ISSN: 2231-4040 eISSN: 0976-2094 |
pharmacy and pharmacology
Published by Medknow Publishers
VOL 1 NUMBER 4 (2011)
- 'Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research'
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):367-367
- Anticounterfeit packaging technologies
Ruchir Y Shah, Prajesh N Prajapati, YK Agrawal
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):368-373
Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.
- Niosome: A future of targeted drug delivery systems
Kazi Masud Karim, Asim Sattwa Mandal, Nikhil Biswas, Arijit Guha, Sugata Chatterjee, Mamata Behera, Ketousetuo Kuotsu
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):374-380
Over the past several years, treatment of infectious diseases and immunisation has undergone a revolutionary shift. With the advancement of biotechnology and genetic engineering, not only a large number of disease-specific biological have been developed, but also emphasis has been made to effectively deliver these biologicals. Niosomes are vesicles composed of non-ionic surfactants, which are biodegradable, relatively nontoxic, more stable and inexpensive, an alternative to liposomes. This article reviews the current deepening and widening of interest of niosomes in many scientific disciplines and, particularly its application in medicine. This article also presents an overview of the techniques of preparation of niosome, types of niosomes, characterisation and their applications.
- Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview
Bindu M Boddupalli, Zulkar N.K Mohammed, Ravinder A Nath, David Banji
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):381-387
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) require increased duration of stay in GIT. Thus, mucoadhesive dosage forms are advantageous in increasing the drug plasma concentrations and also therapeutic activity. In this regard, this review covers the areas of mechanisms and theories of mucoadhesion, factors influencing the mucoadhesive devices and also various mucoadhesive dosage forms.
- Comparative pharmacognostical investigation on four ethanobotanicals traditionally used as Shankhpushpi in India
Neeraj K Sethiya, Ashish Trivedi, Mayur B Patel, SH Mishra
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):388-395
People in Indian region often apply Shankhpushpi and other Sanskrit-based common name to Evolvulus alsinoides, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Canscora decussata, and Clitorea ternatea. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal plant. Before the establishment of British rule, like the other books, ayurvedic treatises were also hand written. This might be one of the reasons due to which ayurveda could not stand parallel to the western medicine and an ambiguity is reflected in the interpretation of names and description of drugs found in the books like Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. The most widespread application of Shankhpushpi is for mental problems, but they have been considered for an array of other human maladies. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of four ethanobotanicals of Shankhpushpi. A comparative morphoanatomy of the root, stem, and leaves has been studied with the aim to aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. Various physicochemical, morphological, histological parameters, comparative high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and comparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chromatogram of methanolic extract presented in this communication may serve the purpose of standard parameters to establish the authenticity of commercialized varieties and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from the other species. All the parameters were studied according to the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines.
- Synthesis and biological evaluation of formazan derivatives
Gurusamy Mariappan, Rejaul Korim, Nand Madhwa Joshi, Faruk Alam, Rajib Hazarika, Deepak Kumar, Tiewlasubon Uriah
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):396-400
The formazan derivatives (FM1-FM5) were synthesized by the reaction of benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone with substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic amines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were then elucidated using UV, IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anticonvulsant, antibacterial and antiviral activities. All the compounds showed remarkable antibacterial activity at 250 μg/ml, but FM4 and FM3 did not show any inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Vibriocholera, respectively. All the compounds showed significant anticonvulsant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data were statistically significant at P <0.001 level. But none of the compounds was effective against Japanese encephalitis virus.
- Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation of some 4-quinazolinone derivatives based on febrifugine
Debanjan Sen, Anirban Banerjee, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh, Tapan Kumar Chatterjee
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):401-405
A series of 2-substituted and 2,3-substituted quinazolin -4(3H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the structure of febrifugine. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by spectral analysis. The in vivo biological activity test results indicated that those compounds exhibited antimalarial activities against Plasmodium berghei in mice, at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Compared to Chloroquine and Artemisinin, these compounds have the advantages of shorter synthetic routes and consequently are highly cost effective in nature.
- Detachment and recovery index: A new parameter measuring powder compressibility
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):406-414
This investigation introduces a simple and reliable approach to measure the compressibility of some direct compression excipients in tablet systems made from compressible components. The claim made here is that: the total reduction, ΔL T , in the thickness of a tablet batch due to compression at a confined machine settings is the integral sum of small reductions generated by the compressible components in the batch. The reduction value, ΔL E , generated by a single or a blend of excipients in a batch could be calculated and was found to correlate to its concentration, C, by the relation: ΔL E =A E.C x. The constants AE and x concern the reduction tendency, RT, of the excipient particles due to compression, and detachment and recovery index (DRI), respectively. Some physicomechanical parameters characterizing the compression behavior of an excipient in a tablet batch could be determined and were found to be functions of the determine DRI of the excipient in the batch.
- Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits
Roshan Patel, Naveen Mahobia, Nitin Upwar, Naheed Waseem, Hetal Talaviya, Zalak Patel
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):415-418
Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.
- Antibacterial activity of Croton roxburghii balak. against the enteric pathogens
SK Panda, SK Dutta, AK Bastia
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):419-422
In this study, the antibacterial activity of crude (aqueous and alcoholic) extracts of the bark and leaf of Croton roxburghii Balak. (Euphorbiaceae) was tested against enteric pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) using the agar cup method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), time kill kinetics and synergy study. The ethanol extract exhibited a significant and broad spectrum of inhibition as compared to the aqueous extract of both the bark and leaf. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus followed by enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The diameter of inhibition zones varied from 10 to 18 mm for both aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The MIC value ranged from 356 to 625 μg/ml. This could justify the traditional use of this plant in dysentery and other infections.
- Pharmacogenetics: The future medicine
Rajiv Saini, Santosh Saini, RS Sugandha
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2010 1(4):423-424
VOL 2 NUMBER 1 (2011)
- Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):1-1
- Development and evaluation of novel-trans-buccoadhesive films of famotidine
M Alagusundaram, C Madhusudhana Chetty, D Dhachinamoorthi
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):17-23
The present investigation highlights the novel trans-buccoadhesive films of Famotidine, an H2 receptor antagonist used as an anti-ulcerative agent. The buccal films were fabricated by solvent casting technique with different polymer combinations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, carbopol-934P and polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Drug-polymer interaction studies by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that there is no significant interaction between drug and polymers. The fabricated films were evaluated for their physicochemical characters like weight, thickness, surface pH, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, swelling percentage, folding endurance, water vapor transmission and drug content. Stability study of buccal films was performed in natural human saliva. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted using fresh sheep buccal mucosa and buccoadhesive strength was calculated by modified balance method and showed sufficient strength in all the formulations. Good correlation was observed between the in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release, with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. Drug diffusion from buccal films showed apparently zero order kinetics and release mechanism was diffusion controlled after considerable swelling.
