ISSN: 1548-3320 |
library and information sciences
Published by eScholarship
No Issue Number
- Critical Race Theory, Asian Americans, and Higher Education: A Review of Research. Liu, Amy
In this review, the author incorporates her own personal narrative into the discussion as a way of enriching and contextualizing the intersection of critical race theory, Asian Americans, and higher education. From the issues explored in this paper, two key themes emerged: 1) Asian Americans should not be considered as one monolithic group, but rather their educational experiences and outcomes should be disaggregated and 2) issues of race and racism, particularly as it challenges the model minority stereotype, should be addressed openly.
- Deliberative Barbarians: Reconciling the Civic and the Agonistic in Democratic Education. McDevitt, Michael J.; Caton-Rosser, Mary S
The history of civics education in the United States suggests a somewhat adversarial relationship between schools and parents. We view the relationship as an evolving and strained social contract; unresolved is the scope of school influence in relation to that of parents. A high school teacher’s decision to open up a classroom for discussion on contested issues can roust resentful parents, many of whom view such activity as indoctrination. Given this sociopolitical backdrop, we propose a framework for curricular reform in which agonistic expression is tempered by the active involvement of parents in family political communication. We explicate a contingent model of deliberative learning, whereby political exchanges in one context contribute to exchanges in another context. With the student as conduit, interpersonal political communication flows back and forth between the classroom and the living room. We apply the model to research on Kids Voting USA curricula to illustrate the heuristic value of contin...
- Editors' Note. Carbone, Paula M.; Collins, Christopher S.; Keilty, Patrick
- The Future of YouTube: Critical Reflections on YouTube Users’ Discussion over Its Future. Kim, Gooyong
This paper examines how the sociopolitical and educational potentials of YouTube have been exercised by analyzing users’ discussion practices by posting videos. Compared to literature that deals with the Internet’s sociopolitical impact, I argue that YouTube has played a key role in implementing the democratization of media spectacles. Different forms of Internet use are discussed with regard to YouTube’s contributions. First of all, the discursive practices of YouTube validate Habermas’s notion of the public sphere by suggesting video communication as a new perspective of participatory democracy. Creating community is another key notion that users consider to be the future of YouTube; users believe it facilitates interactive and creative communication among different cultures, races, and societies. However, there is little consideration of how individuals make critical use of YouTube as a means for sociopolitical engagement. Analyzing the users’ arguments in their video responses, this paper examines the str...
- Narrative Inquiry as a Decolonising Methodology. Hamdan, Amani K
As a distinct form of qualitative research, narrative can be used as a method of inquiry in order to examine past experiences and decolonise minds regarding the “still persistent colonial mission” (Willinsky in Abdi & Richardson, 2008, p. viii). Narrative acts as a lens through which we see anew – it is a means to explore unfamiliar sociohistorical context. A significant characteristic of narrative is that it can allow for new meanings and diverse ways of knowing to emerge. In this paper, I highlight how I use narrative as a decolonising methodology in which, according to Edward Said (1978), indigenous people are responsible to provide their narratives to counter the perspective of outsiders. In particular, I include Arab Muslim women’s narratives that counter Orientalist perceptions of Muslim women as passive victims of their faith.
- Review: Cuba’s Academic Advantage. Arribas Layton, Lucas
- Review: Personal Archives and a New Archival Calling: Readings, Reflections, and Ruminations. Anderson, Kim
- Review: Power, Politics, and Higher Education in Southern Africa: International Regimes, Local Governments, and Educational Autonomy. Foulds, Kim
- Review: Responsible Librarianship: Library Policies for Unreliable Systems by David Bade. Wartenbe, Michael
- Review: The Diversity Challenge: Social Identity and Intergroup Relations on the College Campus. Collins, Christopher S.
- Self and Society in Youth Organizing. Crawford, Jenifer A
This study uses portraiture methodology to reconsider the relationship between one Latina youth activist-researcher-educator and one after-school community based youth organizing program as one attempt to address the problem of educational access, civic engagement and democratic knowledge production for urban youth. The issue of self and society arose from the yearlong collection of data. The analysis examines the ways the individual and the youth organizing institution can be reconsidered from four different vantage points—one side, interaction, mutual constitution, and political positions—on self and society. By examining the relationship between self and a social institution researchers and practitioners can reconsider the issues of civic engagement, knowledge production and educational access and equity in youth organizing.
- Editors' Note. Carbone, Paula M.; Collins, Christopher; Keilty, Patrick
- EPILOGUE: Meditations on the future of Latina/o archival and memory practice, research and education. Chu, Clara M.; Dean, Rebecca; Keilty, Patrick
Since the Memoria, Voz, y Patrimonio (MVP) Conference (2003), the archival literature continues to grapple with issues pertinent to Latina/o archives. Extending the work of the MVP Conference, drawing on the archival and cultural studies literature, and grounded in our experiences with under-represented communities, this epilogue offers our meditations on the future of Latina/o archival and memory practice, research and education. The archives and archivists as social structures and agents, respectively, are viewed through the lens of Pierre Bourdieu’s symbolic power whereby they need to be liberated from the symbolic domination legitimized and reproduced in the classic archives.
