge and only 30.5% have good knowledge. In nutrition label task section, majority of the subjects (69.5%) unable to perform resulting in mean score 0.94±1.097. The most item used on food labels are ingredient list (78.3%) while percent daily value information are the least use (56.5%) by the subjects. More than half (53.6%) of the subjects do not use the nutrition label mainly because they do not understand the terms on the label (32.4%). In contrast, the label user uses the label to assess specific nutrient content of the food (38.4%). The level of nutrition knowledge is significantly associated with performance on nutrition label task (p=<0.001) where high proportion of subject with low nutrition knowledge unable to perform the nutrition label task. In conclusion, this study found that there is low understanding of nutrition knowledge and use of nutrition label among young adults.
- Utilization of Nigella sativa L. Essential Oil to Improve the Nutritive Quality and Thymoquinone Contents of Baked Products
Nigella sativa L. (Black cumin) is important medicinal plant and hold religious importance too. The core objective of present research study was to utilize Black Cumin Essential Oil (BCEO) as functional ingredients to improve the nutritive quality and thymoquinone contents of cereal-based bakery products. The results indicated that addition of essential oil influenced the physical and chemical characteristics of cookies non-significantly. Thymoquinone contents of cookies were highest in cookies containing 0.3% BCEO (7.25±0.482 mg/100 g) as compared to control (0.0 mg/100 g). Additionally, BCEO improved the oxidative stability of the cookies as indicated from decreased Peroxide Value (POV) and TBA value. Moreover, progressive increase in essential oil in cookies formulation didnt confer any deleterious impact on overall acceptability and judged by the trained taste panel during sensory appraisal. Present research investigation brightened the prospects of using black cumin essential oil in different food products that may produce healthy impact on end consumers.
- Effect of Chitosan Coating on Physical and Microbial Characteristics of Fresh-Cut Green Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)
Edible coatings, thin layer formed on the surface of a product, have been used to preserve fresh-cut fruits and vegetables since they can improve quality by affecting respiration and moisture loss. Green pepper slices were subjected to chitosan coating treatment achieved by dipping, afterwards stored at 5°C for a period of 15 days. The effect of various chitosan concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2% (w/v) chitosan) on some physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the slices was subsequently analyzed during storage. The data indicated that the performance of chitosan treatments was better than that of control. The decrease of surface lightness was delayed by chitosan treatments; and the surface green colour was kept under marginal changes compared to control. On the other hand, a greater reduction of fungal incidence, carbon dioxide concentration and electrolyte leakage of the chitosan treated samples was observed with increased chitosan concentration treatment. Microbiological evaluation revealed that total viable cells count decreased with increasing chitosan concentration. This correlated well with the external changes which were affected to a lesser extent in the 2% chitosan compared to the control; in addition, delaying of changes was significantly chitosan concentration dependent.
- Effect of Nutrase Xyla® Supplementation on Growth Performance of Grower Pigs Fed Low or High Fibre Diets
A 49-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of fibre and Nutrase xyla ® enzyme supplementation on the growth performance of grower pigs. Sixteen Landrace x Large white cross bred pigs were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 2 enzyme levels (0 and 100 ppm) and two dietary fibre levels (10 and 15%). Sixteen weaned crosses of Landrace x Large white piglets were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement having 2 enzyme levels (0 and 100 ppm) and 2 dietary fibre levels (10 and 15%). Four isonitrogenous (18% CP) experimental diets with marginal variation in caloric content tagged T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were compounded. Treatments 1 and 2 contained 10% crude fibre level (low fibre), while treatments 3 and 4 contained about 15% crude fiber levels (high fibre). Treatments 1 and 3 served as the control diets for treatments 2 and 4, respectively. Performance data such as feed intake, initial weight and final weight were recorded and used to calculate weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, feed cost/kg and feed cost/unit weight gain. There were no significant (p>0.05) effects of dietary fibre levels and enzyme supplementation or their interactive effects on average daily feed intake, feed: gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio and feed cost per unit weight gain. The economic analyses revealed that the use of Nutrase xyla ® at 100ppm in these diets resulted in increased feed cost but higher level of dietary fibre reduced the cost of feed.
- Prevalence and Determinants of Malnutrition among Pre-School Children in Northern Nigeria
Nutritional assessment in the community is an essential public health tool. The aim of the study was to obtain baseline assessment of nutritional indices of pre-school children in a typical rural Northern Nigerian community in order to estimate the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children (2-5 years) using structured, interviewer administered questionnaire to collect data from mothers/primary care givers. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, anthropometric indices and environmental sanitation. A total of 294 children out of 300 aged 2-5 years were studied, both sexes were equal. Mean age was 42.2±12.6 months; overall mean weight and mean height were respectively 13.9±3.0 kg and 91.6±9.6 cm. Generally females had a mean weight and height that was significantly higher than that of males. In this study, 44.9%, 15.6% and 3.7% were respectively stunted, underweight and wasted. 54% of mothers had primary education and were full time housewives. Sources of drinking water were from river and unprotected well, 98% of HHs dispose off their refuse by open dumping. The high prevalence of malnutrition revealed in this study calls for a sustained public health programme to control this menace. There is need for nutrition education to mothers on infant feeding, weaning practices and improved sanitation. Therefore prevention of malnutrition should be given high priority in the implementation of primary health care programmes especially in rural communities.
- Role of Anise Seeds Powder (Pimpinella anisum) on Some Blood Aspects and Growth Parameters of Common Carp Fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L.)
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of various addition levels of dietary Anise seeds powder on some immunological aspects and growth parameters of common carp fingerlings ( Cyprinus carpio L.). Thirty two at mean Wt. 52.50 gm ranged 30-75 gm were randomly distributed into four duplicate treatments. No Anise powder adding to treatment 1 (control), while T2, T3, T4 had treated with 0.3%, 0.6% and 1.0% of anise seeds powder respectively. Fish were weighed biweekly for ten weeks experiment period. Diets and Flesh of experimental fish was analyzed chemically before and after the experiment. Growth parameters was calculated and blood samples had taken and tested for whole blood picture (Hb, PCV%, R.B.Cs. and differential W.B.Cs. Counts). All data were analyzed statistically by Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and tested with Least Significant Differences (LSD) at p > 0.05 Probability. The results showed the best response were in T3 and T4 with significant differences between all treatments, these seeds powder play a positive promoting agent by altering the levels of growth parameters, immunological performances by improving blood components and properties. Because Anise has anethole, Tyrosinase inhibitor activity and shikimic acid, which they slow the spread of pathogenic agents into fish bodies and keep fishes in a constant healthy state by stimulates their immunity.