- New avenues in pharmaceutical education
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):2-2
- Antibacterial activity of some Indian ayurvedic preparations against enteric bacterial pathogens
DH Tambekar, SB Dahikar
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):24-29
In Ayurveda, various herbal preparations are clinically used to prevent or cure infectious diseases. Herbal preparations such as Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna, Manjistadi churna, Sukhsarak churna, Ajmodadi churna, Shivkshar pachan churna, Mahasudarshan churna, Swadist Virechan churna and Pipramool churna were investigated by preparing their organic solvent extract for antibacterial potential against enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Proteus vulgaris, respectively. In the present study, Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna were potent antibacterial agents against S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. The study supports the use of these herbal preparations not only as dietary supplements but also as agents to prevent or control enteric bacterial infections.
- Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass)
Gagan Shah, Richa Shri, Vivek Panchal, Narender Sharma, Bharpur Singh, AS Mann
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):3-8
Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral a, Citral b, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects.
- Investigation of microemulsion system for transdermal delivery of itraconazole
Arpan Chudasama, Vineetkumar Patel, Manish Nivsarkar, Kamala Vasu, Chamanlal Shishoo
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):30-38
A new oil-in-water microemulsion-based (ME) gel containing 1% itraconazole (ITZ) was developed for topical delivery. The solubility of ITZ in oils and surfactants was evaluated to identify potential excipients. The microemulsion existence ranges were defined through the construction of the pseudoternary phase diagrams. The optimized microemulsion was characterized for its morphology and particle size distribution. The optimized microemulsion was incorporated into polymeric gels of Lutrol F127, Xanthan gum, and Carbopol 934 for convenient application and evaluated for pH, drug content, viscosity, and spreadability. In vitro drug permeation of ME gels was determined across excised rat skins. Furthermore, in vitro antimycotic inhibitory activity of the gels was conducted using agar-cup method and Candida albicans as a test organism. The droplet size of the optimized microemulsion was found to be <100 nm. The optimized Lutrol F 127 ME gel showed pH in the range of 5.680.02 and spreadability of 5.751.396 gcm/s. The viscosity of ME gel was found to be 1805.535542.4 mPa s. The permeation rate (flux) of ITZ from prepared ME gel was found to be 4.234 ΅g/cm/h. The release profile exhibited diffusion controlled mechanism of drug release from ME ITZ gel. The developed ME gels were nonirritant and there was no erythema or edema. The antifungal activity of ITZ showed the widest zone of inhibition with Lutrol F127 ME gel. These results indicate that the studied ME gel may be a promising vehicle for topical delivery of ITZ.
- Antidiarrheal activity of Capparis zeylanica leaf extracts
Karanayil R Sini, Barij N Sinha, Aiyolu Rajasekaran
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):39-42
The antidiarrheal activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica (Capparidaceae) was investigated by castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestine transit method on mice. Like loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight), C. zeylanica methanolic extract (100,150,200 mg/kg body weight) produced a significant decrease in the severity of diarrhea. The percentage protection in extract-treated animals showing diarrhea was compared with castor oil-treated and loperamide-treated animals. The activity was found to be dose-dependant. Its effect when evaluated on intestinal transit produced a decrease in intestinal transit (75.97%).The results revealed that the methanolic extract significantly reduced diarrhea in mice with reduction in weight of stools.
- Synthesis of novel 3-benzyl-2-phenyl-4(5H)-(substituted phenylhydrazino)-1, 3-oxazolidines and their antihyperglycemic activity
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):43-46
A number of 3-benzyl-2-phenyl-4(5H)-(substituted phenylhydrazino)-1, 3-oxazolidines 6a-f derivatives were synthesized and their antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by streptozotocin (STZ) and sucrose-loaded model. Many of oxazolidine derivatives as well as their corresponding substituted phenylhydrazine showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in STZ and sucrose-loaded rat models.
- In vitro antioxidant activity of Rubus ellipticus fruits
Uma Shankar Sharma, Arun Kumar
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):47-50
Various studies have been done to identify antioxidants from plant sources and efforts have been taken to incorporate it in conventional therapy. In our present study, petroleum ether, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of Rubus ellipticus fruits have been evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power assay. BHA was used as a standard antioxidant for DPPH radical scavenging activity. The reducing power assay of extracts was carried out with ascorbic acid as a standard reducing agent. All the analysis was made with the use of UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results of the both assay showed that all the extracts of R. ellipticus fruits possess significant free radical scavenging and reducing power properties at concentration-dependent manner. Hence, it can be concluded that the R. ellipticus fruits could be pharmaceutically exploited for antioxidant properties.
- Gastroretentive microballoons of metformin: Formulation development and characterization
Akash Yadav, Dinesh Kumar Jain
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):51-55
The present study involves preparation and evaluation of floating microballoons with metformin as model drug for prolongation of gastric residence time. The microballoons were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using polymers hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose. The shape and surface morphology of prepared microballoons were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics was evaluated using the linear regression method. Effects of stirring rate during preparation, polymer concentration, solvent composition and dissolution medium on the size of microballoons, and drug release were also observed. The prepared microballoons exhibited prolonged drug release (8 hours) and remained buoyant for >10 hours. The mean particle size increased and the drug release rate decreased at higher polymer concentration. No significant effect of the stirring rate during preparation on drug release was observed. In vitro studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled drug release from the microballoons.
- Pharmacognostic parameters for evaluation of the rhizomes of Curcuma caesia
Pritesh Paliwal, SS Pancholi, Rakesh K Patel
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):56-61
In ethno medicinal practices, the traditional healers use the genus Curcuma for the treatment of various ailments but Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a very less known and almost untouched drug. The present work attempts to establish the necessary pharmocognostic standards for evaluating the plant material of C. caesia Roxb. Various parameters, such as morphology, microscopy, physicochemical constants, and phytochemical profiles of the entire parts of the plant were studied and the salient diagnostic features are documented. Major chemical constituents, extractive values, physicochemical constants, and other features are also been recorded.
- Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf
Sujogya K Panda, LP Padhi, G Mohanty
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):62-67
Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases.
- Formulation and development of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of irbesartan
Jaydeep Patel, Anjali Patel, Mihir Raval, Navin Sheth
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(1):9-16
Irbesartan (IRB) is an angiotensin II receptor blocker antihypertensive agent. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble IRB. The solubility of IRB in various oils was determined to identify the oil phase of SNEDDS. Various surfactants and co-surfactants were screened for their ability to emulsify the selected oil. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsifying region. The optimized SNEDDS formulation contained IRB (75 mg), Cremophor® EL (43.33%), Carbitol® (21.67%) and Capryol® 90 (32%). SNEDDS was further evaluated for its percentage transmittance, emulsification time, drug content, phase separation, dilution, droplet size and zeta potential. The optimized formulation of IRB-loaded SNEDDS exhibited complete in vitro drug release in 15 min as compared with the plain drug, which had a limited dissolution rate. It was also compared with the pure drug solution by oral administration in male Wister rats. The in vivo study exhibited a 7.5-fold increase in the oral bioavailability of IRB from SNEDDS compared with the pure drug solution. These results suggest the potential use of SNEDDS to improve dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble IRB.
VOL 2 NUMBER 2 (2011)
- Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant
Nayan R Bhalodia, VJ Shukla
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):104-109
This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant) was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ΅g/ml) of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive--Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative--Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains--Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.
- Wound-healing activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ficus benghalensis
Vipin Kumar Garg, Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):110-114
Wound healing is the process of repair that follows injury to the skin and other soft tissues. Following injury, an inflammatory response occurs and the cells below the dermis (the deepest skin layer) begin to increase collagen (connective tissue) production. Later, the epithelial tissue (the outer skin) is regenerated. There are three stages to the process of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Traditionally, Ficus benghalensis is used for wound healing. Since no detailed scientific data are available regarding the wound-healing activity of F. benghalensis, the present study was designed to explore the same. The wound-healing efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis was evaluated in excision and incision wound models. The parameters studied include rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialization, and tensile strength of incision wound. Student's t test was used to analyze the results obtained from the present study and P <0.05 was considered significant. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis were found to possess significant wound-healing activity, which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialization, increase in the rate of wound contraction and skin-breaking strength. The present study has demonstrated that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis have properties that render them capable of promoting accelerated wound-healing activity compared with placebo control.
- Preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive cefdinir microcapsules
Prabhakar Reddy Veerareddy, Swathi Tedla, Srinivas Reddy Banda, Suresh Bandari, Raju Jukanti
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):115-120
The mucoadhesive microcapsules were prepared by using various concentrations of three different mucoadhesive polymers, namely, chitosan, Carbopol 934P, and methyl cellulose as wall materials and cefdinir as the core material employing orificeionic gelation method. The prepared microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). The prepared microcapsules were found to be spherical with particle size ranging from 765±20 to 985±10 μm and encapsulation efficiencies in the range of 55%-92%. The formulation containing Carbopol 934P as mucoadhesive polymer was found to be best with particle size 946±10 μm. The ex vivo wash-off test showed that the mucoadhesion after 1 h was 80% and the in vitro drug release was extended for more than 12 h. FT-IR spectra indicate that there was no interaction between drug and the polymers used in the formulation. Cefdinir is better absorbed from the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, it suffers from low oral bioavailability (20-30%), shorter biological half-life (1-2 h), and less transit time. Thus, it can be concluded that microcapsules prepared using Carbopol 934P have promising properties for use as mucoadhesive carrier to increase the residence time of cefdinir.
- Effect of bioadhesion on initial in vitro buoyancy of effervescent floating matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCL
Jeetendra Singh Negi, Abhinav Trivedi, Praveen Khanduri, Vandana Negi, Nikhil Kasliwal
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):121-127
The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of bioadhesion on the initial in vitro buoyancy behaviour of effervescent matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIPRO). Tablets were prepared by direct compression using HPMC K4M and Carbopol 971P as hydrophilic-controlled release polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) as gas-generating agent, polyplasdone XL, Explotab and Ac-Di-Sol as swelling agents. Tablets were evaluated for normal and modified initial in vitro floating behavior, floating duration, swelling behavior and in vitro drug release studies. A modified buoyancy lag time for tablets was determined in order to include the effect of bioadhesion on initial buoyancy. The initial buoyancy was found depended on bioadhesion ability of tablets. The lowest modified buoyancy lag time of 20 seconds was obtained for Formulation F7 having both NaHCO 3 and polyplasdone XL. The floating duration was also found dependent on concentration of NaHCO 3 and swelling agents. The drug release of F7 was also sustained up to 12-hr duration with anomalous drug transport mechanism.
- Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet
Shailendra Singh Solanki, Rashmi Dahima
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):128-131
Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as "melt in mouth tablet." Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes.
- Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice
Ravindra G Mali, Avinash S Dhake
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):132-134
Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae), popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV) is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA) and ethanol (BVE) extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.
- Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):77-77
- Controversial ayurvedic herbs
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):78-80
- Nanosuspension: An approach to enhance solubility of drugs
Vishal R Patel, YK Agrawal
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):81-87
One of the major problems associated with poorly soluble drugs is very low bioavailability. The problem is even more complex for drugs like itraconazole, simvastatin, and carbamazepine which are poorly soluble in both aqueous and nonaqueous media, belonging to BCS class II as classified by biopharmaceutical classification system. Formulation as nanosuspension is an attractive and promising alternative to solve these problems. Nanosuspension consists of the pure poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion. Preparation of nanosuspension is simple and applicable to all drugs which are water insoluble. A nanosuspension not only solves the problems of poor solubility and bioavailability, but also alters the pharmacokinetics of drug and thus improves drug safety and efficacy. This review article describes the preparation methods, characterization, and applications of the nanosuspension.
- Intellectual property rights: An overview and implications in pharmaceutical industry
Chandra Nath Saha, Sanjib Bhattacharya
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):88-93
Intellectual property rights (IPR) have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is a recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era.
- Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans
Sandeep Rahar, Gaurav Swami, Navneet Nagpal, Manisha A Nagpal, Gagan Shah Singh
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2011 2(2):94-103
β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of β-glucan in these fractions is confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues are subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides, with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa) being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers is similar (250 kDa) to that of the maize coleoptiles β-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes has shown hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 hours. This performance is better than that obtained with pure β-glucan from barley, which decreases blood sugar levels for about four hours. These results suggest that the activity of β-glucans is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine.
VOL 4 NUMBER 1 (2013)
- SPER 2 nd Annual Conference: 09 th March 2013 at Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):1-1
- In vitro dissolution study of atorvastatin binary solid dispersion
Rahat Jahan, Md. Saiful Islam, Ahmad Tanwir, Jakir Ahmed Chowdhury
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):18-24
The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin (ATV), a slight water-soluble drug, by solid dispersion (SD) technique using a hydrophilic carrier Poloxamer 188 (POL188). Physical mixing (PM) and solvent evaporation (SE) method were used to prepare ATV-SD where different drug-carrier ratios were used. Prepared formulations were characterized in their solid state by solubility study; differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy which demonstrated changes in the formulations supporting the improved solubility. Percent content of POL188 in the SD matrix was found to play the pivotal role in the improvement of dissolution property of ATV. In case of PM, highest enhancement in drug release was found for 1:3 ratio (P < 0.05, ANOVA Single factor) whereas in case of SE, 3:0.5 ratio of ATV-POL188 resulted the maximum enhancement in ATV release (P < 0.05, ANOVA Single factor). Analysis of dissolution data of optimized formula indicated the best fitting with Peppas-Korsmeyer model and the drug release kinetics was fickian diffusion. In conclusion, binary SD prepared by both PM and SE technique using POL188 could be considered as a simple, efficient method to prepare ATV solid dispersions with significant improvement in the dissolution rate.
- New drug discovery: Where are we heading to?
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):2-3
- Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana): A preliminary assessment
Neeraj K Sethiya, MK Mohan Maruga Raja, Shri Hari Mishra
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):25-30
Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae), and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC) by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A rapid TLC-DPPH method was developed to identify and differentiate four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi in terms of presence of β-carotene, rutin, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, and mangiferin. C. pluricaulis shows presence of scopoletin; E. alsinoides shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid; C. ternatea shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and rutin; and C. decussata shows presence of β-carotene, scopoletin, and mangiferin. The order, they followed, based on their antioxidant potential is β-carotene < mangiferin < rutin < scopoletin < chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are attributed for their beneficial role in age-related cognition decline. The proposed method provides an edge in terms of identification and quantification of antioxidant constituents in a multi-component system. This method may also provide application for identification of correct plant sources used in the name of Shankhpushpi in marketed ayurvedic formulation, food supplement, and extracts.
- Formulation and in vitro evaluation of Eudragit S-100 coated naproxen matrix tablets for colon-targeted drug delivery system
Rohit Mehta, Anuj Chawla, Pooja Sharma, Pravin Pawar
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):31-41
The purpose of the present investigation was to prepare matrix tablets of naproxen using a hydrophobic polymer, i.e., Eudragit RLPO, RSPO, and combination of both, by wet granulation method. The tablets were further coated with different concentrations of Eudragit S-100, a pH-sensitive polymer, by dip immerse method. In vitro drug release studies of tablets were carried out in different dissolution media, i.e., 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2), phosphate buffers pH 6.8 and 7.4, with or without rat cecal content. The swelling studies of the optimized formulation were carried out. The physicochemical parameters of all the formulations were found to be in compliance with the pharmacopoeial standards. The effect of dissolution medium on the surface of matrix tablet was determined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy technique. The stability studies of all formulations were performed as per ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the tablets coated with Eudragit S-100 (2% w/v) showed a sustained release of 94.67% for 24 h, but drug release increased to about 98.60% for 24 h in the presence of rat cecal content while the uncoated tablets released the drug within 5 h. With regard to release kinetics, the data were best fitted with the Higuchi model with non-Fickian drug release kinetics mechanism. The stability studies of tablets showed less degradation during accelerated and room temperature storage conditions for 6 months. The enteric-coated Eudragit S-100 coated matrix tablets of naproxen showed promising site-specific drug delivery in the colon region.
- Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review
Baby Chauhan, Gopal Kumar, Nazia Kalam, Shahid H Ansari
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):4-8
Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.
- Semisolid matrix-filled hard gelatin capsules for rapid dissolution of amlodipine besilate: Development and assessment
Vijay K Tyagi, Deshvir Singh, Kamla Pathak
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):42-49
The objective of the study was to prepare semisolid capsules (SSCs) of poorly water-soluble drug amlodipine besilate (AB) using a combination of technologies involving solid dispersion (SD) preparation and converting it into semisolid matrix filled in hard gelatin capsules (termed as SSCs) with the aim of reducing lag time in drug release and to improve the dissolution rate. AB is used for its anti-arrhythmic, anti-anginal, and anti-hypertensive activity. These are the emergency activities which should be treated as fast as possible like in the case of angina attack (heart attack). Any lag time that is generated due to its poor dissolution can add on in this emergency and that can be avoided by developing a readily dissolvable formulation: SDs of AB. SD of AB was prepared by fusion method using varying combinations of Poloxamer 407 and Plasdone S630. A total of nine batches (SD1−SD9) were characterized for the in vitro dissolution behavior in phosphate buffer pH7.4. SD8 with 95.8% cumulative drug release in 60 min, t50% = 4.1 min and DE 30 Min = 84.2% were selected for the development of the semisolid matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry of SD8 revealed molecular dispersion of AB and Plasdone S630 in Poloxamer 407. SD8 was then formulated as SSCs using gelucire 44/14 and PEG 400 as semisolid components and PEG 6000 as a suspending agent to achieve the reduction in lag time for drug release. A total of seven SSC formulations were prepared and evaluated for drug release. Formulation of SSC4 showed maximum cumulative drug release (CDR) of 98.9% within 20 min that was almost a threefold reduction in the time required to achieve similar CDR by SD of AB. Thus, SSCs present an excellent approach to enhance the dissolution as well as to reduce the lag time of dissolution for poor water-soluble drugs especially to those therapeutic classes that are intended for faster onset of action.