- Latina/o Archival Resources. Chu, Clara M.; Dean, Rebecca; Keilty, Patrick; Leong, Lindy
This Latino/a Archival Resources guide is divided into eight sections which include: (1) Latino or Ethnic Archives, (2) Latino and Ethnic Sound Archives, (3) Latino Film and Video Resources, (4) Filmmaking Resources, (5) Latino Museums and Art Galleries, (6) Genealogical Resources, (7) Latino Commercial Media Sites, and (8) Archival and Research Resources. Internet searches were conducted to identify the resources and where a description was found about a resource and a website was available, such information has been included. In some cases ethnic resources were provided because they include Latino/a content or would be of assistance/relevance to Latino/a archival practice, research and/or education.
- Latina/o Traditional Medicine in Los Angeles: Asking About, Archiving, and Advocating Cultural Resources. Jones, Michael Owen; Hernández, Claudia J.
This essay concerns an ethnographic project intended to document Latina/o traditional medicine in Los Angeles, organize the materials, and make information accessible to others. The paper describes methods and techniques for eliciting and recording the medical traditions. It presents some initial findings, discusses interview protocols as well as opportunities and challenges in obtaining information from individuals, discusses issues that arise in regard to transcription-translation and data management, and illustrates several ways of making the traditions available to different audiences.
- Memoria, voz, y patrimonio: Considering Latina/o Film, Print and Sound Archives. Chu, Clara M.
An introduction to the section of this InterActions special issue on archives and recordkeeping that focuses on Memoria, voz y patrimonio: The First Conference on Latino/Hispanic Film, Print and Sound Archives and Sixth Institute of the Trejo Foster Foundation for Hispanic Library Education. This conference/institute offered a glimpse of the breadth of Latina/o archival collections, practice, research and concerns. The guest editors of this Latina/o archival section are Clara M. Chu and Rebecca Dean, with contributions by Patrick Keilty, of the UCLA Department of Information Studies.
- Perpetuating and Extending the Archival Paradigm: The Historical and Contemporary Roles of Professional Education and Pedagogy. Gilliland, Anne; White, Kelvin
Archival Science has been defined as the systematic body of theory that supports the practice of appraising, acquiring, authenticating, preserving, and providing access to recorded materials. In the first of a two-part analysis of the past, present and future of archival education and pedagogy, this article deconstructs the concept of Archival Science by examining the development and evolution of its key ideas and principles, and the historical interplay between them and such constructs as modernism, objectivity, scientific management, nationalism, sovereignty, and colonialism. It argues that education in Archival Science, which traditionally has included elements of both professional practice and scholarship and which has only scantily reflected upon the pedagogies it has employed, has played a fundamental role in perpetuating the cultural hegemony of dominant groups. It has done so by inculcating archival ideas and principles without simultaneously providing sufficient historical analysis of their derivat...
- Review: The Art of Critical Pedagogy by Jeffrey M.R. Duncan-Andrade and Ernest Morrell. Ryoo, Jean J.
- Review: The Big Archive: Art From Bureaucracy by Sven Spieker. Lau, Andrew J.
- Review: Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software by Christopher M. Kelty. Acker, Amelia
- Review: "What About Rose'" Using Teacher Research to Reverse School Failure. Henning, Nick
- Review: Why Care for Nature' In Search of an Ethical Framework for Environmental Responsibility and Education by Dirk Willem Postma. Misiaszek, Greg W
- The Task of the Latino/a Archivist: On Archiving Identity and Community. Ramírez, Mario H.
Taking into account the very complexity and contestability of the terms “Latino” and “Hispanic” to identify its subject matter, this paper draws on contemporary research on archives and identity, philosophy, Latino Studies, and efforts to chronicle the history of Latinos in New York State to ask how the Latino/a archivist can document Latino groups in the United States without restricting the multifaceted ways in which they construct and negotiate their identities. Is the establishment of a historical narrative for various Latino groups necessarily indicative of a codification of identity? Can the stuff of communal history be deployed in such a way as to encourage difference and not essential notions of what it meant and means to be “Latino” and/or “Hispanic” in the United States? These are some of the questions this paper explores in the hopes of teasing out the tensions that exist between historical validity and essentialism, historical re-inscription and foreclosure.
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- Editors' Note. Keilty, Patrick; Lau, Andrew J.; Liu, Amy
- Market Values in Higher Education: A Review of the For-Profit Sector. Millora, Melissa L.
This paper reviews the research literature on for-profit higher education within the context of an increasingly marketized system of higher education in the U.S. The paper describes how market values have influenced important aspects of the system, including federal student aid policy, accountability standards, and the rise of the private for-profit sector. The paper concludes with some suggestions for future research that can provide a better understanding of the role that for-profit institutions play in the U.S. system of higher education.