- The Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Two Economically Important West African Cichlids: Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae)
This study investigated the proximate composition and mineral contents of two commercially important cichlids, Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus , reared in fish ponds in Nigeria. The method of study followed internationally accepted procedures after AOAC. Crude proteins in both species were 18.92±0.11 gm/100 gm and 21.86±0.02 gm/100 gm for H. niloticus and O . niloticus respectively. Carbohydrate was 5 times more in H. niloticus than in O. niloticus . Ash, moisture, crude fat and NFE were similar in both species (p>0.05). Similarly, the concentration of calcium, iron, copper and phosphorus were not significant in the species (p>0.05). However, sodium and potassium were 3 and 2 times higher in H. niloticus when compared to that measured in O. niloticus . The significance of these results are discussed on the basis of their economic, social and health uses.
- The Effect of Liquid Smoke Utilization as Preservative for Meatballs Quality
The aim of this research was to test the effectiveness of coconut shell liquid smoke in preservation of meatballs. The research had been performed using factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors i.e. liquid smoke concentration (0%, 3%, 5% and 7%) and shelf life at refrigeration temperature (0, 5, 10 and 15 days). Parameter analyzed were water content, protein content, fat content, pH and Total Plate Count (TPC). Liquid smoke concentration had significant effect on water content, protein content, fat content, pH and Total Plate Count. Shelf life had significant effect on water content, protein content, fat content and Total Plate Count but not for pH. The interaction of liquid smoke concentration and shelf life had significant effect on protein content only. Applications of 7% liquid smoke in meatballs at 4±1°C increased shelf life until 15 days storage were better accepted and retarded the decreased of pH and moisture content compared to control. The result indicated that liquid smoke was an effective preservative agent for meatballs.
- Physicochemical and Nutritional Composition of Rambutan Anak Sekolah (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Seed and Seed Oil
Rambutan anak sekolah ( Nephelium lappaceum L .) seed from Malaysia, were analyzed for physicochemical and nutritional composition including proximate composition, mineral contents, solid fat content profiling, triacylglicerol and fatty acid composition. The seeds were abundant in fats (38.9%) and the amount of protein and carbohydrate are 12.4% and 48% respectively. Some chemical properties of seed oil were acid value (0.37%), iodine value (37.64%) and saponification value 157.07. Oleic acid (40.45%) and arachidic acid (36.36%) was the major fatty acid. Triacylglycerol composition of rambutan seed oil was also identified by using HPLC and it shown that AOO ( arachidoyl-dioleoylglycerol ) was the major compound (49.84%). The Solid fat content profiling of rambutan seed oil shown that it have potential application for food based on fatty product. The mineral elements of seed oil were also involved in this study. The result indicated that rambutan ( Nephelium lappaceum L .) seed have a potential as a source of oil or carbohydrate for the human diet and also for food product application.
- Dietary Intake Assessment in Adults and its Association with Weight Status and Dental Caries
This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the relationship between dietary intake with body composition and dental caries experience among adults at the dental clinic in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The dietary compositions of the participants were estimated by using a multiple-pass 24-hour recall method. A sugar checklist was used to determine the most popular sugary food/beverages categories consumed. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight measurements) were taken. Dental caries experience was charted clinically and was reported using the Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Participants consumption for cereal groups, meat groups, fruits and vegetables group met the recommendation of the Malaysian food pyramid. Male participants consumed significantly higher energy, carbohydrate, fat and sugar than female participants. The total daily added sugar intake among the caries-free group was significantly lower than that in the group with caries. There was no significant difference in energy intake, protein intake, fat intake and total sugar intake between BMI classes; however the carbohydrate intake was significantly different. A significant correlation was found between carbohydrate consumption and BMI. There was also a significant correlation between BMI and DMFT score. The most popular sugary food/beverages category among participants was sugar and sweeteners added to beverages followed by biscuits and pastry. The least popular choice was breakfast cereal. The results indicated that adults with caries consumed significantly higher amounts of added sugar in their daily diet. The study shows that sugar remains an undeniable risk for dental caries and highlights that sugary foods and beverages remains a favorite of participants.
- Determination of Total Polyphenols and Nutritional Composition of Two Different Types of Ficus carica Leaves Cultivated in Saudi Arabia
Ficus carica grows in tropical and subtropical regions of Saudi Arabia. The current study was conducted to evaluate the proximate analyses, minerals, alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C contents, and to investigate the antioxidant capacities of aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from Ficus carica leaves. The antioxidant capacities in the forms of DPPH and FRAP were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. Alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C contents were determined by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. Total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The results indicated that TPC, DPPH and FRAP values were higher in methanolic extract of big Ficus carica leaf (412.37±57.9mg GAE/100 g, 63.29±2.51% and 131.39±13.96 mmol Fe 2+ /100 g) in comparison to small leaf. Total phenolics were however higher in aqueous extract compared to methanolic. The results clearly demonstrate that these extracts have antioxidant capacity though there was no significant correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Also, nutritional composition of Ficus carica leaves showed that they are good sources of minerals. Ficus carica leaf is therefore a rich source of polyphenols and has high antioxidant properties.
- Carcass Measurement, Conformation and Composition of Indigenous and Crossbred (Dorper x Indigenous) F1 Sheep
A study was conducted to evaluate carcass measurement, conformation and composition of local [Blackhead Ogaden (B1) and Hararghe highland (B2)] and cross breed [Dorper x Blackhead Ogaden (B3) and Dorper x Hararghe highland (B4)] F1 lambs at two levels of concentrate supplement. The two diets were native grass hay ad libtum + 150 g concentrate mix [D1 (low level), Wheat Bran (WB) and Noug Seed Cake (NSC), at a ratio of 2:1] and native grass hay ad libtum + 350 g concentrate mix (D2, high level) in stall feeding. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (four breeds and two levels of diet). B4 had (p<0.05) longer hind leg posterior buttock circumference, thoracic circumference and chest width than B2, but did not differ from B1. Lambs fed high level of concentrate supplement have longer leg length wider posterior and anterior buttock circumference, buttock and chest width than low level concentrate supplemented groups. The fat content of both cross breeds is lower compared to pure Blackhead Ogaden. Leaner carcass was harvested from lambs consumed low level of concentrate supplement compared to lambs consumed high level of concentrate supplement. Result suggests that crossing Dorper with pure Hararghe highland improved carcass measurement and conformation. However, pure Blackhead Ogaden tended to perform similar to crosses in some parameters measured indicating the possibility of improving this breed without cross breeding. The result also noted that good nutrient supply is necessary for better carcass measurement and conformation.