- Pharmacophore modeling and 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of febrifugine analogues as potent antimalarial agent
Debanjan Sen, Tapan Kumar Chatterjee
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):50-60
Febrifugine and its derivatives are effective against Plasmodium falciparum. Using PHASE algorithm, a five-point pharmacophore model with two hydrogen bond acceptor (A), one positively ionizable (P) and two aromatic rings (R), was developed to derive a predictive ligand-based statistically significant 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model (r 2 = 0.972, SD = 0.3, F = 173.4, Q 2 = 0.712, RMSE = 0.3, Person-R = 0.94, and r 2 pred = 0.8) to explicate the structural attributes crucial for antimalarial activity. The developed pharmacophore model and 3D QSAR model can be a substantial tool for virtual screening and related antimalarial drug discovery research.
- Antitussive, expectorant activity of Marsilea minuta L., an Indian vegetable
Raja Chakraborty, Biplab De, N Devanna, Saikat Sen
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):61-64
Marsilea minuta L., an aquatic or sub-aquatic fern used as a vegetable, has wide applications in traditional/folk medicine in India and Bangladesh. In our study, we evaluated the antitussive, expectorant activity of M. minuta crude extracts. The antitussive activity of M. minuta methanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether extracts was evaluated using ammonia and sulfur dioxide induced mice coughing. The expectorant activity was evaluated by the volume of phenol red in mice's tracheas. Extracts significantly increased mice's cough latent period and inhibited the frequency of cough induced by ammonia and sulfur dioxide, and improved tracheal phenol red output in expectorant evaluation. Methanol extract produced the highest activity in all tested models. Methanol extract at 500 mg/kg showed 59.5% and 55.8% inhibition in the number of coughing induced by ammonium liquor and SO 2 , respectively, while it showed 89.3% increase in phenol red secretion at the same dose, which showed superior activity compared to other extracts. The present study provided evidence for M. minuta to be used as an antitussive and expectorant in Indian folk medicine.
- Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatographic, and a ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations
Selvadurai Muralidharan, Jaya Raja Kumar, Sokkalingam Arumugam Dhanara
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):65-68
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and ultraviolet (UV) methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMH) in pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC was carried out by reversed phase (RP) technique on an RP-18 column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water (pH 3.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid [60:40, v/v]). UV method was performed with the λmax at 250 nm. Both the methods showed good linearity, reproducibility, and precision. No spectral or chromatographic interferences from the tablet excipients were found in UV and HPLC. The method was successfully applied to commercial tablets. Validation parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity were determined. The HPLC Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The UV LOD and LOQ for Ambroxol were found to be 1 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance. The proposed economical method could be applicable for routine analysis of AMH and monitoring of the quality of marketed drugs.
- Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting
Divya Kumar, Nidhi Jain, Neha Gulati, Upendra Nagaich
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(1):9-17
Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.
VOL 4 NUMBER 2 (2013)
- Development and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled-release pellets by fluid bed coating process
Mikkilineni Bhanu Prasad, Suryadevara Vidyadhara, Reddyvalam Lankapalli C Sasidhar, Talamanchi Balakrishna, Pavuluri Trilochani
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):101-107
The aim of the present study was to develop controlled-release pellets of diltiazem HCl with ethyl cellulose and hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose phthalate as the release rate retarding polymers by fluid bed coating technique. The prepared pellets were evaluated for drug content, particle size, subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calori metry (DSC), and evaluated for in vitro release. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulations for a period of 3 months. The drug content was in the range of 97%-101%. The mean particle size of the drug-loaded pellets was in the range 700-785 μm. The drug release rate decreased as the concentration of ethyl cellulose increased in the pellet formulations. Among the prepared formulations, FDL10 and FDL11 showed 80% drug release in 16 h, matching with USP dissolution test 6 for diltiazem HCl extended-release capsules. SEM photographs confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature with a smooth surface. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug-loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC studies. Stability studies indicated that the pellets were stable.
- Development of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation encapsulated in the phospholipids vesicle system
Vinod Kumar Gauttam, Ajudhia Nath Kalia
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):108-117
Multifactorial metabolic diseases, for instance diabetes develop several complications like hyperlipidemia, hepatic toxicity, immunodeficiency etc., Hence, instead of mono-drug therapy the management of the disease requires the combination of herbs. Marketed herbal drugs comprise of irrational combinations, which makes their quality control more difficult. Phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility, resulting in high therapeutic dose regimen; phospholipids encapsulation can overcome this problem. Hence, present study was designed to develop a phospholipids encapsulated polyherbal anti-diabetic formulation. In the present study, polyherbal formulation comprises of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic (50% v/v) extracts of Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Withania somnifera 2:2:1, respectively, named HA, optimized based on oral glucose tolerance test model in normal Wistar rats. The optimized formulation (HA) entrapped in the phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (8:2) vesicle system is named HA lipids (HAL). The vesicles were characterized for shape, morphology, entrapment efficiency, polar-dispersity index and release profile in the gastric pH. The antidiabetic potential of HA, marketed polyherbal formulation (D-fit) and HAL was compared in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of 21 days study. The parameters evaluated were behavioral changes, body weight, serum glucose level, lipid profile and oxidative stress. The antidiabetic potential of HA (1000 mg/kg) was at par with the D-fit (1000 mg/kg). However, the potential was enhanced by phospholipids encapsulation; as HAL (500 mg/kg) has shown more significant (P < 0.05) potential in comparison to HA (1000 mg/kg) and at par with metformin (500 mg/kg).
- Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India)
Hotam S Chaudhary, Jayprakash Yadav, Anju R Shrivastava, Smriti Singh, Anil K Singh, Natrajan Gopalan
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):118-123
The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm) and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm). MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.
- SPER 2 nd Annual Conference at Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India on 09 th March 2013
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):71-75
- Disaster Management Education at UG level in the Indian University System
Rakesh Kumar Sharma
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):76-77
- Bioglass: A novel biocompatible innovation
Vidya Krishnan, T Lakshmi
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):78-83
Advancement of materials technology has been immense, especially in the past 30 years. Ceramics has not been new to dentistry. Porcelain crowns, silica fillers in composite resins, and glass ionomer cements have already been proved to be successful. Materials used in the replacement of tissues have come a long way from being inert, to compatible, and now regenerative. When hydroxyapatite was believed to be the best biocompatible replacement material, Larry Hench developed a material using silica (glass) as the host material, incorporated with calcium and phosphorous to fuse broken bones. This material mimics bone material and stimulates the regrowth of new bone material. Thus, due to its biocompatibility and osteogenic capacity it came to be known as "bioactive glass-bioglass." It is now encompassed, along with synthetic hydroxyapatite, in the field of biomaterials science known as "bioactive ceramics." The aim of this article is to give a bird's-eye view, of the various uses in dentistry, of this novel, miracle material which can bond, induce osteogenesis, and also regenerate bone.