- Polyphony in Social Classification: Exploring Hybrid Forms of Speech, Practice, and Text in Digital Settings. Nguyen, Lilly
As information technologies grow and the digital online spaces become increasingly popular places for social interaction, we are confronted with new forms of sociality, practice, and knowledge organization that defy traditional distinctions between document, text, speech, language, and practice. This paper argues that due to these shifts, we also need new theoretical frameworks that reflect these changes. This paper presents a study of a social classification system, del.icio.us from an ethnographic approach to introduce that concepts speech and practice into the study of digital engagement. This paper specifically introduces concepts of monologue and dialogue to elucidate the ways in which people participate in social classification systems and, more importantly, the ways in which they negotiate their relationships to a larger digital public.
- Review: Comparative and International Education: An Introduction to Theory, Method, and Practice by David Phillips and Michele Schweisfurth. Flores, Nina M
- Review: Critical Pedagogy, Ecoliteracy, & Planetary Crisis: The Ecopedagogy Movement by Richard Kahn. Misiaszek, Greg W
- Review: From Polders to Postmodernism: A Concise History of Archival Theory by John Ridener. Acker, Amelia
- Review: Slow Reading by John Miedema. Mizrachi, Diane
- Review: Territories of Difference: Place, Movements, Life, Redes by Arturo Escobar. Nguyen, Lilly U.
- Revolutionary Critical Pedagogy. McLaren, Peter
- The Self-Imposed Limits of Library and Information Science: Remarks On the Discipline, On the Profession, On the University, and On the State of "Information" in the U.S. at Large Today. Day, Ronald E.
The topic of this paper is the self-imposed limits of Library and Information Science discourse and its institutional discipline. In particular, this paper discusses the disciplinary limits that the field places upon itself, its phobia regarding critical theory and interdisciplinary work (outside of computer science), and why public information, such as 'the news,' is not seen as part of our domain of inquiry. It also engages how persons are understood and constructed as 'information seeking' subjects in this field, including LIS students and researchers. Finally are questions of the overarching disciplining of students and researchers toward 'positive' research in the field, a research that is, in part, often founded upon very shaky 'foundational' theoretical models. Arguably, these questions are linked in the construction of an 'informationalized,' rather docile and uninteresting, political subject, both within and outside of information research in the university, both within and outside of information pro...
- Stuck in the Pipeline: A Critical Review of STEM Workforce Literature. Metcalf, Heather
In this critical review of the literature, I interrogate the assumptions underlying STEM workforce studies as it pertains to gender, race, class, and citizenship. First, I provide a brief overview of the pipeline model’s history and critiques. Next, I look at the contemporary use of the model in STEM workforce studies, focusing on the ways in which recruitment and retention, scientific work, and identity are represented, measured, and understood. I argue throughout that the pipeline model has a limited view of retention that is based upon socially constructed ideas about what constitutes “valid” scientific and engineering work and who counts as “real” scientists and engineers.
- Writing as a Process: An Interview with Mike Rose. Arora, Tina
- Becoming Protagonists for Integration: Youth Voices from Segregated Educational Spaces. Johnston-Goodstar, Katie; Nagda, Biren Ratnesh
We report the preliminary findings of a community-based participatory action research project grounded in the principles of emancipatory education. Born as a grassroots response to profound racial and socioeconomic segregation between the "gifted" and "regular" learning programs, this action research collaboration was centered in a middle school. The project curriculum was built on the premise that youth have the potential to become protagonists of integration. With that in mind, the project provided a space in which to become increasingly conscious about segregation and to imagine and enact new possibilities for integration. Findings from in-depth qualitative interviews with six youth participants reveal various youth efforts toward integration in three distinct layers of consciousness that we refer to as voice: (a) reflective voice as an awareness of self in segregated places and the associated social consequences; (b) dialogic voice as communal recognition of the structural nature of segregation, solidarit...
- Editors' Note. Keilty, Patrick; Lau, Andrew J.; Liu, Amy
- Ghetto Fabulous: Inner City Car Culture, the Law, and Authenticity. Brown, Roger
The Falcon Boys Car Club in East Oakland, comprised mostly of African American males and some Latinos, began fixing up late model Ford Falcons in the early '70s as a way to create a new identity for the members. Most of the members were ex-gang members, and had jobs in auto shops. Never considered desirable, old Falcons and Falcon parts were easy to come by, and allowed the members of the subculture to fix them up and exhibit flamboyant style as they would cruise in newly painted and accessorized Falcons for their immediate neighbors and acquaintances. This reclaiming and repurposing of otherwise disregarded detritus of consumer culture interrogates how different classes value and exhibit style, wealth, as well as mechanical expertise, especially in inner-city neighborhoods. Yet the Falcon Boys remain unknown and undocumented in the larger car culture or in most popular histories of the Bay Area. In 2005 Oakland filmmaker Brian Lilla followed around the best-known members of the Falcon Boys, producing a ...