- The Effect of Quantitative Feed Restriction During the Starter Period on Compensatory Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early feed restriction on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 800 1-d old broilers were randomly allotted to ad libitum and 3 feed-restricted treatments, each of which was replicated 8 times (25 birds per replicate) in a randomized complete block design. Broilers were feed-restricted between 8 and 14 d of age and fed either control ad libitum diet (F100), 50% feed intake (FI50), 65% feed intake (FI65), or 80% feed intake (FI80). Results showed that body weight and weight gain were significantly (p<0.01) greater for FI100 in contrast to restricted groups. Feed intake was significantly (p<0.01) higher for FI65 at 21 d, while FI100 had a superior feed conversion (p<0.01). Abdominal fat pad weight was significantly (p<0.01) lower for the FI50 compared to the other treatments, while the control diet had a significantly higher (p<0.02) liver and heart weight. No significant differences were observed with regard to carcass yield, dressing percent, or gizzard weight.
- Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dietary Milk Fat
A feeding trial was conducted on the utilization of milk fat as lipid energy source by Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (0.85±0.03 g). The fishes were fed with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20% milk fat based diets respectively for 8 weeks. The results obtained showed significant differences (p<0.05) for diets containing graded levels of milk fat in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and specific growth rate when compared with the control diet (0% milk fat). Among the milk fat based diets, containing that had 20% inclusion level of milk fat gave the highest specific growth rate and lowest feed conversion ratio. Carcass analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the control diet and milk fat based diets. Therefore, the results indicated efficient utilization of milk fat as protein sparing which would promote sustainable aquaculture in view of the high cost fish oil.
- Effect of Drying Techniques on the Proximate and Other Nutrient Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaves from Two Areas in Eastern Nigeria
This study was carried out to evaluate the proximate, micronutrients and anti-nutrients composition of Moringa oleifera leaves. The Moringa oleifer a leaves were sourced from two areas of Eastern Nigeria viz: Anambra and Enugu state. The leaves were obtained fresh, cleaned and washed prior to treatments (sun dried, shade dried and oven dried), tied and kept intact for further analysis. The result revealed that FA (fresh Anambra) and FN (fresh Nsukka) had high moisture content (73.51% and 70.33% respectively) and low protein content (10.78% and 6.13% respectively).The processed leaves had low fat content as compared with the FA and FN (4.41%, 4.28%, 2.12%, 2.11%, 6.69% and 4.28% vs 12.48% and12.23%). The different drying techniques improved the protein, fibre, carbohydrate, thiamin, vitamin A, calcium and zinc level of the leaves. The result also showed that the anti-nutrients (phytate, oxalate and saponin) were decreased by the different drying treatments whereas tannin was increased by them. There is need for nutrition education to mothers on how to incorporate these processing techniques on Moringa oleifera in order to maximize its nutrient potentials.
- Nutrient Utilization and Growth of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fed Dietary Levels of Cassava Leaf Meal
Fingerlings of catfish ( Clarias aariepinus ) of average weight 0.87 g were collected from ARAC, Port Harcourt and used to assess the responses of feeding dietary levels of cassava leaf meal on nutrient utilization and growth of the fish. 35% isonitrogeneous diets of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% dietary levels of cassava leaf meal were formulated. These were fed to the fingerlings randomly assigned to 4 treatments TCN (Control), TC 1 (10% CLM), TC 2 (20% CLM) and TC 3 (30% CLM) respectively in 3 replicates of 13 fingerlings each, using 12 plastic aquaria of 250 x 150 cm dimension. The fish were fed at 5% body weight twice daily within the experimental period of 8 weeks. Mortality range was between 20 and 24%, the least observed on the TCN (control) while TC 2 and TC 3 were the highest. Daily feed intake and protein intake were not significantly (p>0.05) different. The control (TCN) had the highest body weight gain, followed by TC 2 , TC 3 and then TC 1 . Specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio for the control (TCN) were significantly (p<0.05) better than other treatments. The dietary inclusion levels of cassava leaf meal therefore seem to have no strong nutritional attribute as feedstuff in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.
- Rumen Metabolism of Sheep Fed Diet Containing Poultry Excreta
Five mature Arabi rams was used to study the effect of five different diets via control, control + 10% Poultry Excreta (PE), control + 10%PE + 3 gm yeast ( S. cerevisiae )/kg, control + 1.5% urea and control + 1.5% urea + 3 gm yeast, by using Latin squares design on consumption and rumen metabolism. Control ration consist of 40% concentrate (60% barley, 36% wheat bran and 4% soybean meal) and 60% wheat straw on dry basis. Generally chemical composition of concentrate, wheat straw and poultry excreta were close to tabulated value of NRC. DM, OM and NDF consumption of control + yeast + PE and control + yeast + urea significantly exceeded those of other groups. pH, total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen of rumen fluids followed the same trend as consumption.
- Growth and Nutrient Utilization of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dietary Levels of Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) Meal
Clarias gariepinus fingerlings of average weight 0.71 g were sourced from ARAC, Port Harcourt and used to evaluate the effect of feeding dietary levels of Jackbean meal on growth and nutrient utilization of the fish. 35% isonitrogenous diets of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% dietary levels of JBM were formulated. These were fed to the fingerlings randomly assigned to 4 treatments - TCN (Control), TJ 1 (10% JBM), TJ 2 (20% JBM) and TJ 3 (30% JBM) respectively in 3 replicates of 13 fingerlings each, using 12 plastic aquaria of 250 × 150 cm dimension. The fish were fed at 5% body weight twice daily within the experimental period of 8 weeks. Mortality was highest in TJ 3 and least in the control (TCN). Daily feed intake and protein intake were not significantly (p>0.05) different. The control (TCN) had the highest body weight gain, followed by TJ 3 , TJ 1 and TJ 2 . Specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio of the treatments were not significantly (p>0.05) different. The protein efficiency ratio of treatment TJ 3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the rest of the treatments. Dietary levels of JBM up to 30% inclusion level therefore had nutritional attributes as feedstuff in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.
- Awareness and Knowledge about Diabetes Mellitus among Students at Al-Balqa′ Applied University
This study was conducted to evaluate the level of awareness about diabetes mellitus amongst students at Al-Balqa′ Applied University in Al-Zarqa University College in Jordan. A structured questionnaire about the definition, causes and symptoms of DM was administered to college students of Bachelor degree of 4 specialties. The questionnaire comprised two sections about sociodemographics characteristics and general knowledge of diabetes. The response options were yes, no or I do not know. The interpretation of scores was defined as poor if the correct answers were ( < 50%), fair if the correct answers were (51-80%) and good if the correct answers were (81-100%). A total of 240 students were enrolled for the study. There ages were between 18-25 years. About 33.75% of students know the definition of DM, 31.2% of them considered insulin deficiency in type 1 DM and 41.6% insulin dysfunction in type 2 DM. About 27.5% of all students could correctly identify the cut-off point of 126 mg/dl fasting plasma glucose as being diagnostic for DM. Insulin and diet therapy were identified as the most common method of management of type 1 DM in 27 % of the students. 79.2% of the students identified that Polyuria is the most common symptom of diabetes. There is poor of awareness of diabetes amongst college students especially students of the first year. More health education is needed to address these deficiencies in order to equip them with the knowledge to positively help their community to reduce the burden of DM on society.