- Indian aspects of drug information resources and impact of drug information centre on community
Nitesh Chauhan, Sabeeya Moin, Anushree Pandey, Ashu Mittal, Umakant Bajaj
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):84-93
Drug information centre refer to facility specially set aside for, and specializing in the provision of drug information and related issues. The purpose of drug information center is to provide authentic individualized, accurate, relevant and unbiased drug information to the consumers and healthcare professionals regarding medication related inquiries to the nation for health care and drug safety aspects by answering their call regarding the all critical problems on drug information, their uses and their side effects. Apart from that the center also provides in-depth, impartial source of crucial drug information to meet the needs of the practicing physicians, pharmacists and other health care professionals to safeguard the health, financial and legal interests of the patient and to broaden the pharmacist role visible in the society and community. The service should include collecting, reviewing, evaluating, indexing and distributing information on drugs to health workers. Drug and poisons information centers are best established within major teaching hospitals. This allows access to clinical experience, libraries, research facilities and educational activities. Information present in the current paper will not only enlighten the role of drug information center but also focused on the rational use of drug.
- Aqueous extract of Saussurea lappa root ameliorate oxidative myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol in rats
TS Mohamed Saleem, N Lokanath, A Prasanthi, M Madhavi, G Mallika, MN Vishnu
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(2):94-100
Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae), is commonly known as Kushta. In Ayurvedha, it is mentioned that the aqueous extract of the root S. lappa was used for treatment of angina pectoris. The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of root of S. lappa against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Myocardial injury in rat was induced by the administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 85 mg/kg, i.p., The rats were pretreated with the aqueous extract of S. lappa (AESL) in three different doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) through the oral route. Isoproterenol alone-treated rats showed increased serum concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase (CK), and aspartate transaminase (AST), increased myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, and decreased myocardial glutathione (GSH) level due to myocardial damage produced by isoproterenol. This is further conformed by histopathological changes. Chronic oral administration of AESL in three different doses significantly restored the level of myocardial LDH, CK, AST, TBARS, and GSH. The extract effect was compared with the reference standard α-tocopherol which also offered similar protection in biochemical and histopathological changes. The overall beneficial effect which was observed with the dose of 200 mg/kg indicated that AESL produced significant dose-dependent activity against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.
VOL 4 NUMBER 3 (2013)
- Society of Pharmaceutical Education and Research™ official news magazine "SPER Times" inaugural issue released
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):125-125
- Clinical Research in India: The current scenario and prospects
Bhaswat S Chakraborty
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):126-127
- Assessment of multifunctional contrast agent probes in neuroimaging: Implications of nanopharmaceutical therapeutic interventions
Lina H Machtoub
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):128-133
Recently, a clear association has been found between the progression of motor neurodegenerative disorders (MNDs) and carotid atherosclerosis. Significant vascular abnormalities with arterial hypertension were shown to be in patients with familial antecedents of MNDs. The main scope of this work is to explore the feasibility of recently developed integrated nano-based imaging modalities for the assessment of early diagnosis of the inflammatory processes associated with the neurological disorder syndromes, with the implication of recently developed nanopharmaceutical therapeutic interventions.
- Informed consent: Issues and challenges
Lokesh P Nijhawan, Manthan D Janodia, BS Muddukrishna, KM Bhat, KL Bairy, N Udupa, Prashant B Musmade
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):134-140
Informed consent is an ethical and legal requirement for research involving human participants. It is the process where a participant is informed about all aspects of the trial, which are important for the participant to make a decision and after studying all aspects of the trial the participant voluntarily confirms his or her willingness to participate in a particular clinical trial and significance of the research for advancement of medical knowledge and social welfare. The concept of informed consent is embedded in the principles of Nuremberg Code, The Declaration of Helsinki and The Belmont Report. Informed consent is an inevitable requirement prior to every research involving human being as subjects for study. Obtaining consent involves informing the subject about his or her rights, the purpose of the study, procedures to be undertaken, potential risks and benefits of participation, expected duration of study, extent of confidentiality of personal identification and demographic data, so that the participation of subjects in the study is entirely voluntary. This article provides an overview of issues in informed consent: The obligations of investigator, sponsor and Institutional Review Board to protect rights and welfare of human research subjects. It discusses about the basic elements of informed consent and the process to be followed while obtaining informed consent. Some of the circumstances under which informed consent can be waived and ethical challenges faced by physicians in obtaining informed consent from subjects are also highlighted in this article.
- Rheological behavior and stability of ciprofloxacin suspension: Impact of structural vehicles and flocculating agent
Eskandar Moghimipour, Saeed Rezaee, Anayatollah Salimi, Elham Asadi, Somayeh Handali
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):141-145
Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and is used against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of structural vehicles and other formulating factors on physical stability and rheological behavior of ciprofloxacin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride were added. After choosing suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (NaCMC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Veegum were evaluated. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, the degree of flocculation and the ease of redispersion of the suspensions and growth of crystals were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations containing were also studied to find out their rheological behavior. According to the results, suspension containing glycerin (0.2% w/v) and sodium chloride (0.05% w/v) as wetting agent and flocculating agent, respectively, were the most stable formulations regarding their F and N. Microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in ciprofloxacin suspension in formulation without excipients and the minimum amount of crystal growth was seen in suspension containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v), Veegum (0.1% w/v) and NaCl (0.05% w/v). Rheological studies showed that almost all of the formulations had psuedoplastic behavior with different degree of thixotropy. The formulation containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v), Veegum (0.1% w/v) and NaCl (0.05% w/v) was the most stable formulation. It may be concluded that by altering the amount ratios of formulation factors, the best rheological behavior and the most proper thixotropy may be achieved.