- Presumption of Noninfringement: Amending the Law on Educational Fair Use. Gurman, Diane
The current state of the fair use doctrine in the United States has been variously described as confusing, unsettled, and troublesome. The combination of a vague statute, a nationwide patchwork of restrictive and extra-legal classroom guidelines, and split court decisions with limited precedential value has left educators with no way to know, absent litigation, whether a given use of copyrighted materials is a fair use. While alternate solutions have been suggested to remedy this situation—including advice to courts on interpreting the statutory factors, recommended “fair use” language for inclusion in electronic resource licenses, and assertions that better guidelines or best practices are needed—this paper proposes that true fairness, clarity, and predictability can only be achieved through an amendment to the law providing “bright-line” standards for educational fair use. The proposed amendment would declare that a presumption of noninfringement arises where the copying is done by a nonprofit educa...
- Review: Beats, Rhymes, and Classroom Life: Hip Hop Pedagogy and the Politics of Identity by Marc Lamont Hill. Carroll, Jonathan A
- Review: How NGOs React: Globalization and Education Reform in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Mongolia by Iveta Silova and Gita Steiner-Khamsi. Schuckman, Hugh E
- Review: Information & Liberation: Writings on the Politics of Information & Librarianship by Shiraz Durrani. Hom, Gregory
- Review: Teach! Change! Empower! Solutions for Closing the Achievement Gaps by Carl A. Grant. Turner, Rhonda J
- Review: We ARE Americans: Undocumented Students Pursuing the American Dream by William Perez. Chirapuntu, Tanya
- Review: "Wisely Selected ... Carefully Preserved" — 60th Anniversary of UCLA's University Archives. Shown at Powell Library, UC Los Angeles, from 22 September to 5 December, 2008.. Buchanan, Sarah
- Warming Up Records: Archives, Memory, Power and Index of the Disappeared. Royer, Alice
Policies of censorship and secrecy in federal governance skyrocketed under the Bush Administration in the wake of 9/11; these measures allowed for the detainment of some 700 predominately Arab and South Asian immigrants, though no evidence was released linking them with the terrorist attacks. The documents pertaining to the holding of these “special interest” detainees were kept secret for a number of years, and only released by the Department of Justice after significant external pressures from watchdog groups such as the ACLU. Two artists, Chitra Ganesh and Mariam Ghani, have called into question this exponential increase in the concealment of government documents with a project titled Index of the Disappeared. The multifaceted work, which utilizes several media as well as a variety of site-specific methods of engagement, employs radical archival practices in an attempt to “[foreground] the difficult histories of immigrant, ‘Other’ and dissenting communities in the U.S. since 9/11.” Through these effort...
- Why Can’t We All Just Be Individuals': Countering the Discourse of Individualism in Anti-racist Education. DiAngelo, Robin J
Over many years as a white person co-facilitating anti-racism courses at the graduate and undergraduate levels and in the workplace for majority white participants, I have come to believe that the Discourse of Individualism is one of the primary barriers preventing well-meaning (and other) white people from understanding racism. Individualism is so deeply held in dominant society that it is virtually immovable without sustained effort. This article challenges the Discourse of Individualism by addressing eight key dynamics of racism that it obscures. I posit that the Discourse of Individualism functions to: deny the significance of race and the advantages of being white; hide the accumulation of wealth over generations; deny social and historical context; prevent a macro analysis of the institutional and structural dimensions of social life; deny collective socialization and the power of dominant culture (media, education, religion, etc.) to shape our perspectives and ideology; function as neo-colorblindness ...
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- Review: <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Library of Walls: The Library of Congress and the Contradictions of Information Society</em> by Samuel Gerald Collins. Pendse, Liladhar R
- Review: <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Teaching Adult Literacy: Principles and Practice</em> edited by Nora Hughes and Irene Schwab. Kaloustian, Talar
- Review: <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education</em> by Diane Ravitch. Cody, Scott M.
- Uncommon Services: Public Library Services to Incarcerated Populations. Klick, Lindsay RS
Public libraries have long been devoted to reaching out to underserved populations within their communities. Outreach to local correctional facilities is one type of outreach that has not been fully embraced by the public library community. This paper has three aims: 1)to assess the current state of public library outreach to correctional institutions in California; 2) to outline the current state of information service in correctional facilities and demonstrate how public libraries and the communities they serve have a vested interest in serving local detainees; and 3) to highlight three model programs which show how partnerships between public libraries and correctional institutions can have far reaching benefits beyond the walls of the respective institutions. These three subjects taken together should serve as a call to action to broaden the notion of the public library’s service area to include people who are incarcerated in their community.
- Making Meaning of Parental Influence among <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Pinays</em> in College. Paz, Chiara Chastina G
This qualitative research paper examines the processes that Filipino immigrants’ daughters (Pinays) use to negotiate their realities at home and in college. A Peminist framework was used in constructing the interview questions and in analyzing the study’s findings. Peminism is a framework that considers the uniqueness of Pinays' immigration background as it relates to their experiences in the United States. The interview data from twelve undergraduate Pinays revealed two issues regarding their majors and career aspirations: (a) parents’ nonverbal expression of expectations, and (b) the children’s unconscious desire to compromise. University personnel ought to pay attention to these students as a group that has realities that may not be shared by other Asian American communities.