- Ground Prosopis juliflora Pods as Feed Ingredient in Poultry Diet: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Muscle Fatty Acid Composition, Sensory Quality and Hematology of Broilers
Three hundred and ninety six Hubbard Classic commercial day old chicks were used to determine the effect of Ground Prosopis juliflora Pods (GPJP) inclusion in broilers ration at levels of 0 (T 1 ), 10 (T 2 ), 20 (T 3 ) and 30% (T 4 ) on chemical and fatty acid composition, meat sensory quality and hematological status of birds. The birds were fed with the rations for 45 days. The experiment was arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments, each replicated three times with 33 birds per replicate. Data of feed intake was recorded every day. The amount of nutrients consumed was determined as the difference between nutrients offered and refused on Dry Matter (DM) basis. At the end of the experiment, four randomly selected birds from each replicate (12 per treatment) were slaughtered by severing jugular vein and free flow of blood was collected into labeled sterile universal bottles. The birds were dressed by hand, carcass parts dissected, individually weighed and breast and thigh muscles were deboned and kept in refrigerator at -20°C for determination of chemical and fatty acids composition and evaluation of sensory characteristics. Intakes of DM in finisher, crude protein during starter and finisher, crude fiber in starter and finisher, ether extract during starter, ash intake during starter and finisher phases were significantly different (p<0.05) among the treatments. Except crude fiber intake, which increased with increasing level of GPJP, the intake of the other nutrients decreased as the inclusion level of GPJP increased. There was no adverse effect of feeding GPJP on the chemical and fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of breast and thigh meat of broiler. Monocyte percentage of broilers was significantly higher in treatment consumed ration containing the highest GPJP as compared to the control and other treatment groups (p<0.05). Other Hematological parameters were not influenced by the levels of GPJP in the ration (p>0.05). Intestine of birds at higher level of inclusion (30% GPJP) showed minor lesions, which could be attributed to coccidiosis infection encountered during the experiment. This study indicated that up to 30% inclusion of GPJP in broiler diet did not altered chemical and fatty acid composition and sensory test of meat, but there is evidence that the highest level impaired immune response of animals to parasitic infection.
- Food Security and Emerging Innovations in Oil Palm Production in Osun State, Nigeria
Given its enormous yield per hectare and high productivity cycle, Oil palm is considered as a stabilizing crop to global food security especially in developing countries. However, in recent years, the domestic consumption of palm oil in West Africa including Nigeria has increased more rapidly than its production with the vast majority of the farmers working at near subsistence level and employing crude production and processing techniques. This study therefore appraised the impact of emerging innovations on oil palm production in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, the research examined the emerging innovations in oil palm production, the impact of such innovations on the level of the farmers output and the factors affecting farmers acceptability of innovations. A three stage random sampling technique was used to collect data from 100 oil palm farmers using a well structured questionnaire out of which 90 was found useful for the study. Descriptive statistics, T test analysis and the logistic regression model were the analytical tools employed for the study. The result of the analyses showed that there are some emerging innovations in oil palm production in the study area; however, the indigenous technologies still dominates. Farmers who employed modern technologies were found to have higher output when compared to those of indigenous technologies. Farmers age and level of education were identified as the major factors affecting the acceptability of innovation in the study area. It is therefore recommended that the government should invest more on adult education and there should be increased awareness on the need to embrace modern technologies and innovations for the transformation of the oil palm industry in the country and consequently raise farmers standard of living. Younger people should also be encouraged to go into oil palm production.
- Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenm greacum) Seed Dietary Levels on Lipid Profile and Body Weight Gain of Rats
Thirty two healthy female Wister albino rats, average weight 144±5g and 3.5-4 months old were randomly divided into four groups T, TF1, TF2 and TF3 (with eight rats each). All groups were fed basal diet that contains sorghum floor, wheat bran, dry ground meat, maize oil and permix. However, TF1, TF2 and TF3 were supplemented with Fenugreek seed at 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks during which individual body weight was recorded weekly, while blood sample were collected 4 times during experimental period at weeks (6, 8, 10 and 12). Parameters measured were Total lipid, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). The results showed that fenugreek seed had a significant (P<0.05) decrease on plasma total, triglyceride and LDL. However, a numerical increase was observed in HDL with increasing levels of fenugreek seed. Long term administration fenugreek seed had a significant (P<0.05) decrease on plasma total lipid, triglyceride and LDL and a significant (P<0.05) increase was obtained on HDL in the last week. Progressive levels of fenugreek seed significantly (P<0.05) increase body weight gain.
- Influence of Social Factors on Drug Use Behavior in Punjab, Pakistan
Drug use is one of the most important social problem having very bad implications for family and society. Therefore the study was designed to investigate the prospective relationship between various socio factors and drug use behavior. The study is based on 500 male drug users and data was collected from five Government Model and rehabilitation centers that were situated at Civil Hospital Faisalabad, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur, Nishtar Hospital Multan and General Hospital Rawalpindi. A proportionate sample of 500 respondents was interviewed randomly from among the lists of addicts available in these centers. Bivariate results indicate that peer pressure affected 26.30%, loneliness 46.03% and parental coldness 16.35% to the addicts and were the major social factors that influence the behavior to become drug addicts. The data thus suggest that an inclination towards drug taking might be embedded in the social matrix itself.
- Beverage Consumption of Parents and Children
This study is conducted to determine the effect of season on beverage consumption of parents and children. It was performed on randomly selected 240 families which consist of 130 girls and 110 boys at the age of 3-5 in full time preschools. While most of the children have diner with their families, it was determined that they have lunch together less frequently. It was observed that childrens favorite beverages are coke, fresh-squeezed fruit juice and milk whereas they dislike water and buttermilk drink. As regards to winter and summer seasons children drink tea because parents drink tea everyday and also according to the conduct of parents, they drink fresh-squeezed fruit juice and tomato juice once in fifteen days. It was observed that in summer and winter while parents drink instant coffee or Turkish coffee in a few times a week during breakfast, children never drink instant coffee or Turkish coffee.