- β-sitosterol in different parts of Saraca asoca and herbal drug ashokarista: Quali-quantitative analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
Anjum Gahlaut, Amey Shirolkar, Vikas Hooda, Rajesh Dabur
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):146-150
β-sitosterol is an important component in food and herbal products and beneficial in hyperlipidemia. Its higher concentrations in serum may lead to coronary artery disease in case of sitosterolemia. Therefore, it is essential to determine the quantity of β-sitosterol in food and herbal drugs. Saraca asoca and its preparations have been widely used by traditional healers are also a source of β-sitosterol. In the present study, quantitative estimation of β-sitosterol present in hot and cold water extracts of bark, regenerated bark, leaves and flowers of the S. asoca and Ashokarista drugs were carried out first time using high performance liquid chromatography coupled (HPLC) with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Different concentrations of β-sitosterol and crude extracts were estimated by HPLC and targeted mass spectrometry. Standard curve for β-sitosterol was prepared from the intensities of transitions (397.50 → 147.0987 m/z) having regression coefficient (r 2) 0.9952. Out of eight extracts and two drugs used in the study bark water, leaves water and leaves hot water extracts were found to have a considerable quantity of β-sitosterol, i.e. 170, 123.5 and 19.3 ng/mL, respectively. The results showed significant differences in the distribution of β-sitosterol among different organs of S. asoca and drugs prepared from its bark. HPLC/electrospray ionizationmass spectroscopy method is accurate, reproducible and requires less specimen, sample preparation and analysis time over HPLC assay. This type of approaches could be helpful for the quality control of herbal medicines and provides necessary information for the rational utilization of plant resources.
- Formulation and optimization of fast dissolving intraoral drug delivery system for clobazam using response surface methodology
Rajni Bala, Sushil Khanna, Pravin K Pawar
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):151-159
Clobazam is a newer 1,5-benzodiazepine used for the treatment of epilepsy. It is better tolerated and less sedating than other benzodiazepines. Absorption of the drug can be impacted by oral fast dissolving dosage form; this may have implications for epilepsy in pediatrics and those having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules resulting in improved patient compliance. The purpose of the present investigation was to formulate and optimize clobazam oro-dissolving tablets by direct compression method using response surface methodology (RSM). Oro-dispersible tablets of clobazam were prepared by direct compression method using crospovidone (2-6%) as a superdisintegrant, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (20-40%) was used as diluents along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. A 3 2 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and MCC over the independent variables disintegration time, wetting time and percent drug release. Disintegration time showed by all formulations was found to be in the range of 24.3-193 s based on evaluation parameters the formulation containing 6% of crospovidone and 30% of MCC showed promising performance against all other formulations. The results demonstrated that the RSM could efficiently be applied for the formulation of clobazam oro-dispersible tablets; therefore, constitute an advance in the management of epileptic attacks.
- Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography
Maunang M Patel, Bhavna R Solanki, Nilesh C Gurav, Prateek H Patel, Shweta S Verma
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):160-165
A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP), polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F 254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 μg/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61% . The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 μg/m land 3.28 μg/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation.
- A comparative study of efficacy of atorvastatin alone and its combination with fenofibrate on lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with hyperlipidemia
Meenakshi Lella, K Indira
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(3):166-170
Mixed dyslipidemia is characterized by increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) elevated triglycerides (TGs) and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). It is more common in diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Monotherapy with statins or fibrates may not effectively control all lipid parameters. The atorvastatin-fenofibrate combination has been shown to have highly beneficial effect on lipid parameters in type 2 diabetes associated with combined hyperlipidemia (CHL). In an open-label study, we evaluated the efficacy of atorvastatin alone and in combination with fenofibrate in 60 types 2 diabetes mellitus patients associated with hyperlipidemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive atorvastatin 10 mg (Group 1) or combination of atorvastatin 10 mg and fenofibrate 145 mg (Group 2) once daily for 12 weeks. The effect of drugs on lipid profile was evaluated before and after treatment. After 12 weeks, the reduction in total cholesterol (TC), TGs, LDL-C, VLDL-C was 28%, 20%, 37% and 20% in Group 1 (P < 0.001 for all) as compared with 31%, 39%, 33% and 40% in Group 2 (P < 0.001 for all). There was insignificant rise in HDL-C in Group 1 (P = 0.71) and insignificant decrease in HDL-C (P = 0.70) in Group 2. During the combination therapy, the decrease in TC, TGs and VLDL-C was greater than atorvastatin alone. The combination of atorvastatin with fenofibrate in type 2 diabetes patients with CHL may have a favorable effect on some major coronary artery disease risk factors.
VOL 4 NUMBER 4 (2013)
- SPER 3 rd Annual Conference: 8 March 2014 at Lovely Professional University (LPU), Punjab, India
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):171-171
- Evolution of quality control in pharmaceutical technology
Roop Krishen Khar
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):172-172
- GHB acid: A rage or reprive
Prakhar Kapoor, Revati Deshmukh, Ipsita Kukreja
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):173-178
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that has been used in research and clinical medicine for many years. GHB was used clinically as an anesthetic in the 1960s but was withdrawn due to side effects that included seizures and coma. GHB has been implicated in a number of crime types; most notably in drug-facilitated sexual assault. GHB is abused by three main groups of users: Body builders who use the substance believing that it stimulated the release of growth hormone; sexual predators who covertly administer the drug for its sedative and amnesic effects and club-goers (rave parties) who take the drug for its euphoric effects. The short-lived hypnotic effects, relative safety and widespread availability of the drug have made it particularly well suited to this role. The drug has an addictive potential if used for long term. The primary effects of GHB use are those of a CNS depressant and therefore range from relaxation, to euphoria, confusion, amnesia, hallucinations, and coma. Despite the increased regulation, GHB remains widely available through the Internet where one can easily purchase the necessary reagents as well as recipes for home production. There are reports of patients being unresponsive to painful stimuli and cases of oral self-mutilations linked to the abuse of GHB, though quiet rare. Such cases should remind odontologists that intra-oral lesions may be the result of self-mutilation either due to mental illness or altered states caused by the use of prescription or non-prescription drugs.
- Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test
Sahgal Geethaa, Priscilla Jayanthi Thavamany, Siah Poh Chiew, Ong Ming Thong
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):179-182
Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT]) to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v) for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC 50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO), 6.4% (methanol), 3.4% (ethanol) and 2.5% (Tween 20). The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT.
- Extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence and associated factors of drug-drug interaction and potential adverse drug reactions in Gondar Teaching Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia
Endalkachew Admassie, Tesfahun Melese, Woldeselassie Mequanent, Wubshet Hailu, B Akshaya Srikanth
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):183-189
The aim of this study was to assess the extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence, and associated factors for the occurrence of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and potential adverse drug reaction (ADR) in Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital. Institutional-based retrospective cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on prescriptions of both in and out-patients for a period of 3 months at Gondar University Hospital. Both bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and possible ADRs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS; software. A total of 12,334 prescriptions were dispensed during the study period of which, 2,180 prescriptions were containing two or more drugs per prescription. A total of 21,210 drugs were prescribed and the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.72. Occurrences of DDI of all categories (Major, Moderate, and Minor) were analyzed and DDI were detected in 711 (32.6%) prescriptions. Sex was not found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of DDI and ADR, while age and number of medications per prescription were found to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and ADR. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 1.72 and hence with regard to the WHO limit of drugs per prescription, Gondar hospital was able to maintain the limit and prescriptions containing multiple drugs supposed to be taken systemically. Numbers of drugs per prescription as well as older age were found to be predisposing factors for the occurrence of DDI and potential ADRs while sex was not a risk factor.
- Efficacy of a classical antiobesity Unani pharmacopial formulation (Safoof-e-Muhazzil) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure: A randomized, open-labeled, controlled clinical study
Asim Ali Khan, Umar Jahangir, Farhan Jalees, Prem Kapoor, Shaista Urooj
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):190-197
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a Unani formulation in hypertension. A total of 90 patients with total cholesterol level of more than 220 mg/dl with associated conditions were included in this study. A total of 30 patients having a mean systolic blood pressure (BP) of 133.86 mmHg comprising Group A received Unani formulation Safoof-e-Muhazzil (SM) in its classical powder form in the dose of 5 g twice a day orally. Group B comprising of 30 patients with a mean systolic BP of 133.13 mmHg received same drug, but in compressed tablet form in the same dosage, whereas, 30 patients comprising Group C with a mean systolic BP of 129.45 mmHg, received Atorvastatin 10 mg as a standard control. Patients were evaluated on each follow-up at 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th week. The mean systolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 133.86 ± 3.028 mmHg and 133.13 ± 2.852 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 119.33 ± 1.922 mmHg (P < 0.001) and 119 ± 1.760 mmHg (P < 0.001) respectively. In the control Group C before treatment BP was 129.45 ± 2.499 mmHg and after treatment it significantly decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01). The percentage change after treatment was 10.85%, 10.61% and 3.94% respectively in each group. Mean diastolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 85.06 ± 2.11 mmHg and 84.56 ± 1.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 79.06 ± 1.56 mmHg (P < 0.001) and 79.96 ± 1.15 mmHg (P < 0.001) respectively, BP before treatment in Group C was 83.23 ± 1.588 mmHg, which was decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01). The study results indicate that the test drug was quite effective in reducing both systolic as well as diastolic BP.
- Rationalized design, synthesis and pharmacological screening of amino acid linked spiro pyrrolidino oxyindole analogs through environment friendly reaction
Sanjit Kumar Das, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Amit Kundu
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):198-205
Introduction: The development of newer synthetic approaches toward the synthesis of polynuclear heteroaromatics and their application in the synthesis of some biologically active compounds has been discussed in this study. Materials and Methods: The synthesis of novel spiro pyrrolidino oxindoles was performed for the construction of amino acid linked polynuclear heteroaromatics by cycloaddition reaction. This reaction method is one of the most important methods for the construction of spiro pyrrolidino oxindole from the commercially available starting material isatin. Then the synthesized compounds were subjected for evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging and cytotoxic effects against tumor cell lines. Results: All the six synthesized compounds demonstrated promising antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in vitro. Conclusion: Form the present study, it can be concluded that the synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their chemical purity, structural novelty, marked biological activities (antioxidant and cytotoxic) in vitro and last of all the lucid and picturesque synthetic methodology to synthesize the molecules in a in a non-hazardous and environmental friendly way.
- In-vitro α amylase and glycosidase inhibitory effect of ethanolic extract of antiasthmatic drug - Shirishadi
Divya Kajaria, Ranjana , Jyotishankar Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan Tripathi, Srikant Tiwari
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):206-209
Asthma and diabetes have strong relationship; both are cause and effect of each other. Oxidative stress due to bronchial asthma may cause insulin resistance whereas lack of proper insulin can cause defective smooth muscle relaxant. There is no single medicine available that can manage both diseases, rather the mainstay treatment of bronchial asthma causes hyperglycemia. Keeping this problem in focus, in this study the hypoglycemic effect of an indigenous antiasthmatic Ayurvedic drug Shirishadi was evaluated. Pancreatic alpha amylase and glucosidase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the level of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. For evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of drug, in-vitro alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzyme inhibition was calculated. Ethanolic extract of compound showed 76.40% + 0.88% reduction in alpha amylase activity and 63.85% + 0.36% in alpha glucosidase activity with IC 50 0.68 mg/ml and 2.89 mg/ml, respectively. This study suggests that the ethanolic extract of Shirishadi polyherbal compound effectively acts as alpha amylase and glucosidase inhibitor leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence acts as antiasthmatic as well as hypoglycemic drug.
- Effect of formulation factors on in vitro transcorneal permeation of voriconazole from aqueous drops
Biswaranjan Mohanty, Sagar Kumar Mishra, Dipak K Majumdar
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):210-216
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect the formulation factors on in vitro permeation of voriconazole through freshly isolated goat and sheep corneas. An increase in the pH of the drops from 4.0 to 8.0 resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase drug permeation. Raising concentration of the drops from 0.05% to 0.2% (w/v) significantly, (P < 0.05) increased drug permeation, but decreased the percent permeation. Corneal transport of voriconazole is both pH and concentration dependent. Eye drops containing disodium edetate (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) alone or combination with benzalkonium chloride showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher permeation as compared with control formulation. Addition of beta-cyclodextrin to the formulation enhanced corneal permeation of voriconazole. Compared with control formulation, voriconazole 0.2% (w/v) drop containing viscosity modifier produced significant (P < 0.05) decrease in permeation. Most of the formulations showed higher zone of inhibition against Candida albicans.
- Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy
Asim Ali Khan, Umar Jahangir, Shaista Urooj
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):217-223
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6 th day; 9-11 th day and 14 th day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration.
- Polypharmacy: The past, present and the future
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research 2013 4(4):224-225