- Review: <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">A Space for Hate: The White Power Movement’s Adaptation into Cyberspace</em> by Adam G. Klein. Garcia, Patricia
- Review: <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">Academic Repression: Reflections from the Academic Industrial Complex</em> edited by Anthony J. Nocella, II, Steven Best, and Peter McLaren. Garcia, Antero
- Editors' Note. Lau, Andrew J, Liu, Amy, Millora, Melissa L.
- Latino Youth as Information Leaders: Implications for Family Interaction and Civic Engagement in Immigrant Communities. McDevitt, Michael, Butler, Mary
This study contemplates implications of Latino adolescents acting as information leaders in helping immigrant families to cope in a new culture. We highlight the heuristic value of thinking about the family as a venue for exchanges of information that, in turn, promote educational aspiration and civic inclinations. This framework is refined by insights obtained from an immigrant community in northern Colorado. We recruited high school students for a survey that documented media use, deliberative dispositions, and orientations toward political participation. Results from the survey guided focus group sessions in which youth and parents conveyed how they experience information flow in family interaction. We find that assimilation is both embraced and resisted in family communication, as parents and children work out tensions between Latino and Anglo values. Information with life-enhancing implications must flow through the family for it to be meaningfully shared, evaluated, comprehended, and acted upon. The vet...
- Kogi Truck Culture. Choy, Vivian
Food trucks have become a large phenomenon in many parts of Southern California. In fact, the University of California, Los Angeles had begun permitting several food trucks to park on campus for hungry students, in response to the closure of the Bombshelter, a major campus food court. These trucks’ budding popularity has been spurred by the notable Kogi Trucks, which began its business serving those in Los Angeles. To explore the heart of this Kogi hype, I took two trips to the intersection of Gayley and Charles E. Young Drive in Westwood, Los Angeles. Two themes had emerged during my observations: gatekeepers, as well as a shift in conversation focus corresponding with time and position in line. I adopted the Metoyer-Duran gatekeeper model to illustrate the various personalities I encountered. In addition, I propose an information-seeking model to portray a general scheme of what happens in a Kogi waiting line. Possible considerations for future, more extensive studies are also noted.
- Editors' Note. Lau, Andrew J, Liu, Amy, Millora, Melissa L.
- Institutionalizing Disparities in Education: A Case Study of Segregation in Wayne County, North Carolina High Schools. Joyner, Ann Moss, Marsh, Ben
This study uses GIS to analyze the student bodies and the attendance zones of high schools in Wayne County to address the issue of racial and economic segregation. In this case study, we examine a school district in Wayne County, North Carolina, which was 34.5% minority in 1989 (Census, 1990), with a poverty rate of 15.2%. Prior to merger, the county had two school districts: one predominantly White and one predominantly Black. The lone predominantly Black high school, prior to merger (1988-89), changed from 82.5% minority and 49.0% poor to 99.9% minority and 86% poor (2008-09, post-merger). Using GIS, we analyzed race and other socio-economic factors of the county’s school attendance zones as currently designed by the Wayne County School Board. We also used GIS to design alternative attendance zones, in order to assess the need for such segregation to achieve neighborhood schools, and conclude that there was no need to maintain severely segregated schools in order to achieve community schools.
- Review: Humanism and Libraries: An Essay on the Philosophy of Librarianship by André Cossette and translated by Rory Litwin. Erickson, Jesse R
- Review: Critical Theory for Library and Information Science: Exploring the Social from Across Disciplines edited by Gloria J. Leckie, Lisa M. Given, and John Buschman. Keilty, Patrick
- Review: Culture Centers in Higher Education: Perspectives on Identity, Theory, and Practice edited by Lori D. Patton. Shek, Yen Ling
- Archival Activism: Independent and Community-led Archives, Radical Public History and the Heritage Professions. Flinn, Andrew
Drawing on recent research (mainly focused on the UK) this article explores developments in independent, non-professionalized archival and heritage activity and reflects on two dimensions of archival activism. First, this article examines those projects and endeavors which are actively engaged in radical or counter-hegemonic public history-making activities. These non-professional archival initiatives are best understood not as a form of leisure activity or antiquarianism but as social movement archival activism, often allied to a progressive, democratizing, and anti-discrimination political agenda. Second, this article also addresses the attitude of professional archivists and other heritage workers to these social movements. Whilst acknowledging the challenges involved, it suggests that if heritage workers are concerned with fostering more democratized and diverse historical collections then the archive and heritage professionals need to be prepared to actively seek out collaborations and form equitable par...
- The Disruptive Dialogue Project: Crafting Critical Space in Higher Education. Carducci, Rozana, Kuntz, Aaron M., Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely, Pasque, Penny A.
The Disruptive Dialogue Project (DDP) is a dialogic network of education scholars committed to fostering conversations that trouble normative practices of critical qualitative scholarship, pedagogy, and methodology, within an interstice of the contemporary educational inquiry landscape. In this essay, we describe the origins of the DDP as well as present a conceptual framework of the Project based on four spatial understandings of our disruptive activity (i.e., the DDP space as energy, alternative, critique, and possibility). Building on this conceptual model, we provide an overview two specific strategies / spaces the DDP intentionally cultivates as means of transformation and resilience – “disruptive” academic conference symposia and bi-weekly DDP teleconferences –and discuss the role these activities play in the development of our critical colleagueship. Our intent in sharing the DDP narrative is not to promote imitation of our project, but rather to encourage other critical scholars to create, seek out, p...