- Detection of Listeria monocytogenes Bacteria in Four Types of Milk Using PCR
In this study, detection of prf A gene of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria in four types of milk (cow, buffalo, camel and sheep) electrophoresis was showed products of gene amplification clear bunds at 274 bp. In all samples inoculated with bacteria after 0 h and 24 h. The numbers of bacteria ranging from 44x10 - 55x10 cfu/ml directly after inoculation and 29x10 2 - 65x10 6 cfu/ml after 24 h at inoculation.
- Comparative Evaluation of Amino Acid Composition and Volatile Organic Compounds of Selected Nigerian Cucurbit Seeds
Amino acid composition and volatile organic compounds (VOCS) of five Nigerian cucurbits namely: Luffa aegyptiaca (Mill.), Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum), Cucurbita maxima (Duchesne, ex Lam), Cucumis metuliferus (E.Mey. ex Naudin) and Momordica balsamina (L.) were investigated using Amino acid Analyzer and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The proportion of essential amino acids ranged from 22.75- 30.23 g/100 g protein with the highest content in M. balsamina with 30.23 g/100 g protein and the least in C. lanatus with 22.75 g/100 g protein. High content of leucine was found in C . maxima and M. balsamina with 7.04 and 6.11 g /100 g protein respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of thirty-one compounds, the most abundant classes of organic compounds in L. aegyptiaca comprised of esters with 65.17% and Fatty Acids (FA) had 32.62% while hydrocarbons amounted to 29%. In C. lanatus , seven compounds were identified dominated by FA and hydrocarbons with 91.5 and 7.25% respectively. In C. maxima, ten compounds were identified dominated by FA (52.24%) and hydrocarbons (43.46%). In C. metuliferus, FA had 30.74% while aromatic compounds and alcohol had 9.18 and 0.68%, respectively. Among the five seeds studied, the most abundant compounds identified were linoleic acid methyl ester in L. aegyptiaca with 63.72%. Cis-cis linoleic acid is most abundant in M. balsamina (62.03%) totaling the fatty acid portion to 86.41%. These results suggest the potential of the seeds as a source of amino acids and fatty acids that could be useful in food and feed fortification strategies. The unique VOCS could be useful as biomarkers for delimitation of the studied species.
- Chemical Composition, In vitro Digestibility of Foliage Guazuma ulmifolia and Crescentia alata and its Use in Feeding Lambs
Chemical composition, Gas Production in vitro (IVGP), in vitro Dry Matter (IVDMD) and Organic Matter (IVOMD) digestibility, was determined in foliages of C. alata and G. ulmifolia ; it was also determined the growth performance of 25 lambs (body weight: 22.9±0.8kg), assigned to the following diets: T0 = control diet without foliage, T1 and T2 = 15 and 30% of C. alata and T3 and T4 = 15 and 30% of G. ulmifolia respectively. The animal measured response variables were: Dry Matter Intake (DMI), Total Weight Gain (TWG), Daily Weight Gain (DWG) and Feed Conversion (FC). Crude Protein (CP), Total Phenolics (PT), Condensed Tannins (CT) and IVDMD were higher (p<0.01) in G. ulmifolia , 167.0, 38.2, 41.5 and 590.0 g/kg DM respectively. Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and Metabolizable Energy (ME) was higher (p<0.001) in C. alata , 502.0, 315.0 g/kg DM and 4.7 MJ/kg DM respectively; the IVGP at 24, 48 and 96 h were higher (p<0.001) in the foliage of C. alata with 66.1, 170.9 and 210.6 ml/g DM respectively. The DMI was higher (p<0.05) in lambs of T1 (1339.8 g/animal/day) and T2 (1381.4 g/animal/day), the TWG and DWG was higher in lambs of T1 (13.2 kg/animal and 295.6 g/animal, respectively). T0 lambs had more FC (4.4 kg DM) (p<0.01). We conclude that foliages G. ulmifolia and C. alata are important source of CP and fiber in the diet of lambs and their low content of TP and CT did not affect the growth performance of animals.
- Effect of Urea Treatment on the Chemical Composition and Rumen Degradability of Groundnut Hull
The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and rumen degradability of Groundnut Hull (GH) treated with three levels of urea (2, 4 and 6%) and ensiled in plastic bags for three periods (2, 4 and 6 weeks). Data were analyzed in completely randomized design with factorial; with ensiled period and urea level are the main factors. Degradability of treated groundnut hull was carried out in three fistulated steers. Urea treatment and ensiling periods increased CP content of the GH significantly (p<0 .05) and ranked as follows 7.81, 10.22 and 10.24% for 2, 4 and 6% urea level ensiled for 2, 4 or 6 weeks respectively. However, these increments in CP contents were found between urea levels but not between periods of treatment. All ensiling periods were interacted significantly with urea level. NDF content was decreased (p<0.05) from 87.8 for UGH to 84.6, 72.5 and 74.2% for 2, 4 and 6% urea level ensiled for 2, 4 or 6 weeks respectively. ADF and ADL contents were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased for treated GH compared to untreated GH. Degradability of DM, OM and NDF were increased (P<0.05) significantly with increasing urea level treatment. Four and 6% urea level had a higher potential degradability values compared with 2% urea level. Ensiling periods resulted in significant differences between urea treatment levels. However, no differences were found within the same level. This study indicated that, chemical composition and degradability of GH would be improved by increases urea level and ensiling periods.
- Effect of Processing Techniques on Levels of Minerals and Antinutritional Factors of Canavalia ensiformis
Proximate composition and effect of boiling, roasting and fermentation on mineral elements, Phytate, Oxalate, Tannin and Cyanide in Canavalia ensiformis seeds were evaluated. Raw sample was analyzed for proximate composition. The results show that the seed is high in protein and carbohydrates (23.53% and 53.57% respectively). Fermentation and vigorous roasting increased Calcium by 14.29% and 33.33% respectively. Phosphorus was increased by 0.8% with mild roasting. Potassium and Phosphorus are high in the raw sample. Two methods of roasting were employed namely: 1 hour roasting (mild roasting) and 3 hrs roasting (vigorous roasting). Mild roasting increased Phytate concentration (31%). Other processing methods significantly reduced antinutrient factors (p<0.05). Boiling and fermentation greatly reduced Tannin (93%and 92% respectively). Cyanide showed respective 87.5% and 88.4% reduction with boiling and fermentation. Mild roasting reduced oxalate to 0.8% from 5.9%. Combination of boiling and mild roasting will result in more reduction compared with single treatment in all the antinutrients factors studied. The seeds can effectively substitute for protein deficient food and feed for animal if the amino acids profile is studied.