- The 500 Windows Campaign: A Case Study of a Youth Movement for Educational Resources in South Africa. Angara, Harini
This case study seeks to examine what organizing methods and ethos helped Equal Education (EE), a community-based youth organization, convince government officials to repair 500 broken windows at Luhlaza School in Khayelitsha, an impoverished township near Cape Town, South Africa. Through various methods, including petitions, op-ed articles, and a rally, the group succeeded in its campaign. EE takes inspiration from apartheid-era youth movements. In the burgeoning democracy of the "New" South Africa, EE constitutes the next generation of youth civic engagement.
- Review: Narrating from the Archives: Novels, Records, and Bureaucrats in the Modern Age by Marco Codebò. Wood, Stacey E
- Review: Paradise Beneath Her Feet: How Women are Transforming the Middle East by Isobel Coleman. Niehaus, Elizabeth
- Review: Public Engagement for Public Education: Joining Forces to Revitalize Democracy and Equalize Schools edited by Marion Orr and John Rogers. Mirra, Nicole
- The U.S. Research University as a Global Model: Some Fundamental Problems to Consider. Rhoads, Robert A.
This paper examines the development of the U.S. research university, highlighting both its great success as well as some fundamental problems. Arguing that the U.S. research university is often looked to globally as a model for other nations, the author offers some cautionary concerns. More specifically, the author identifies four critical stages in the development of the U.S. research university: the Germanic influence of the 1800s, the rise of government sponsorship of research during World Wars I and II, the emergence of the multiversity, and the rise of the entrepreneurial university under neoliberalism. The author argues that critical flaws related to each of these stages are evident in the contemporary rendition of the U.S. research university and that such flaws must be considered in either drawing from the U.S. model or in seeking to recast it.
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- Silence, Accessibility, and Reading Against the Grain: Examining Voices of the Marginalized in the India Office Records. Sowry, Nathan
This paper deals with issues of power and silencing of the “Other” within colonial archives, particularly regarding British East India Company records of an attempted mutiny of Bengali sepoys and Javanese aristocrats in 1815, now housed in the India Office Records of the British Library. It recommends incorporating a postcolonial approach and reading records against the grain in order to recover these marginalized voices. The body of this paper is broken into three sections. The first section introduces the historical context of the attempted mutiny, questions the incomplete nature of archival and colonial records, and discusses the archivist’s responsibility to present as complete a record as possible. The second section discusses the introduction and importance of postmodern theory to the archival field. Particularly significant are arguments by practicing archivists who advocate reading records against the grain to recover voices of the marginalized, how this can be incorporated into archival practice, and...
- Implementing a Social Justice Framework in an Introduction to Archives Course: Lessons from Both Sides of the Classroom. Caswell, Michelle; Broman, Giso; Kirmer, Jennifer; Martin, Laura; Sowry, Nathan
Using the reflections of both the instructor and students on lesson plans from three course sessions, this paper argues that a social justice framework can be practically implemented in an introductory archives classroom such that students are imparted with both the rationale for classical Western archival concepts and functions and the modes to critique such functions from a social justice perspective. After a brief introduction summarizing course logistics and the action research methodology employed, this paper proposes a working definition of social justice and discuss in detail what constitutes a social justice pedagogical framework in archival education. Next, this paper describes and analyzes a small group exercise on the concepts of record, provenance, and creatorship, detailing ways in which students can be both taught prevailing archival concepts and encouraged to critique these concepts from a social justice perspective. This paper then addresses a group discussion concerning power, marginalization...
- Recognizing and Escaping the Sham: Authority Moves, Truth Claims and the Fiction of Academic Writing About Adult Learning. Hoult, Elizabeth Chapman
This paper seeks to explore the meaning of the sham with regards to academic writing. It challenges the fundamental assumptions that underpin conventional academic writing and suggests that such writing is actually less honest than the other forms of writing that it sets itself against. It is precisely the reliance on what Laurel Richardson calls the “authority moves” (1997, p.167) of academic language that undermines its claim to represent reality in an open and honest way. It is, in fact, a sham. The rejection of the superior truth claims of academic writing is illustrated with reference to two interview transcripts from a completed study and the issues raised are explored theoretically in the light of the work of Hélène Cixous. It is argued that the adoption of Hélène Cixous’ notion of l’écriture feminine provides a way out of the dilemma. Inspired by Cixous, it is argued that it is possible to escape the limitations of conventional academic writing firstly through the incorporation of a...
- Editors' Note: Special Section on Archival Education and Human Rights. Caswell, Michelle; Lau, Andrew J
- Featured Commentary: Nelson Mandela, Memory, and the Work of Justice. Harris, Verne
Verne Harris uses the 18th Alan Paton Lecture to reflect on the roles of memory in the reconstruction of South Africa in the wake of the apartheid era. He addresses three interlinked questions: has post-apartheid memory work only scratched the surface of the country's pain and alienation; does the really hard work remain to be done; and to what extent are the failures of the post-apartheid project failures of memory? These questions are addressed along five lines of enquiry: metarrative, access to information, healing, reconciliation and learning. For each Harris suggests a deconstructive interrogation. While focused on South African specificities, the enquiry speaks to global questions of transitional justice and reckoning with oppressive pasts.
- Editors' Note. Kasch, David; Lau, Andrew J; Millora, Melissa L.
- Stop Speaking For Us: Women-of-Color Bloggers, White Appropriation, and What Librarians Can Do About It. Glassman, Julia
Radical women of color have a vibrant history of autonomous publishing practices, producing books, zines, and other media; in recent years, these writers have turned to blogs as venues for publishing and communication. However, the writing produced by women of color continues to be subject to appropriation, without attribution, by white writers. Using three case studies, I examine this phenomenon and argue that librarians must collect radical women-of-color blogs in order to help preserve their writing and combat white appropriation. Then, drawing on practices in zine librarianship, I make specific recommendations for librarians interested in curating blog collections.
- The Making of Violent Masculinities: Exploring the Intersections of Cultural, Structural and Direct Violence in Schools. Khoja-Moolji, Shenila S.
This paper employs Johan Galtung’s (1990) typology of violence – direct, structural and cultural – as an analytical lens to examine the ways in which schools, teachers and students draw on aspects of hegemonic masculinity to establish and endorse difference between boys’ and girls’ capacities to be violent, and willfully ignore performances of violent masculinities. It focuses on school values and policies represented in disciplinary structures, contact sports, and curricular knowledges, as well as practices of students and teachers, to explore the ways in which they collectively code violence in the script of masculinity. The conclusion proposes strategies for challenging the cultural violence of hegemonic masculinity in schools.
- Book Review: The Fourth Paradigm by Tony Hey, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Tolle. Regan, Clinton Joseph
Book Review of the edited volume, The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery by Tony Hey, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Tolle.
- Editors' Note. Kasch, David; Lau, Andrew J; Millora, Melissa L.
This issue of InterActions features four articles that remind us the world we live in, with all of its inequities, is socially constructed, not a naturally occurring phenomenon. Each article helps us to “see” a particular conglomeration of forces for what they are.
- An Examination of Institutional Factors Related to the Use of Fees at Public Four-Year Universities. Arnott, Alaine
Despite the plethora of data collected and analyzed about tuition as a primary cost of higher education, little to no attention has been paid to fees as a portion of that cost. Most of the existing research, including reports from the National Center for Education Statistics, combines tuition and required fees into one entity, and rarely separates fees from tuition. Framed by the theory of academic capitalism (Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004), this analysis examines the use of required fees as part of the overall price of a higher education institution, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Further, factors related to internal pressures facing public institutions are correlated with the use of fees as a revenue generating strategy. Findings suggest that sales and services of auxiliaries and gifts and government appropriations are positively related with the use of fees within the overall price of a higher education institution, indicating fees may be a result of universities participating in market...
- How Much Knowledge Can They Gain' Women's Information Behavior on Government Health Websites in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention. Chong, Jing
Using a theoretical framework extended from Rimal and Real’s (2003) Risk Perception Attitude framework, this research examines women’s information behavior, specifically information finding and reaction to information, on government health websites in the context of HIV/AIDS prevention. In the empirical study, think aloud and structured individual interview were used to collect data from 40 female university students in the U.S. in their completion of an information seeking task and an interview. Factors that influence women’s information finding and reaction to information were identified. This research challenges and extends Rimal and Real’s (2003) Risk Perception Attitude framework by proposing an Extended Risk Perception Attitude framework. This research also exemplifies Gupta’s (2000) categories of social construction of gender and sexuality in the HIV/AIDS discourse, and adds new evidence that proves their validity. In addition, this research enriches the literature in health-rel...
- Book Review: Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other by Sherry Turkle. Garcia, Patricia
- Book Review: Merchants of Culture: The Publishing Business in the Twenty-First Century by John B. Thompson. Litwin, Rory
Review of "Merchants of Culture: The Publishing Business in the Twenty-First Century" by John B. Thompson.
- Book Review: Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, and the Limits of Law by Dean Spade. Nicolazzo, Z
This is a book review for the 2011 book Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics, and the Limits of Law by Dean Spade.
- Book Review of "Gifted and Advanced Black Students in School: An Anthology of Critical Works". DeVita, James M
- Book Review: The Filter Bubble. Samuels, Mark Gregory
- 'Class'ifying Ethnicity/Race and Gender: An Intersectional Critique of Bachelor's Degree Completion Research. Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.