- Effect of Boiling on Anhydrobarakol Content of Khilek (Siamese cassia) Young Flowers
Khilek, locally called of Siamese cassia is a medicinal plant of Thailand. Barakol, an active principle of Khilek, exhibits as anxiolytic properties, improving quality of sleep. Anhydrobarakol is a barakol that is lost a molecule of water. Khilek young flowers (KF) curry is an ancient curry of south of Thailand but they have bitter taste so they are boiled with water 1-2 times before they are used to curry. So this project was to study on the effects of boiling KF with water containing sodium chloride and turkey burry, the optimum time (min) of KF boiling for curry making and currys nutrition. Anhydrobarakol content and sensory characteristics of boiled KF with water, boiled KF with water containing sodium chloride and boiled KF with water containing turkey burry were not significantly different (p>0.05). Anhydrobarakol content in boiled KF was decreased when increasing of time. KF for curry should be boiled one time in water 3 times of their weight, 5 min /time. KF curry had very low anhydrobarakol content (2.56 mg by fresh weight) and has much less tendency to cause liver toxicity.
- The Body Weight Perception and Weight Control Behaviors among Undergraduate Students in National University of Malaysia (UKM)
This study was conducted to evaluate the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), body weight perception and weight control behaviors among the undergraduate students in UKM and to identify gender differences in BMI, body weight perception and weight control behaviors between males and female students. A total of 200 subjects of UKM students have participated in (50% males and 50% females). Subjects involved were in the range of 20 to 25 years old. Information about socio-demographic, body image perception, body shape, weight control behaviors were obtained by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of body weight and height were also taken. The mean for age, weight, height and BMI were 22.2±1.4 years, 69.1±13.4 kg, 1.7±0.1 m and 23.3±4.1 kg/m 2 respectively for males while 22.5±1.4 years 56.8±14.8 kg, 1.5±0.1 m and 22.2±4.7 kg/m 2 for females respectively. There were significant differences in weight, height and BMI between males and females (p<0.05). Based on BMI categories (WHO, 2004), the results showed that 16.5% of the total subjects were classified as underweight, 57.0% normal weight, 17.0% overweight and 9.5% obese. Results showed that the actual weight (BMI) of subjects was significantly related to the body weight perception in overall (p<0.05) and also for both sexes (p<0.05). There were also a significant differences between actual body weight (BMI) (p<0.05) and body weight perception (p<0.05) with weight control behaviors in overall and in both sexes. Understanding the reasons for gender differences in actual weight and body weight perception can help health professionals in helping people to make strategic decisions to control body weight.
- Effect of Milk Replacer on Performance Parameters of Different Bovine Breeds
The experiment was conducted in Livestock Research and Development Station Surezai Peshawar. Total 112 numbers of calves including 28 Nilli Ravi and 10 Azikheli buffalo, while cattle calves contained 31 achai and 41 crossed bred (HF and Sahiwal cross). Commercially available milk replacer was used for calves feeding in this experiment. After preparation milk replacer was offer for calves feeding according to the daily requirements. The birth weight was recorded soon after birth, weakly growth rate was recorded of all calves upto weaning weight. Effect of milk replacer on birth and weaning weight of different bovine breeds was significant (P<0.05). Average birth weight of Achai, Azikheli, Cross and Nili Ravi breed were 15.23±0.49, 28.70±1.00, 21.92±0.70 and 31.90±1.10 kg, respectively. Total mortality percentage was 18.75% (21Nos). Lowest percentage of mortality (0%) was found in Achai breed calves, followed by Azikheli breed calves 14%. The results showed that milk replacer is 117.39% less expensive than natural milk.
- Effect of Different Levels of Beef and Duck Meat on the Properties of Sausage
This study was conducted in the meat laboratory of the Department of Animal Resources in the College of Agriculture at the University of Basrah during the period 20/2/2012 to 20/5/2012. Different levels of beef meat and duck meat were used in the production of Sausage according to the fallowing treatments. Treatment A (100% beef meat), B (75% beef meat+5% duck meat), C (50% beef meat+50% duck meat), D (25% beef meat+5% duck meat) and treatment E (100% duck meat). Components used in production of this Sausage include lean beef meat, deboned duck meat, animal fat, crushed ice, salt, wheat flour, garlic powder and green pepper. Chemical, physical and organoleptic properties and pH were determined for the sausage. Percentages of moisture (67.90%) percentages and protein (20.05%) and pH value (5.62) in the treatment A were significantly (p = 0.05) higher than that of other treatments. Some physical and organoleptic properties particularly cooking loss, flavor, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptance were significantly higher for treatment A too. On the other hand, treatment E was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in the Percentages of fat (19.40%) and ash (2.07%) and in the amount of lost liquids, peroxide number and color. No significant differences were obtained for the content of free fatty acids between treatments.
- Role of Hospital Effluents in the Contribution of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria to the Aquatic Environment
Water samples were collected from 18 sampling sites including the three hospitals their Municipal Wastewater (MWW) drains receiving the hospital sewage and from the river Ravi. The occurrence and fate of ofloxacin (OFLX) and resistance of Vibrio cholerae due to the presence of OFLX was studied. It was found that 16 out of 18 sites were contaminated by the antibiotic. Highest concentration was observed in hospital wastewater (HWW) ranged from 7.31 to 39.13 μg/L and amount of OFLX in the municipal wastewater before mixing the hospital sewage was 0.26 to 0.43 μg/L and after mixing it raised up to 0.54 to 1.29 μg/L. At the entering point of the MWW drains to the river, concentration 0.44 and 0.31 μg/L were observed in the two drains carrying the HWW to the river, respectively. Upstream concentration from the point of entering of the first and second drains was 0.14 and 0.22 μg/L while the downstream concentration was 0.18 and 0.37 μg/L, respectively. The antibiotic was not detected from both the samples collected from the entering point of the river to the city and before entering of the first MWW drain, whereas the after mixing the first drain the concentration 0.043 μg/L was observed. The bacteria isolated from HWW, MWW drains and the river Ravi were 83% 66% and 83% resistant to OFLX, respectively.
- Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos Using Indigenous Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Industrial Drain
Excessive use of pesticides are disturbing major components of ecosystems. Therefore their removal using biodegradation technique is the need of time. In present study, 35 microbial strains were isolated from industrial drain which carries effluents from chlorpyrifos manufacturing plant. These strains significantly differ in their ability against chlorpyrifos resistance and degradation. Out of these strains WW5 was found most resistant and effective in chlorpyrifos degradation. On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics, strain WW5 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Biodegradation potential of WW5 strain was studied under different culture conditions like concentration of chlorpyrifos, carbon sources, pH and inoculum densities. In the presence of glucose chlorpyrifos was co-metabolized. High pH (8) and high inoculum density (10 8 CFU/mL) show most efficient results in biodegradation. Presence of other nutrients enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation probably due to high growth on easily metabolizable compounds which in turn favors biodegradation. The strain WW5 showed 94% degradation of chlorpyrifos (400 mg/L) within 18 days of incubation. This strain can be used for bioremediation and ecological restoration of sites, contaminated with chlorpyrifos.
- Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Effect of Ginger Extract on Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats
The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of ginger (Zingibar Officinale) on Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. An aqueous extract of raw ginger was administrated daily (0.5 g/kg, orally) for a period of 60 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, plasma and erythrocytes were separated from part of the blood samples and Fasting plasma blood glucose and serum total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), triglyceride where analyzed. Changes in plasma total antioxidant capacity and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The activities of erythrocytes Super-oxide Dismutase (SOD) and blood Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined. The STZ-diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia accompanied with weight loss. Ginger extract, at a dose of 0.5g/kg, was significantly (P<0.05) effective in lowering plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats. Furthermore, ginger treatment resulted in a significant (P<0.05) reduction in plasma malondialdehyde. On the other hand, ginger extract significantly (P<0.05) increased plasma total antioxidant capacity and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes. This study demonstrates that ginger possesses hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic potentials in STZ-diabetic rats. Additionally, ginger extract causes a decrease in lipid peroxidantion and an increase of plasma antioxidant capacity.
- Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anemia among a Sample of Pregnant Females Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rate of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight and other adverse outcomes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant females attending primary health care centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and to assess the etiologic risk factors contributing to it during pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 randomly selected pregnant females; data were collected using an interview questionnaire to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics, medical, obstetric and dietary histories. Hematological indicators were obtained from the last recorded values in the patients files. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin level of less than 11.0g/dl. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. The observed prevalence rate of anemia found in this study was (39%) and was higher among females from 25 to less than 35 years, house wives and third trimester pregnant females. Multivariate analysis revealed that, low level of education,decreased birth spacing and history of anemia before pregnancy were associated with increased risk of anemia (p <0.05, OR = 18.821, 10.582 and 3.362 respectively). On the other hand, low parity and first trimester females had lower risk of anemia (p <0.05 OR = 0.165, 0.088, respectively). No association between the frequency of consumption of nearly all the studied food items and anemia was found. Emphasis should be placed on pregnant women since they were particularly at risk. Health professionals must pay more attention to teach pregnant women good long-term dietary habits as a part of an overall approach to health promotion.
- Study the Effect of Photoperiod Duration on Dynamic Carbohydrates Composition and Enzymes Activity in Soybean Leaves
This study was conducted to investigate the correlation and dynamics of carbohydrate content over diurnal photoperiodic cycle and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity, amylase and invertase in leaves isogenics at EE genes short day and photoperiodically neutral lines of soybean in view of paces of development over different duration period of the day. In short-day photoperiodic cycle disposition of dynamics of sugar and starch content over a day-light period, their runoff over a moon-light period and also activity of enzymes of photoperiodically neutral lines change similar to it of short-day lines. At short day neutral lines more intensively accumulate monosugar and sucrose. At long day, amylose is accumulated in content of starch comparing to short-day lines. Runoff tenseness over night period of short-day photoperiodic cycle in both groups is higher than over the same period of long-day cycle. Capability of photoperiodically neutral lines to change disposition of carbohydrate exchange over a short-day period similar to its disposition of short-day lines is one of the considerable factors in favor of the fact that under the given conditions process of growth and development, this is provided with sufficient amount of substance and energy. As a result morphogenetic processes run at the same speed over both short-day and long-day periods. It allows photoperiodically neutral lines to transit to blooming at the same term over different duration period of the day.
- Meat Quality of Female Quails (Cortunix cortunix japonica) Fed Low or High Fibre Diets Supplemented with Maxigrain® Enzyme
Four hundred 3 weeks old finisher Japanese quails ( Cortunix cortunix japonica ) were used to investigate the effect Maxigrain ® enzyme supplementation on dressing percentage, carcass cut and percent organ weights fed sugarcane scrapping meal-based diets. The birds were randomly allotted to 6 experimental diets tagged T 10 , T 10 100, T 10 200, T 15 , T 15 100 and T 15 200 which were compounded to be isonitrogenous (23% crude protein) and isocaloric (2900Kcal/Kg ME). Treatments T 10 , T 10 100 and T 10 200 contained 10% crude fibre (low fibre level) while treatments T 15 , T 15 100 and T 15 200 contained 15% crude fibre level (high fibre level). The enzyme was included at 0, 100 and 200ppm thus, treatments T 10 and T 15 contained 0ppm, T 10 100 and T 15 100 contained 100ppm and T 10 200 and T 15 200 contained 200ppm of the enzyme such that treatments T 10 and T 15 served as the control for treatments T 10 100 and T 10 200 and T 15 100 and T 15 200 for low and high fibre diets, respectively. The birds were randomly allocated to the treatments at the rate of 80 birds per diet; each treatment was replicated 4 times in a 3x2 factorial arrangement. At the end of the 3 weeks feeding trial, 10 female birds per treatment were randomly selected according to average group weight, slaughtered and their carcasses evaluated. All the parameters evaluated were not at variance (P>0.05) across the dietary treatment groups except for back (22.52 vs. 24.32 and 21.62%), neck (7.78 vs. 10.24 and 7.49%) and gastrointestinal tract (8.44 vs. 10.84 and 12.22%) which was significantly (P<0.05) heavier in percent weight due to enzyme supplementation. Raising dietary fibre from low to high level significantly (P<0.05) reduced the percent weight of fasted weight (144.20 and 124.70 g/bird), dressed weight (87.52 and 83.79 g/bird), back (24.80 and 20.84%), neck (9.41 and 7.59%) and liver (3.06 and 2.92%) but increased that of legs (2.54 and 2.92%) and heart (0.69 and 0.82%) while the interactive effects of enzyme and dietary fibre affected the percent weights of legs, drumstick, back, neck, heart and liver. From the findings of this study, sugarcane scrapping can replace conventional energy sources to a level that is economically beneficial and nutritionally safe in quail production if arabinoxylanase is supplemented at 100ppm.
- Genetics of Physio-Agronomic Traits in Maize under Water Deficit Conditions
Fifty inbred lines of maize acquired from various sources, were screened in the warehouse for seedling traits under both normal and water deficit conditions and six diverse inbred lines were selected. The selected inbred lines were sown in the field for making all possible crosses in diallel mating fashion. The F1 crosses and their reciprocals along with the parents were sown in the field under both regimes using a replicated Randomized Complete Block Design. Data for various agro-physiological traits were recorded at different growth stages of the crop and then subjected to statistical analysis. Significant genetic variability existed for most of the traits under normal and moisture deficit conditions. The results for scaling tests showed fully adequate for the traits like 100-kernel weight, grain yield per plant, cell membrane thermostability, stomatal conductance and canopy temperature under normal condition while plant height, 100-kernel weight, grain yield per plant, leaf temperature and canopy temperature depression under water stress condition. The data were partially adequate for the traits like anthesis-silking interval, cell membrane thermostability and stomatal conductance under moisture deficit condition. All traits exhibited additive gene action under both regimes. Heritability estimates for yield related traits revealed maximum ability to transfer the desirable genes to the next generation.