Over the past fifty years, postsecondary retention-oriented theory, research, policies, and programs have focused on the effect of singular demographic characteristics in isolation, namely gender or ethnicity/race. Given that this approach has not yielded significant decreases in completion disparities, this paper proposes an explicit incorporation of social class. Drawing on Tinto’s Theory of Student Departure, and using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students (96/01) data set the author shows that lack of attention to social class background (via socioeconomic status) may be severely inhibiting higher education’s ability to conceptualize and improve completion rates. This paper introduces critical race feminist theory as a paradigmatic perspective for use in models of degree completion and retention-related practice, and subsequently reviews extant research on bachelor’s degree completion, highlighting the clear, but complex relationship between ethnicity/race, gender, and socioeconomic status with a...
- Book Review: Archival Anxiety and the Vocational Calling. Cachola, Ellen-Rae
This book review covers Richard Cox's exploration on issues of ethics in the archival profession. He suggests that digital technology and information exchange across archival professions can foster change in the field.
- Book Review: Human Rights, Suffering, and Aesthetics in Political Prison Literature. Ahmed, Sumayya
Human Rights, Suffering and Aesthetics in Political Prison Literature is a collection of essays seeking to explore political prison literature from the vantage point of the beauty and symbolism of the writings. The essays deals with the experiences of political prisoners from countries as diverse as China, Egypt, Syria, Uruguay, Morocco, Romania, the United States and Canada with varying amounts of success.
No Issue Number
- Review: Oral Tradition and the Internet: Pathways of the Mind. Litwin, Rory B
Review of Oral Tradition and the Internet: Pathways of the Mind, by John Miles Foley.
- Review: Paper Machines: About Cards & Catalogs, 1548-1929. Currie, Morgan
Markus Krajewski, a professor of Media History at Bauhaus University in Weimar, describes his book as the first attempt to trace the development of the card catalog, beginning as an aid to libraries’ flood of books and scholars’ deluge of citations, and later as the corporate office’s ubiquitous indexing system, ordering people, money, and inventory. He sees in the paper index card the prototypical universal machine defined by Alan Turing, and for this he puts its in lineage with the jacquard loom, electronic punch cards, the desktop computer, and today’s palm-sized processors.
- Review: The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as a Culture Machine. Milbourn, Amanda
An evaluative review of The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as a Culture Machine, by Peter Lunenfeld.
- Collaborative Collecting: A Literature Review. Abreu, Amelia
This paper reviews literature spanning archival studies, social sciences, and human-computer interaction in order to frame inquiry into the topic area of collaborative collecting. To begin, I present a rationale for the research and frame the topic area in terms of both the social aspects of collecting and the standpoint of archival theory. I then review perspectives on collaborative collecting from human-computer interaction and social media studies. I then frame the topic of collaborative collecting in terms of aspects of collaborative collections, drawing on archival studies concepts. In conclusion, I suggest possible future directions for collections-based research in information studies.
- Review: Mobile Interface Theory: Embodied Space and Locative Media. Crooks, Roderic
Mobile Interface Theory makes an important step toward a fuller reckoning with the social consequences of mobile technology.
- Review: Ethnography and Language Policy. Gaston, Michelle
- Review: Achieving Equity for Latino Students: Expanding the Pathway to Higher Education Through Public Policy. Martin, Llanet
Achieving equity for Latino students: Expanding the pathway to higher education through public policy by Frances Contreras This book is a part of the Multicultural Education Series, Teachers College Press Edited by James A. Banks
- Old Silver Readings: Mythology, Portraits, and Booker T. Washington. Schuckman, Hugh E
Normative historical narratives of Booker T. Washington continually underestimate the genius of this politically savvy educator. Despite the recent groundswell of interest in photography in the history of education, only a handful of scholars have excavated BTW’s meticulously produced portraits in light of his impact on North American civil rights. Washington’s images did not simply accentuate his message, they possessed an indelible mythological argument in themselves, reifying a time and place not yet achieved in full by his African-American community. While his Tuskegee Institute mostly accommodated the temperaments of White America, his photographs dissolved the very boundaries between black and white.
- Editors' Note. Acker, Amelia; Goodnight, Melissa; Kasch, David
- The Difficulty of An Ontology of Live Performance. Doty, Colin
Live performance presents unique ontological challenges. This paper will attempt to identify and name the elements of live performance, to describe the relationships between those elements, and to account for the variation between them. The primary subject for this ontology will be theatrical performance, but we will attempt to apply the same principles to other kinds of performance, such as music performance, to test whether the conclusions hold.
- Critical Thinking as an Everyday Practice: A Discussion with Sandra Harding about the History of InterActions, Interdisciplinary Scholarship, and Her New Book. Goodnight, Melissa; Acker, Amelia
On January 9, 2013, InterActions (IA) editors sat down with Professor Sandra Harding for an interview to discuss the history of InterActions under her mentorship, the significance of interdisciplinary and critical scholarship, and the content of her new book, Objectivity and Diversity. The subsequent interview reveals how Dr. Harding’s work has embodied the commitments comprising InterActions’ mission: interdisciplinarity, critical perspectives, social justice, and the development of early career scholars The editors strived to provide IA readers with Professor Harding’s insight on the importance of critical inquiry “as an everyday practice.”