- Obesity and Body Image Discrepancy among School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
Obesity among adolescents is now of great public health concern because of the health problems it poses. Poor body image has been associated with obesity in the past and may have a major effect on future psychological social wellbeing of individual including adolescents. This study determined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school adolescents in Ile-Ife and also determined Body Image Discrepancy (BID) among the respondents. The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive design. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 500 respondents from private and public schools in Ile-Ife. Quantitative data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) of each respondent was calculated. Body Image Discrepancies (BID) of the respondents were assessed using the 7 silhouette figures provided in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Statistical significance was tested at 5% level. The results showed that 37.2% of the respondents were obese while 16.4% to be were overweight. Obesity was significantly higher among females, respondents in senior classes, respondents in the upper socioeconomic class and those attending private schools (p<0.05). Majority (61%) of the respondents had BID and this was higher among those obese although the association was not significant (p>0.05). The study concluded that obesity is a common health problem among in-school adolescents in Ile-Ife and there is a high prevalence of BID among the respondents.
- Functional Properties of Sorghum (S. bicolor L.) - Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Flour Blends and Storage Stability of a Flaked Breakfast Formulated from Blends
The possibility of replacing treated (SSF) and untreated (USF) sorghum flour with different ratios of pigeon pea flour (CCF) was investigated. Their functional properties (Bulk density, viscosity, least gelation concentration, water absorption capacity, reconstitution time, pH and particle size distribution) were examined. Bulk density increased with the increased supplementation of pigeon pea flour the formulation resulting in a denser product. Sprouting and pregelatinization increased in the viscosity of the flour compared to the untreated samples. The least gelation concentration ranged between 0.2-0.4 g/g. Both pregelatinization and sprouting increased the strength of the gel of the treated samples unlike the untreated ones. The pregelatinized flours and their flour blends absorbed more water (7.00-8.00 g/ml) than the sprouted samples (7.00-7.50 g/ml) which caused some starch gelatinization and increased porosity of the corneous endosperm fragments. Higher absorption and lower solubility led to higher viscosity (p<0.05) or cooked paste viscosity. Untreated samples show marginally high oil absorption capacity of between 2.66 g/ml-3.23 g/ml, the pregelatinized flour and their composites showed higher (p<0.05) oil absorption capacity (2.66-3.04 g/ml) while the sprouted sample ranged between 2.85-3.23 g/ml. However, sample SSF + CCF (100:0) took 92.5 seconds to reconstitute while. PSF+CCF (60:40) took 20.0 seconds probably be due to heat treatment during pregelatinization which increased the action of alpha- and beta- amylases and modified the native starch. PSF + CCF (100:0) gave the least pH of 4.25 while USF + CCF (80:20) gave the highest value of 5.87 (all in the acidic range). Thus, the blending of the sorghum and pigeon pea could perform favorably in the formulation of breakfast cereal and infant foods. A high quality flaked breakfast cereal was prepared from sprouted and pregelatinized, packaged and stored on a shelf at room temperature (25±2°C) for 90 days. The storage stability was evaluated by analyzing periodically for changes in physical properties (water activity, colour change, temperature, relative humidity), chemical changes (development of peroxides and rancidity) and microbiological changes. Result show that colour, temperature, relative humidity, peroxide values and Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values remain practically constant during storage. Also, no significant (p>0.05) changes were observed in TBA values, peroxide value, water activity and moisture absorption of the packaged products during storage. The water activity (a w ) of all products was between 0.435-0.785 and none were attracted by microorganisms over the 3 months. The products did not exhibit bacterial, coliform and mold growth, especially for those in the bulk packages, which served as a double barrier to moisture, oxygen and other gases. Thus, the bulk packages are advantageous over the single packs thereby suggesting that the former could lead to better keeping quality for these products and the products also maintained their crispiness. By implication from the shelf life projection studies, the formulated products from the treated flours might be stored in high density polythene bags for up to six months or more at ambient conditions.
- Wheat Response to Application Methods and Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer: I. Phenology, Growth Indices and Protein Content
Fertilizer use efficiency of nitrogen is very low due to various types of losses. This two year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of various levels of nitrogen and its application methods on phenology, growth indices and quality of wheat. Fertilizer application methods (broadcast and side-dressing) were placed in the main plots, while nitrogen levels (60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg/ha) applied in sub plots. Crop data showed that nitrogen methods had non-significant effect on phenology, physiology and quality parameters. Fertilizer application rates rendered significant effect on various parameters except days to emergence. Nitrogen at 210 kg/ha gave significant increase in the phenological and growth parameters. Leaf area index and leaf area duration were significantly affected by the rate of nitrogen fertilizers. Protein contents were also increased by the application of higher amount of nitrogen. Interaction among application methods and nitrogen levels showed significant variations in net assimilation rate, while crop growth rate remained significant in the second year and protein content had shown significant variation during the first year of study.
- Nutrient Intake Pattern of Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Vegetarians adhering to a well-planned diet are assumed to meet nutrient requirements. This study was designed to evaluate the nutrient intake of adult vegetarians and non-vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional comparison between three types of diet practices was carried out in Kuala Lumpur, with 35 respondents in each group (non-vegetarian, ovolacto-vegetarian and strict-vegetarian). Anthropometric indices such as weight and body fat composition were measured using TANITA electronic balance scale, while three-day dietary recalls was assessed using a computer dietary analysis software programme, Nutritionist-pro. Statistical analysis had shown non significant difference in the three diet practices with respect to anthropometric indices. The benefits of vegetarian practices were obviously presented in the dietary intake of nutrients. Both ovolacto-vegetarians and strict-vegetarians had significantly higher mean dietary intake of fiber, folate, magnesium, vitamin A and vitamin C than non-vegetarians (p<0.01). Surprisingly, some of the potential nutrient deficiencies among strict-vegetarians such as calcium, iron and zinc achieved the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) for Malaysia. However, the dietary habits of vegetarians were very heterogeneous and some of them did not comply with the requirements for calcium, iron zinc and vitamin B 12 . Malaysian vegetarians in this study generally have a better nutrient intake than non-vegetarians. Education on proper meal planning should be implemented among vegetarians to prevent potential nutritional deficiencies.